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Public financing

Martin Dlouhý
The existence of geographic differences in health resources, health expenditures, the utilization of health services, and health outcomes have been documented by a lot of studies from various countries of the world. In a publicly financed health system, equal access is one of the main objectives of the national health policy. That is why inequalities in the geographic allocation of health resources are an important health policy issue. Measures of inequality express the complexity of variation in the observed variable by a single number, and there is a variety of inequality measures available...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Kadri Mägi, Marika Lepaste, Monika Szkultecka-Dębek
The aim of this article was to present a general overview of the health care system as well as pricing and reimbursement environment in Estonia. In Estonia the main stakeholders in the pharmaceutical sector are the Ministry of Social Affairs, the State Agency of Medicine, and the Estonian Health Insurance Fund. The national health insurance scheme is public, and approximately 95% of the population is covered by it. It is a social insurance, and universal and equal access to health care based on national health insurance is granted...
March 9, 2018: Value in Health Regional Issues
Alejandra Carrillo Roa
The situation in Venezuela is marked by a profound socioeconomic crisis that raises questions concerning its effects on the health system. The study's aim was to analyze the trends and current situation of the Venezuelan health system, with special emphasis on financing. Based on the World Health Organization's Framework for Action to Strengthen Health Systems, five of the system's six basic components were studied, along with the results in terms of coverage and the population's health. Healthcare financing in Venezuela proved to be primarily private, with a high and growing share of out-of-pocket expenditures, one of the highest in the world...
March 5, 2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Camilla Stenfelt, Gabriela Armuand, Kjell Wånggren, Agneta Skoog Svanberg, Gunilla Sydsjö
INTRODUCTION: To investigate attitudes and opinions towards surrogacy among physicians working within obstetrics and reproductive medicine in Sweden. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Physicians working within medically assisted reproduction (MAR), antenatal care and obstetrics were invited to participate in a cross sectional nationwide survey study. The study-specific questionnaire measured attitudes and experiences in three domains: Attitudes towards surrogacy, Assessment of prospective surrogate mothers, and Antenatal and obstetric care for surrogate mothers...
March 7, 2018: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
Mariyam Suzana, Helen Walls, Richard Smith, Johanna Hanefeld
BACKGROUND: In resource-constrained health systems medical travel is a common alternative to seeking unavailable health services. This paper was motivated by the need to understand better the impact of such travel on households and health systems. METHODS: We used primary data from 344 subsidized and 471 non-subsidized inbound medical travellers during June to December 2013 drawn from the North, Centre and South regions of the Maldives where three international airports are located...
March 6, 2018: International Journal for Equity in Health
Elvis Dzelamonyuy Chem, Damian Nota Anong, Jane-Francis K T Akoachere
BACKGROUND: Inappropriate use of antibiotics is a global public health challenge and has been associated with antibiotic resistance. WHO reports show that efforts to promote rational antibiotic use in developing countries are poor. With the growing number of infections with antibiotic resistant bacteria, rational drug use becomes imperative and studies that promote rational drug use are highly necessary. Considering this, we investigated prescribing patterns and predictors of antibiotic prescription in primary health care facilities in Kumbo East (KE) and Kumbo West (KW) health districts in North West Cameroon, to contribute data which could influence policy on antibiotic use...
2018: PloS One
Sunil Rajpal, Abhishek Kumar, William Joe
With the ongoing demographic and epidemiological transition, cancer is emerging as a major public health concern in India. This paper uses nationally representative household survey to examine the overall prevalence and economic burden of cancer in India. The age-standardized prevalence of cancer is estimated to be 97 per 100,000 persons with greater prevalence in urban areas. The evidence suggests that cancer prevalence is highest among the elderly and also among females in the reproductive age groups. Cancer displays a significant socioeconomic gradient even after adjusting for age-sex specifics and clustering in a multilevel regression framework...
2018: PloS One
Shahnaz Mojarrab, Ali Rafei, Shahin Akhondzadeh, Alireza Jeddian, Maryam Jafarpour, Kazem Zendehdel
Registration systems for diseases and other health outcomes provide important resource for biomedical research, as well as tools for public health surveillance and improvement of quality of care. The Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MOHME) of Iran launched a national program to establish registration systems for different diseases and health outcomes. Based on the national program, we organized several workshops and training programs and disseminated the concepts and knowledge of the registration systems...
November 1, 2017: Archives of Iranian Medicine
Burton L Edelstein
Health care costs have traditionally been provider generated whereas payment has been split between public and private sources. There has been little pressure on health care providers to demonstrate value. The quest for value in health care financing is now widely evident as demonstrated by governmental and private sector pursuits of a 3-part aim: better health outcomes at lower cost with improved patient and population experience. Value-based approaches involve payment innovation with its attendant constraints and opportunities for innovation...
April 2018: Dental Clinics of North America
Patricia M Danzon, Michael F Drummond, Adrian Towse, Mark V Pauly
The fourth section of our Special Task Force report focuses on a health plan or payer's technology adoption or reimbursement decision, given the array of technologies, on the basis of their different values and costs. We discuss the role of budgets, thresholds, opportunity costs, and affordability in making decisions. First, we discuss the use of budgets and thresholds in private and public health plans, their interdependence, and connection to opportunity cost. Essentially, each payer should adopt a decision rule about what is good value for money given their budget; consistent use of a cost-per-quality-adjusted life-year threshold will ensure the maximum health gain for the budget...
February 2018: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
Bahareh Yazdizadeh, Farideh Mohtasham, Ashraf Velayati
BACKGROUND: Following approximately 10 years from the beginning of Iran's national Health Technology Assessment (HTA) programme, the present study aims to evaluate its success by examining the impact of HTA and identifying the determinant factors leading to the implementation of HTA report results. METHODS: The triangulation method was employed herein. HTA reports were initially identified and their impact and determinant factors were then examined from the perspectives of both researchers (by preparing a questionnaire according to the Payback model and sending it to HTA principle investigators) and stakeholders (semi-structured interviews held with each HTA stakeholder)...
February 22, 2018: Health Research Policy and Systems
Keovathanak Khim, Rohan Jayasuriya, Peter Leslie Annear
Since 1999, performance-based financing or pay-for-performance (P4P) methods have been piloted in the Cambodian public health sector, first as one part of external contracting approaches with international nongovernment organizations and from 2009 as a part of internal contracting arrangements between units within the Ministry of Health under a wider public sector administrative reform. This study analyses these reforms and compares outcomes in 3 health districts. The study analysed routine quantitative data for primary care service delivery by using the interrupted time series method...
February 22, 2018: International Journal of Health Planning and Management
Gabriela Topa, Adrián Segura, Sergio Pérez
BACKGROUND: Consistent patterns of gender differences in retirement planning behaviours have been shown but little is known about these behaviours among nurses. AIMS: To analyse the antecedents of the behaviours to prepare for retirement in nurses older than 55 and to identify differences as a function of gender. METHODS: A two-wave longitudinal study with Spanish nurses (n = 132). RESULTS: Statistically significant gender differences were revealed...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Nursing Management
S Lauriks, M C A Buster, M A S de Wit, O A Arah, A W Hoogendoorn, J Peen, N S Klazinga
PURPOSE: The Public Mental Health Care (PMHC) system is a network of public services and care- and support institutions financed from public funds. Performance indicators based on the registration of police contacts could be a reliable and useful source of information for the stakeholders of the PMHC system to monitor performance. This study aimed to provide evidence on the validity of using police contacts as a performance indicator to assess the continuity of care in the PMHC system...
February 15, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Raymond Clémençon
Politicians, government officials, business representatives, and nongovernmental climate activists all in various ways emphasize what they see as progress being made in the aftermath of the Paris Agreement, even if they continue to warn of the dire consequences of business as usual. Indeed, there is no lack of encouraging private and public sector initiatives on climate change. Some macro trends seem to be moving in the right direction, as well. But, closer scrutiny shows that these positive trends are still far from adding up to the necessary fundamental shift in the global energy economy...
March 2018: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
Maartje J van der Aa, Aggie T G Paulus, Mickaël J C Hiligsmann, Johannes A M Maarse, Silvia M A A Evers
In Europe, health insurance arrangements are under reform. These arrangements redistribute collectively financed resources to ensure access to health care for all. Allocation of health services is historically based on medical needs, but use of other criteria, such as lifestyle, is debated upon. Does the general public also have preferences for conditional allocation? This depends on their opinions regarding deservingness. The aim of this study was to gain insight in those opinions, specifically by examining the perceived weight of different criteria in allocation decisions...
January 2018: Inquiry: a Journal of Medical Care Organization, Provision and Financing
Melanie Bush
The United States is the only high-income country that does not have publicly-financed universal health care, yet it has one of the world's highest public health care expenditures. This financial outlay is not bringing the desired result in health outcomes because the root cause is not being addressed: solving the systematic disparities and social determinants that lead to poor health and health inequities. Targeting resources for the most vulnerable populations and linking health care plans with community-based organizations to address social determinants of health at the outset is a cost-effective means of preventing expensive chronic illnesses and health inequities...
January 2018: North Carolina Medical Journal
M M Z U Bhuiyan, R Mavhungu
BACKGROUND: The backlog of patients waiting for operations continues to be a problem in many public hospitals in South Africa (SA), with elective surgery procedures being postponed for up to 2 years. OBJECTIVE: To determine the rate of death in hospital or out of hospital within 30 days of an elective procedure performed on a Saturday, and to determine the cost incurred by paying staff members who perform these operations. METHOD: A prospective, observational descriptive cohort study of all patients undergoing inpatient general surgery operations during weekdays and weekends between 1 September 2015 and 31 August 2016 (1 year) at Pietersburg Hospital (PBH), Limpopo, SA...
February 1, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Dinesh Kumar, Raman Kumar, Raman Chauhan, Vishav Chander, Sunil Kumar Raina
Introduction: India is a multiparty parliamentary democracy and second most populous country in the world. In spite of pressing needs of the population, healthcare is still not considered a driving electoral mobilizer as compared to the older democracies such as the UK and USA. Only three National Health Policies (1983, 2002 and 2017) have been promulgated by the respective governments during the past 70 years of India's independence. National policies are often preceded by commitment of political parties documented in the manifestos...
July 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Verina Ingram, Jolanda van den Berg, Mark van Oorschot, Eric Arets, Lucas Judge
Dutch policies have advocated sustainable commodity value chains, which have implications for the landscapes from which these commodities originate. This study examines governance and policy options for sustainability in terms of how ecosystem services are addressed in cocoa, soy, tropical timber and palm oil value chains with Dutch links. A range of policies addressing ecosystem services were identified, from market governance (certification, payments for ecosystem services) to multi-actor platforms (roundtables) and public governance (policies and regulations)...
February 6, 2018: Environmental Management
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