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Epigenetics liver

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442573/cell-cycle-dependent-degradation-of-the-methyltransferase-setd3-attenuates-cell-proliferation-and-liver-tumorigenesis
#1
Xiaoqing Cheng, Yuan Hao, Wenjie Shu, Mengjie Zhao, Chen Zhao, Yuan Wu, Xiaodan Peng, Pinfang Yao, Daibiao Xiao, Guoliang Qing, Zhengying Pan, Lei Yin, Desheng Hu, Hai-Ning Du
Histone modifications, including lysine methylation, are epigenetic marks that influence many biological pathways. Accordingly, many methyltransferases have critical roles in various biological processes, and their dysregulation is often associated with cancer. However, the biological functions and regulation of many methyltransferases are unclear. Here, we report that a human homolog of the methyltransferase SET domain containing 3 (SETD3) is cell cycle regulated: SETD3 protein levels peaked in S phase and were lowest in M phase...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433418/binge-alcohol-alters-pnpla3-levels-in-liver-through-epigenetic-mechanism-involving-histone-h3-acetylation
#2
REVIEW
Ricardo J Restrepo, Robert W Lim, Ronald J Korthuis, Shivendra D Shukla
The human PNPLA3 (patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3) gene codes for a protein which is highly expressed in adipose tissue and liver, and is implicated in lipid homeostasis. While PNPLA3 protein contains regions homologous to functional lipolytic proteins, the regulation of its tissue expression is reflective of lipogenic genes. A naturally occurring genetic variant of PNPLA3 in humans has been linked to increased susceptibility to alcoholic liver disease. We have examined the modulatory effect of alcohol on PNPLA3 protein and mRNA expression as well as the association of its gene promoter with acetylated histone H3K9 by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay in rat hepatocytes in vitro, and in vivo in mouse and rat models of acute binge, chronic, and chronic followed by acute binge ethanol administration...
March 12, 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428831/cord-blood-hematopoietic-cells-from-preterm-infants-display-altered-dna-methylation-patterns
#3
Olivia M de Goede, Pascal M Lavoie, Wendy P Robinson
BACKGROUND: Premature infants are highly vulnerable to infection. This is partly attributable to the preterm immune system, which differs from that of the term neonate in cell composition and function. Multiple studies have found differential DNA methylation (DNAm) between preterm and term infants' cord blood; however, interpretation of these studies is limited by the confounding factor of blood cell composition. This study evaluates the epigenetic impact of preterm birth in isolated hematopoietic cell populations, reducing the concern of cell composition differences...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423501/epigenetic-silencing-of-mir-520c-leads-to-induced-s100a4-expression-and-its-mediated-colorectal-cancer-progression
#4
Giridhar Mudduluru, Katharina Ilm, Steffen Fuchs, Ulrike Stein
The S100 calcium-binding protein A4 (S100A4) induces epithelial mesenchymal transition, migration, invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis. Its induced expression in several cancer types correlates with poor prognosis. Apart from the functional and transcriptional regulatory aspects of S100A4, its post-transcriptional regulation is not yet clearly elucidated. In this study, we show that microRNAs (miR) miR-505-5p and miR-520c-3p target the 3'-UTR of S100A4 and inhibits its expression and its mediated migration and invasion...
March 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415049/metamorphosis-and-transition-between-developmental-stages-in-european-eel-anguilla-anguilla-l-involve-epigenetic-changes-in-dna-methylation-patterns
#5
Jochen H Trautner, Stefan Reiser, Tina Blancke, Katrin Unger, Klaus Wysujack
The life history of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla, L.) is characterized by a series of metamorphoses and transitions that provoke drastic morphological changes. Most of these changes go along with the catadromous life cycle in eels, involving extensive physiologically adaptations. In this study it was investigated whether these drastic changes have an epigenetic basis by analyzing global methylation patterns in liver, gill and brain tissue from glass eels caught at the British coast as well as yellow and silver eels from River Rhine using methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphisms (MSAP)...
April 6, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414763/enhanced-offspring-predisposition-to-steatohepatitis-with-maternal-high-fat-diet-is-associated-with-epigenetic-and-microbiome-alterations
#6
Umesh D Wankhade, Ying Zhong, Ping Kang, Maria Alfaro, Sree V Chintapalli, Keshari M Thakali, Kartik Shankar
OBJECTIVE: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an important co-morbidity associated with obesity and a precursor to steatohepatitis. However, the contributions of gestational and early life influences on development of NAFLD and NASH remain poorly appreciated. METHODS: Two independent studies were performed to examine whether maternal over-nutrition via exposure to high fat diet (HFD) leads to exacerbated hepatic responses to post-natal HFD and methionine choline deficient (MCD) diets in the offspring...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398025/hepatocarcinoma-genetic-and-epigenetic-features
#7
Angela Lombardi, Anna Grimaldi, Silvia Zappavigna, Gabriella Misso, Michele Caraglia
HCC is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide, accounting for about 1 million deaths annually. The incidence of HCC is highest in Asia and Africa, where the endemic high prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C strongly predisposes to the development of chronic liver disease and subsequent development of HCC. Patients with HCC generally present at an advanced stage due to compensated cirrhosis defined by the absence of pathognomonic symptoms, resulting in death within 6 to 20 months, suggesting an urgent need in treatment modalities that will dramatically decrease the mortality rate of HCC...
April 11, 2017: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393211/search-for-useful-biomarkers-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-tumor-factors-and-background-liver-factors%C3%A2-review
#8
Dai Shimizu, Yoshikuni Inokawa, Fuminori Sonohara, Kenichi Inaoka, Shuji Nomoto
Hepatocarcinogenesis is a complex and multistep process that involves the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations in regulatory genes. To understand the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), current research has utilized improved array technologies. The identification of cancer-related molecules could lead to the development of novel molecular targets for treatment and biomarkers for predicting prognosis. However, prognostic prediction is insufficient when considering only tumor factors, since hepatocarcinogenesis is also greatly influenced by the status of the background liver...
May 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388695/regulation-of-drug-metabolism-and-toxicity-by-multiple-factors-of-genetics-epigenetics-lncrnas-gut-microbiota-and-diseases-a-meeting-report-of-the-21-st-international-symposium-on-microsomes-and-drug-oxidations-mdo
#9
Ai-Ming Yu, Magnus Ingelman-Sundberg, Nathan J Cherrington, Lauren M Aleksunes, Ulrich M Zanger, Wen Xie, Hyunyoung Jeong, Edward M Morgan, Peter J Turnbaugh, Curtis D Klaassen, Aadra P Bhatt, Matthew R Redinbo, Pengying Hao, David J Waxman, Li Wang, Xiao-Bo Zhong
Variations in drug metabolism may alter drug efficacy and cause toxicity; better understanding of the mechanisms and risks shall help to practice precision medicine. At the 21(st) International Symposium on Microsomes and Drug Oxidations held in Davis, California, USA, in October 2-6, 2016, a number of speakers reported some new findings and ongoing studies on the regulation mechanisms behind variable drug metabolism and toxicity, and discussed potential implications to personalized medications. A considerably insightful overview was provided on genetic and epigenetic regulation of gene expression involved in drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) and drug response...
March 2017: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386383/genome-wide-hepatic-dna-methylation-changes-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-mice
#10
AhRam Yoon, Stephanie A Tammen, Soyoung Park, Sung Nim Han, Sang-Woon Choi
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: A high-fat diet (HFD) induces obesity, which is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and cancer, while a calorie-restricted diet can extend life span by reducing the risk of these diseases. It is known that health effects of diet are partially conveyed through epigenetic mechanism including DNA methylation. In this study, we investigated the genome-wide hepatic DNA methylation to identify the epigenetic effects of HFD-induced obesity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seven-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed control diet (CD), calorie-restricted control diet (CRCD), or HFD for 16 weeks (after one week of acclimation to the control diet)...
April 2017: Nutrition Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384511/osteoblast-specific-deletion-of-hrpt2-cdc73-results-in-high-bone-mass-and-increased-bone-turnover
#11
Casey J Droscha, Cassandra R Diegel, Nicole J Ethen, Travis A Burgers, Mitchell J McDonald, Kevin A Maupin, Agni S Naidu, PengFei Wang, Bin T Teh, Bart O Williams
Inactivating mutations that lead to loss of heterozygosity within the HRPT2/Cdc73 gene are directly linked to the development of primary hyperparathyroidism, parathyroid adenomas, and ossifying fibromas of the jaw (HPT-JT). The protein product of the Cdc73 gene, parafibromin, is a core member of the polymerase-associated factors (PAF) complex, which coordinates epigenetic modifiers and transcriptional machinery to control gene expression. We conditionally deleted Cdc73 within mesenchymal progenitors or within mature osteoblasts and osteocytes to determine the consequences of parafibromin loss within the mesenchymal lineage...
May 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371147/quantitative-lc-ms-provides-no-evidence-for-m-6-da-or-m-4-dc-in-the-genome-of-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells-and-tissues
#12
Sarah Schiffers, Charlotte Ebert, René Rahimoff, Olesea Kosmatchev, Jessica Steinbacher, Alexandra-Viola Bohne, Fabio Spada, Stylianos Michalakis, Jörg Nickelsen, Markus Müller, Thomas Carell
Until recently, it was believed that the genomes of higher organisms contain, in addition to the four canonical DNA bases, only 5-methyl-dC (m(5) dC) as a modified base to control epigenetic processes. In recent years, this view has changed dramatically with the discovery of 5-hydroxymethyl-dC (hmdC), 5-formyl-dC (fdC), and 5-carboxy-dC (cadC) in DNA from stem cells and brain tissue. N(6) -methyldeoxyadenosine (m(6) dA) is the most recent base reported to be present in the genome of various eukaryotic organisms...
March 30, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370258/polyphenic-trait-promotes-liver-cancer-in-a-model-of-epigenetic-instability
#13
Marco Cassano, Sandra Offner, Evarist Planet, Alessandra Piersigilli, Suk Min Jang, Hugues Henry, Markus B Geuking, Catherine Mooser, Kathy D McCoy, Andrew J Macpherson, Didier Trono
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents the fifth most common form of cancer worldwide and carries a high mortality rate due to lack of effective treatment. Males are eight times more likely to develop HCC than females, an effect largely driven by sex hormones, albeit through still poorly understood mechanisms. We previously identified TRIM28 (tripartite protein 28), a scaffold protein capable of recruiting a number of chromatin modifiers, as a crucial mediator of sexual dimorphism in the liver. Trim28(hep-/-) mice display sex-specific transcriptional deregulation of a wide range of bile and steroid metabolism genes and development of liver adenomas in males...
March 30, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369960/chronic-alcohol-exposure-differentially-alters-one-carbon-metabolism-in-rat-liver-and-brain
#14
James Auta, Huaibo Zhang, Subhash C Pandey, Alessandro Guidotti
BACKGROUND: Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation play an important role in regulating the pathophysiology of alcoholism. Chronic alcohol exposure leads to behavioral changes as well as decreased expression of genes associated with synaptic plasticity. In the liver, it has been documented that chronic alcohol exposure impairs methionine synthase (Ms) activity leading to a decrease in SAM/SAH ratio which results in DNA hypomethylation; however it is not known whether similar alterations of S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) and S-adenosyl homocysteine (SAH) levels are also produced in brain...
March 30, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366709/architecture-in-3d-cell-culture-an-essential-feature-for-in-vitro-toxicology
#15
Sophie A Lelièvre, Tim Kwok, Shirisha Chittiboyina
Three-dimensional cell culture has the potential to revolutionize toxicology studies by allowing human-based reproduction of essential elements of organs. Beyond the study of toxicants on the most susceptible organs such as liver, kidney, skin, lung, gastrointestinal tract, testis, heart and brain, carcinogenesis research will also greatly benefit from 3D cell culture models representing any normal tissue. No tissue function can be suitably reproduced without the appropriate tissue architecture whether mimicking acini, ducts or tubes, sheets of cells or more complex cellular organizations like hepatic cords...
March 30, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363633/high-resolution-methylation-analysis-of-the-hoxa5-regulatory-region-in-different-somatic-tissues-of-laboratory-mouse-during-development
#16
Puja Sinha, Kiran Singh, Manisha Sachan
Homeobox genes encode a group of DNA binding regulatory proteins whose key function occurs in the spatial-temporal organization of genome during embryonic development and differentiation. The role of these Hox genes during ontogenesis makes it an important model for research. HoxA5 is a member of Hox gene family playing a central role during axial body patterning and morphogenesis. DNA modification studies have shown that the function of Hox genes is partly governed by the methylation-mediated gene expression regulation...
January 2017: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357125/in-vitro-analysis-of-factors-influencing-cyp1a2-expression-as-potential-determinants-of-interindividual-variation
#17
ChengHui Xie, Marta Pogribna, Beverly Word, Lascelles Lyn-Cook, Beverly D Lyn-Cook, George J Hammons
Individual differences in drug metabolism contribute to interindividual variation that characterizes responses to drugs and risk in exposure to foreign chemicals. Large individual differences are found in expression levels of CYP1A2, a major drug-metabolizing enzyme. Underlying causes for this variation are not well understood. Several factors, including tobacco smoking, consumption of cruciferous vegetables, and sex, have been associated with modulating CYP1A2 expression. To understand factors regulating expression of CYP1A2 in establishing a causal relationship, this study examined effects of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC), indole-3-carbinol (I3C), and 17β-estradiol (estradiol) on CYP1A2 expression in in vitro systems using human liver and lung cells...
April 2017: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356931/microrna-320a-downregulation-mediates-human-liver-cancer-cell-proliferation-through-the-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-pathway
#18
Caicheng Lu, Zengwei Liao, Minxian Cai, Guirong Zhang
MicroRNAs (miRs) have emerged as key epigenetic regulators involved in cancer progression. miR-320a has been demonstrated to be a novel tumor suppressive microRNA in several types of cancers. In the present study, the role of miR-320a in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was investigated. The expression levels of miR-320a and messenger RNA were determined by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, while cell cycle and cell apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry. The cell proliferative ability was determined by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay and colony formation assay...
February 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351423/epigenetic-aging-signatures-in-mice-livers-are-slowed-by-dwarfism-calorie-restriction-and-rapamycin-treatment
#19
Tina Wang, Brian Tsui, Jason F Kreisberg, Neil A Robertson, Andrew M Gross, Michael Ku Yu, Hannah Carter, Holly M Brown-Borg, Peter D Adams, Trey Ideker
BACKGROUND: Global but predictable changes impact the DNA methylome as we age, acting as a type of molecular clock. This clock can be hastened by conditions that decrease lifespan, raising the question of whether it can also be slowed, for example, by conditions that increase lifespan. Mice are particularly appealing organisms for studies of mammalian aging; however, epigenetic clocks have thus far been formulated only in humans. RESULTS: We first examined whether mice and humans experience similar patterns of change in the methylome with age...
March 28, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351387/dietary-restriction-protects-from-age-associated-dna-methylation-and-induces-epigenetic-reprogramming-of-lipid-metabolism
#20
Oliver Hahn, Sebastian Grönke, Thomas M Stubbs, Gabriella Ficz, Oliver Hendrich, Felix Krueger, Simon Andrews, Qifeng Zhang, Michael J Wakelam, Andreas Beyer, Wolf Reik, Linda Partridge
BACKGROUND: Dietary restriction (DR), a reduction in food intake without malnutrition, increases most aspects of health during aging and extends lifespan in diverse species, including rodents. However, the mechanisms by which DR interacts with the aging process to improve health in old age are poorly understood. DNA methylation could play an important role in mediating the effects of DR because it is sensitive to the effects of nutrition and can affect gene expression memory over time...
March 28, 2017: Genome Biology
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