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carb cycling

David C Quiros, Jeremy D Smith, Walter A Ham, William H Robertson, Tao Huai, Alberto Ayala, Shaohua Hu
Remote sensing devices have been used for decades to measure gaseous emissions from individual vehicles at the roadside. Systems have also been developed that entrain diluted exhaust and can also measure particulate matter (PM) emissions. In 2015, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) reported that 8% of in-field diesel particulate filters (DPF) on heavy-duty (HD) vehicles were malfunctioning and emitted about 70% of total diesel PM emissions from the DPF-equipped fleet. A new high-emitter problem in the heavy-duty vehicle fleet had emerged...
April 13, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Zhen Li, Yu-Ping Shen, Xuan-Long Jiang, Li-Shen Feng, Jian-Zhong Liu
Putrescine is widely used in the industrial production of bioplastics, pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and surfactants. Because the highest titer of putrescine is much lower than that of its precursor L-ornithine reported in microorganisms to date, further work is needed to increase putrescine production in Corynebacterium glutamicum. We first compared 7 ornithine decarboxylase genes and found that the Enterobacter cloacae ornithine decarboxylase gene speC1 was most suitable for putrescine production in C. glutamicum...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
Stefan Münch, Steffi U Pigorsch, Marcus Feith, Julia Slotta-Huspenina, Wilko Weichert, Helmut Friess, Stephanie E Combs, Daniel Habermehl
PURPOSE: Neoadjuvant chemoradiation (nCRT) is the treatment of choice for patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus (SCC). Today radiation oncologists can choose between two different therapy regimes including chemoradiation with cisplatin and 5-fluoruracil (CDDP/5FU) and chemoradiation analogue to the CROSS-regime with carboplatin and paclitaxel (Carb/TAX). However, there is a lack of studies comparing these regimes, especially for the subgroup of patients with SCC...
November 21, 2017: Radiation Oncology
Amr Shafik Saad, Ramy R Ghali, May Ahmed Shawki
BACKGROUND: The use of cisplatin (Cis) versus carboplatin (Carb) in the treatment of advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is controversial. The aim of the study was to compare the safety and efficacy of Cis versus Carb in squamous NSCLC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospective, randomized, controlled, open-label study was conducted on advanced squamous NSCLC patients who were randomly assigned to receive Cis (40 mg/m 2 [day 1 and day 8]) or Carb (area under the curve = 5 [day 1]) combined with gemcitabine [Gem] (1000 mg/m 2 [day 1 and day 8]) of a 3-week schedule for six cycles...
April 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
Eugenio Alcalde, Paul David Fraser
The filamentous fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus provides a renewable biosource of industrial high-value compounds such as carotenes, other isoprenoids (ubiquinone and sterols), organic acids and fatty acids. Several Phycomyces mutants involved in the formation of β-carotene are available. For example, the carA mutants have a leaky mutation in the phytoene synthase and produce significantly lower amounts of carotenes, while the carB and carR mutants produce phytoene and lycopene, respectively, due to a null mutation in the genes encoding the phytoene dehydrogenase and lycopene cyclase, respectively...
November 2016: Microbiology
Gabriela T Leites, Giovani S Cunha, Lisa Chu, Flavia Meyer, Brian W Timmons
Little is known about energy yield during exercise in the heat in boys compared with men. To investigate substrate utilization with and without exogenous carbohydrate (CHOexo ) intake, seven boys [11.2 ± 0.2 (SE) yr] and nine men (24.0 ± 1.1 yr) cycled (4 × 20-min bouts) at a fixed metabolic heat production (Ḣp ) per unit body mass (6 W/kg) in a climate chamber (38°C and 50% relative humidity), on two occasions. Participants consumed a13 C-enriched 8% CHO beverage (CARB) or placebo beverage (CONT) in a double-blinded, counterbalanced manner...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Marco Ghezzi, Massimiliano Berretta, Alberto Bottacin, Pierfrancesco Palego, Barbara Sartini, Ilaria Cosci, Livio Finos, Riccardo Selice, Carlo Foresta, Andrea Garolla
Young males have testicular germ cells tumors (TGCT) as the most common malignancy and its incidence is increasing in several countries. Besides unilateral orchiectomy (UO), the treatment of TGCT may include surveillance, radiotherapy, or chemotherapy (CT), basing on tumor histology and stage of disease. It is well known that both radio and CT may have negative effects on testicular function, affecting spermatogenesis, and sex hormones. Many reports investigated these aspects in patients treated with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP), after UO...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Robert D Winefield, Anthonius A M Heemskerk, Swetha Kaul, Todd D Williams, Michael J Caspers, Thomas E Prisinzano, Elinore F McCance-Katz, Craig E Lunte, Morris D Faiman
Disulfiram (DSF), a treatment for alcohol use disorders, has shown some clinical effectiveness in treating addiction to cocaine, nicotine, and pathological gambling. The mechanism of action of DSF for treating these addictions is unclear but it is unlikely to involve the inhibition of liver aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2). DSF is a pro-drug and forms a number of metabolites, one of which is N-acetyl-S-(N,N-diethylcarbamoyl) cysteine (DETC-NAC). Here we describe a LCMS/MS method on a QQQ type instrument to quantify DETC-NAC in plasma and intracellular fluid from mammalian brain...
March 25, 2015: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
James M Brady, Timia A Crisp, Sonya Collier, Toshihiro Kuwayama, Sara D Forestieri, Véronique Perraud, Qi Zhang, Michael J Kleeman, Christopher D Cappa, Timothy H Bertram
Exposure to gas-phase isocyanic acid (HNCO) has been previously shown to be associated with the development of atherosclerosis, cataracts and rheumatoid arthritis. As such, accurate emission inventories for HNCO are critical for modeling the spatial and temporal distribution of HNCO on a regional and global scale. To date, HNCO emission rates from light duty gasoline vehicles, operated under driving conditions, have not been determined. Here, we present the first measurements of real-time emission factors of isocyanic acid from a fleet of eight light duty gasoline-powered vehicles (LDGVs) tested on a chassis dynamometer using the Unified Driving Cycle (UC) at the California Air Resources Board (CARB) Haagen-Smit test facility, all of which were equipped with three-way catalytic converters...
October 7, 2014: Environmental Science & Technology
Chen Cheng, Bong Gon Kim, Damien Guironnet, Maurice Brookhart, Changjian Guan, David Y Wang, Karsten Krogh-Jespersen, Alan S Goldman
New carbazolide-based iridium pincer complexes ((carb)PNP)Ir(C2H4), 3a, and ((carb)PNP)Ir(H)2, 3b, have been prepared and characterized. The dihydride, 3b, reacts with ethylene to yield the cis-dihydride ethylene complex cis-((carb)PNP)Ir(C2H4)(H)2. Under ethylene this complex reacts slowly at 70 °C to yield ethane and the ethylene complex, 3a. Kinetic analysis establishes that the reaction rate is dependent on ethylene concentration and labeling studies show reversible migratory insertion to form an ethyl hydride complex prior to formation of 3a...
May 7, 2014: Journal of the American Chemical Society
M I Roncero, E Cerdá-Olmedo
Genetic analysis of carotenogenesis in Phycomyces is hampered by the inability of most mutants to complete the sexual cycle. Heterokaryons between complementing mutants or between a mutant and a helper strain are, however, fertile. Using this method crosses have been carried out between mutants representing the different known genes and phenotypes.The gene for phytoene dehydrogenase, carB, is closely linked to carRA, a bifunctional gene specifying both lycopene cyclase and a product involved in substrate transfer...
May 1982: Current Genetics
Harry G Preuss, Bobby Echard, Debasis Bagchi, Nicholas V Perricone
OBJECTIVE: In Sprague-Dawley rats (SD), we compared two categories of natural dietary supplements that influence carbohydrate (CHO) metabolism via different basic mechanisms to ameliorate insulin resistance (IR) and elevated blood pressure (BP) associated with heavy sugar/starch consumption. Two dietary supplements (bean extract and l-arabinose) are often referred to as carb blockers (CBs), because they slow the gastrointestinal absorption of CHO. Trivalent chromium (CR) falls into a group of so-called insulin sensitizers, because its major effect is to enhance peripheral insulin sensitivity...
2013: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
Dunming Xu, Shengyu Lu, Dajie Chen, Jinchang Lan, Zhigang Zhang, Fang Yang, Yu Zhou
An effective method was developed and applied to determine the residues of ten pesticides of pyrazoles and pyrroles in tea by accelerated solvent extraction coupled with gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (ASE-GC-MS/MS). The samples were extracted with ethyl acetate-hexane (1:1, v/v) for 5 min at 1.03 x 10(7) Pa and 100 degree C for one cycle. Then, they were purified by Envi-Carb/PSA column, and eluted by ethyl acetate-hexane (1:1, v/v). The analytes were determined by GC-MS/MS and quantified by external standard method...
March 2013: Se Pu, Chinese Journal of Chromatography
Konstantin V Kudryavtsev, Polina M Ivantcova, Andrei V Churakov
In the title compound, C(16)H(15)F(3)N(2)O(4), the relative stereochemistry of the four stereogenic C atoms has been determined. The carb-oxy-methyl and 2-(trifluoro-meth-yl)-phenyl substituents of the pyrrolidine cycle have a cis mutual arrangement. The five-membered saturated aza-cycle adopts an envelope conformation with the N atom occupying the flap position. In the crystal, adjacent mol-ecules are combined in centrosymmetric dimers by two weak N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds.
February 1, 2013: Acta Crystallographica. Section E, Structure Reports Online
Eric M Fujita, David E Campbell, Barbara Zielinska, Judith C Chow, Christian E Lindhjem, Allison DenBleyker, Gary A Bishop, Brent G Schuchmann, Donald H Stedman, Douglas R Lawson
UNLABELLED: The Desert Research Institute conducted an on-road mobile source emission study at a traffic tunnel in Van Nuys, California, in August 2010 to measure fleet-averaged, fuel-based emission factors. The study also included remote sensing device (RSD) measurements by the University of Denver of 13,000 vehicles near the tunnel. The tunnel and RSD fleet-averaged emission factors were compared in blind fashion with the corresponding modeled factors calculated by ENVIRON International Corporation using U...
October 2012: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Margriet S Westerterp-Plantenga, Sofie G Lemmens, Klaas R Westerterp
Obesity is a serious health problem because of its co-morbidities. The solution, implying weight loss and long-term weight maintenance, is conditional on: (i) sustained satiety despite negative energy balance, (ii) sustained basal energy expenditure despite BW loss due to (iii) a sparing of fat-free mass (FFM), being the main determinant of basal energy expenditure. Dietary protein has been shown to assist with meeting these conditions, since amino acids act on the relevant metabolic targets. This review deals with the effects of different protein diets during BW loss and BW maintenance thereafter...
August 2012: British Journal of Nutrition
Maryam Hajbabaei, Kent C Johnson, Robert A Okamoto, Alexander Mitchell, Marcie Pullman, Thomas D Durbin
The impact of biodiesel and second generation biofuels on nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) emissions from heavy-duty engines was investigated using a California Air Resources Board (CARB) certified diesel fuel. Two heavy-duty engines, a 2006 engine with no exhaust aftertreatment, and a 2007 engine with a diesel particle filter (DPF), were tested on an engine dynamometer over four different test cycles. Emissions from soy- and animal-based biodiesels, a hydrotreated renewable diesel, and a gas to liquid (GTL) fuel were evaluated at blend levels from 5 to 100%...
August 21, 2012: Environmental Science & Technology
Thomas M Cahill, Robert A Okamoto
Aldehyde emissions were measured from two heavy-duty trucks, namely 2000 and 2008 model year vehicles meeting different EPA emission standards. The tests were conducted on a chassis dynamometer and emissions were collected from a constant volume dilution tunnel. For the 2000 model year vehicle, four different fuels were tested, namely California ultralow sulfur diesel (CARB ULSD), soy biodiesel, animal biodiesel, and renewable diesel. All of the fuels were tested with simulated city and high speed cruise drive cycles...
August 7, 2012: Environmental Science & Technology
D T Johnston, F A Macdonald, B C Gill, P F Hoffman, D P Schrag
Interpretations of major climatic and biological events in Earth history are, in large part, derived from the stable carbon isotope records of carbonate rocks and sedimentary organic matter. Neoproterozoic carbonate records contain unusual and large negative isotopic anomalies within long periods (10-100 million years) characterized by δ(13)C in carbonate (δ(13)C(carb)) enriched to more than +5 per mil. Classically, δ(13)C(carb) is interpreted as a metric of the relative fraction of carbon buried as organic matter in marine sediments, which can be linked to oxygen accumulation through the stoichiometry of primary production...
March 15, 2012: Nature
José Rodrigues-Pereira, Joo-Hang Kim, Manuel Magallanes, Dae Ho Lee, Jie Wang, Vinod Ganju, Luis Martínez-Barrera, Helen Barraclough, Maximiliano van Kooten, Mauro Orlando
INTRODUCTION: This study compared survival without toxicity in patients with advanced, nonsquamous non-small cell lung cancer who were treated with first-line pemetrexed/carboplatin or docetaxel/carboplatin. METHODS: This multicenter, open-label, parallel-group, phase 3 trial comprised patients randomized (1:1) to pemetrexed/carboplatin (n = 128) or docetaxel/carboplatin (n = 132). Patients received treatment on day 1 of each 21-day cycle (maximum of six cycles)...
November 2011: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
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