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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632753/mait-cells-launch-a-rapid-robust-and-distinct-hyperinflammatory-response-to-bacterial-superantigens-and-quickly-acquire-an-anergic-phenotype-that-impedes-their-cognate-antimicrobial-function-defining-a-novel-mechanism-of-superantigen-induced-immunopathology
#1
Christopher R Shaler, Joshua Choi, Patrick T Rudak, Arash Memarnejadian, Peter A Szabo, Mauro E Tun-Abraham, Jamie Rossjohn, Alexandra J Corbett, James McCluskey, John K McCormick, Olivier Lantz, Roberto Hernandez-Alejandro, S M Mansour Haeryfar
Superantigens (SAgs) are potent exotoxins secreted by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. They target a large fraction of T cell pools to set in motion a "cytokine storm" with severe and sometimes life-threatening consequences typically encountered in toxic shock syndrome (TSS). Given the rapidity with which TSS develops, designing timely and truly targeted therapies for this syndrome requires identification of key mediators of the cytokine storm's initial wave. Equally important, early host responses to SAgs can be accompanied or followed by a state of immunosuppression, which in turn jeopardizes the host's ability to combat and clear infections...
June 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629526/erythropoietin-receptor-signaling-and-lipid-rafts
#2
Kathy McGraw, Alan List
Erythropoiesis is tightly regulated by the growth factor erythropoietin (Epo). Signal activation begins when Epo engages its cognate receptor, Epo-R, triggering receptor homodimerization, and recruitment of signaling intermediates including Jak2 that phosphorylates both the receptor cytoplasmic tail and downstream effectors including the transcription factor, STAT5. Transcription factors subsequently activate transcription of prosurvival and prodifferentiation genes responsible for red blood cell production...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615947/treatment-of-secondary-hyperparathyroidism-the-clinical-utility-of-etelcalcetide
#3
REVIEW
Mario Cozzolino, Andrea Galassi, Ferruccio Conte, Michela Mangano, Luca Di Lullo, Antonio Bellasi
Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT), a very frequent, severe, and worsening complication of chronic kidney disease, is characterized by high serum parathyroid hormone (PTH), parathyroid gland hyperplasia, and disturbances in mineral metabolism. Clinically, SHPT shows renal osteodystrophy, vascular calcification, cardiovascular damage, and fatal outcome. Calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is the main physiological regulator of PTH secretion; its activation by calcium rapidly inhibits PTH. Another important player in regulating mineral metabolism is vitamin D receptor (VDR), which is under the influence of vitamin D and influences the intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphate, PTH gene expression, and bone calcium mobilization...
2017: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612456/day-14-bone-marrow-examination-in-the-management-of-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#4
REVIEW
Christopher M Terry, Rory M Shallis, Elihu Estey, Seah H Lim
The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) recommends that a repeat bone marrow evaluation is carried out seven to ten days following completion of induction therapy so that if a patient's day 14 bone marrow shows residual blast cell counts of >10%, the patient would proceed early to a second cycle of induction therapy. Although blast cell counts of <5% on day 14 bone marrow is sensitive in predicting remission on day 28, various studies have found that day 14 bone marrow is highly nonspecific because a large proportion of patients with blast cell counts of >5% on day 14 bone marrow would still attain a complete remission of the disease without any further chemotherapy...
June 13, 2017: American Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605680/surrogate-cd16-expressing-effector-cell-lines-for-determining-the-bioactivity-of-therapeutic-monoclonal-antibodies
#5
Shalom A Gurjar, Jeremy P Derrick, Rebecca J Dearman, Robin Thorpe, Simon Hufton, Ian Kimber, Meenu Wadhwa
Traditional antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) assays use donor derived natural killer (NK) or peripheral blood mononuclear cells, but donor genetic variability and the technically challenging nature of the assay means that alternative in vitro assay formats are required. We explored the utility of two reporter gene cell lines, the J2 and J9, as surrogate effector cells for ADCC assays. Both express the ADCC relevant Fcγ receptor CD16, crosslinking of which leads to firefly luciferase expression...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602484/red-blood-cell-transfusion-and-outcome-in-cancer
#6
REVIEW
Nayyer Iqbal, Kamal Haider, Vinita Sundaram, Julia Radosevic, Thierry Burnouf, Jerard Seghatchian, Hadi Goubran
Oncology services utilize about 15% of the blood transfusion resources in the USA. Red blood cell transfusion is performed immediately before, during or after major surgery to compensate for blood loss and hemodilution. However, a lack of evidence-based guidelines leads to variable transfusion practices among clinicians. The benefits of transfusing blood products are obvious in life-threatening low blood cell counts or bleeding, but it is becoming apparent that deliberate blood transfusion in some cancer patients can trigger negative clinical impacts...
May 26, 2017: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600579/road-crashes-in-older-persons-and-the-use-of-comorbidity-polypharmacy-score-in-an-asian-population
#7
Mui Teng Chua, Keshav Bhandari, Victor Yk Ong, Win Sen Kuan
INTRODUCTION: Age-related physiological changes predispose older road users to higher mortality from traffic crashes. We aimed to describe the injury epidemiology of these patients, and explore the association between the comorbidity polypharmacy score (CPS) and outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study utilised data from the Trauma Registry in the National University Hospital, Singapore, between January 2011 and December 2014. Patients involved in traffic crashes aged 45 years and above with injury severity scores (ISS) of 9 and higher were included...
May 2017: Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599883/uterine-sparing-laparoscopic-resection-of-accessory-cavitated-uterine-masses
#8
Ann Peters, Noah B Rindos, Richard S Guido, Nicole M Donnellan
To demonstrate surgical techniques utilized during uterine-sparing laparoscopic resections of accessory cavitated uterine masses (ACUM) BACKGROUND: ACUM represent a rare uterine entity observed in premenopausal women suffering from dysmenorrhea and recurrent pelvic pain. The diagnosis is made when an isolated extra-cavitated uterine mass is resected from an otherwise normal appearing uterus with unremarkable endometrial lumen and adnexal structures. Pathologic confirmation requires an accessory cavity lined with endometrial epithelium (and corresponding glands and stroma) filled with chocolate-brown fluid...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594585/impact-of-palliative-medicine-involvement-on-end-of-life-services-for-patients-with-cancer-with-in-hospital-deaths
#9
Alison Wiesenthal, Debra A Goldman, Deborah Korenstein
PURPOSE: Palliative care (PC) has been shown to improve the quality of care and resource utilization for inpatients. We examined the relationship between PC consultation before and during final admission and patterns of care for dying patients at our tertiary cancer center. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed adult patients with solid tumor cancer with a length of stay ≥ 3 days who died in hospital between December 2012 and November 2014. We recorded services, including laboratory testing, imaging, blood products, medications, diet orders, do not resuscitate orders, and consultations, delivered within 3 days of death...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Oncology Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593146/cholesterol-granuloma-of-the-abdominal-wall-an-unusual-finding-in-the-setting-of-renal-cell-carcinoma
#10
Robert Abraham Obeid, Daniel James Hoppe, Tamer Jacob Dafashy, Rebecca Elaine Waters, Susan Elizabeth Tarry
Cholesterol granulomas are composed of a distinct type of granulation tissue that contains lipids and cholesterol crystals. They are not believed to be a pathological entity, but rather an inflammatory tissue reaction to the presence of trapped blood secondary to localized hemorrhage.(1) Cholesterol granulomas can be identified histologically by the presence of multi-nucleated giant cells, hemosiderin, and red blood cells along with their associated break-down products.(1) Recognizing cholesterol granulomas can provide clinical utility as they demonstrate a tendency to mimic carcinoma both clinically and radiologically...
July 2017: Urology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592514/a-western-diet-pattern-is-associated-with-higher-concentrations-of-blood-and-bone-lead-among-middle-aged-and-elderly-men
#11
Xin Wang, Ning Ding, Katherine L Tucker, Marc G Weisskopf, David Sparrow, Howard Hu, Sung Kyun Park
Background: Little is known about the effects of overall dietary pattern on lead concentration.Objective: We examined the association of overall dietary patterns, derived from a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire, with bone and blood lead concentrations.Methods: This longitudinal analyses included mostly non-Hispanic white, middle-aged-to-elderly men from the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study. Long-term lead exposures were measured as tibia and patella lead concentrations by using K-shell-X-ray fluorescence...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591469/continued-decline-in-blood-collection-and-transfusion-in-the-united-states-2015
#12
Katherine D Ellingson, Mathew R P Sapiano, Kathryn A Haass, Alexandra A Savinkina, Misha L Baker, Koo-Whang Chung, Richard A Henry, James J Berger, Matthew J Kuehnert, Sridhar V Basavaraju
BACKGROUND: In 2011 and 2013, the National Blood Collection and Utilization Survey (NBCUS) revealed declines in blood collection and transfusion in the United States. The objective of this study was to describe blood services in 2015. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: The 2015 NBCUS was distributed to all US blood collection centers, all hospitals performing at least 1000 surgeries annually, and a 40% random sample of hospitals performing 100 to 999 surgeries annually. Weighting and imputation were used to generate national estimates for units of blood and components collected, deferred, distributed, transfused, and outdated...
June 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579299/sglt2-inhibition-by-empagliflozin-promotes-fat-utilization-and-browning-and-attenuates-inflammation-and-insulin-resistance-by-polarizing-m2-macrophages-in-diet-induced-obese-mice
#13
Liang Xu, Naoto Nagata, Mayumi Nagashimada, Fen Zhuge, Yinhua Ni, Guanliang Chen, Eric Mayoux, Shuichi Kaneko, Tsuguhito Ota
Sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) 2 inhibitors increase urinary glucose excretion (UGE), leading to blood glucose reductions and weight loss. However, the impacts of SGLT2 inhibition on energy homeostasis and obesity-induced insulin resistance are less well known. Here, we show that empagliflozin, a SGLT2 inhibitor, enhanced energy expenditure and attenuated inflammation and insulin resistance in high-fat-diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. C57BL/6J mice were pair-fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or a HFD with empagliflozin for 16weeks...
May 26, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575984/chitosan-%C3%AE-poly-glutamic-acid-scaffolds-with-surface-modified-albumin-elastin-and-poly-l-lysine-for-cartilage-tissue-engineering
#14
Yung-Chih Kuo, Hao-Fu Ku, Rajendiran Rajesh
Cartilage has limited ability to self-repair due to the absence of blood vessels and nerves. The application of biomaterial scaffolds using biomimetic extracellular matrix (ECM)-related polymers has become an effective approach to production of engineered cartilage. Chitosan/γ-poly(glutamic acid) (γ-PGA) scaffolds with different mass ratios were prepared using genipin as a cross-linker and a freeze-drying method, and their surfaces were modified with elastin, human serum albumin (HSA) and poly-l-lysine (PLL)...
September 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575295/high-resolution-crystal-structures-and-std-nmr-mapping-of-human-abo-h-blood-group-glycosyltransferases-in-complex-with-trisaccharide-reaction-products-suggest-a-molecular-basis-for-product-release
#15
Susannah M L Gagnon, Max S G Legg, Nora Sindhuwinata, James A Letts, Asha R Johal, Brock Schuman, Svetlana N Borisova, Monica M Palcic, Thomas Peters, Stephen V Evans
The human ABO(H) blood group A- and B-synthesizing glycosyltransferases GTA and GTB have been structurally characterized to high-resolution in complex with their respective trisaccharide antigen products. These findings are particularly timely and relevant given the dearth of glycosyltransferase structures collected in complex with their saccharide reaction products. GTA and GTB utilize the same acceptor substrates, oligosaccharides terminating with α-L-Fucp-(1→2)-β-D-Galp-OR (where R is a glycolipid or glycoprotein), but use distinct UDP donor sugars, UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine and UDP-galactose, to generate the blood group A (α-L-Fucp-(1→2)[α-D-GalNAcp-(1→3)]-β-D-Galp-OR) and blood group B (α-L-Fucp-(1→2)[α-D-Galp-(1→3)]-β-D-Galp-OR) determinant structures, respectively...
June 2, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574230/nicotine-effects-on-exercise-performance-and-physiological-responses-in-nicotine-na%C3%A3-ve-individuals-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Robert Johnston, Kenji Doma, Melissa Crowe
The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the effects of smokeless forms of nicotine on physiological responses and exercise performance. Methodology and reporting were based on the PRISMA statement. The intervention was defined as any product containing nicotine that did not require smoking. Searches were conducted across two electronic databases with supplementary approaches utilized. Studies were selected following set inclusion and exclusion criteria and checked by two independent authors. A modified PEDro scale was utilized to rate study quality with studies averaging 9·3/13...
June 2, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566081/-a-rarely-isolated-bacterium-in-microbiology-laboratories-streptococcus-uberis
#17
Canan Eryıldız, Şebnem Bukavaz, Şaban Gürcan, Osman Hatipoğlu
Streptococcus uberis is a gram-positive bacterium that is mostly responsible for mastitis in cattle. The bacterium rarely has been associated with human infections. Conventional phenotyphic methods can be inadequate for the identification of S.uberis; and in microbiology laboratories S.uberis is confused with the other streptococci and enterococci isolates. Recently, molecular methods are recommended for the accurate identification of S.uberis isolates. The aim of this report is to present a lower respiratory tract infection case caused by S...
April 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557286/incidence-and-predictors-of-massive-bleeding-in-children-undergoing-liver-transplantation-a-single-center-retrospective-analysis
#18
Benjamin Kloesel, Pete G Kovatsis, David Faraoni, Vanessa Young, Heung Bae Kim, Khashayar Vakili, Susan M Goobie
BACKGROUND: Liver transplantation represents a major surgery involving a highly vascular organ. Reports defining the scope of bleeding in pediatric liver transplants are few. AIMS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of liver transplants performed at our pediatric tertiary care center to quantify blood loss, blood product utilization, and to determine predictors for massive intraoperative bleeding. METHODS: Pediatric patients who underwent isolated liver transplantation at Boston Children's Hospital between 2011 and 2016 were included...
July 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555530/albumin-based-drug-delivery-using-cysteine-34-chemical-conjugates-important-considerations-and-requirements
#19
Mikael B Caspersen, Matthias Kuhlmann, Karl Nicholls, Malcolm J Saxton, Birgitte Andersen, Karen Bunting, Jason Cameron, Kenneth A Howard
The long blood circulation time of albumin has been clinically utilized as a half-life extension technology for improved drug performance. The availability of one free thiol for site-selective chemical conjugation offers an alternative approach to current genetic fusion and association-based products. This special report highlights important factors for successful conjugation that allows the reader to design and evaluate next-generation albumin conjugates. Albumin type, available conjugation chemistries, linker length, animal models and influence of conjugation on albumin pharmacokinetics and drug activity are discussed...
July 2017: Therapeutic Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552695/identification-of-novel-human-renin-inhibitors-through-a-combined-approach-of-pharmacophore-modelling-molecular-dft-analysis-and-in-silico-screening
#20
Dhrubajyoti Gogoi, Vishwa Jyoti Baruah, Amrita Kashyap Chaliha, Bibhuti Bhushan Kakoti, Diganta Sarma, Alak Kumar Buragohain
Renin is an aspartyl protease of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and the first enzyme of the biochemical pathway for the generation of angiotensin II - a potent vasoconstrictor involved in the maintenance of cardiovascular homeostasis and the regulation of blood pressure. High enzymatic specificity of renin and its involvement in the catalysis of the rate-limiting step of the RAS hormone system qualify it as a good target for inhibition of hypertension and other associated diseases. Ligand-based pharmacophore model (Hypo1) was generated from a training set of 24 compounds with renin inhibitory activity...
April 27, 2017: Computational Biology and Chemistry
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