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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656062/the-impact-of-antibiotic-prescription-rates-on-the-incidence-of-mrsa-bloodstream-infections-a-county-level-u-s-wide-analysis
#1
Nikolaos Andreatos, Fadi Shehadeh, Elina Eleftheria Pliakos, Eleftherios Mylonakis
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bloodstream infection with socioeconomic factors and antibiotic prescriptions at the county level. METHODS: MRSA bloodstream infection rates were extracted from the Medicare Hospital Compare database. Data on socioeconomic factors and antibiotic prescriptions were obtained from the U.S. Census Bureau and the Medicare Part D database, respectively. RESULTS: In multivariate analysis, antibiotic prescriptions demonstrated a powerful positive association with MRSA bloodstream infection rates [Coefficient (Coeff): 0...
April 12, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656039/maternal-adherence-to-guidance-on-breast-milk-collection-process
#2
M Carré, D Dumoulin, R Jounwaz, B Mestdagh, V Pierrat
INTRODUCTION: Breast milk expression with a breast pump increases the risk of contaminating milk with pathogenic bacteria; how to decontaminate breast pumps is controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate maternal adherence to updated French guidance on the breast milk collection process, including breast pump decontamination, and to identify potential sources of increased bacterial counts in breast milk in order to improve prevention messages to mothers. METHODS: Descriptive prospective study conducted between November 2015 and April 2016 in a French tertiary perinatal center...
April 11, 2018: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655798/a-potential-antibacterial-wound-dressing-of-cefadroxil-chitosan-nanoparticles-in-situ-gel-fabrication-in-vitro-optimization-and-in-vivo-evaluation
#3
Mona Basha, Mona M AbouSamra, Ghada A Awad, Soheir S Mansy
Wound healing following skin injury is a natural phenomenon that usually lacks quality, rapidity, and aesthetics. Thus, the purpose of this study was to fabricate a new easily applied in situ gel of Cefadroxil (CDX) loaded with chitosan nanoparticles (CDX-CSNPs) that could promote wound healing, capable of inhibiting the possible accompanying bacterial infection. The nanoparticles were prepared by double emulsion technique and the influence of formulation parameters on drug entrapment efficiency (EE%), particle size (PS), polydispersity index (PDI) and zeta potential (ZP) were investigated using a full factorial design...
April 12, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655770/a-high-throughput-screening-assay-for-pyruvate-carboxylase
#4
Brittney N Wyatt, Leggy A Arnold, Martin St Maurice
Pyruvate carboxylase (PC) catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to oxaloacetate (OAA), an important metabolic reaction in a wide range of organisms. Small molecules directed against PC would enable detailed studies on the metabolic role of this enzyme and would have the potential to be developed into pharmacological agents. Currently, specific and potent small molecule regulators of PC are unavailable. To assist in efforts to find, develop, and characterize small molecule effectors of PC, a novel fixed-time assay has been developed based on the reaction of OAA with the diazonium salt, Fast Violet B (FVB), which produces a colored adduct with an absorbance maximum at 530 nm...
April 12, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655672/effect-of-pulsed-xenon-ultraviolet-room-disinfection-devices-on-microbial-counts-for-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-and-aerobic-bacterial-colonies
#5
John E Zeber, Christopher Pfeiffer, John W Baddley, Jose Cadena-Zuluaga, Eileen M Stock, Laurel A Copeland, Janet Hendricks, Jwan Mohammadi, Marcos I Restrepo, Chetan Jinadatha
BACKGROUND: Inadequate environmental disinfection represents a serious risk for health care-associated infections. Technologic advancements in disinfection practices, including no-touch devices, offer significant promise to improve infection control. We evaluated one such device, portable pulsed xenon ultraviolet (PX-UV) units, on microbial burden during an implementation trial across 4 Veterans Affairs hospitals. METHODS: Environmental samples were collected before and after terminal room cleaning: 2 facilities incorporated PX-UV disinfection into their cleaning protocols and 2 practiced manual disinfection only...
April 11, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655669/rate-of-contamination-of-hospital-privacy-curtains-in-a-burns-plastic-ward-a-longitudinal-study
#6
Kevin Shek, Rakesh Patidar, Zeenib Kohja, Song Liu, Justin P Gawaziuk, Monika Gawthrop, Ayush Kumar, Sarvesh Logsetty
BACKGROUND: Since hospital patient privacy curtains can harbor bacteria, are high-touch surfaces, and are cleaned infrequently, they may be involved in pathogen transmission. The aim of this longitudinal prospective study was to understand curtain contamination to inform curtain hygiene protocols, thereby minimizing the role of curtains in pathogen transmission. METHODS: Over 21 days, cultures of 10 freshly laundered curtains (8 test curtains surrounding patient beds and 2 controls in an unoccupied staff room) were taken in the Regional Burns/Plastics Unit...
April 11, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655648/osteomyelitis-of-the-first-metatarsal-head-treated-with-joint-preserving-surgery-and-a-synthetic-resorbable-bone-graft-substitute-a-case-report
#7
Konstantinos Anagnostakos, Katrin Koch
Managing infections of the first metatarsophalangeal joint can be demanding because many patients present with late-stage infection and partial or total amputation of the first ray or the phalanx could be necessary. We describe such a patient who was successfully treated with a calcium-based resorbable bone substitute that preserved the first metatarsophalangeal joint. A 38-year-old female presented to our department with a foot infection. Examination revealed a methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus infection of the first metatarsophalangeal joint...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655560/selected-reaction-monitoring-mass-spectrometry-of-mastitis-milk-reveals-pathogen-specific-regulation-of-bovine-host-response-proteins
#8
Ulrike Kusebauch, Lorenzo E Hernández-Castellano, Stine L Bislev, Robert L Moritz, Christine M Røntved, Emøke Bendixen
Mastitis is a major challenge to bovine health. The detection of sensitive markers for mastitis in dairy herds is of great demand. Suitable biomarkers should be measurable in milk and should report pathogen-specific changes at an early stage to support earlier diagnosis and more efficient treatment. However, the identification of sensitive biomarkers in milk has remained a challenge, in part due to their relatively low concentration in milk. In the present study, we used a selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mass spectrometry approach, which allowed the absolute quantitation of 13 host response proteins in milk for the first time...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653382/acute-exposure-of-white-tailed-deer-cortical-bone-to-staphylococcus-aureus-did-not-result-in-reduced-bone-stiffness
#9
Ariel Nicole Kunde, Victoria Jane Frost, Meir Max Barak
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is the main source of osteomyelitis in adults. The end-result of untreated osteomyelitis is bone necrosis and distraction of bone structure. While bone tissue can heal and remodel its structure to ameliorate its mechanical properties, so far no study has tested the mechanical properties of cortical bone tissue exposed to S. aureus. With the increase usage of bone banks as a source of bone graft supply, it is important to screen for any possible pathology that may affect the bone graft success to function normally in the receiving patient...
April 4, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653195/genome-wide-integration-study-of-circulating-mirnas-and-peripheral-whole-blood-mrnas-of-male-acute-ischemic-stroke-patients
#10
Yang Xue, Pengqi Yin, Guozhong Li, Di Zhong
Several circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) have been proved to serve as stable biomarkers in blood for acute ischemic stroke (AIS). However, the functions of these biomarkers remain elusive. By conducting the integration analysis of circulating miRNAs and peripheral whole blood mRNAs using bioinformatics methods, we explored the biological role of these circulating markers in peripheral whole blood at the genome-wide level. Stroke-related circulating miRNA profile data (GSE86291) and peripheral whole blood mRNA expression data (GSE16561) were collected from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) datasets...
April 10, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653182/detection-of-biogenic-amines-and-microbial-safety-assessment-of-novel-meju-fermented-with-addition-of-nelumbo-nucifera-ginkgo-biloba-and-allium-sativum
#11
Shruti Shukla, Jong Suk Lee, Vivek K Bajpai, Shivraj Hariram Nile, Yun Suk Huh, Young-Kyu Han, Myunghee Kim
Meju, a cooked and fermented soy bean based food product, is used as a major ingredient in Korean traditional fermented foods such as Doenjang. We developed a novel type of Meju using single and combined extracts of Allium sativum (garlic clove), Nelumbo nucifera (lotus leaves), and Ginkgo biloba (ginkgo leaves) at 1% and 10% concentrations to improve the safety of Meju-based fermented products. Biogenic amines (BAs) in protein-rich fermented food products pose considerable toxical risks. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of adding selected plant extracts in Meju samples during fermentation...
April 10, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653134/the-optimal-ethanol-lock-therapy-regimen-for-treatment-of-biofilm-associated-catheter-infections-results-from-an-in-vitro-study
#12
Beatriz Alonso, María Jesús Pérez-Granda, Ana Rodríguez-Huerta, Carmen Rodríguez, Emilio Bouza, María Guembe
Ethanol-based lock therapy (LT) solutions are used as an alternative to antibiotics for the conservative management of catheter-related bloodstream infection. However, no clear consensus on regimen or dose has been reached. Our objective was to find the ethanol-based lock solution containing a sufficiently low concentration of ethanol for reduction of the metabolic activity of bacterial and fungal biofilms. Using an in vitro model, we tested 3 concentrations of ethanol (25%-40%-70%), with and without 60 IU of heparin, at 6 different time points and against 24-hour preformed biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC29213, Staphylococcus epidermidis (clinical isolate), Enterococcus faecalis ATCC33186, Candida albicans ATCC14058, and Escherichia coli ATCC25922...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653115/facile-one-pot-multicomponent-synthesis-and-molecular-docking-studies-of-steroidal-oxazole-thiazole-derivatives-with-effective-antimicrobial-antibiofilm-and-hemolytic-properties
#13
Anam Ansari, Abad Ali, Mohd Asif, Mohd Ahmar Rauf, Mohammad Owais, Shamsuzzaman
A series of steroidal oxazole and thiazole derivatives have been synthesized employing thiosemicarbazide/semicarbazide hydrochloride and ethyl 2-chloroacetoacetate with a simple and facile one-pot multicomponent reaction pathway. The antimicrobial activity of newly synthesized compounds were evaluated against four bacterial strains namely Gram-negative (Escherechia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes) in addition to pathogenic fungi (Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans)...
April 10, 2018: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653049/the-influence-of-cationic-phosphatidylcholine-derivative-on-monolayer-and-bilayer-artificial-bacterial-membranes
#14
Marzena Mach, Karolina Węder, Katarzyna Hąc-Wydro, Michał Flasiński, Joanna Lewandowska-Lancucka, Kinga Wójcik, Pawel Wydro
An increasing number of bacterial infections and the rise in antibiotic resistance of a number of bacteria speciesforces to search for new antibacterial compounds. The latter facts motivate the investigations presented herein and aimed at studying the influence of a cationic lipid:1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-ethylphosphocholine (EPOPC) on model (mono,- and bilayer) membranes. The monolayer experiments involved the analysis of the interactions of EPOPC with bacterial membrane lipids in one component and mixed systems as well as Brewster Angle Microcopy studies...
April 13, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652966/-molecular-basis-of-methicillin-resistance-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#15
Alejandro Aguayo-Reyes, Mario Quezada-Aguiluz, Sergio Mella, Gisela Riedel, Andrés Opazo-Capurro, Helia Bello-Toledo, Mariana Domínguez, Gerardo González-Rocha
Staphylococcus aureus isolates resistant to several antimicrobials have been gradually emerged since the beginning of the antibiotic era. Consequently, the first isolation of methicillin-resistant S. aureus occurred in 1960, which was described a few years later in Chile. Currently, S. aureus resistant to antistaphylococcal penicillins is endemic in Chilean hospitals and worldwide, being responsible for a high burden of morbidity and mortality. This resistance is mediated by the expression of a new transpeptidase, named PBP2a or PBP2', which possesses lower affinity for the β-lactam antibiotics, allowing the synthesis of peptidoglycan even in presence of these antimicrobial agents...
2018: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652952/-carriage-of-staphylococcus-aureus-among-food-service-workers
#16
María Paula Alarcón-Lavín, Carolina Oyarzo, Carlos Escudero, Fabiola Cerda-Leal, Francisco J Valenzuela
Background Staphylococcus aureus produces 11 serotypes of endotoxins that may cause food poisoning. Aim To determine the prevalence of type A enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus carriage among food service workers in Chillan, Chile. Material and Methods Pharyngeal swabs were obtained from 100 food service workers and were cultured in Agar plates. After identifying the presence of Staphylococcus aureus, DNA was extracted to identify type A toxin by conventional PCR. Results Thirty eight percent of samples were colonized with Staphylococcus aureus...
December 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652825/fabrication-of-sericin-agrose-gel-loaded-lysozyme-and-its-potential-in-wound-dressing-application
#17
Meirong Yang, Yejing Wang, Gang Tao, Rui Cai, Peng Wang, Liying Liu, Lisha Ai, Hua Zuo, Ping Zhao, Ahmad Umar, Chuanbin Mao, Huawei He
Sericin is a biomaterial resource for its significant biodegradability, biocompatibility, hydrophilicity, and reactivity. Designing a material with superabsorbent, antiseptic, and non-cytotoxic wound dressing properties is advantageous to reduce wound infection and promote wound healing. Herein, we propose an environment-friendly strategy to obtain an interpenetrating polymer network gel through blending sericin and agarose and freeze-drying. The physicochemical characterizations of the sericin/agarose gel including morphology, porosity, swelling behavior, crystallinity, secondary structure, and thermal property were well characterized...
April 13, 2018: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652493/reprogramming-probiotic-lactobacillus-reuteri-as-a-biosensor-for-staphylococcus-aureus-derived-aip-i-detection
#18
David Lubkowicz, Chun Loong Ho, In Young Hwang, Wen Shan Yew, Yung Seng Lee, Matthew Wook Chang
Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus infection that results in pneumonia, urinary tract infection, and in severe cases, sepsis, has recently been classified as a serious threat to public health. Rapid and cost-effective detection of these infections are costly and time-consuming. Here, we present probiotic lactic acid bacteria engineered to detect autoinducer peptide-I (AIP-I), a quorum sensing molecule produced by Staphylococcus sp. during pathogenesis. We achieved this by adapting the well-characterized agr quorum sensing ( agrQS) from Staphylococcus aureus into Lactobacillus reuteri...
April 13, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652195/a-meta-analysis-of-major-foodborne-pathogens-in-chinese-food-commodities-between-2006-and-2016
#19
Narayan Paudyal, Hang Pan, Xiayi Liao, Xian Zhang, Xiaoliang Li, Weihuan Fang, Min Yue
Prevalence of pathogenic bacteria in food commodities in China have been reported in numerous publications over time. However, the results are scattered and varied. To calculate a robust point estimate with a higher statistical power, we applied meta-analytic approach for investigating the prevalence of common foodborne pathogens in major food items in China. Data, on prevalence of bacteria in various food commodities were extracted and analyzed from 361 (132 English and 229 Chinese) publications. Prevalence of eight most frequently reported pathogens on six broad food categories was used for pooled and subgroup meta-analysis by DerSimonian-Laird method in random-effects model...
April 2018: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651979/rnases-and-helicases-in-gram-positive-bacteria
#20
Sylvain Durand, Ciaran Condon
RNases are key enzymes involved in RNA maturation and degradation. Although they play a crucial role in all domains of life, bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes have evolved with their own sets of RNases and proteins modulating their activities. In bacteria, these enzymes allow modulation of gene expression to adapt to rapidly changing environments. Today, >20 RNases have been identified in both Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis , the paradigms of the Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, respectively...
April 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
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