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Blood product utilization

Abel Jacobus Bronkhorst, Johannes F Wentzel, Janine Aucamp, Etresia van Dyk, Lissinda H du Plessis, Piet J Pretorius
Non-invasive screening that utilizes cell-free DNA (cfDNA) offers remarkable potential as a method for the early detection of genetic disorders and a wide variety of cancers. Unfortunately, one of the most prominent elements delaying the translation of cfDNA analyses to clinical practice is the lack of knowledge regarding its origin and composition. The elucidation of the origin of cfDNA is complicated by the apparently arbitrary variability of quantitative and qualitative characteristics of cfDNA in the blood of healthy as well as diseased individuals...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Christian Wächter, Lee E Eiden, Nedye Naumann, Candan Depboylu, Eberhard Weihe
BACKGROUND: The majority of investigations on HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) neglect the cerebellum in spite of emerging evidence for its role in higher cognitive functions and dysfunctions in common neurodegenerative diseases. METHODS: We systematically investigated the molecular and cellular responses of the cerebellum as contributors to lentiviral infection-induced neurodegeneration, in the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaque model for HIV infection and HAND...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Donald S Likosky, Timothy A Dickinson, Theron A Paugh
Cardiac surgery accounts for between 15% and 20% of all blood product utilization in the United States. A body of literature suggests that patients who are exposed to even small quantities of blood have an increased risk of morbidity and mortality, even after adjusting for pre-operative risk. Despite this body of literature supporting a restrictive blood management strategy, wide variability in transfusion rates exist across institutions. Recent blood management guidelines have shed light on a number of potentially promising blood management strategies, including acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH) and retrograde autologous priming (RAP)...
September 2016: Journal of Extra-corporeal Technology
Audrey E Ertel, Koffi Wima, Richard S Hoehn, Alex L Chang, Samuel F Hohmann, Syed A Ahmad, Jeffrey J Sussman, Shimul A Shah, Daniel E Abbott
BACKGROUND: We aimed to quantify and predict variability that exists in resource utilization after pancreaticoduodenectomy and determine how such variability impacts postoperative outcomes. METHODS: The University HealthSystems Consortium database was queried for all pancreaticoduodenectomies performed between 2011-2013 (n = 9,737). A composite resource utilization score was created using z-scores of 8 clinically significant postoperative care delivery variables including number of laboratory tests, imaging tests, computed tomographic scans, days on antibiotics, anticoagulation, antiemetics, promotility agents, and total number of blood products transfused per patient...
October 3, 2016: Surgery
Ramith Ramu, Prithvi S Shirahatti, Shivasharanappa Nayakavadi, Vadivelan R, Farhan Zameer, Bhadrapura Lakkappa Dhananjaya, Nagendra Prasad Mn
Banana is an extensively cultivated plant worldwide, mainly for its fruit, while its ancillary product, the banana pseudostem, is consumed as a vegetable and is highly recommended for diabetics in the traditional Indian medicine system. The present study was aimed at elucidating the mechanism of antihyperglycaemia exerted by the ethanol extract of banana pseudostem (EE) and its isolated compounds viz., stigmasterol (C1) and β-sitosterol (C2), in an alloxan-induced diabetic rat model. Diabetic rats which were administered with C1, C2 and EE (100 and 200 mg per kg b...
September 14, 2016: Food & Function
Petra Bonova, Miroslava Nemethova, Milina Matiasova, Martin Bona, Miroslav Gottlieb
Ischemic tolerance (IT) has gained attention as an attractive strategy for improving stroke outcome. Recently, it was shown that signal responsible for rapid IT induction (tolerance induction factor- TIF) is transmitted via circulating blood. In the present paper, we have hypothesized about the role of the blood cell compartment in TIF production. We used hind limb ischemia to generate TIF as a rapid preconditioning against transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). The essential properties of protein synthesis inhibitors actinomycin D and cycloheximide were utilized to obtain the following results: 1...
October 5, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Khadijeh Alishah, Sedigheh Asad, Khosro Khajeh, Neda Akbari
Uric acid, a side product of nucleotide metabolism, should be cleared from blood stream since its accumulation can cause cardiovascular diseases and gout. Uricase (urate oxidase) converts uric acid to 5-hydroxyisourate, but it is absent in human and other higher apes. Yet, the recombinant form of uricase, Rasburicase, is now commercially available to cure tumor lysis syndrome by lowering serum uric acid level. Developing new methods to efficiently purify pharmaceutical proteins like uricase has attracted researchers' attention...
November 2016: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
Dasaradha Jalapothu, Margherita Boieri, Rachel E Crossland, Pranali Shah, Isha A Butt, Jean Norden, Ralf Dressel, Anne M Dickinson, Marit Inngjerdingen
MicroRNAs (miRNA) have emerged as central regulators of diverse biological processes and contribute to driving pathology in several diseases. Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD) represents a major complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, caused by alloreactive donor T cells attacking host tissues leading to inflammation and tissue destruction. Changes in miRNA expression patterns occur during aGvHD, and we hypothesized that we could identify miRNA signatures in target tissues of aGvHD that may potentially help understand the underlying molecular pathology of the disease...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Rebecca A M Blom, Silvia T Erni, Kristína Krempaská, Olivier Schaerer, R Maarten van Dijk, Mario Amacker, Christian Moser, Sean R R Hall, Christophe von Garnier, Fabian Blank
The respiratory tract with its ease of access, vast surface area and dense network of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) represents an ideal target for immune-modulation. Bio-mimetic nanocarriers such as virosomes may provide immunomodulatory properties to treat diseases such as allergic asthma. In our study we employed a triple co-culture model of epithelial cells, macrophages and dendritic cells to simulate the human airway barrier. The epithelial cell line 16HBE was grown on inserts and supplemented with human blood monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) and dendritic cells (MDDCs) for exposure to influenza virosomes and liposomes...
2016: PloS One
Hasanat Sharif, Hamza Zaheer Ansari, Awais Ashfaq, Wasiq Faraz Rawasia, Gulshan Bano, Shiraz Hashmi
OBJECTIVE: To build a clinical predictive model to determine the need for transfusing blood and its products in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) procedures in South East Asian population. STUDY DESIGN: Analytical study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Section of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from January 2006 to October 2014. METHODOLOGY: Information on pre-, intra- and postoperative variables were collected for all adult patients who underwent on-pump CABG...
September 2016: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Chih-Chun Chang, Hui-Jung Lin, Jen-Tang Sun, Pei-Yu Li, Tai-Chen Lee, Ming-Jang Su, Tzung-Hai Yen, Fang-Yeh Chu
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence has shown that ambient exposure to PM2.5, especially in the haze weather, increased the risk of various diseases. However, the association of air pollution status with blood transfusion utilization and the prevalence and severity of adverse transfusion reactions remain to be clarified. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The data of monthly transfusion usage of blood components, adverse transfusion reactions, as well as PM2.5 and PM10 levels from 2013 to 2015 were obtained...
October 2016: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
Gardner Yost, Christine Rachel Joseph, Thomas Royston, Antone Tatooles, Geetha Bhat
Despite increasing use of left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) as a surgical treatment for advanced heart failure in an era of improved outcomes with LVAD support, the mechanical interactions between these pumps and the cardiovascular system are not completely understood. We utilized an in vitro mock circulatory loop to analyze the heat production incurred by operation of an axial flow and centrifugal flow LVAD.A HeartMate II and a HeartWare HVAD were connected to an abbreviated flow loop and were implanted in a viscoelastic gel...
September 20, 2016: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
Walter P Jeske, Jeanine M Walenga, Bryan Menapace, Jeffrey Schwartz, Mamdouh Bakhos
For heart failure patients unable to undergo cardiac transplantation, mechanical circulatory support with left ventricular assist devices can be utilized. These devices improve quality of life and prolong life expectancy, but they are associated with bleeding and thrombotic complications impacting patient survival. Little is known of the relevant mechanisms of these hemostatic issues, hindering identification of a clinically useful biomarker. However, there is suggestive evidence that blood cell-derived microparticles may fulfill this unmet clinical need...
October 2016: Biomarkers in Medicine
A T Mathews, J E Rico, N T Sprenkle, A L Lock, J W McFadden
Feeding saturated fatty acids may enhance milk yield in part by decreasing insulin sensitivity and shifting glucose utilization toward the mammary gland. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of palmitic acid (C16:0) on milk production and insulin sensitivity in cows. Twenty multiparous mid-lactation Holstein cows were enrolled in a study consisting of a 5-d covariate, 49-d treatment, and 14-d posttreatment period. All cows received a common sorghum silage-based diet and were randomly assigned to a diet containing no supplemental fat (control; n = 10; 138 ± 45 d in milk) or C16:0 at 4% of ration DM (PALM; 98% C16:0; n = 10; 136 ± 44 d in milk)...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
James Winearls, Michael Reade, Helen Miles, Andrew Bulmer, Don Campbell, Klaus Görlinger, John F Fraser
Hemorrhage in the setting of severe trauma is a leading cause of death worldwide. The pathophysiology of hemorrhage and coagulopathy in severe trauma is complex and remains poorly understood. Most clinicians currently treating trauma patients acknowledge the presence of a coagulopathy unique to trauma patients-trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC)-independently associated with increased mortality. The complexity and incomplete understanding of TIC has resulted in significant controversy regarding optimum management...
October 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Hweixian Leong Penny, Je Lin Sieow, Giulia Adriani, Wei Hseun Yeap, Peter See Chi Ee, Boris San Luis, Bernett Lee, Terence Lee, Shi Ya Mak, Ying Swan Ho, Kong Peng Lam, Choon Kiat Ong, Ruby Y J Huang, Florent Ginhoux, Olaf Rotzschke, Roger D Kamm, Siew Cheng Wong
Patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) face a clinically intractable disease with poor survival rates, attributed to exceptionally high levels of metastasis. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is pronounced at inflammatory foci within the tumor; however, the immunological mechanisms promoting tumor dissemination remain unclear. It is well established that tumors exhibit the Warburg effect, a preferential use of glycolysis for energy production, even in the presence of oxygen, to support rapid growth...
August 2016: Oncoimmunology
Sagar Munjal, Anirudh Gautam, Elliot Offman, Elimor Brand-Schieber, Kent Allenby, Dennis M Fisher
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Intranasal sumatriptan (Imitrex(®) ) may be an alternative for patients who refuse injections and cannot tolerate oral agents, but due to low bioavailability and slow absorption, the clinical utility of the currently marketed formulation is limited, highlighting an unmet need for an effective non-oral migraine medication with a rapid onset of action. To overcome the slow absorption profile associated with intranasal administration, we evaluated the impact of 1-O-n-Dodecyl-β-D-Maltopyranoside (DDM, Intravail A-3™), a permeation enhancer, on sumatriptan's pharmacokinetic profile by comparing the pharmacokinetic characteristics of two commercial sumatriptan products, 4 mg subcutaneous and 6 mg subcutaneous in healthy adults, with DFN-02 - a novel intranasal agent comprised of sumatriptan 10 mg plus 0...
October 2016: Headache
Pramod K Kalambate, Chaitali R Rawool, Shashi P Karna, Ashwini K Srivastava
A highly sensitive and selective voltammetric method for determination of Methylergometrine maleate (MM) in pharmaceutical formulations, urine and blood serum samples has been developed based on enhanced electrochemical response of MM at carbon nanofibers and silver nanoparticles modified carbon paste electrode (CNF-AgNP-CPE). The electrode material was characterized by various techniques viz., X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The electrocatalytic response of MM at CNF-AgNP-CPE was studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)...
December 1, 2016: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Yenework Acham Jemberu, Ahmed Esmael, Kedir Y Ahmed
BACKGROUND: Although the demand for blood supply has progressively increased in developing countries, evidences indicate that there is a major shortage of blood and blood products in these countries, particularly in Ethiopia. Thus, identifying motivational factors affecting blood donation and recruitment of safe and low risk donors is necessary. For this reason, the study aimed at assessing knowledge, attitude, and practice towards blood donation and its associated factors. METHODS: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in Debre Markos town from February to April, 2015...
2016: BMC Hematology
Pasquale L Fedele, Mark N Polizzotto, George Grigoriadis, Neil Waters, Mary Comande, Marija Borosak, David Portbury, Erica M Wood
BACKGROUND: Demand for platelet (PLT) and plasma transfusions is increasing. Improved clinical supply and contingency planning requires greater understanding of usage profiles and urgency of clinical requirement. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This study was a random-sample survey of PLT and plasma units produced in Victoria, Australia, to determine product disposition, recipient demographics, clinical indications for transfusion, and urgency (or "deferability") of need...
October 2016: Transfusion
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