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staph aureus

Radhe Shyam, Nicolas Charbonnel, Aurélie Job, Christelle Blavignac, Christiane Forestier, Claude Taillefumier, Sophie Faure
Amphipathic cationic peptoids (N-substituted glycine oligomers) represent a promising class of antimicrobial peptide mimics. The aim of this study is to explore the potential of the triazolium group as a cationic moiety and helix inducer to develop potent antimicrobial helical peptoids. We report here the first solid-phase synthesis of peptoid oligomers incorporating 1,2,3-triazolium-type side chains, and their evaluation against Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus. Several triazolium-based oligomers, even of short length, selectively kill bacteria over mammalian cells...
June 19, 2018: ChemMedChem
Stina Jordal, Bård Reiakvam Kittang, Pirjo-Riitta Salminen, Geir Egil Eide, Øyvind Kommedal, Øystein Wendelbo, Rune Haaverstad, Haakon Sjursen
BACKGROUND: To investigate epidemiological trends of infective endocarditis (IE) in western Norway a retrospective study was performed. METHODS: Characteristics of 706 IE admissions from 1996 to 2005 and 2006 to 2015 were analysed and compared using the Chi-square test for categorical variables and the t-test for age. Survival was analysed by multiple Cox regression and reported by the hazard ratio (HR). RESULTS: Mean annual incidence rates increased from 4...
June 19, 2018: Infectious Diseases
Krzysztof A Zacharski, Mark Southern, Alan Ryan, Catherine C Adley
Microbiological hazards can occur when foodstuffs come into contact with contaminated surfaces or infectious agents dispersed by air currents in the manufacturing environment. An environmental monitoring program (EMP) is a critical aspect of sustainable and safe food manufacturing used to evaluate the effectiveness of the microbial controls in place. An effective EMP should be based on risk analysis, taking into account previous sampling history to determine the selection of the sampling points, the scope of the test, and the frequency of analysis...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Moon Jong Chang, Min Kyu Song, Jae Hoon Shin, Chan Yoon, Chong Bum Chang, Seung-Baik Kang
BACKGROUND: A two-stage approach to total knee arthroplasty (TKA) using an antibiotic-impregnated articulating cement spacer is an option for an infected arthritic knee. Vancomycin combined with broad-spectrum antibiotics can be used to make an antibiotic-impregnated articulating cement spacer. Causative organisms are sometimes not confirmed before surgery. Joint infections of multidrug-resistant organisms are increasing. Therefore, routine combinations of antibiotics may not be effective...
June 18, 2018: European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology: Orthopédie Traumatologie
Amit Kumar Singh, Loveleena Agarwal, Akash Kumar, Chandrim Sengupta, Ravinder Pal Singh
Introduction: The study aimed to determine the prevalence of nasal colonization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of oxacillin and vancomycin, inducible clindamycin resistance, and antimicrobial resistance pattern of S. aureus among children of Barabanki district, Uttar Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: School-going children of age group of 5-15 years were identified and selected according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria...
January 2018: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Amit K Kishore, Andy Vail, Adam R Jeans, Angel Chamorro, Mario Di Napoli, Lalit Kalra, Peter Langhorne, Christine Roffe, Willeke Westendorp, Paul J Nederkoorn, Javier Garau, Diederik van de Beek, Joan Montaner, Mark Woodhead, Andreas Meisel, Craig J Smith
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Identifying the causal pathogens of pneumonia complicating stroke is challenging, and antibiotics used are often broad spectrum, without recourse to the microbiological cause. We aimed to review existing literature to identify organisms responsible for pneumonia complicating stroke, before developing a consensus-based approach to antibiotic treatment. METHODS: A systematic literature review of multiple electronic databases using predefined search criteria was undertaken, in accordance with Cochrane and PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidance...
June 18, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Melanie Roch, Maria Celeste Varela, Agustina Taglialegna, Warren E Rose, Adriana E Rosato
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) acquisition in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients confers a worse clinical outcome with increased rate of declined lung function. Telavancin, an approved lipoglycopeptide used to treat infections due to S. aureus has a dual mode of action causing inhibition of the peptidoglycan synthesis and membrane depolarization. CF-associated MRSA infections remain an important problem with no foreseeable decline in prevalence rates. Although telavancin is currently in clinical use for complicated skin infections and hospital-acquired pneumonia, the activity against CF- associated S...
June 18, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
A Young J Park, Joshua Wang, Jordanna Jayne, Lynn Fukushima, Adupa P Rao, David Z D'Argenio, Paul M Beringer
Over the past decade, the prevalence of infections involving Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) has increased significantly. Tedizolid (TZD) demonstrates excellent activity against MRSA and a favorable safety profile. The pharmacokinetics of several antibiotics has shown to be altered in CF patients. The purpose of this study was to characterize the pharmacokinetics of tedizolid in this population. Eleven patients with CF were randomized to receive tedizolid phosphate 200 mg PO or IV once daily for 3 doses, with minimum 2-day washout, followed by crossover to the remaining dosage form...
June 18, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Toney T Poovelikunnel, Paulo E Budri, Anna C Shore, David C Coleman, Hilary Humphreys, Deirdre Fitzgerald-Hughes
Sequential methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates from patients following attempted mupirocin nasal decolonisation showed an increase in mupirocin resistance (MR) from 6.6% to 20%. MR isolates from patients who failed decolonization yielded indistinguishable spa types and carried multiple antimicrobial- and antiseptic-resistance genes, which may guide infection control and prevention.
June 18, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Sharmeen Nishat, Leah M Wuescher, Randall G Worth
Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen that can cause mild to severe life threatening infections in many tissues and organs. Platelets are known to participate in protection against S. aureus by directly killing and enhancing the activities of neutrophils and macrophages in clearing S. aureus infection. Platelets have also been shown to induce monocyte differentiation into dendritic cells and to enhance activation of dendritic cells. Therefore, in the present study, we explored the role of platelets in enhancing bone marrow derived dendritic cell (BMDC) function against S...
June 18, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Valentina Monistero, Hans Ulrich Graber, Claudia Pollera, Paola Cremonesi, Bianca Castiglioni, Enriqueta Bottini, Alejandro Ceballos-Marquez, Laura Lasso-Rojas, Volker Kroemker, Nicole Wente, Inge-Marie Petzer, Carlos Santisteban, Jeff Runyan, Marcos Veiga Dos Santos, Bruna Gomes Alves, Renata Piccinini, Valerio Bronzo, Mohamed Salah Abbassi, Meriam Ben Said, Paolo Moroni
Staphylococcus aureus is recognized worldwide as one of the major agents of dairy cow intra-mammary infections. This microorganism can express a wide spectrum of pathogenic factors used to attach, colonize, invade and infect the host. The present study evaluated 120 isolates from eight different countries that were genotyped by RS-PCR and investigated for 26 different virulence factors to increase the knowledge on the circulating genetic lineages among the cow population with mastitis. New genotypes were observed for South African strains while for all the other countries new variants of existing genotypes were detected...
June 17, 2018: Toxins
Assaf Rokney, Moti Baum, Shalom Ben-Shimol, Orli Sagi, Einav Anuka, Vered Agmon, David Greenberg, Lea Valinsky, Dana Danino
INTRODUCTION: Pediatric community associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infections are emerging worldwide. High CA-MRSA carriage rates were previously described in healthy Bedouin children. We assessed demographic, clinical and molecular characteristics of pediatric MRSA infections in southern Israel. METHODS: The Soroka University Medical Center laboratory serves the entire population of southern Israel, divided into two ethnic groups, Bedouins and Jews...
June 15, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Víctor Silva, Alicia Marcoleta, Viviana Silva, Dángelo Flores, Teresa Aparicio, Isabel Aburto, Cecilia Latrach, Naldy Febré
BACKGROUND: Chronic wounds are considered a public health problem that may be complicated by bacterial infections, mainly caused by resistant strains. AIM: To study the bacteria prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility in samples from adult patients with chronic wounds. METHODS: Patients treated at National Institute of Wounds Foundation between May and July 2014, with chronic ulcers in lower extremities with clinical inflammatory signs were recluted...
April 2018: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
M Eliana Maldonado, Mirta Acuña, Ana M Álvarez, Carmen L Avilés, Verónica de la Maza, Carmen Salgado, Juan Tordecilla, Mónica Varas, Marcela Venegas, Milena Villarroel, Marcela Zubieta, M Elena Santolaya
BACKGROUND: Microorganisms isolated from blood cultures (BC) in patients with febrile neutropenia (NF) vary over time, requiring systematic monitoring to guide appropriate empirical therapy. AIM: To identify microorganisms isolated from BC and their antimicrobial resistance profile in children with cancer and high risk NF. METHOD: Prospective, multicenter study. The analysis included episodes of high-risk FN with positive BC in children under 18 years of age treated in five hospitals in Santiago, Chile, 2012-2015...
April 2018: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
Hao-Bing Yu, Heng Jiao, Yu-Ping Zhu, Jian-Peng Zhang, Xiao-Ling Lu, Xiao-Yu Liu
Two new cyclohexanone derivatives, nectriatones A-B (1-2), and one new natural product, nectriatone C (3), together with three known phenolic sesquiterpene derivatives (4-6), were isolated from the culture of Nectria sp. B-13 obtained from high-latitude soil of the Arctic. The structures of all compounds were unambiguously elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis, as well as by comparison with the literature. These compounds were evaluated in cytotoxic and antibacterial activities. Compounds 1-6 showed cytotoxicities against SW1990, HCT-116, MCF-7, and K562 cells, with IC50 values in the range of 0...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Asian Natural Products Research
Abolfazl Shakeri, Milena Masullo, Alfredo Bottone, Javad Asili, Seyed Ahmad Emami, Sonia Piacente, Mehrdad Iranshahi
Two new sesquiterpene lactones, rhizantholide A (1) and rhizantholide B (2), together with five known compounds (3-7) have been isolated from the aerial parts of Centaurea rhizantha (Asteraceae). Sesquiterpene lactones belong to guaianolide class, and rhizantholide B is a rare guaianolide characterized by a free primary alcoholic function at C-10 along with a 3β,10β-epoxy function. Their structures have been established on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR experiments, as well as HR-ESIMS. The antimicrobial activity of compounds 1-7 has been evaluated against Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains...
June 18, 2018: Natural Product Research
Fu Qiao, Wenzhi Huang, Lin Cai, Zhiyong Zong, Weijia Yin
Objective This study was performed to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with nasal methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization upon intensive care unit (ICU) admission and during the ICU stay in mainland China. Methods A prospective observational study was performed in a 50-bed general ICU of a 4300-bed teaching hospital in China from 2011 to 2013. Nasal swabs for MRSA detection were obtained upon ICU admission and at discharge for patients having stayed in the ICU for longer than 3 days...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
Eric R Ocheretyaner, Tae Eun Park
The resistance to current antimicrobial agents, including fluoroquinolones, has continued to grow among various pathogens indicating a need for new antimicrobials to combat multi-drug resistant (MDR) organisms. In June 2017, delafloxacin received approval by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs) in adults caused by designated susceptible bacteria. Areas covered: This review describes the pharmacology, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, product information, efficacy, and safety of delafloxacin...
June 18, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Andrei V Gannesen, Valerie Borrel, Luc Lefeuvre, Alexander I Netrusov, Vladimir K Plakunov, Marc G J Feuilloley
Increasing popularity of preservative-free cosmetics necessitates in-depth research, specifically as bacteria can react to local factors by important metabolic changes. In this respect, investigating the effect of cosmetic preparations on pathogenic strains of commensal species such as acneic forms of Cutibacterium acnes (former Propionibacterium acnes) and bacteria behaving both as commensals and opportunistic pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus is of major interest. In this study, we studied the effect of commonly used cosmetics, Uriage™ thermal water (UTW) and a rhamnose-rich polysaccharide (PS291® ) on RT4 and RT5 acneic strains of C...
June 17, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Philip C Andrews, Melissa Werrett, Megan Herdman, Rajini Brammananth, Uthpala Garusinghe, Warren Batchelor, Paul Crellin, Ross Coppel
A series of poorly soluble phenyl bis-phosphinato bismuth(III) complexes [BiPh(OP(=O)R1R2)2] (R1 = R2 = Ph; R1 = R2 = p-OMePh; R1 = R2 = m-NO2Ph; R1 = Ph, R2 = H; R1 = R2 = Me) have been synthesised and characterised, and shown to have effective antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE). The bismuth complexes were incorporated into microfibrillated (nano-) cellulose generating a bismuth-cellulose composite as paper sheets...
June 17, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
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