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Mountain rescue

Marc Blancher, François Albasini, Fidel Elsensohn, Ken Zafren, Natalie Hölzl, Kyle McLaughlin, Albert R Wheeler, Steven Roy, Hermann Brugger, Mike Greene, Peter Paal
Blancher, Marc, François Albasini, Fidel Elsensohn, Ken Zafren, Natalie Hölzl, Kyle McLaughlin, Albert R. Wheeler III, Steven Roy, Hermann Brugger, Mike Greene, and Peter Paal. Management of multi-casualty incidents in mountain rescue. High Alt Med Biol. 00:000-000, 2018. INTRODUCTION: Multi-Casualty Incidents (MCI) occur in mountain areas. Little is known about the incidence and character of such events, and the kind of rescue response. Therefore, the International Commission for Mountain Emergency Medicine (ICAR MEDCOM) set out to provide recommendations for the management of MCI in mountain areas...
February 15, 2018: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
Giacomo Strapazzon, Oliver Reisten, Fabien Argenone, Ken Zafren, Greg Zen-Ruffinen, Gordon L Larsen, Inigo Soteras
Canyoning is a recreational activity that has increased in popularity in the last decade in Europe and North America, resulting in up to 40% of the total search and rescue costs in some geographic locations. The International Commission for Mountain Emergency Medicine convened an expert panel to develop recommendations for on-site management and transport of patients in canyoning incidents. The goal of the current review is to provide guidance to healthcare providers and canyoning rescue professionals about best practices for rescue and medical treatment through the evaluation of the existing best evidence, focusing on the unique combination of remoteness, water exposure, limited on-site patient management options, and technically challenging terrain...
February 5, 2018: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
Lars Pilø, Espen Finstad, Christopher Bronk Ramsey, Julian Robert Post Martinsen, Atle Nesje, Brit Solli, Vivian Wangen, Martin Callanan, James H Barrett
The melting of perennial ice patches globally is uncovering a fragile record of alpine activity, especially hunting and the use of mountain passes. When rescued by systematic fieldwork (glacial archaeology), this evidence opens an unprecedented window on the chronology of high-elevation activity. Recent research in Jotunheimen and surrounding mountain areas of Norway has recovered over 2000 finds-many associated with reindeer hunting (e.g. arrows). We report the radiocarbon dates of 153 objects and use a kernel density estimation (KDE) method to determine the distribution of dated events from ca 4000 BCE to the present...
January 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Janina Golob Deeb, Nicholas Walter, Caroline Carrico, Miha Gašperin, George R Deeb
INTRODUCTION: The popularity of adventure recreation in wilderness areas across the world continues to increase. Nevertheless, the risk of injury and illness remains significant. The purpose of this study is to analyze the mountain rescue operations performed in Slovenia between 2011 and 2015. METHODS: This retrospective study reports mountain rescue operations documented by the Slovenian National Mountain Rescue Association. The annual number of ground-based and helicopter-based rescues were identified and compared...
January 10, 2018: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
Howard Wolinsky
Will Smith, the co-director of Grand Teton National Park, demonstrates some daring-do to rescue people from mishaps in the mountains of Wyoming. But just like medical directors for health systems, insurance companies, and pharmacy benefits management firms, Smith is in the business of setting policies and protocols.
November 2017: Managed Care
Eva Sierra Quintana, Carmen María Martínez Caballero, Sara Abigail Batista Pardo, Salas Abella Barraca, María de la Vieja Soriano
OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of patients with nontraumatic medical problems rescued by a Spanish mountain emergency response service (061 Aragon). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective observational analysis of records of mountain rescues completed between July 2010 and December 2016. RESULTS: A total of 164 patients with nontraumatic medical emergencies were rescued; 82.3% were males. Most patients were between the ages of 50 and 59 years...
October 2017: Emergencias: revista de la Sociedad Española de Medicina de Emergencias
Giacomo Strapazzon, Daniel Migliaccio, Diego Fontana, Agnieszka Elzbieta Stawinoga, Mario Milani, Hermann Brugger
INTRODUCTION: To explore baseline knowledge about avalanche guidelines and the Avalanche Victim Resuscitation Checklist (AVReCh) in Italy and the knowledge acquisition from a standardized lecture. METHODS: Standardized lecture material discussing AVReCh was presented during 8 mountain medicine courses from November 2014 to April 2016 in different regions of Italy. To determine the knowledge acquisition from the lecture, a pre- and postlecture survey was utilized...
March 2018: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
Andrew R Weeks, Dean Heinze, Louise Perrin, Jakub Stoklosa, Ary A Hoffmann, Anthony van Rooyen, Tom Kelly, Ian Mansergh
Genetic rescue has now been attempted in several threatened species, but the contribution of genetics per se to any increase in population health can be hard to identify. Rescue is expected to be particularly useful when individuals are introduced into small isolated populations with low levels of genetic variation. Here we consider such a situation by documenting genetic rescue in the mountain pygmy possum, Burramys parvus. Rapid population recovery occurred in the target population after the introduction of a small number of males from a large genetically diverged population...
October 20, 2017: Nature Communications
Francesca Lanfranconi, Luca Pollastri, Giovanni Corna, Manuela Bartesaghi, Massimiliano Novarina, Alessandra Ferri, Giuseppe Andrea Miserocchi
Lanfranconi, Francesca, Luca Pollastri, Giovanni Corna, Manuela Bartesaghi, Massimiliano Novarina, Alessandra Ferri, and Giuseppe Andrea Miserocchi. The elusive path of brain tissue oxygenation and cerebral perfusion in harness hang syncope in mountain climbers. High Alt Med Biol. 18:000-000, 2017. AIM: Harness hang syncope (HHS) is a risk that specifically affects wide ranges of situations requiring safety harnesses in mountains. An irreversible orthostatic stasis could lead to death if a prompt rescue is not performed...
October 5, 2017: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
Paweł Podsiadło, Tomasz Darocha, Sylweriusz Kosiński, Kinga Sałapa, Mirosław Ziętkiewicz, Tomasz Sanak, Rachel Turner, Hermann Brugger
Podsiadło, Paweł, Tomasz Darocha, Sylweriusz Kosiński, Kinga Sałapa, Mirosław Ziętkiewicz, Tomasz Sanak, Rachel Turner, and Hermann Brugger. Severe hypothermia management in mountain rescue: A survey study. High Alt Med Biol 18:411-416, 2017. INTRODUCTION: Severe hypothermia is a rare but demanding medical emergency. Although mortality is high, if well managed, the neurological outcome of survivors can be excellent. The aim of the study was to assess whether mountain rescue teams (MRTs) are able to meet the guidelines in the management of severe hypothermia, regarding their equipment and procedures...
December 2017: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
Mathieu Pasquier, Louis Marxer, Hervé Duplain, Vincent Frochaux, Florence Selz, Pierre Métrailler, Grégoire Zen Ruffinen, Olivier Hugli
Pasquier, Mathieu, Louis Marxer, Hervé Duplain, Vincent Frochaux, Florence Selz, Pierre Métrailler, Grégoire Zen Ruffinen, and Olivier Hugli. Indications and outcomes of helicopter rescue missions in alpine mountain huts: a retrospective study. High Alt Med Biol 00:000-000, 2017. AIMS: This retrospective study describes the rescue indications and outcome of patients rescued by helicopter from mountain huts in the Swiss Alps. The hospital course and operational data were also studied...
September 27, 2017: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
Yunus Karaca, Mustafa Cicek, Ozgur Tatli, Aynur Sahin, Sinan Pasli, Muhammed Fatih Beser, Suleyman Turedi
OBJECTIVE: This study explores the potential use of drones in searching for and locating victims and of motorized transportation of search and rescue providers in a mountain environment using a simulation model. METHODS: This prospective randomized simulation study was performed in order to compare two different search and rescue techniques in searching for an unconscious victim on snow-covered ground. In the control arm, the Classical Line Search Technique (CLT) was used, in which the search is performed on foot and the victim is reached on foot...
September 15, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Nicholas R Haslam, Rachel Garth, Nicola Kelly
We present a case of inappropriate dexamethasone use in a trekker in the Everest region of Nepal. We aim to increase awareness among health professionals of the possible use of this medication by trekkers and promote knowledge of potential complications. In this case, a previously altitude-naive trekker was prescribed prophylactic dexamethasone by physicians in a Western travel clinic before high-altitude trekking in Nepal. There were no indications for prophylactic medication nor for the use of dexamethasone...
December 2017: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
Damien Viglino, Maxime Maignan, Arnaud Michalon, Julien Turk, Sarah K Buse, Marc Blancher, Tom P Aufderheide, Loïc Belle, Dominique Savary, François-Xavier Ageron, Guillaume Debaty
AIM: Intense physical activity, cold and altitude make mountain sports a cause of increased risk of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). The difficulties of pre-hospital management related to this challenging environment could be mitigated by the presence of ski-patrollers in ski areas and use of helicopters for medical rescue. We assess whether this particular situation positively impacts the chain of survival compared to the general population. METHODS: Analysis of prospectively collected data from the cardiac arrest registry of the Northern French Alps Emergency Network (RENAU) from 2004 to 2014...
October 2017: Resuscitation
Jonathan Reisman, Dinesh Deonarain, Buddha Basnyat
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the impact that motor vehicle travel along a newly constructed road has on altitude illness (including acute mountain sickness, high-altitude cerebral edema, and high-altitude pulmonary edema). The new road from Besisahar (760 m) to Manang (3540 m) in Nepal was completed in December 2014. METHODS: We enrolled all patients diagnosed with altitude illness at the Himalayan Rescue Association Manang clinic in fall 2016. Phi coefficients were calculated to test for an association between Nepali ethnicity and rapid ascent by motor vehicle...
December 2017: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
Urs Pietsch, Ludwig Ney, Oliver Kreuzer, Armin Berner, Volker Lischke
Mountain rescue operations often confront crews with extreme weather conditions. Extremely cold temperatures make standard treatment sometimes difficult or even impossible. It is well-known that most manual tasks, including those involved in mountain rescue operations, are slowed by extremely cold weather. To lessen and improve the decrement in performance of emergency medical treatment caused by cold-induced manual impairment and inadequate medical equipment and supplies, simulation training in a weather chamber, which can produce wind and temperatures up to -22°C, was developed...
July 2017: Air Medical Journal
Anders Wetting Carlsen, Nils K Skjaervold, Nils Johan Berg, Øystein Karlsen, Eli Gunnarson, Alexander Wahba
BACKGROUND: Accidental hypothermia with cardiac arrest represents a challenge for pre-hospital rescuers as well as in-hospital staff. For pre-hospital personnel, the main focus is to get the patient to the correct destination without unnecessary delay. For in-hospital personnel early information is vital to assess the possibility for resuscitation with extracorporeal re-warming. The challenge is augmented when rescuers must cross national borders to reach and/or deliver the patients. We present a case where three adolescent boys suffered severe hypothermia after a canoeing accident in Sweden...
July 17, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
Christopher Press, Christopher Duffy, Jonathan Williams, Ben Cooper, Neil Chapman
BACKGROUND: Accidental hypothermia is common in those who sustain injuries in remote environments. This is unpleasant and associated with adverse effects on subsequent patient outcomes. To minimise further heat loss, a range of insulating systems are available to mountain rescue teams although the most effective and cost-efficient have yet to be determined. METHODS: Under ambient, still, dry, air conditions, a thermal manikin was filled with water at a temperature of 42 °C and then placed into a given insulation system...
2017: Extreme Physiology & Medicine
Lara Phillips, Buddha Basnyat, Yuchiao Chang, Erik R Swenson, N Stuart Harris
Phillips, Lara, Buddha Basnyat, Yuchiao Chang, Erik R. Swenson, and N. Stuart Harris. Findings of cognitive impairment at high altitude: relationships to acetazolamide use and acute mountain sickness. High Alt Med Biol. 18:121-127, 2017. OBJECTIVE: Acute mountain sickness (AMS) is defined by patient-reported symptoms using the Lake Louise Score (LLS), which provides limited insight into any possible underlying central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction. Some evidence suggests AMS might coexist with altered neural functioning...
June 2017: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
Oyvind Thomassen, Sven Christjar Skaiaa, Jorg Assmuss, Øyvind Østerås, Jon Kenneth Heltne, Lars Wik, Guttorm Brattebo
AIM: Chest compression devices are useful during mountain rescue but may cause a delay in transport if not immediately available. The aims of this prospective observational study were to compare manual and mechanical cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) during transport on a sledge connected to a snowmobile with a non-moving setting and to compare CPR quality between manual and two mechanical chest compression devices. METHODS: Sixteen healthcare providers simulated four different combined CPR scenarios on a sledge in a non-moving setting and during transport and two mechanical chest compression devices during transport on the sledge...
September 2017: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
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