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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773338/taking-stock-a-systematic-review-of-archaeological-evidence-of-cancers-in-human-and-early-hominin-remains
#1
Kathryn J Hunt, Charlotte Roberts, Casey Kirkpatrick
This study summarizes data from 154 paleopathological studies documenting 272 archaeologically recovered individuals exhibiting skeletal or soft tissue evidence of cancer (malignant neoplastic disease) between 1.8 million years ago and 1900 CE. The paper reviews and summarizes the temporal, spatial and demographic distribution of the evidence and the methods used to provide the cancer diagnoses. Metastasis to bone is the most widely reported evidence (n = 161), followed by multiple myeloma (n = 55)...
May 14, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767678/identification-of-etiology-specific-diarrhea-associated-with-linear-growth-faltering-in-bangladeshi-infants
#2
Amanda E Schnee, Rashidul Haque, Mami Taniuchi, Jashim Uddin, Masud Alam, Jie Liu, Elizabeth T Rogawski, Beth Kirkpatrick, Eric R Houpt, William A Petri, James A Platts-Mills
Childhood diarrhea in low-resource settings has been variably linked to linear growth shortfalls. However, the association between etiology-specific diarrhea and growth has not been comprehensively evaluated. We tested diarrheal stools collected from the Performance of Rotavirus and Oral Polio Vaccines in Developing Countries study from 2011-2013 in Dhaka, Bangladesh by quantitative polymerase chain reaction for a broad range of enteropathogens to characterize diarrhea etiology and examine the association between etiology-specific diarrhea and linear growth and systemic inflammation...
May 15, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764948/inducible-lung-epithelial-resistance-requires-multisource-reactive-oxygen-species-generation-to-protect-against-viral-infections
#3
Carson T Kirkpatrick, Yongxing Wang, Miguel M Leiva Juarez, Pooja Shivshankar, Jezreel Pantaleón García, Alexandria K Plumer, Vikram V Kulkarni, Hayden H Ware, Fahad Gulraiz, Miguel A Chavez Cavasos, Gabriela Martinez Zayes, Shradha Wali, Andrew P Rice, Hongbing Liu, James M Tour, William K A Sikkema, Ana S Cruz Solbes, Keith A Youker, Michael J Tuvim, Burton F Dickey, Scott E Evans
Viral pneumonias cause profound worldwide morbidity, necessitating novel strategies to prevent and treat these potentially lethal infections. Stimulation of intrinsic lung defenses via inhalation of synergistically acting Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists protects mice broadly against pneumonia, including otherwise-lethal viral infections, providing a potential opportunity to mitigate infectious threats. As intact lung epithelial TLR signaling is required for the inducible resistance and as these cells are the principal targets of many respiratory viruses, the capacity of lung epithelial cells to be therapeutically manipulated to function as autonomous antiviral effectors was investigated...
May 15, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758598/work-probability-distribution-for-a-ferromagnet-with-long-ranged-and-short-ranged-correlations
#4
J K Bhattacharjee, T R Kirkpatrick, J V Sengers
Work fluctuations and work probability distributions are fundamentally different in systems with short-ranged versus long-ranged correlations. Specifically, in systems with long-ranged correlations the work distribution is extraordinarily broad compared to systems with short-ranged correlations. This difference profoundly affects the possible applicability of fluctuation theorems like the Jarzynski fluctuation theorem. The Heisenberg ferromagnet, well below its Curie temperature, is a system with long-ranged correlations in very low magnetic fields due to the presence of Goldstone modes...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754067/enantiomeric-impurity-analysis-using-circular-dichroism-spectroscopy-with-united-states-pharmacopeia-liquid-chromatographic-methods
#5
Douglas Kirkpatrick, Margaret Fain, Jingyue Yang, Michael Trehy
Over 300 chiral drug substances lack official United States Pharmacopeia (USP) methods for the enantiomeric purity determination. Because enantiomeric analysis typically requires specialized methods for each drug compound, developing protocols for each of these 300+ substances would be an expensive and laborious endeavor. Alternatively, if a detector capable of determining the enantiomeric composition without chiral separation could be used with certain drug compounds, this could be implemented relatively rapidly into official testing monographs...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744431/analysis-of-the-in-vitro-degradation-and-the-in-vivo-tissue-response-to-bi-layered-3d-printed-scaffolds-combining-pla-and-biphasic-pla-bioglass-components-guidance-of-the-inflammatory-response-as-basis-for-osteochondral-regeneration
#6
Mike Barbeck, Tiziano Serra, Patrick Booms, Sanja Stojanovic, Stevo Najman, Elisabeth Engel, Robert Sader, Charles James Kirkpatrick, Melba Navarro, Shahram Ghanaati
The aim of the present study was the in vitro and in vivo analysis of a bi-layered 3D-printed scaffold combining a PLA layer and a biphasic PLA/bioglass G5 layer for regeneration of osteochondral defects in vivo Focus of the in vitro analysis was on the (molecular) weight loss and the morphological and mechanical variations after immersion in SBF. The in vivo study focused on analysis of the tissue reactions and differences in the implant bed vascularization using an established subcutaneous implantation model in CD-1 mice and established histological and histomorphometrical methods...
December 2017: Bioactive Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742130/evidence-for-startle-as-a-measurable-behavioral-indicator-of-motor-learning
#7
Nathan J Kirkpatrick, Vengateswaran J Ravichandran, Eric J Perreault, Sydney Y Schaefer, Claire F Honeycutt
The ability of the classic startle reflex to evoke voluntarily prepared movement involuntarily has captured the attention of neuroscientists for its wide-ranging functional utility and potential uses in patient populations. To date, there is only one documented task resistant to the startReact phenomenon-index finger abduction. Previous reports have suggested the lack of startReact is due to different neural mechanisms driving individuated finger movement and more proximal joint control (e.g. elbow, wrist movement)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739384/menos4-trial-a-multicentre-randomised-controlled-trial-rct-of-a-breast-care-nurse-delivered-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-cbt-intervention-to-reduce-the-impact-of-hot-flushes-in-women-with-breast-cancer-study-protocol
#8
Deborah Fenlon, Jacqueline Nuttall, Carl May, James Raftery, Jo Fields, Emma Kirkpatrick, Julia Abab, Mary Ellis, Taylor Rose, Priya Khambhaita, Angeliki Galanopoulou, Tom Maishman, Jo Haviland, Gareth Griffiths, Lesley Turner, Myra Hunter
BACKGROUND: Women who have been treated for breast cancer may identify vasomotor symptoms, such as hot flushes and night sweats (HFNS), as a serious problem. HFNS are unpleasant to experience and can have a significant impact on daily life, potentially leading to reduced adherence to life saving adjuvant hormonal therapy. It is known that Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) is effective for the alleviation of hot flushes in both well women and women who have had breast cancer. Most women with breast cancer will see a breast care nurse and there is evidence that nurses can be trained to deliver psychological treatments to a satisfactory level, whilst also maintaining treatment fidelity...
May 8, 2018: BMC Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735155/abnormal-trajectory-of-intracortical-myelination-in-schizophrenia-implicates-white-matter-in-disease-pathophysiology-and-the-therapeutic-mechanism-of-action-of-antipsychotics
#9
Todd A Tishler, George Bartzokis, Po H Lu, Erika P Raven, Mher Khanoyan, Chandra J Kirkpatrick, Meghan H Pyle, J Pablo Villablanca, Lori L Altshuler, Jim Mintz, Joseph Ventura, Laurie R Casaus, Kenneth L Subotnik, Keith H Nuechterlein, Benjamin M Ellingson
BACKGROUND: Postmortem and imaging studies provide converging evidence that the frontal lobe myelination trajectory is dysregulated in schizophrenia (SZ) and suggest that early in treatment, antipsychotic medications increase intracortical myelin (ICM). We used magnetic resonance imaging to examine whether the ICM trajectory in SZ is dysregulated and altered by antipsychotic treatment. METHODS: We examined 93 subjects with SZ (64 men and 29 women) taking second-generation oral antipsychotics with medication exposures of 0-333 months in conjunction with 80 healthy control subjects (52 men and 28 women)...
May 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734037/pepsavi-ms-reveals-anticancer-and-antifungal-cycloviolacins-in-viola-odorata
#10
Nicole C Parsley, Christine L Kirkpatrick, Christopher M Crittenden, Javad Ghassemi Rad, David W Hoskin, Jennifer S Brodbelt, Leslie M Hicks
Widespread resistance to antimicrobial and cancer therapeutics is evolving in every country worldwide and has a direct impact on global health, agriculture and the economy. The specificity and selectivity of bioactive peptide natural products present a possible stopgap measure to address the ongoing deficit of new therapeutic compounds. PepSAVI-MS (Statistically-guided bioActive Peptides prioritized VIa Mass Spectrometry) is an adaptable method for the analysis of natural product libraries to rapidly identify bioactive peptides...
May 4, 2018: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720161/evaluation-of-a-training-program-of-hypertension-for-accredited-social-health-activists-asha-in-rural-india
#11
Marwa Abdel-All, Amanda Gay Thrift, Michaela Riddell, Kavumpurathu Raman Thankappan Thankappan, Gomathyamma Krishnakurup Mini, Clara K Chow, Pallab Kumar Maulik, Ajay Mahal, Rama Guggilla, Kartik Kalyanram, Kamakshi Kartik, Oduru Suresh, Roger George Evans, Brian Oldenburg, Nihal Thomas, Rohina Joshi
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, a leading cause of premature death and disability in India. Since access to health services is poor in rural India and Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) are available throughout India for maternal and child health, a potential solution for improving hypertension control is by utilising this available workforce. We aimed to develop and implement a training package for ASHAs to identify and control hypertension in the community, and evaluate the effectiveness of the training program using the Kirkpatrick Evaluation Model...
May 2, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717374/all-in-expansion-of-the-acquisition-of-data-for-outcomes-and-procedure-transfer-adopt-program-to-an-entire-sages-annual-meeting-hands-on-hernia-course
#12
Jonathan Dort, Amber Trickey, John Paige, Erin Schwarz, Tom Cecil, Mark Coleman, Brian Dunkin
BACKGROUND: Continuing professional development (CPD) for the surgeon has been challenging because of a lack of standardized approaches of hands-on courses, resulting in poor post-course outcomes. To remedy this situation, SAGES has introduced the ADOPT program, implementing a standardized, long-term mentoring program as part of its hernia hands-on course. Previous work evaluating the pilot program showed increased adoption of learned procedures as well as increased confidence of the mentored surgeons...
May 1, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706732/reliability-of-metacarpal-subsidence-measurements-after-thumb-carpometacarpal-joint-arthroplasty
#13
Andrew J Miller, Christopher M Jones, Dennis P Martin, Fred E Liss, Jack Abboudi, William H Kirkpatrick, Pedro K Beredjiklian
Background: Thumb metacarpal subsidence after trapeziectomy can affect clinical function over time. Methods for measuring subsidence after trapeziectomy have been described, and they rely on an intact thumb metacarpal or proximal phalanx for measurement. The authors evaluated the reliability and reproducibility of measuring the trapezial space ratio, using previously described methods. In addition, the authors evaluated a new method that measures trapezial space on a posteroanterior (PA) hand/wrist radiograph that does not rely on an intact thumb metacarpal or proximal phalanx for measurement, which can often be altered by degenerative changes or in cases in which metacarpophalangeal arthrodesis is performed during carpometacarpal (CMC) joint arthroplasty to correct excessive hyperextension...
April 2018: Journal of Hand and Microsurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699619/domain-management-approach-to-heart-failure-in-the-geriatric-patient-present-and-future
#14
REVIEW
Eiran Z Gorodeski, Parag Goyal, Scott L Hummel, Ashok Krishnaswami, Sarah J Goodlin, Linda L Hart, Daniel E Forman, Nanette K Wenger, James N Kirkpatrick, Karen P Alexander
Heart failure (HF) is a quintessential geriatric cardiovascular condition, with more than 50% of hospitalizations occurring in adults age 75 years or older. In older patients, HF is closely linked to processes inherent to aging, which include cellular and structural changes to the myocardium, vasculature, and skeletal muscle. In addition, HF cannot be considered in isolation of physical functioning, or without the social, psychological, and behavioral dimensions of illness. The role of frailty, depression, cognitive impairment, nutrition, and goals of care are each uniquely relevant to the implementation and success of medical therapy...
May 1, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697825/development-of-a-novel-dry-sticky-trap-design-incorporating-visual-cues-for-drosophila-suzukii-diptera-drosophilidae
#15
D M Kirkpatrick, L J Gut, J R Miller
Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is currently one of the most serious invasive pests for berry crops and cherries worldwide. The development of an effective monitoring trap that is reliable at detecting small populations to guide management decisions is greatly needed. To develop a novel dry trapping system, D. suzukii were trapped under field conditions in cherry orchards and raspberry high tunnels using various baited dry trap designs that were compared with the currently available deli-cup style traps that utilize a liquid bait or drowning solution...
April 7, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696101/curriculum-design-and-implementation-of-the-emergency-medicine-chief-resident-incubator
#16
Michael A Gisondi, Adaira Chou, Nikita Joshi, Margaret K Sheehy, Fareen Zaver, Teresa M Chan, Jeffrey Riddell, Derek P Sifford, Michelle Lin
Background Chief residents receive minimal formal training in preparation for their administrative responsibilities. There is a lack of professional development programs specifically designed for chief residents. Objective In 2015, Academic Life in Emergency Medicine designed and implemented an annual, year-long, training program and virtual community of practice for chief residents in emergency medicine (EM). This study describes the curriculum design process and reports measures of learner engagement during the first two cycles of the curriculum...
February 24, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688391/evaluating-a-mobile-application-for-improving-clinical-laboratory-test-ordering-and-diagnosis
#17
Ashley N D Meyer, Pamela J Thompson, Arushi Khanna, Samir Desai, Benji K Mathews, Elham Yousef, Anita V Kusnoor, Hardeep Singh
Objective: Mobile applications for improving diagnostic decision making often lack clinical evaluation. We evaluated if a mobile application improves generalist physicians' appropriate laboratory test ordering and diagnosis decisions and assessed if physicians perceive it as useful for learning. Methods: In an experimental, vignette study, physicians diagnosed 8 patient vignettes with normal prothrombin times (PT) and abnormal partial thromboplastin times (PTT)...
April 20, 2018: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669604/confirm-a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-phase-iii-clinical-trial-investigating-the-effect-of-nivolumab-in-patients-with-relapsed-mesothelioma-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#18
Dean A Fennell, Emma Kirkpatrick, Kelly Cozens, Mavis Nye, Jason Lester, Gerard Hanna, Nicola Steele, Peter Szlosarek, Sarah Danson, Joanne Lord, Christian Ottensmeier, Daniel Barnes, Stephanie Hill, Mihalis Kalevras, Tom Maishman, Gareth Griffiths
BACKGROUND: Mesothelioma is an incurable, apoptosis-resistant cancer caused in most cases by previous exposure to asbestos and is increasing in incidence. It represents a growing health burden but remains under-researched, with limited treatment options. Early promising signals of activity relating to both PD-L1- and PD-1-targeted treatment in mesothelioma implicate a dependency of mesothelioma on this immune checkpoint. There is a need to evaluate checkpoint inhibitors in patients with relapsed mesothelioma where treatment options are limited...
April 18, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668908/comparative-antennal-and-behavioral-responses-of-summer-and-winter-morph-drosophila-suzukii-diptera-drosophilidae-to-ecologically-relevant-volatiles
#19
Danielle M Kirkpatrick, Heather L Leach, Peng Xu, Ke Dong, Rufus Isaacs, Larry J Gut
Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is a devastating global pest of berry crops and cherries. Little is understood about its biology during the winter in northern temperate regions, including potential resources that it may utilize during this period. In this study, olfactory and behavioral responses of female D. suzukii to six volatiles (methionol, acetic acid, linalool, bornyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, and geosmin) were evaluated separately for electroantennogram (EAG) and behavioral assays between summer and winter morphs...
April 14, 2018: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663276/interprofessional-educator-development-build-it-and-they-will-come
#20
Lily C Pien, Michaela Stiber, Allison Prelosky, Colleen Y Colbert
BACKGROUND: We describe an interprofessional educator development program, designed intentionally, that was implemented at an academic healthcare centre. In 2014, we purposefully adapted our pre-existing educator development program to be able to include all interprofessional educators at our institution. The program's goals were to enhance educator skills, a common need due to requirements of accreditation, and to create a local interprofessional community of teachers. The framework of the program was based upon adult learning principles, reflective practice, experiential learning and peer groups, all key characteristics of faculty development programs...
April 16, 2018: Perspectives on Medical Education
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