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Blood product utilization

Todd M Ratliff, Jeffery L Burnside, Ashley B Hodge, Aymen N Naguib, Daniel Gomez
Many blood conservation techniques and strategies have been implemented to aid in decreasing the use of allogenic blood utilization during pediatric cardiothoracic surgery. Use of techniques, such as acute normovolemic hemodilution, retrograde autologous prime, venous autologous prime, and autotransfuion, may lead to a decrease in the need for allogenic blood products. Autotransfusion has become a standard of care for all cardiothoracic surgical procedures requiring cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Although widely used, there is still debate over which wash solution will produce the most physiologically normal autotransfusion product...
June 2018: Journal of Extra-corporeal Technology
Sunghwan Kim, Younho Lee, Jun Woo Kim, Young-Jin Son, Min Jung Ma, Jee-Hyun Um, Nam Doo Kim, Sang Hyun Min, Dong Il Kim, Brian B Kim
Activation of adiponectin receptors (AdipoRs) by its natural ligand, adiponectin has been known to be involved in modulating critical metabolic processes such as glucose metabolism and fatty acid oxidation as demonstrated by a number of in vitro and in vivo studies over last two decades. These findings suggest that AdipoRs' agonists could be developed into a potential therapeutic agent for metabolic diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, especially for type II diabetes, a long-term metabolic disorder characterized by high blood sugar, insulin resistance, and relative lack of insulin...
2018: PloS One
David H Jang, Clinton J Orloski, Shawn Owiredu, Frances S Shofer, John C Greenwood, David M Eckmann
OBJECTIVE: Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated as a key cellular event leading to organ dysfunction in sepsis. Our objective is to measure changes in mitochondrial bioenergetics in subjects with early presentation of sepsis to provide insight into the incompletely understood pathophysiology of the dysregulated host response in sepsis. DESIGN: Prospective observational study SETTING:: Single site tertiary academic emergency department SUBJECTS:: We enrolled a total of 48 subjects were enrolled in the study, 10 with sepsis or septic shock, 10 with infection without sepsis, 14 older and 14 younger healthy controls...
June 13, 2018: Shock
Ruchika Goel, Cassandra D Josephson
Transfusions of red blood cells (RBCs), platelets, and plasma are critical therapies for infants and neonates (particularly preterm neonates) in the neonatal intensive care unit, who are the most frequently transfused subpopulation across all ages. Although traditionally a significant gap has existed between the blood utilization and the evidence base essential to adequately guide transfusion practices in infants and neonates, pediatric transfusion medicine is evolving from infancy and gradually coming of age...
2018: F1000Research
Konstantin Stoletov, Lian Willetts, Robert J Paproski, David J Bond, Srijan Raha, Juan Jovel, Benjamin Adam, Amy E Robertson, Francis Wong, Emma Woolner, Deborah L Sosnowski, Tarek A Bismar, Gane Ka-Shu Wong, Andries Zijlstra, John D Lewis
Metastasis is the most lethal aspect of cancer, yet current therapeutic strategies do not target its key rate-limiting steps. We have previously shown that the entry of cancer cells into the blood stream, or intravasation, is highly dependent upon in vivo cancer cell motility, making it an attractive therapeutic target. To systemically identify genes required for tumor cell motility in an in vivo tumor microenvironment, we established a novel quantitative in vivo screening platform based on intravital imaging of human cancer metastasis in ex ovo avian embryos...
June 14, 2018: Nature Communications
Ji-Ye Wang, Xiao-Qin Wang, Yun Tang, Bo Zhang
To explore the network pharmacological mechanisms of four anti-vitiligo Uyghur medicines based on the Phlegmatic temperament theory. First, The anti-vitiligo Uyghur medicine formulas based on Phlegmatic temperament theory were collected. The pharmacokinetic characteristic of main compounds in four anti-vitiligo Uyghur medicines were obtained by using admetSAR. The targets of active compounds were predicted via bSDTNBI (balanced substructure-drug-target network-based inference model) method. Then, biological process (BP) and molecular function (MF) enrichment analysis of targets were analysed via DAVID database...
May 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
C Ledesma, C Rosario, J Gracia-Mora, G Tapia, L Gutiérrez, H Sumano
The interaction of 3 water sanitizers (sodium hypochlorite, iodine-polyvinylpyrrolidone, and citrate) utilized in poultry production on antibacterial activity and bioavailability of amoxicillin trihydrate (AMX) were studied. Sanitizers were mixed with AMX in prepared water, the resulting substances were regarded as amoxicillin-sanitizer products (ASP). First, the in vitro antibacterial activity of each ASP was compared to that of AMX. Then, pharmacokinetics (PK) of ASP and AMX diluted in prepared water, were carried out in broiler-chickens...
April 20, 2018: Poultry Science
Vasiliki Katsi, Matthaios Didagelos, Stamatios Skevofilax, Iakovos Armenis, Athanasios Kartalis, Charalambos Vlachopoulos, Haralambos Karvounis, Dimitrios Tousoulis
Arterial hypertension is a progressive cardiovascular syndrome arising from complex and interrelated etiologies. The human microbiome refers to the community of microorganisms that live in or on the human body. They influence human physiology by interfering in several processes such as providing nutrients and vitamins and in Phase I and Phase II drug metabolism. The human gut microbiota is represented mainly by Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes and to a lesser degree by Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, with each individual harbouring at least 160 such species...
June 12, 2018: Current Hypertension Reviews
Amber J Giles, Marsha-Kay N D Hutchinson, Heather M Sonnemann, Jinkyu Jung, Peter E Fecci, Nivedita M Ratnam, Wei Zhang, Hua Song, Rolanda Bailey, Dionne Davis, Caitlin M Reid, Deric M Park, Mark R Gilbert
BACKGROUND: Corticosteroids are routinely utilized to alleviate edema in patients with intracranial lesions and are first-line agents to combat immune-related adverse events (irAEs) that arise with immune checkpoint blockade treatment. However, it is not known if or when corticosteroids can be administered without abrogating the efforts of immunotherapy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of dexamethasone on lymphocyte activation and proliferation during checkpoint blockade to provide guidance for corticosteroid use while immunotherapy is being implemented as a cancer treatment...
June 11, 2018: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
Omowunmi A Sadik, Idris Yazgan, Orhan Eroglu, Peng Liu, Sarah T Olsen, Alecia M Moser, Phillip G Sander, Courage Tsiagbe, Kei Harada, Saeed Bajwa, Christian D Tvetenstrand, Lijun Yin, Peter Gerhardstein
BACKGROUND: Pain is a multidimensional condition of multiple origins. Determining both intensity and underlying cause are critical for effective management. Utilization of painkillers does not follow any guidelines relying on biomarkers, which effectively eliminates objective treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of serum cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) as pain biomarkers. This work could significantly advance the diagnosis and treatment of pain...
June 6, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Metha Wanapat, Chaowarit Mapato
Objective: As the climate changes, it influences ruminant's feed intake, nutrient digestibility, rumen methane production and emission. This experiment aimed to evaluate the effect of feeding Sweet grass (Pennisetum purpureum cv. Mahasarakham) as a new source of good quality forage to improve feed utilization efficiency and to mitigate rumen methane production and emission. Methods: Four, growing crossbred of Holstein Friesian heifers, 14 months old, were arranged in a 4 x 4 Latin square design to receive four dietary treatments...
May 31, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Maria Jelinic, Sarah A Marshall, Chen Huei Leo, Laura J Parry, Marianne Tare
Early maternal vascular adaptations to pregnancy are predominantly driven by changes in vascular tone, reactivity and remodelling. Failure of the maternal systemic vasculature to adapt sufficiently can lead to serious complications of pregnancy. The hormone relaxin is widely recognised for its contribution to the essential renal and systemic haemodynamic adaptations in early pregnancy through direct actions on the maternal vasculature. Studies in relaxin gene knockout mice revealed that endogenous relaxin is not only a 'pregnancy hormone' but has pleiotropic actions in various tissues in males and non-pregnant females...
June 7, 2018: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
Yun-Sheng Liu, He Huang, Si-Min Zhou, Huai-Jun Tian, Peng Li
Background: Because the pathogenesis of high altitude polycythemia (HAPC) is unclear, the aim of the present study was to explore whether abnormal iron metabolism is involved in the pathogenesis of HAPC and the possible cause. Methods: We examined the serum levels of iron, total iron binding capacity, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), ferritin, and hepcidin as well as erythropoietin (EPO) and inflammation-related cytokines in 20 healthy volunteers at sea level, 36 healthy high-altitude migrants, and 33 patients with HAPC...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Stephen L Thorp, Thomas Suchy, Nalini Vadivelu, Erik M Helander, Richard D Urman, Alan D Kaye
BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is a major public health problem resulting in physical and emotional pain for individuals and families, loss of productivity, and an annual cost of billions of dollars. The lack of objective measures available to aid in diagnosis and evaluation of therapies for chronic pain continues to be a challenge for the clinician. OBJECTIVES: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is an imaging technique that can establish regional areas of interest and examine synchronous neuronal activity in functionally related but anatomically distinct regions of the brain, known as functional connectivity...
May 2018: Pain Physician
Kelly A Prendergast, Naomi J Daniels, Troels R Petersen, Ian F Hermans, Joanna R Kirman
Bloodstream infections induce considerable morbidity, high mortality, and represent a significant burden of cost in health care; however, our understanding of the immune response to bacteremia is incomplete. Langerin+ CD8α+ dendritic cells (DCs), residing in the marginal zone of the murine spleen, have the capacity to cross-prime CD8+ T cells and produce IL-12, both of which are important components of antimicrobial immunity. Accordingly, we hypothesized that this DC subset may be a key promoter of adaptive immune responses to blood-borne bacterial infections...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Teresa Mastantuono, Martina Di Maro, Martina Chiurazzi, Laura Battiloro, Espedita Muscariello, Gilda Nasti, Noemy Starita, Antonio Colantuoni, Dominga Lapi
The reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known to play a major role in many pathophysiological conditions, such as ischemia and reperfusion injury. The present study was aimed to evaluate the in vivo cyanidin (anthocyanin) effects on damages induced by rat pial microvascular hypoperfusion-reperfusion injury by cerebral blood flow decrease (CBFD) and subsequent cerebral blood flow recovery (CBFR). In particular, the main purpose was to detect changes in ROS production after cyanidin administration. Rat pial microvasculature was investigated using fluorescence microscopy through a cranial window (closed); Strahler's method was utilized to define the geometric features of pial vessels...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Roxana Braga de Andrade Teles, Tâmara Coimbra Diniz, Tiago Coimbra Costa Pinto, Raimundo Gonçalves de Oliveira Júnior, Mariana Gama E Silva, Érica Martins de Lavor, Antonio Wilton Cavalcante Fernandes, Ana Paula de Oliveira, Fernanda Pires Rodrigues de Almeida Ribeiro, Amanda Alves Marcelino da Silva, Taisy Cinthia Ferro Cavalcante, Lucindo José Quintans Júnior, Jackson Roberto Guedes da Silva Almeida
Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases are considered the most common neurodegenerative disorders, representing a major focus of neuroscience research to understanding the cellular alterations and pathophysiological mechanisms involved. Several natural products, including flavonoids, are considered able to cross the blood-brain barrier and are known for their central nervous system-related activity. Therefore, studies are being conducted with these chemical constituents to analyze their activities in slowing down the progression of neurodegenerative diseases...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Michael J Burla, Judith Boura, Lihua Qu, Jeffrey S Ditkoff, David A Berger
PURPOSE: Computed tomography (CT) is a standard imaging modality utilized during the evaluation of trauma patients in the emergency department (ED). However, while it is common to utilize intravenous (IV) contrast as an adjunct, the use of multiple CT scans and how it impacts patient flow can lead to changes in patient management. Our objectives are to assess length of stay (LOS) and rates of acute kidney injury (AKI), when two CT scans of the abdomen/pelvis are performed compared to one CT scan...
June 2, 2018: Emergency Radiology
Sita S Withers, Peter F Moore, Hong Chang, Jin W Choi, Stephen J McSorley, Michael S Kent, Arta M Monjazeb, Robert Canter, William J Murphy, Ellen E Sparger, Robert B Rebhun
While dogs are increasingly being utilized as large-animal models of disease, important features of age-related immunosenescence in the dog have yet to be evaluated due to the lack of defined naïve vs. memory T lymphocyte phenotypes. We therefore performed multi-color flow cytometry on peripheral blood mononuclear cells from young and aged beagles, and determined the differential cytokine production by proposed memory subsets. CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes in aged dogs displayed increased cytokine production, and decreased proliferative capacity...
May 31, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Xin Xu, Dongpei Yin, Honglei Ren, Weiwei Gao, Fei Li, Dongdong Sun, Yingang Wu, Shuai Zhou, Li Lyu, Mengchen Yang, Jianhua Xiong, Lulu Han, Rongcai Jiang, Jianning Zhang
The nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome-mediated inflammatory response has emerged as a prominent contributor to the pathophysiological processes of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Recently, a potent, selective, small-molecule NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitor, MCC950, was described. Here, we investigated the effect of MCC950 on inflammatory brain injury and long-term neurological outcomes in a mouse model of TBI. Male C57/BL6 mice were subjected to TBI using the controlled cortical impact injury (CCI) system...
May 30, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
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