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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922721/hydroalcoholic-extract-of-stevia-rebaudiana-bert-leaves-and-stevioside-ameliorates-lipopolysaccharide-induced-acute-liver-injury-in-rats
#1
Latha S, Sheetal Chaudhary, Ray R S
Oxidative stress and hepatic inflammatory response is primarily implicated in the pathogenesis of LPS induced acute liver injury. Stevioside, a diterpenoidal glycoside isolated from the Stevia rebaudiana leaves, exerts potent anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities. The present study was aimed to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Stevia rebaudiana leaves (STE EXT) and its major phytochemical constituent, stevioside (STE) in LPS induced acute liver injury...
September 13, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922459/therapeutic-plasma-exchange-in-the-treatment-of-complicated-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-a-case-report
#2
Tsong-Yih Ou, Cheng-Yen Chuang, Chun-Da Chen, Chung-Yi Cheng
Severe falciparum malaria is associated with multiple organ dysfunction and a high rate of fatal outcome. Malaria is a world-wide disease in tropical areas through the bites of vector mosquitoes. Parasitic protozoans introduced by the mosquito's saliva to the blood travel to the liver then mature and reproduce. In humans, malaria is caused by Plasmodium falciparum, P. malariae, P. ovale, P. vivax, and P. knowlesi, and P. falciparum causes most deaths. Typical malaria symptoms include fever, chills, fatigue, headache, nausea, and vomiting...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Apheresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922438/endocan-serum-levels-in-patients-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-with-or-without-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-pilot-study
#3
Marcello Dallio, Mario Masarone, Giuseppe Gerardo Caprio, Rosa Di Sarno, Concetta Tuccillo, Ferdinando Carlo Sasso, Marcello Persico, Carmela Loguercio, Alessandro Federico
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is emerging as an independent cardiovascular risk factor. Recently, Endocan has been studied as an early marker of endothelial dysfunction. Our aim was to evaluate Endocan serum levels in patients with NAFLD with or without type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHOD: We enrolled 56 patients: 19 with NAFLD and 37 with type 2 diabetes mellitus with or without NAFLD, and compared them to 25 healthy controls. Endocan serum level was measured by using the ELISA EndoMark assay...
September 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases: JGLD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922300/recent-advances-in-the-field-of-warm-ex-vivo-liver-perfusion
#4
Dagmar Kollmann, Markus Selzner
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Organ shortage remains a major obstacle for liver transplantation, resulting in an increased mortality on the liver transplant waiting list. The usage of extended criteria donors (ECD) is a strategy to increase the number of available donor organs, however, with the risk of a higher rate of posttransplant graft dysfunction. Novel preservation strategies, such as warm ex-vivo liver perfusion, could improve the outcome of liver transplantation with ECD grafts. The present review summarizes the advances in the field of warm ex-vivo liver perfusion over the last 12 months...
September 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921803/the-pathophysiology-of-arterial-vasodilatation-and-hyperdynamic-circulation-in-cirrhosis
#5
Søren Møller, Flemming Bendtsen
Patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension often develop complications from a variety of organ systems leading to a multiple organ failure. The combination of liver failure and portal hypertension result in a hyperdynamic circulatory state partly owing to simultaneous splanchnic and peripheral arterial vasodilatation. Increases in circulatory vasodilators are believed to be due to portosystemic shunting and bacterial translocation leading to redistribution of the blood volume with central hypovolemia. Portal hypertension per se and increased splanchnic blood flow are mainly responsible for the development and perpetuation of the hyperdynamic circulation and the associated changes in cardiovascular function with development of cirrhotic cardiomyopathy, autonomic dysfunction, and renal dysfunction as part of a cardiorenal syndrome...
September 16, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920160/preoperative-albumin-bilirubin-grade-predicts-recurrences-after-radical-gastrectomy-in-patients-with-pt2-4-gastric-cancer
#6
Mitsuro Kanda, Chie Tanaka, Daisuke Kobayashi, Hiroaki Uda, Kenichi Inaoka, Yuri Tanaka, Masamichi Hayashi, Naoki Iwata, Suguru Yamada, Tsutomu Fujii, Hiroyuki Sugimoto, Kenta Murotani, Michitaka Fujiwara, Yasuhiro Kodera
BACKGROUND: The albumin-bilirubin (ALBI) score was initially developed for assessing liver dysfunction severity and was suggested to have prognostic value in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. We aimed to evaluate the prognostic impact of ALBI grade in patients with advanced gastric cancer (GC) after radical gastrectomy. METHODS: This study included 283 patients who underwent radical gastrectomy for pT2-4 GC without preoperative treatment. ALBI was calculated as follows: (log10 bilirubin (μmol/L) × 0...
September 18, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919386/comparison-of-lacosamide-versus-sodium-valproate-in-status-epilepticus-a-pilot-study
#7
Usha K Misra, Deepanshu Dubey, Jayantee Kalita
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of lacosamide (LCM) and sodium valproate (SVA) in lorazepam (LOR)-resistant SE. METHODS: Patients with LOR-resistant SE were randomized to intravenous LCM 400mg at the rate of 60mg/kg/min or SVA 30mg/kg at the rate of 100mg/min. The SE severity score (STESS), duration of SE and its etiology, and MRI findings were noted. Primary outcome was seizure cessation for 1h, and secondary outcomes were 24h seizure remission, in-hospital death, and severe adverse events (SAE)...
September 14, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918389/glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonists-for-the-management-of-obesity-and-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-novel-therapeutic-option
#8
REVIEW
Gauri Dhir, Kenneth Cusi
Obesity is a major risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and is associated with a cluster of metabolic factors that lead to poor cardiovascular outcomes. In non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), liver fat (triglyceride) accumulation closely mirrors adipose tissue dysfunction and insulin resistance in obesity and T2DM. It is now recognized as the most common chronic liver disease in Westernized societies, often progressing to more severe forms of the disease such as nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), or cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918138/characterizing-effects-of-feed-restriction-and-glucagon-like-peptide-2-administration-on-biomarkers-of-inflammation-and-intestinal-morphology
#9
S K Kvidera, E A Horst, M V Sanz Fernandez, M Abuajamieh, S Ganesan, P J Gorden, H B Green, K M Schoenberg, W E Trout, A F Keating, L H Baumgard
Inadequate feed consumption reduces intestinal barrier function in both ruminants and monogastrics. Objectives were to characterize how progressive feed restriction (FR) affects inflammation, metabolism, and intestinal morphology, and to investigate if glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP2) administration influences the aforementioned responses. Twenty-eight Holstein cows (157 ± 9 d in milk) were enrolled in 2 experimental periods. Period 1 [5 d of ad libitum (AL) feed intake] served as baseline for period 2 (5 d), during which cows received 1 of 6 treatments: (1) 100% of AL feed intake (AL100; n = 3), (2) 80% of AL feed intake (n = 5), (3) 60% of AL feed intake (n = 5), (4) 40% of AL feed intake (AL40; n = 5), (5) 40% of AL feed intake + GLP2 administration (AL40G; 75 µg/kg of BW s...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915690/efficacy-and-safety-of-a-reduced-calcineurin-inhibitor-dose-combined-with-mycophenolate-mofetil-in-liver-transplant-patients-with-chronic-renal-dysfunction
#10
Pusen Wang, Weitao Que, Hao Li, Lvnan Yan, Zhiren Fu, Qifa Ye, Guihua Chen, Kefeng Dou, Shichun Lu, Zhanyu Yang, Zhijun Zhu, Zhihai Peng, Lin Zhong
Calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) are frequently given at a reduced dose in combination with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) to avoid nephrotoxicity, but the optimal reduction in CNI dose has not been established. In this prospective, open-label, multicenter study, liver transplant recipients with chronic renal dysfunction who were administered a CNI-based immunosuppressive regimen were included in the intent-to-treat (ITT) population. The primary endpoint was declination in renal function, which was defined as a ≥ 20% decrease in the glomerular filtration rate during the year following regimen adjustment...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915665/the-ketogenic-diet-is-not-feasible-as-a-therapy-in-a-cd-1-nu-nu-mouse-model-of-renal-cell-carcinoma-with-features-of-stauffer-s-syndrome
#11
Silvia Vidali, Sepideh Aminzadeh-Gohari, René Günther Feichtinger, Renaud Vatrinet, Andreas Koller, Felix Locker, Tricia Rutherford, Maura O'Donnell, Andrea Stöger-Kleiber, Bridget Lambert, Thomas Klaus Felder, Wolfgang Sperl, Barbara Kofler
The ketogenic diet (KD), a high-fat low-carbohydrate diet, has shown some efficacy in the treatment of certain types of tumors such as brain tumors and neuroblastoma. These tumors are characterized by the Warburg effect. Because renal cell carcinoma (RCC) presents similar energetic features as neuroblastoma, KD might also be effective in the treatment of RCC. To test this, we established xenografts with RCC 786-O cells in CD-1 nu/nu mice and then randomized them to a control diet or to KDs with different triglyceride contents...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915647/necroptosis-as-a-potential-therapeutic-target-in-multiple-organ-dysfunction-syndrome
#12
Yao-Li Cui, Li-Hua Qiu, Shi-Yong Zhou, Lan-Fang Li, Zheng-Zi Qian, Xian-Ming Liu, Hui-Lai Zhang, Xiu-Bao Ren, Yong-Qiang Wang
PURPOSE: To investigate how necroptosisis, i.e. programmed necrosis, is involved in MODS, and to examine whether Nec-1, a specific necroptosis inhibitor, ameliorates multiorgan injury in MODS. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A model of MODS was established in six-week old SD rats using fracture trauma followed by hemorrhage. Control animals received sham surgery. Cell death form and necrosome formation were measured by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and western blotting...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914714/radiologically-undetected-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-patients-undergoing-liver-transplantation-an-immunohistochemical-correlation-with-li-rads-score
#13
Wei Xiong, Gregory Cheeney, Sooah Kim, Violetta Kolesnikova, Brooke Henninger, Jacob Alexander, Paul E Swanson, Melissa P Upton, Camtu D Truong, Matthew M Yeh
Orthotopic liver transplantation is the best option for patients with carefully selected unresectable disease because of underlying liver dysfunction. The 5-year survival rate after orthotopic liver transplantation for early detected hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is high, and a similar or even higher rate is reported in those with radiologically undetected HCC. This study evaluated and compared the histologic features of pretransplant radiologically undetected (14 patients, 25 tumors) versus detected (36 patients, 45 tumors) HCCs...
September 13, 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911947/albumin-prevents-infections-in-patients-with-chronic-liver-failure-in-a-single-arm-feasibility-trial
#14
Louise China, Simon S Skene, Zainib Shabir, Alexander Maini, Yvonne Sylvestre, Kate Bennett, Scott Bevan, James O'Beirne, Ewan Forrest, Jim Portal, Steve Ryder, Gavin Wright, Derek W Gilroy, Alastair O'Brien
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Infections are life threatening to patients with acute decompensation and acute-on-chronic liver failure (AD/ACLF). Patients with AD/ACLF have prostaglandin E2-mediated immune suppression, which can be reversed by administration of albumin; infusion of 20% human albumin solution (HAS) might improve outcomes of infections. We performed a feasibility study to determine optimal trial design, assess safety, and validate laboratory assessments of immune function to inform design of a phase 3 trial...
September 11, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911175/hyperandrogenemia-induced-by-letrozole-treatment-of-pubertal-female-mice-results-in-hyperinsulinemia-prior-to-weight-gain-and-insulin-resistance
#15
Danalea V Skarra, Angelina Hernández-Carretero, Alissa J Rivera, Arya R Anvar, Varykina G Thackray
Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) diagnosed with hyperandrogenism and ovulatory dysfunction have an increased risk of developing metabolic disorders, including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We previously developed a model that uses letrozole to elevate endogenous testosterone levels in female mice. This model has hallmarks of PCOS, including hyperandrogenism, anovulation, and polycystic ovaries, as well as increased abdominal adiposity and glucose intolerance. In the current study, we further characterized the metabolic dysfunction that occurs after letrozole treatment to determine whether this model represents a PCOS-like metabolic phenotype...
September 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911167/in-utero-exposure-to-a-high-fat-diet-programs-hepatic-hypermethylation-and-gene-dysregulation-and-development-of-metabolic-syndrome-in-male-mice
#16
Yoshinori Seki, Masako Suzuki, Xingyi Guo, Alan Scott Glenn, Patricia M Vuguin, Ariana Fiallo, Quan Du, Yi-An Ko, Yiting Yu, Katalin Susztak, Deyou Zheng, John M Greally, Ellen B Katz, Maureen J Charron
Exposure to a high-fat (HF) diet in utero is associated with increased incidence of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome later in life. However, the molecular basis of this enhanced susceptibility for metabolic disease is poorly understood. Gene expression microarray and genome-wide DNA methylation analyses of mouse liver revealed that exposure to a maternal HF milieu activated genes of immune response, inflammation, and hepatic dysfunction. DNA methylation analysis revealed 3360 differentially methylated loci, most of which (76%) were hypermethylated and distributed preferentially to hotspots on chromosomes 4 [atherosclerosis susceptibility quantitative trait loci (QTLs) 1] and 18 (insulin-dependent susceptibility QTLs 21)...
September 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910310/gugulipid-causes-hypercholesterolemia-leading-to-endothelial-dysfunction-increased-atherosclerosis-and-premature-death-by-ischemic-heart-disease-in-male-mice
#17
Andrea Leiva, Susana Contreras-Duarte, Ludwig Amigo, Esteban Sepúlveda, Mauricio Boric, Verónica Quiñones, Dolores Busso, Attilio Rigotti
For proper cholesterol metabolism, normal expression and function of scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI), a high-density lipoprotein (HDL) receptor, is required. Among the factors that regulate overall cholesterol homeostasis and HDL metabolism, the nuclear farnesoid X receptor plays an important role. Guggulsterone, a bioactive compound present in the natural product gugulipid, is an antagonist of this receptor. This natural product is widely used globally as a natural lipid-lowering agent, although its anti-atherogenic cardiovascular benefit in animal models or humans is unknown...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904297/sex-differences-in-the-excretion-levels-of-traditional-and-novel-urinary-biomarkers-of-nephrotoxicity-in-rats
#18
Satoshi Tsuji, Masayuki Sugiura, Shunsuke Tsutsumi, Hisaharu Yamada
Urinary biomarkers have been used widely in preclinical toxicity studies to detect dysfunctions and injuries of the kidney caused by drugs under development. While they have been well studied for evaluating nephrotoxicity, knowledge of sex differences in excretion levels of urinary biomarkers remains inadequate. We conducted experiments focused on effects of endogenous sex hormones on urinary biomarkers using intact and castrated male and female rats. Comparisons of the urinary biomarker excretion levels between intact male and female rats at 5, 7, 9 and 12 weeks of age revealed higher excretion levels of leucine aminopeptidase (LAP), γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (γGTP), total protein, liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP), cystatin C (Cys-C) and β2-microglobulin (β2-MG), and lower excretion level of kidney injury molecule 1 (Kim-1), in male rats as compared to female rats...
2017: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903312/gnp-gapdh1-22-nanovaccines-prevent-neonatal-listeriosis-by-blocking-microglial-apoptosis-and-bacterial-dissemination
#19
Ricardo Calderon-Gonzalez, Elisabet Frande-Cabanes, Hector Teran-Navarro, José María Marimon, Javier Freire, David Salcines-Cuevas, M Carmen Fariñas, Claudia Onzalez-Rico, Marco Marradi, Isabel Garcia, Mirian Alkorta-Gurrutxaga, Aida San Nicolas-Gomez, Ana Castañeda-Sampedro, Sonsoles Yañez-Diaz, Soledad Penades, Carmen Punzon, Javier Gomez-Roman, Fernando Rivera, Manuel Fresno, Carmen Alvarez-Dominguez
Clinical cases of neonatal listeriosis are associated with brain disease and fetal loss due to complications in early or late pregnancy, which suggests that microglial function is altered. This is believed to be the first study to link microglial apoptosis with neonatal listeriosis and listeriosis-associated brain disease, and to propose a new nanovaccine formulation that reverses all effects of listeriosis and confers Listeria monocytogenes (LM)-specific immunity. We examined clinical cases of neonatal listeriosis in 2013-2015 and defined two useful prognostic immune biomarkers to design listeriosis vaccines: high anti-GAPDH1-22 titres and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)/interleukin (IL)-6 ratios...
August 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900784/liver-involvement-in-urea-cycle-disorders-a-review-of-the-literature
#20
REVIEW
Adrien Bigot, Michel C Tchan, Benjamin Thoreau, Hélène Blasco, François Maillot
Urea cycle disorders (UCDs) are inborn errors of metabolism of the nitrogen detoxification pathway and encompass six principal enzymatic deficiencies. The aging of UCD patients leads to a better knowledge of the long-term natural history of the condition and to the reporting of previously unnoticed manifestations. Despite historical evidence of liver involvement in UCDs, little attention has been paid to this organ until recently. Hence, we reviewed the available scientific evidence on acute and chronic liver dysfunction and liver carcinogenesis in UCDs and discuss their pathophysiology...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
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