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Crocus sativus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443112/transcriptome-guided-mining-of-genes-involved-in-crocin-biosynthesis
#1
Aijia Ji, Jing Jia, Zhichao Xu, Ying Li, Wu Bi, Fengming Ren, Chunnian He, Jie Liu, Kaizhi Hu, Jingyuan Song
Gardenia jasminoides is used in traditional Chinese medicine and has drawn attention as a rich source of crocin, a compound with reported activity against various cancers, depression and cardiovascular disease. However, genetic information on the crocin biosynthetic pathway of G. jasminoides is scarce. In this study, we performed a transcriptome analysis of the leaves, green fruits, and red fruits of G. jasminoides to identify and predict the genes that encode key enzymes responsible for crocin production, compared with Crocus sativus...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441796/role-of-dietary-crocin-in-in-vivo-melanoma-tumor-remission
#2
Hamid A Bakshi, Faruck Lukmanul Hakkim, Smitha Sam, Farideh Javid
Background: Melanoma is a deadly form of malignancy. Early diagnosis might pave the way to cure but its aggressive nature leads to rapid dissemination and colonization of distant organs. Dietary herbs may play a significant role in prevention of cancer. In this study, we tested anti-tumor efficacy of the Crocus sativus derived active constituent crocin, well established to have anti-cancer properties in different cancer models by our group and other groups and other groups. Notably, crocin is reported to exert anti-proliferative effect on melanoma cells (B16F10) in vitro...
March 1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427103/saffron-flower-extract-promotes-scratch-wound-closure-of-keratinocytes-and-enhances-vegf-production
#3
Sheela Verjee, Eliane Garo, Sarah Pelaez, Orlando Fertig, Matthias Hamburger, Veronika Butterweck
During saffron (Crocus sativus) spice production, large amounts of floral biowaste are generated. It was the aim of this study to develop a value-added product from saffron floral biowaste to be used as a natural cosmetic ingredient. HPLC-PDA-MS analysis of saffron flower extracts revealed the presence of flavonols with the highest amounts in the acetone extract. Kaempferol-3-O-sophoroside was identified as the main flavonoid in the acetone extract (saffron flower acetone extract). Saffron flower acetone extract and kaempferol-3-O-sophoroside were tested in HaCaT cells for potential effects on cell migration, proliferation, and for anti-inflammatory properties...
April 20, 2017: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407293/anti-tumor-effects-of-crocetin-and-related-molecular-targets
#4
REVIEW
Maliheh Moradzadeh, Hamid Reza Sadeghnia, Alijan Tabarraei, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Natural products have gained a wide popularity as chemopreventive and anti-cancer agents owing to their multi-mechanistic mode of action, availability and synergism with several conventional chemotherapeutic agents. Crocetin is a carotenoid compound isolated from the stigma of Crocus sativus L. (saffron). Crocetin has shown promising effects as an anti-tumor agent in animal models and cell culture systems. Crocetin retards the growth of cancer cells via inhibiting nucleic acid synthesis, enhancing anti-oxidative system, and inducing apoptosis and differentiation pathways...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392907/protective-effect-of-crocus-sativus-l-saffron-extract-on-spinal-cord-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-rats
#5
Gholam Hossein Farjah, Shadi Salehi, Mohammad Hasan Ansari, Bagher Pourheidar
OBJECTIVES: Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury of spinal cord is leading to the paraplegia observed. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of the saffron extract on spinal cord I/R injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty five male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 5 groups: intact, sham surgery, normal saline (NS), low dose saffron aqua extract, high dose saffron aqua extract. RESULTS: The mean motor deficit index (MDI) scores were significantly lower in the saffron extract groups than in the NS group at 48 hr after spinal cord ischemia (P<0...
March 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372231/novel-quantitative-real-time-pcr-approach-to-determine-safflower-carthamus-tinctorius-adulteration-in-saffron-crocus-sativus
#6
Caterina Villa, Joana Costa, M Beatriz P P Oliveira, Isabel Mafra
This work intended to develop DNA-based methods to detect and quantify safflower as an adulterant in saffron. Species-specific PCR and real-time PCR with EvaGreen dye targeting the ITS region of Carthamus tinctorius L. (safflower) were successfully proposed. The assays allowed absolute and relative sensitivities of 2pg of safflower DNA (∼1.4 DNA copies) and 0.1% of safflower in saffron (Crocus sativus L.), respectively. A normalised real-time PCR approach was also proposed in the range of 0.1-20% (w/w) of safflower in saffron, which was successfully validated and applied to commercial saffron samples (stigmas, powders and seasonings)...
August 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356104/heterologous-biosynthesis-and-manipulation-of-crocetin-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#7
Fenghua Chai, Ying Wang, Xueang Mei, Mingdong Yao, Yan Chen, Hong Liu, Wenhai Xiao, Yingjin Yuan
BACKGROUND: Due to excellent performance in antitumor, antioxidation, antihypertension, antiatherosclerotic and antidepressant activities, crocetin, naturally exists in Crocus sativus L., has great potential applications in medical and food fields. Microbial production of crocetin has received increasing concern in recent years. However, only a patent from EVOVA Inc. and a report from Lou et al. have illustrated the feasibility of microbial biosynthesis of crocetin, but there was no specific titer data reported so far...
March 29, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351080/is-really-crocus-sativus-as-effective-as-citalopram-in-the-treatment-of-depression
#8
Konstantinos N Fountoulakis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 28, 2017: Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298158/intake-of-saffron-reduces-%C3%AE-radiation-induced-genotoxicity-and-oxidative-stress-in-mice
#9
Apurva Koul, Suresh K Abraham
Saffron (SAF), the dried stigmas of Crocus sativus is commonly used for flavouring and coloring food. Studies on bioactivity of SAF have demonstrated its in vivo antioxidant activity. The aim of our study was to assess the impact of SAF intake on γ-radiation (RAD) induced: (a) chromosomal damage, (b) oxidative stress in liver and brain and (c) histopathological effects in the intestinal cells and male germ cells in mice. Freeze-dried aqueous extract of SAF was used for the experiments. Our preliminary cell-free DNA nicking assay using pBR322 DNA revealed protective effects of freeze-dried SAF extract against hydroxyl radical induced DNA damage...
March 15, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293386/toxicology-effects-of-saffron-and-its-constituents-a-review
#10
REVIEW
Hasan Badie Bostan, Soghra Mehri, Hossein Hosseinzadeh
Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) has been considered as a medicinal plant since ancient times and also widely used as food additive for its color, taste and odor. The pharmacological properties of saffron and its main constituents, crocin and safranal have been evaluated using different in vivo and in vitro models. Additionally, other lines of studies have found toxicological effects of saffron. However, a comprehensive review that covers all aspects of its toxicity has not been published yet. The current study provides classified information about the toxic effects of saffron and its constituents in various exposure conditions including acute, sub-acute, sub-chronic and chronic studies...
February 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278645/short-communication-investigating-the-effect-of-saffron-crocus-sativus-l-nano-sizing-on-its-colour-extraction-efficiency-a-preliminary-study
#11
Mehrdad Abootalebian, Maryam Karbasi, Maliheh Sadeghi, Mahnaz Abdinian, Igor Polikarpov
This study investigated the effect of saffron nano-sizing on its the colour extraction yield. The whole stigma was ball-milled at three different times (10, 20 and 100 h), immediately or with a 24 h delay was submitted to absorption test, and then the colour extraction efficiency was determined. When stigma was milled for 100 h, its particle size was reduced to less than 20 nm, as shown by SEM and TEM images, and its extraction efficiency was considerably increased by 19.8% as compared with the stigma blended for 10 min...
February 24, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261627/in-silico-identification-of-mirnas-and-their-target-genes-and-analysis-of-gene-co-expression-network-in-saffron-crocus-sativus-l-stigma
#12
Zahra Zinati, Roohollah Shamloo-Dashtpagerdi, Ali Behpouri
As an aromatic and colorful plant of substantive taste, saffron (Crocus sativus L.) owes such properties of matter to growing class of the secondary metabolites derived from the carotenoids, apocarotenoids. Regarding the critical role of microRNAs in secondary metabolic synthesis and the limited number of identified miRNAs in C. sativus, on the other hand, one may see the point how the characterization of miRNAs along with the corresponding target genes in C. sativus might expand our perspectives on the roles of miRNAs in carotenoid/apocarotenoid biosynthetic pathway...
December 2016: Molecular Biology Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247040/transcriptome-wide-identification-phylogenetic-analysis-and-expression-profiling-of-zinc-finger-transcription-factors-from-crocus-sativus-l
#13
Aubid Hussain Malik, Nasheeman Ashraf
Crocus sativus belongs to Iridaceae family and is the only plant species which produces apocarotenoids like crocin, picrocrocin, and safranal in significant quantities. Besides their organoleptic properties, Crocus apocarotenoids have been found to possess remarkable pharmacological potential. Although apocarotenoid biosynthetic pathway has been worked out to a great degree, but the mechanism that regulates the tissue and developmental stage-specific production of Crocus apocarotenoids is not known. To identify the genes regulating apocarotenoid biosynthesis in Crocus, transcriptome wide identification of zinc-finger transcription factors was undertaken...
February 28, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216334/crocins-the-active-constituents-of-crocus-sativus-l-counteracted-apomorphine-induced-performance-deficits-in-the-novel-object-recognition-task-but-not-novel-object-location-task-in-rats
#14
Nikolaos Pitsikas, Petros A Tarantilis
Schizophrenia is a chronic mental disease that affects nearly 1% of the population worldwide. Several lines of evidence suggest that the dopaminergic (DAergic) system might be compromised in schizophrenia. Specifically, the mixed dopamine (DA) D1/D2 receptor agonist apomorphine induces schizophrenia-like symptoms in rodents, including disruption of memory abilities. Crocins are among the active components of saffron (dried stigmas of Crocus sativus L. plant) and their implication in cognition is well documented...
February 17, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215156/medicinal-plants-targeting-cardiovascular-diseases-in-view-of-avicenna
#15
Zahra Sobhani, Saeed Reza Nami, Seyed Ahmad Emami, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Behjat Javadi
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a spectrum of diseases involving the heart and blood vessels, and the first cause of mortality worldwide. Medicinal plants have been used for thousands of years to treat CVD. In Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM), there is a special focus on heart diseases. Avicenna, a Persian physician of the eleventh century compiled a book devoted to this field named "The treatise on cardiac drugs" which is a compendium of TPM knowledge on CVD. Avicenna mentioned 50 cardiovascular active plants and described their therapeutic effects in the treatment of CVDs...
February 14, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154174/functional-characterization-of-csbglu12-a-%C3%AE-glucosidase-from-crocus-sativus-provides-insights-into-its-role-in-abiotic-stress-through-accumulation-of-antioxidant-flavonols
#16
Shoib Ahmad Baba, Ram A Vishwakarma, Nasheeman Ashraf
Glycosylation and deglycosylation are impressive mechanisms that allow plants to regulate the biological activity of an array of secondary metabolites. Although glycosylation improves solubility and renders the metabolites suitable for transport and sequestration, deglycosylation activates them to carry out biological functions. Herein, we report the functional characterization of CsBGlu12, a β-glucosidase from Crocus sativus. CsBGlu12 has a characteristic glucoside hydrolase 1 family (α/β)8 triose-phosphate isomerase (TIM) barrel structure with a highly conserved active site...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145590/molecular-modeling-and-dynamic-simulation-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-carotenoid-cleavage-dioxygenase-gene-a-comparison-with-bixa-orellana-and-crocus-sativus
#17
Priya R, Sneha P, Renata Rivera Madrid, George Priya Doss C, Pooja Singh, Siva Ramamoorthy
Carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (CCD) gene, ubiquitously found in numerous types of plants, are eminent in synthesizing the various volatile compounds (β-ionone, C13 -norisoprenoid, geranylacetone) known as apocarotenoids. These apocarotenoids have various biological functions such as volatile signals, allelopathic interaction and plant defense. In Arabidopsis genome sequence, four potential CCD genes have been identified namely CCD1, CCD4, CCD7, and CCD8. These four genes give rise to diverse biological functions with almost similar sequence identity...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111973/efficacy-of-crocin-and-safranal-as-protective-agents-against-genotoxic-stress-induced-by-gamma-radiation-urethane-and-procarbazine-in-mice
#18
A Koul, S K Abraham
Crocin (CRO) and safranal (SAF) are bioactive constituents of saffron (dried stigma of Crocus sativus flower), an expensive spice with medicinal properties. Aqueous extract of saffron is known for its antigenotoxic effect against environmental genotoxins/carcinogens. However, there is need to identify saffron constituents responsible for this antigenotoxic effect. The aim of our investigation was to ascertain the role of CRO and SAF as inhibitors of in vivo genotoxic stress. For this purpose, Swiss albino mice were pretreated with CRO (50-mg/kg body weight (bw))/SAF (0...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098452/a-perspective-on-crocus-sativus-l-saffron-constituent-crocin-a-potent-water-soluble-antioxidant-and-potential-therapy-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
John W Finley, Song Gao
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, in which the death of brain cells causes memory loss and cognitive decline. Several factors are thought to play roles in the development and course of AD. Existing medical therapies only modestly alleviate and delay cognitive symptoms. Current research has been focused on developing antibodies to remove the aggregates of amyloid-β (Aβ) and tau protein. This approach has achieved removal of Aβ; however, no cognitive improvement in AD patients has been reported...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067784/sailuotong-prevents-hydrogen-peroxide-h%C3%A2-o%C3%A2-induced-injury-in-ea-hy926-cells
#20
Sai Wang Seto, Dennis Chang, Wai Man Ko, Xian Zhou, Hosen Kiat, Alan Bensoussan, Simon M Y Lee, Maggie P M Hoi, Genevieve Z Steiner, Jianxun Liu
Sailuotong (SLT) is a standardised three-herb formulation consisting of Panax ginseng, Ginkgo biloba, and Crocus sativus designed for the management of vascular dementia. While the latest clinical trials have demonstrated beneficial effects of SLT in vascular dementia, the underlying cellular mechanisms have not been fully explored. The aim of this study was to assess the ability and mechanisms of SLT to act against hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂)-induced oxidative damage in cultured human vascular endothelial cells (EAhy926)...
January 5, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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