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Liver and pregnancy

Demin Cai, Mengjie Yuan, Haoyu Liu, Shifeng Pan, Wenqiang Ma, Jian Hong, Ruqian Zhao
Betaine serves as an animal and human nutrient which has been heavily investigated in glucose and lipid metabolic regulation, yet the underlying mechanisms are still elusive. In this study, feeding sows with betaine-supplemented diets during pregnancy and lactation increased cholesterol content and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) gene expression, but decreasing bile acids content and cholesterol-7a-hydroxylase (CYP7a1) expression in the liver of weaning piglets...
October 18, 2016: Nutrients
Lydia F Edey, Kieran P O'Dea, Bronwen R Herbert, Renyi Hua, Simon N Waddington, David A MacIntyre, Philip R Bennett, Masao Takata, Mark R Johnson
Inflammation plays a key role in human term and preterm labor (PTL). Intrauterine LPS has been widely used to model inflammation induced complications of pregnancy including PTL. It has been shown to induce an intense myometrial inflammatory cell infiltration, but the role of LPS-induced inflammatory cell activation in labor onset and fetal demise is unclear. We investigated this using a mouse model of PTL, where an intrauterine injection of 10 µg of LPS (serotype 0111:B4) was given at E16 of CD1 mouse pregnancy...
October 19, 2016: Biology of Reproduction
Xiang Kong, Yan Kong, Fangyuan Zhang, Tingting Wang, Jin Yan
BACKGROUND: Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is a specific pregnancy-related disorder without standard medical therapies. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is the most used medicine, but the efficacy and safety of UDCA remain uncertain. Several meta-analyses had been made to assess the effects of UDCA in ICP. However, the samples were not large enough to convince obstetricians to use UDCA. We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the effects and safety of UDCA in patients with ICP, which included only randomized controlled trials (RCTs)...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Chiara Sartori, Pietro Lazzeroni, Silvia Merli, Viviana Dora Patianna, Francesca Viaroli, Francesca Cirillo, Sergio Amarri, Maria Elisabeth Street
Adipokines are cytokines produced mainly by adipose tissue, besides many other tissues such as placenta, ovaries, peripheral-blood mononuclear cells, liver, muscle, kidney, heart, and bone marrow. Adipokines play a significant role in the metabolic syndrome and in cardiovascular diseases, have implications in regulating insulin sensitivity and inflammation, and have significant effects on growth and reproductive function. The objective of this review was to analyze the functions known today of adiponectin, leptin, resistin, and visfatin from placenta throughout childhood and adolescence...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
Xiaojiaoyang Li, Zihang Yuan, Runping Liu, Hozeifa M Hassan, Hang Yang, Rong Sun, Luyong Zhang, Zhenzhou Jiang
Estrogen-induced cholestasis, known as intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP), is an estrogen-related liver disease that is widely recognized as female or pregnancy-specific. Our previous findings showed that the synthetic estrogen, 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE), induced cholestatic injury through ERK1/2-LKB1-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway and its mediated suppression of farnesoid X receptor (FXR). To investigate the role played by bile acids in EE-induced cholestasis, we evaluated the effects of chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and deoxycholic acid (DCA) on sandwich cultured rat primary hepatocytes (SCRHs) and an in vivo rat model...
October 12, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Hannah B Anastasio, Maureen Grundy, Meredith L Birsner, Karin J Blakemore
BACKGROUND: Gestational alloimmune liver disease, a form of profound liver failure in the newborn, is the main underlying cause of the entity formerly known as neonatal hemochromatosis. Antepartum maternal intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has been shown to prevent gestational alloimmune liver disease, which otherwise has a recurrence risk above 90% in subsequent pregnancies. CASE: A 30-year-old woman, gravida 3 para 0120, presented early in gestation. Her previous pregnancy had been complicated by fetal growth restriction, oligohydramnios, and ultimately fatal fulminant neonatal liver failure...
October 6, 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Malihe Hasanzadeh, Ftemeh Vahid Roodsari, Shahnaz Ahmadi, Masoumeh Gavedan Mehr, Tabari Azadeh
BACKGROUND: Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) is a curable disease that involves the development of malignant tumor in the woman after a normal or molar pregnancy. The position of surgery in GTN is not properly specified and is changing due to new chemotherapy protocols. However, the role of surgery is highlighted in chemotherapy-resistant GTN. Other indications of surgery in trophoblastic diseases are drug toxicity and uterine perforation. Based on the fact that most women in certain age tend to preserve fertility, this study reported 4 cases of successful treatment after fertility sparing surgery...
September 2016: International Journal of Reproductive Biomedicine (Yazd, Iran)
Cristina Faralla, Gabrielle A Rizzuto, David E Lowe, Byoungkwan Kim, Cara Cooke, Lawrence R Shiow, Anna I Bakardjiev
Intrauterine infection is a major detriment for maternal-child health and occurs despite local mechanisms that protect the maternal-fetal interface from a wide variety of pathogens. The bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes causes spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, and preterm labor in humans, and serves as a model for placental pathogenesis. Given the unique immunological environment of the maternal-fetal interface we hypothesized that virulence determinants with placental tropism are required for infection of this tissue...
October 10, 2016: Infection and Immunity
Orkun Cetin, Erbil Karaman, Harun Arslan, Ali Kolusarı, Recep Yıldızhan, Mesut Ozgokce, Abdussamet Batur, Ibrahim Akbudak
PURPOSE: To compare maternal liver elasticity scores by Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) elastosonography in healthy and preeclamptic pregnancies and its association with the severity of the disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-two healthy, 33 mild, 33 severe preeclamptic and 28 pregnant women with Hemolysis, Elevated Liver enzymes, and Low Platelets (HELLP) syndrome were included into the study. Maternal liver elasticity was measured by ARFI elastosonography at the first day of puerperium...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
J Floehr, E Dietzel, C Schmitz, A Chappell, W Jahnen-Dechent
STUDY QUESTION: Does antisense oligonucleotide (ASO)-mediated down-regulation of serum fetuin-B cause an infertility-like fetuin-B gene deficiency in female mice? SUMMARY ANSWER: Pharmacological fetuin-B down-regulation by ASO therapy results in reversible infertility in female mice. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Female fetuin-B deficient (Fetub(-/-)) mice are infertile owing to premature zona pellucida (ZP) hardening. Enzyme activity studies demonstrated that fetuin-B is a potent and highly specific inhibitor of the zona proteinase ovastacin, which cleaves ZP protein 2 (ZP2) and thus mediates definitive ZP hardening...
October 12, 2016: Molecular Human Reproduction
Karen E Christensen, Wenyang Hou, Renata H Bahous, Liyuan Deng, Olga V Malysheva, Erland Arning, Teodoro Bottiglieri, Marie A Caudill, Loydie A Jerome-Majewska, Rima Rozen
BACKGROUND: Moderately high folic acid intake in pregnant women has led to concerns about deleterious effects on the mother and fetus. Common polymorphisms in folate genes, such as methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase-methenyltetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase-formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase (MTHFD1) R653Q, may modulate the effects of elevated folic acid intake. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the effects of moderate folic acid supplementation on reproductive outcomes and assessed the potential interaction of the supplemented diet with MTHFD1-synthetase (Mthfd1S) deficiency in mice, which is a model for the R653Q variant...
October 5, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
A Trivedi, S Babic, M Heiman, W T Gibson, J-P Chanoine
Acylation of ghrelin is mediated by ghrelin O-acyltansferase (GOAT). Exogenous acylated ghrelin (AG) stimulates growth hormone (GH) and food intake. In non-pregnant (NP) animals, the GOAT-ghrelin-GH axis prevents hypoglycemia caused by caloric restriction (CR). In humans, maternal malnutrition challenges glucose metabolism, which is a key determinant of fetal health. To clarify the role of AG and GH, we compared effects of CR on the GOAT-ghrelin-GH axis in pregnant (P) and NP mice. C57BL/6 wild type (WT) and GOAT knock-out (KO) P and NP mice were freely fed (FF) or subjected to 50% CR for one week...
October 4, 2016: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
C R Muegge, K M Brennan, J P Schoonmaker
Angus × Simmental cows ( = 48; BW = 595 ± 17.4 kg, BCS = 5.26 ± 0.05, and age = 2.3 ± 0.07 yr), pregnant with male fetuses, were used to determine the effect of Se source during the last 80 d of gestation and first 108 d of lactation on cow and calf performance. At 203 d in gestation, cows were blocked by BW, breed composition, age, and calf sire and randomly allotted to organic Se, inorganic Se, or no Se treatments. Diets contained corn silage, corn stover, haylage, dried distillers' grains with solubles, and minerals and were formulated to contain 10...
August 2016: Journal of Animal Science
Abidullah Khan, Maimoona Ayub, Iqbal Haider, Mohammad Humayun, Zakir Shah, Fahad Ajmal
BACKGROUND: Splenic artery aneurysms are the commonest visceral and third most common abdominal artery aneurysms, having a strong association with both pregnancy and multiparity. Here we report possibly the first case of a giant splenic artery aneurysm in association with a smaller portal vein aneurysm, in a woman who had never conceived, leading to non-cirrhotic portal hypertension. CASE PRESENTATION: A 40-year-old Pakistani Asian woman who had no evidence of liver cirrhosis presented in April 2016 for a diagnostic workup of ascites, massive splenomegaly, and pancytopenia...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Regine Sitruk-Ware
The safety of combined hormonal contraceptives (CHCs) has been documented by years of follow-up, and the occurrence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) possibly related to their use is rare in the young population exposed to these agents. The balance between the benefits and risks of contraceptive steroids is generally positive, in particular when compared with pregnancy's risks. Epidemiological studies led to different results showing either no difference in VTE risk between CHCs (active surveillance prospective studies) or an increase in risk (observational or database studies)...
September 24, 2016: Fertility and Sterility
Yuuka Mukai, Fumika Hoshi, Shin Sato
BACKGROUND: High fructose intake induces disruption of lipid metabolism via AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling in the liver and peripheral tissues. Maternal lipid metabolism is physiologically altered by the activity of pregnancy hormones such as human placental lactogen (PL). To elucidate the influence of high fructose intake on hepatic lipid metabolism during pregnancy, we examined the effects of fructose on lipid metabolism via the AMPK pathway in hepatocytes stimulated with PL...
August 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part B, Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology
Anouk Bokslag, Mirjam van Weissenbruch, Ben Willem Mol, Christianne J M de Groot
Preeclampsia is a common pregnancy specific disease, that presents with hypertension and a variety of organ failures, including malfunction of kidneys, liver and lungs. At present, the only definitive treatment of preeclampsia is end the pregnancy and deliver the neonate and placenta. For women with mild preeclampsia in the preterm phase of pregnancy, expectant management is generally indicated to improve fetal maturity, often requiring maternal medical treatment. Last decades, more evidence is available that the underlying mechanism of preeclampsia, endothelial disease, is not limited to pregnancy but increases cardiovascular risk in later life...
September 19, 2016: Early Human Development
Numan Cim, Mertihan Kurdoglu, Serhat Ege, Ibrahim Yoruk, Gorkem Yaman, Recep Yildizhan
AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the roles of proangiogenic factors including serum vitamin D and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and anti-angiogenic factors including soluble endoglin (sEng) and soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt1) in the diagnosis and severity of late-onset preeclampsia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted at Yuzuncu Yil University Research and Education Hospital Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics. The study included a patient group of 40 women with late-onset preeclampsia who were pregnant at ≥32 weeks of gestation according to the last menstrual period (LMP) or ultrasonographic fetal biometric measurement and a control group of 40 healthy pregnant women who presented to our clinic for routine pregnancy examination and were at the same age and gestational period with those in the patient group...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Nalini Mishra, V N Mishra, Parineeta Thakur
INTRODUCTION: Abnormal liver function tests (LFTs) in pregnancy require proper interpretation in order to avoid pitfalls in the diagnosis. The underlying disorder can have a significant effect on the outcome of both mother and foetus. The present study was done with the objective to study the clinical profile, incidence and possible causes of derangements of liver function tests. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Eighty pregnant women with abnormal liver dysfunction were studied prospectively...
October 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of India
Mareike Sandvoß, Arne Björn Potthast, Frauke von Versen-Höynck, Anibh Martin Das
The hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count (HELLP) syndrome is frequently observed in mothers whose offspring have long-chain fatty acid oxidation defects. We previously found that fatty acid oxidation is compromised not only in these inborn errors of metabolism but also in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) from all pregnancies complicated by the HELLP syndrome. Sirtuins are oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+))dependent deacetylases linked to the metabolic status of the cell...
September 20, 2016: Reproductive Sciences
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