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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331496/maternal-betaine-supplementation-attenuates-glucocorticoid-induced-hepatic-lipid-accumulation-through-epigenetic-modification-in-adult-offspring-rats
#1
Nannan Zhao, Shu Yang, Yimin Jia, Bo Sun, Bin He, Ruqian Zhao
There are lots of reports about alleviation of NAFLD by dietary supplements of betaine. However, it remains unclear whether maternal betaine supplementation can also ameliorate NAFLD in offspring. Hence, twenty pregnant rats were fed with a basal diet with or without betaine (1%), and then the female offspring rats were raised at 3 months of age followed by 3 weeks of physiological saline or dexamethasone in a dose of 0.1 mg/kg body mass every day via intraperitoneal injection. In this study, maternal betaine supplementation significantly (P<...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321036/maternal-engineered-nanomaterial-inhalation-during-gestation-alters-the-fetal-transcriptome
#2
P A Stapleton, Q A Hathaway, C E Nichols, A B Abukabda, M V Pinti, D L Shepherd, C R McBride, J Yi, V C Castranova, J M Hollander, T R Nurkiewicz
BACKGROUND: The integration of engineered nanomaterials (ENM) is well-established and widespread in clinical, commercial, and domestic applications. Cardiovascular dysfunctions have been reported in adult populations after exposure to a variety of ENM. As the diversity of these exposures continues to increase, the fetal ramifications of maternal exposures have yet to be determined. We, and others, have explored the consequences of ENM inhalation during gestation and identified many cardiovascular and metabolic outcomes in the F1 generation...
January 10, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302794/evaluation-of-the-neuroprotective-effect-of-sirt3-in-experimental-stroke
#3
Rajkumar Verma, Rodney M Ritzel, Joshua Crapser, Brett D Friedler, Louise D McCullough
Sirtuins (Sirt) are a family of NAD+ dependent histone deacetylase (HDAC) proteins implicated in aging, cell cycle regulation, and metabolism. These proteins are involved in the epigenetic modification of neuromodulatory proteins after strokevia acetylation/deacetylation. The specific role of Sirt3, a mitochondrial sirtuin, in post-stroke injury has been relatively unexplored. Using male Sirt3 knockout (KO) mice and wild-type littermates (WT), we show that Sirt3 KO mice show significant neuroprotection at 3 days after ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) or stroke injury...
January 4, 2018: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302759/regulation-of-the-human-fc-neonatal-receptor-alpha-chain-gene-fcgrt-by-microrna-3181
#4
Daniel C Ferguson, Javier G Blanco
PURPOSE: FCGRT encodes the alpha-chain component of the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn). FcRn is critical for the trafficking of endogenous and exogenous IgG molecules and albumin in various tissues. Few regulators of FcRn expression have been identified. We investigated the epigenetic regulation of FcRn by two microRNAs (hsa-miR-3181 and hsa-miR-3136-3p) acting on FCGRT. METHODS: The binding of candidate microRNAs to the 3'-untranslated region of FCGRT was evaluated using luciferase reporter constructs in CHO cells...
January 4, 2018: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276953/airborne-polycyclic-aromatic-compounds-contribute-to-the-induction-of-the-tumour-suppressing-p53-pathway-in-wild-double-crested-cormorants
#5
S J Wallace, S R de Solla, P J Thomas, T Harner, A Eng, V S Langlois
Polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and PAH-like compounds are known or probable environmental carcinogens released into the environment as a by-product of incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and other organic materials. Studies have shown that exposure to PACs in the environment can induce both genotoxicity and epigenetic toxicity, but few studies have related PAC exposure to molecular changes in free ranging wildlife. Previous work has suggested that double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus; DCCO) exhibited a higher incidence of genetic mutations when their breeding sites were located in heavily industrialized areas (e...
December 22, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276645/abnormal-expression-of-tfiiib-subunits-and-rna-pol-iii-genes-is-associated-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#6
Junxia Lei, Songlin Chen, Shuping Zhong
The levels of the products of RNA polymerase III-dependent genes (Pol III genes), including tRNAs and 5S rRNA, are elevated in transformed and tumor cells, which potentiate tumorigenesis. TFIIB-related factor 1 (Brf1) is a key transcription factor and specifically regulates the transcription of Pol III genes. In vivo and in vitro studies have demonstrated that a decrease in Brf1 reduces Pol III gene transcription and is sufficient for inhibiting cell transformation and tumor formation. Emerging evidence indicates that dysregulation of Brf1 and Pol III genes is linked to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in humans and animals...
September 2017: Liver Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274956/epigenetic-mechanisms-contribute-to-decrease-stearoyl-coa-desaturase-1-expression-in-the-liver-of-dairy-cows-after-prolonged-feeding-of-high-concentrate-diet
#7
T L Xu, H M Seyfert, X Z Shen
Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) of dairy cattle is a widely occurring but not very overt metabolic disorder thought to impair milk composition. The enzyme stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) is rate-limiting for the formation of Δ-9 unsaturated fatty acids and thus crucially involved in controlling lipid metabolism in the liver. It is known that SCD1 expression is downregulated during SARA, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are unknown. To study these mechanisms, we enrolled 12 healthy multiparous mid-lactation Holstein cows into a diet-induced SARA experiment...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237414/isogenic-mice-exhibit-sexually-dimorphic-dna-methylation-patterns-across-multiple-tissues
#8
Helen McCormick, Paul E Young, Suzy S J Hur, Keith Booher, Hunter Chung, Jennifer E Cropley, Eleni Giannoulatou, Catherine M Suter
BACKGROUND: Cytosine methylation is a stable epigenetic modification of DNA that plays an important role in both normal physiology and disease. Most diseases exhibit some degree of sexual dimorphism, but the extent to which epigenetic states are influenced by sex is understudied and poorly understood. To address this deficit we studied DNA methylation patterns across multiple reduced representation bisulphite sequencing datasets (from liver, heart, brain, muscle and spleen) derived from isogenic male and female mice...
December 13, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235098/hepcidin-and-dna-promoter-methylation-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#9
Silvia Udali, Annalisa Castagna, Michela Corbella, Andrea Ruzzenente, Sara Moruzzi, Filippo Mazzi, Tommaso Campagnaro, Domenica De Santis, Antonia Franceschi, Patrizia Pattini, Rossella Gottardo, Oliviero Olivieri, Luigi Perbellini, Alfredo Guglielmi, Sang-Woon Choi, Domenico Girelli, Simonetta Friso
BACKGROUND: The liver hormone hepcidin regulates iron homeostasis that is often altered in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Epigenetic phenomena control gene expression through a dynamic fashion, therefore, considering the plasticity of both iron homeostasis and epigenetic mechanisms and their role in liver carcinogenesis, we investigated whether hepcidin gene (HAMP) expression is modulated by DNA methylation thus affecting iron status in human HCC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-two patients affected by non-viral HCC were enrolled and their main clinical and biochemical characteristics obtained...
December 13, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233692/epigenetic-regulation-of-hibernation-associated-hp-20-and-hp-27-gene-transcription-in-chipmunk-liver
#10
Daisuke Tsukamoto, Michihiko Ito, Nobuhiko Takamatsu
The chipmunk hibernation-related proteins (HPs) HP-20 and HP-27 are components of a 140-kDa complex that dramatically decreases in the blood during hibernation. The HP-20 and HP-27 genes are expressed specifically in the liver and are downregulated in hibernating chipmunks. Hibernation-associated physiological changes are assumed to be under genetic control. Therefore, to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of hibernation, here we examined the mechanisms behind the altered HP-20 and HP-27 gene expression in nonhibernating versus hibernating chipmunks...
December 9, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229400/tumor-necrosis-factor-producing-t-regulatory-cells-are-associated-with-severe-liver-injury-in-patients-with-acute-hepatitis-a
#11
Yoon Seok Choi, Min Kyung Jung, Jeewon Lee, Seong Jin Choi, Sung Hoon Choi, Hyun Woong Lee, Jong-Joo Lee, Hyung Joon Kim, Sang Hoon Ahn, Dong Hyeon Lee, Won Kim, Su-Hyung Park, Jun R Huh, Hyoung-Pyo Kim, Jun Yong Park, Eui-Cheol Shin
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T-regulatory (Treg) cells control immune responses and maintain immune homeostasis. However, under inflammatory conditions, Treg cells produce cytokines that promote inflammation. We investigated production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) by Treg cells in patients with acute hepatitis A (AHA), and examined the characteristics of these cells and association with clinical factors. METHODS: We analyzed blood samples collected from 63 patients with AHA at the time of hospitalization (and some at later time points) and 19 healthy donors in South Korea...
December 8, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228658/dna-methylation-landscape-of-hepatoblastomas-reveals-arrest-at-early-stages-of-liver-differentiation-and-cancer-related-alterations
#12
Mariana Maschietto, Tatiane Cristina Rodrigues, André Yoshiaki Kashiwabara, Érica Sara Souza de Araujo, Talita Ferreira Marques Aguiar, Cecilia Maria Lima da Costa, Isabela Werneck da Cunha, Luciana Dos Reis Vasques, Monica Cypriano, Helena Brentani, Silvia Regina Caminada de Toledo, Peter Lees Pearson, Dirce Maria Carraro, Carla Rosenberg, Ana C V Krepischi
Hepatoblastomas are uncommon embryonal liver tumors accounting for approximately 80% of childhood hepatic cancer. We hypothesized that epigenetic changes, including DNA methylation, could be relevant to hepatoblastoma onset. The methylomes of eight matched hepatoblastomas and non-tumoral liver tissues were characterized, and data were validated in an independent group (11 hepatoblastomas). In comparison to differentiated livers, hepatoblastomas exhibited a widespread and non-stochastic pattern of global low-level hypomethylation...
November 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225734/pdrg1-at-the-interface-between-intermediary-metabolism-and-oncogenesis
#13
REVIEW
María Ángeles Pajares
PDRG1 is a small oncogenic protein of 133 residues. In normal human tissues, the p53 and DNA damage-regulated gene 1 (PDRG1) gene exhibits maximal expression in the testis and minimal levels in the liver. Increased expression has been detected in several tumor cells and in response to genotoxic stress. High-throughput studies identified the PDRG1 protein in a variety of macromolecular complexes involved in processes that are altered in cancer cells. For example, this oncogene has been found as part of the RNA polymerase II complex, the splicing machinery and nutrient sensing machinery, although its role in these complexes remains unclear...
November 26, 2017: World Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217762/sirt6-is-a-target-of-regulation-by-ube3a-that-contributes-to-liver-tumorigenesis-in-an-anxa2-dependent-manner
#14
Saishruti Kohli, Abhishek Bhardwaj, Richa Kumari, Sanjeev Das
UBE3A is an E3 ubiquitin ligase well known for its role in the proteasomal degradation of p53 in human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancers. Here we report that UBE3A ubiquitylates and triggers degradation of the tumor suppressive sirtuin SIRT6 in hepatocellular carcinoma. UBE3A ubiquitylated the highly conserved Lys160 residue on SIRT6. FOXO1-mediated transcriptional repression of UBE3A was sufficient to stabilize SIRT6 and epigenetically repress ANXA2, a key mediator of UBE3A oncogenic function. Thus, UBE3A-mediated SIRT6 degradation promoted the proliferative capacity, migration potential and invasiveness of cells...
December 7, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199597/hepatocellular-carcinoma-and-possible-chemical-and-biological-causes-a-review
#15
Pinar Erkekoglu, Didem Oral, Ming-Wei Chao, Belmar Kocer-Gumusel
The development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a multistep process. In HCC, progressive and morphologically distinct preneoplastic lesions/alterations associated with chronic liver injury, inflammation, hepatocellular degeneration/regeneration, necrosis, and small-cell dysplasia can be observed. The incidence of HCC exhibits regional and ethnic differences. Several cytotoxic and DNA-damaging chemicals are suggested to be the underlying causes of HCC-for example, acrylamide, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs), vinyl chloride monomer (VCM), and dietary contaminants (aflatoxins, ochratoxins)...
2017: Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186975/mammalian-sulfur-amino-acid-metabolism-a-nexus-between-redox-regulation-nutrition-epigenetics-and-detoxification
#16
María Angeles Pajares, Dolores Pérez-Sala
SIGNIFICANCE: Transsulfuration allows conversion of methionine into cysteine using homocysteine as an intermediate. This pathway produces S-adenosylmethionine, a key metabolite for cell function, and provides 50% of the cysteine needed for hepatic glutathione synthesis. The route requires the intake of essential nutrients (e.g. methionine, vitamins) and is regulated by their availability. Transsulfuration presents multiple interconnections with epigenetics, ATP and glutathione synthesis, polyol and pentose phosphate pathways and detoxification that rely mostly in the exchange of substrates or products...
November 30, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171881/rna-n6-methyladenosine-methyltransferase-mettl3-promotes-liver-cancer-progression-through-ythdf2-dependent-post-transcriptional-silencing-of-socs2
#17
Mengnuo Chen, Lai Wei, Cheuk-Ting Law, Felice Ho-Ching Tsang, Jialing Shen, Carol Lai-Hung Cheng, Long-Hin Tsang, Daniel Wai-Hung Ho, David Kung-Chun Chiu, Joyce Man-Fong Lee, Carmen Chak-Lui Wong, Irene Oi-Lin Ng, Chun-Ming Wong
Epigenetic alterations immensely contributed to human carcinogenesis. Conventional epigenetic studies predominantly focused on DNA methylation, histone modifications, and chromatin remodeling. Recently, diverse and reversible chemical modifications on RNAs emerge as a new layer of epigenetic regulation. N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is the most abundant chemical modification on eukaryotic mRNA and is important to the regulation of mRNA stability, splicing, and translation. Using transcriptome sequencing, we discovered that METTL3 (methyltransferase like 3), a major RNA N6-adenosine methyltransferase, was significantly up-regulated in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and multiple solid tumors...
November 24, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164275/dna-methylation-markers-associated-with-type-2-diabetes-fasting-glucose-and-hba1c-levels-a-systematic-review-and-replication-in-a-case-control-sample-of-the-lifelines-study
#18
Eliza Walaszczyk, Mirjam Luijten, Annemieke M W Spijkerman, Marc J Bonder, Helen L Lutgers, Harold Snieder, Bruce H R Wolffenbuttel, Jana V van Vliet-Ostaptchouk
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Epigenetic mechanisms may play an important role in the aetiology of type 2 diabetes. Recent epigenome-wide association studies (EWASs) identified several DNA methylation markers associated with type 2 diabetes, fasting glucose and HbA1c levels. Here we present a systematic review of these studies and attempt to replicate the CpG sites (CpGs) with the most significant associations from these EWASs in a case-control sample of the Lifelines study. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search in PubMed and EMBASE for EWASs to test the association between DNA methylation and type 2 diabetes and/or glycaemic traits and reviewed the search results...
November 21, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159718/genetics-and-epigenetics-in-the-pathogenesis-of-primary-biliary-cholangitis
#19
REVIEW
Satoru Joshita, Takeji Umemura, Eiji Tanaka, Masao Ota
Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a chronic, slowly progressive cholestatic autoimmune liver disease predominantly afflicting women. PBC is characterized by the presence of disease-specific antimitochondrial antibodies and the histological destruction of intrahepatic bile ducts, which eventually lead to cirrhosis and hepatic failure. Fortunately, ursodeoxycholic acid therapy has improved the outcome of the vast majority of PBC cases. Although the etiology of PBC has not yet been elucidated, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II alleles have been consistently associated with disease onset for decades...
November 20, 2017: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158183/serine-prevented-high-fat-diet-induced-oxidative-stress-by-activating-ampk-and-epigenetically-modulating-the-expression-of-glutathione-synthesis-related-genes
#20
Xihong Zhou, Liuqin He, Shengnan Zuo, Yumei Zhang, Dan Wan, Ciming Long, Pan Huang, Canrong Wu, Xin Wu, Gang Liu, Yulong Yin
Serine deficiency has been observed in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Whether serine supplementation has any beneficial effects on the prevention of NAFLD remains unknown. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of serine supplementation on hepatic oxidative stress and steatosis and its related mechanisms. Forty male C57BL/6J mice (9week-old) were randomly assigned into four groups (n=10) and fed: i) a low-fat diet; ii) a low-fat diet supplemented with 1% (wt:vol) serine; iii) a high-fat (HF) diet; and iv) a HF diet supplemented with 1% serine, respectively...
November 17, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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