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Copd challenge model

Piotr Kuna, Magnus Aurivillius, Carin Jorup, Susanne Prothon, Ziad Taib, Staffan Edsbäcker
AZD5423 is a novel, inhaled, selective glucocorticoid receptor modulator (SGRM), which in an allergen challenge model in asthmatics improved lung function and airway hyper-reactivity. In the current trial, AZD5423 was for the first time tested in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In this double-blind, randomised and parallel group study, we examined airway and systemic effects of two doses of AZD5423, inhaled via Turbuhaler for 12 weeks, in 353 symptomatic COPD patients (average pre-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) at screening was 50-52% of predicted normal)...
February 17, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
Adam John Anthony McGuinness, Elizabeth Sapey
Markers of oxidative stress are increased in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are able to alter biological molecules, signaling pathways and antioxidant molecule function, many of which have been implicated in the pathogenesis of COPD. However, the involvement of ROS in the development and progression of COPD is not proven. Here, we discuss the sources of ROS, and the defences that have evolved to protect against their harmful effects. We address the role that ROS may have in the development and progression of COPD, as well as current therapeutic attempts at limiting the damage they cause...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Fumin Guo, Sarah Svenningsen, Miranda Kirby, Dante P I Capaldi, Khadija Sheikh, Aaron Fenster, Grace Parraga
PURPOSE: Recent pulmonary imaging research has revealed that in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma, structural and functional abnormalities are spatially heterogeneous. This novel information may help optimize treatment in individual patients, monitor interventional efficacy and develop new treatments. Moreover, by automating the measurement of regional biomarkers for the 19 different anatomical lung segments, there is an opportunity to embed imaging biomarkers into clinically-acceptable clinical workflows and improve lung disease clinical care...
February 16, 2017: Medical Physics
Richard A Parker, Christopher J Weir, Noah Rubio, Roberto Rabinovich, Hilary Pinnock, Janet Hanley, Lucy McCloughan, Ellen M Drost, Leandro C Mantoani, William MacNee, Brian McKinstry
INTRODUCTION: The Bland-Altman limits of agreement method is widely used to assess how well the measurements produced by two raters, devices or systems agree with each other. However, mixed effects versions of the method which take into account multiple sources of variability are less well described in the literature. We address the practical challenges of applying mixed effects limits of agreement to the comparison of several devices to measure respiratory rate in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)...
2016: PloS One
Daniel J Fullen, Bryan Murray, Julie Mori, Andrew Catchpole, Daryl W Borley, Edward J Murray, Ganesh Balaratnam, Anthony Gilbert, Alex Mann, Fiona Hughes, Rob Lambkin-Williams
BACKGROUND: Human Rhinovirus infection is an important precursor to asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations and the Human Viral Challenge model may provide a powerful tool in studying these and other chronic respiratory diseases. In this study we have reported the production and human characterisation of a new Wild-Type HRV-16 challenge virus produced specifically for this purpose. METHODS AND STOCK DEVELOPMENT: A HRV-16 isolate from an 18 year old experimentally infected healthy female volunteer (University of Virginia Children's Hospital, USA) was obtained with appropriate medical history and consent...
2016: PloS One
Job F M van Boven, Dermot Ryan, Michelle N Eakin, Giorgio W Canonica, Aji Barot, Juliet M Foster
Adherence to medication comprises a multiphased temporal process involving (1) initiation of prescribed therapy, (2) implementation as prescribed, and (3) subsequent persistence. Medication adherence remains suboptimal in most patients with long-term respiratory conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Interventions have been shown to effectively improve treatment initiation, implementation, and persistence when delivered at the health care professional level or the system level, but demonstration of the cost-effectiveness of these interventions is necessary to ensure their widespread use...
September 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
Peng-Jiu Yu, Li-Mei Wan, Shan-He Wan, Wen-Ying Chen, Hui Xie, Dong-Mei Meng, Jia-Jie Zhang, Xiang-Lin Xiao
CONTEXT: Standardized myrtol, an essential oil containing primarily cineole, limonene and α-pinene, has been used for treating nasosinusitis, bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of standardized myrtol in a model of acute lung injury (ALI) induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male BALB/c mice were treated with standardized myrtol for 1.5 h prior to exposure of atomized LPS...
December 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
Florian Hofer, Dmitrij Achelrod, Tom Stargardt
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) poses major challenges for health care systems. Previous studies suggest that telemonitoring could be effective in preventing hospitalisations and hence reduce costs. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to evaluate whether telemonitoring interventions for COPD are cost-effective from the perspective of German statutory sickness funds. METHODS: A cost-utility analysis was conducted using a combination of a Markov model and a decision tree...
December 2016: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
Edwin S Wong, Seppo T Rinne, Paul L Hebert, Meredith A Cook, Chuan-Fen Liu
PURPOSE: Geographic access to inpatient care at the Veterans Affairs (VA) Health Care System is challenging for many veterans with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) given relatively few VA hospitals nationwide. Veterans with lengthy travel distances may obtain non-VA care, particularly those dually enrolled in Medicare. Our primary objective was to assess whether distance from VA patients' residence to the nearest VA and non-VA hospitals was associated with 30-day all-cause readmission and the system where patients were readmitted (VA or Medicare)...
July 18, 2016: Journal of Rural Health
Vaibhav Shrirang Dhawale, Venkateswara Rao Amara, Pinakin Arun Karpe, Vajir Malek, Deep Patel, Kulbhushan Tikoo
Angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) is positively correlated to asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and is highly expressed in lungs. ACE2, the counteracting enzyme of ACE, was proven to be protective in pulmonary, cardiovascular diseases. In the present study we checked the effect of ACE2 activation in animal model of asthma. Asthma was induced in male wistar rats by sensitization and challenge with ovalbumin and then treated with ACE2 activator, diminazene aceturate (DIZE) for 2weeks...
September 1, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Katsuyuki Takeda, Nobuaki Miyahara, Shigeki Matsubara, Christian Taube, Kenichi Kitamura, Astushi Hirano, Mitsune Tanimoto, Erwin W Gelfand
Ambroxol is used in COPD and asthma to increase mucociliary clearance and regulate surfactant levels, perhaps through anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. To determine the role and effect of ambroxol in an experimental model of asthma, BALB/c mice were sensitized to ovalbumin (OVA) followed by 3 days of challenge. Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), lung cell composition and histology, and cytokine and protein carbonyl levels in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid were determined. Ambroxol was administered either before the first OVA challenge or was begun after the last allergen challenge...
June 2016: Immune Network
Yuting Wu, Hong Xu, Li Li, Weifeng Yuan, Deming Zhang, Wenjie Huang
Clinical evidence indicates that patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are more susceptible to Aspergillus. However, the exact mechanisms underlying this effect are not known. In this study, we used cigarette smoke exposure to generate COPD rat model. colony-forming units (CFU) count assessment and phagocytosis were applied to evaluate the defense function of COPD rats against Aspergillus challenge. ELISA, western blotting, and GST-Rac1 pull-down assays were conducted to determine the expressions of cytokines and TLR2-associated signaling pathway...
August 2016: Inflammation
Øystein Hetlevik, Hasse Melbye, Sturla Gjesdal
There is a marked socioeconomic gradient in the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma, but a large proportion of patients remain undiagnosed. It is a challenge for general practitioners (GPs) to both identify patients and contribute to equity and high quality in services delivered. The aim of this study was to identify patients with COPD and asthma diagnoses recorded by GPs and explore their utilisation of GP services by education level. This was a cross-sectional, national, register-based study from Norwegian general practice in the period 2009-2011...
2016: NPJ Primary Care Respiratory Medicine
Riza Batista-Navarro, Jacob Carter, Sophia Ananiadou
Argo ( is a generic text mining workbench that can cater to a variety of use cases, including the semi-automatic annotation of literature. It enables its technical users to build their own customised text mining solutions by providing a wide array of interoperable and configurable elementary components that can be seamlessly integrated into processing workflows. With Argo's graphical annotation interface, domain experts can then make use of the workflows' automatically generated output to curate information of interest...
2016: Database: the Journal of Biological Databases and Curation
Aran Singanayagam, Sebastian L Johnston
Inhaled β2-adrenoceptor agonists are a mainstay of therapy for airways diseases and are almost universally prescribed for patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Very few studies have evaluated the efficacy of these commonly used therapies during acute disease exacerbations which are frequently triggered by viral infection. In this edition of Clinical Science, Donovan et al. assess the ex vivo effects of the most commonly used short-acting β2-agonist salbutamol on small airway reactivity using precision cut lung slices (PCLS) from a mouse model of virus-induced exacerbation of COPD...
May 1, 2016: Clinical Science (1979-)
W S Daniel Tan, Hong Yong Peh, Wupeng Liao, Chu Hui Pang, Tze Khee Chan, Suk Hiang Lau, Vincent T Chow, W S Fred Wong
Cigarette smoke (CS) is associated with many maladies, one of which is chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). As the disease progresses, patients are more prone to develop COPD exacerbation episodes by bacterial infection, particularly to nontypeable Haemophilus influenza (NTHi) infection. The present study aimed to develop a CS-exposed mouse model that increases inflammation induced by NTHi challenge and investigate the protective effects of andrographolide, a bioactive molecule with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties isolated from the plant Andrographis paniculata...
May 27, 2016: Journal of Natural Products
Herchel Clarke, Miranda Voss
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a community-based, multidisciplinary team consisting of home-based caregivers and supervised students could improve the functional status and quality of life of patients living with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in a low-income, peri-urban setting in South Africa. METHODS: This was a quasi-experimental study conducted over three months. Attention was paid to health literacy, inhaler technique, respiratory conditioning and nutrition...
July 2016: Primary Health Care Research & Development
John P Kuwornu, Lisa M Lix, Jacqueline M Quail, Evelyn Forget, Saman Muthukumarana, Xiaoyun E Wang, Meric Osman, Gary F Teare
Healthcare pathways are important to measure because they are expected to affect outcomes. However, they are challenging to define because patients exhibit heterogeneity in their use of healthcare services. The objective of this study was to identify and describe healthcare pathways during episodes of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations. Linked administrative databases from Saskatchewan, Canada were used to identify a cohort of newly diagnosed COPD patients and their episodes of healthcare use for disease exacerbations...
March 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Hanne Hoaas, Hege Kristin Andreassen, Linda Aarøen Lien, Audhild Hjalmarsen, Paolo Zanaboni
BACKGROUND: Telemedicine may increase accessibility to pulmonary rehabilitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), thus enhancing long-term exercise maintenance. We aimed to explore COPD patients' adherence and experiences in long-term telerehabilitation to understand factors affecting satisfaction and potential for service improvements. METHODS: A two-year pilot study with 10 patients with COPD was conducted. The intervention included treadmill exercise training at home and a webpage for telemonitoring and self-management combined with weekly videoconferencing sessions with a physiotherapist...
February 25, 2016: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
Josep Roca, Isaac Cano, David Gomez-Cabrero, Jesper Tegnér
Systems medicine, using and adapting methods and approaches as developed within systems biology, promises to be essential in ongoing efforts of realizing and implementing personalized medicine in clinical practice and research. Here we review and critically assess these opportunities and challenges using our work on COPD as a case study. We find that there are significant unresolved biomedical challenges in how to unravel complex multifactorial components in disease initiation and progression producing different clinical phenotypes...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
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