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Cardiac remodelling

Martin J MacInnis, Martin J Gibala
Interval exercise typically involves repeated bouts of relatively intense exercise interspersed by short periods of recovery. A common classification scheme subdivides this method into high-intensity interval training (HIIT; 'near maximal' efforts) and sprint interval training (SIT; 'supramaximal' efforts). Both forms of interval training induce the classic physiological adaptations characteristic of moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) such as increased aerobic capacity (VO2max ) and mitochondrial content...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Pavel Osmancik, Anna Louckova
BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) belongs to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. AIM: The aim of the review is to evaluate available literature on biomarkers of apoptosis, extracellular matrix remodelling, and recently established markers of inflammation in patients with HF. METHODS: Using the search words "Fas, "TRAIL", "apoptosis", "heart failure", "galectin-2, "ST-2", "metaloproteinase", "TGF- β1", "prognosis", "coronary artery diseases", and "dilated cardiomyopathy", a search was carried out...
October 17, 2016: Kardiologia Polska
Malina J Ivey, Michelle D Tallquist
Cardiac fibrosis remains an important health concern, but the study of fibroblast biology has been hindered by a lack of effective means for identifying and tracking fibroblasts. Recent advances in fibroblast-specific lineage tags and reporters have permitted a better understanding of these cells. After injury, multiple cell types have been implicated as the source for extracellular matrix-producing cells, but emerging studies suggest that resident cardiac fibroblasts contribute substantially to the remodeling process...
October 14, 2016: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
Rugmani Padmanabhan Iyer, Lisandra E de Castro Brás, Nicolle L Patterson, Manishabrata Bhowmick, Elizabeth R Flynn, Majdouline Asher, Presley L Cannon, Kristine Y Deleon-Pennell, Gregg B Fields, Merry L Lindsey
Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is robustly elevated in the first week post-myocardial infarction (MI). Targeted deletion of the MMP-9 gene attenuates cardiac remodeling post-MI by reducing macrophage infiltration and collagen accumulation through increased apoptosis and reduced inflammation. In this study, we used a translational experimental design to determine whether selective MMP-9 inhibition early post-MI would be an effective therapeutic strategy in mice. We enrolled male C57BL/6J mice (3-6months old, n=116) for this study...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
Mark V Pinti, Quincy A Hathaway, John M Hollander
Heart failure (HF) is an endpoint resulting from a number of disease states. The prognosis for HF patients is poor with survival rates precipitously low. Energy metabolism is centrally linked to the development of HF and it involves the proteomic remodeling of numerous pathways, many of which are targeted to the mitochondrion. MicroRNA (miRNA) are noncoding RNAs that influence post-transcriptional gene regulation. MiRNA have garnered considerable attention for their ability to orchestrate changes to the transcriptome and ultimately the proteome, during HF...
October 14, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Julio A Chirinos, Scott R Akers, Lien Trieu, Harry Ischiropoulos, Paschalis-Thomas Doulias, Ali Tariq, Izzah Vassim, Maheswara R Koppula, Amer Ahmed Syed, Haideliza Soto-Calderon, Raymond R Townsend, Thomas P Cappola, Kenneth B Margulies, Payman Zamani
BACKGROUND: Stable plasma nitric oxide (NO) metabolites (NOM), composed predominantly of nitrate and nitrite, are attractive biomarkers of NO bioavailability. NOM levels integrate the influence of NO-synthase-derived NO production/metabolism, dietary intake of inorganic nitrate/nitrite, and clearance of NOM. Furthermore, nitrate and nitrite, the most abundant NOM, can be reduced to NO via the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway. METHODS AND RESULTS: We compared serum NOM among subjects without heart failure (n=126), subjects with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF; n=43), and subjects with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF; n=32)...
October 14, 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
Sebastian Johannes Reinstadler, Hans-Josef Feistritzer, Martin Reindl, Gert Klug, Agnes Mayr, Johannes Mair, Werner Jaschke, Bernhard Metzler
OBJECTIVE: The utility of different biomarkers for the prediction of left ventricular remodelling (LVR) following ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) has been evaluated in several studies. However, very few data exist on the prognostic value of combined biomarkers. The aim of this study was to comprehensively investigate the prognostic value for LVR of routinely available biomarkers measured after reperfused STEMI. METHODS: Serial measurements of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and high-sensitivity C reactive protein (hs-CRP) were performed in 123 patients with STEMI treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention in this prospective observational study...
2016: Open Heart
James Wever-Pinzon, Craig H Selzman, Greg Stoddard, Omar Wever-Pinzon, Anna Catino, Abdallah G Kfoury, Nikolaos A Diakos, Bruce B Reid, Stephen McKellar, Michael Bonios, Antigone Koliopoulou, Deborah Budge, Aaron Kelkhoff, Josef Stehlik, James C Fang, Stavros G Drakos
BACKGROUND: Small-scale studies focused mainly on nonischemic cardiomyopathy (NICM) have shown that a subset of left ventricular assist device (LVAD) patients can achieve significant improvement of their native heart function, but the impact of ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) has not been specifically investigated. Many patients with acute myocardial infarction are discharged from their index hospitalization without heart failure (HF), only to return much later with overt HF syndrome, mainly caused by chronic remodeling of the noninfarcted region of the myocardium...
October 18, 2016: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Vishal R Mali, Guodong Pan, Mandar Deshpande, Rajarajan A Thandavarayan, Jiang Xu, Xiao-Ping Yang, Suresh S Palaniyandi
Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) 2 is a mitochondrial isozyme of the heart involved in the metabolism of toxic aldehydes produced from oxidative stress. We hypothesized that hyperglycemia-mediated decrease in ALDH2 activity may impair mitochondrial respiration and ultimately result in cardiac damage. A single dose (65 mg/kg; i.p.) streptozotocin injection to rats resulted in hyperglycemia with blood glucose levels of 443 ± 9 mg/dl versus 121 ± 7 mg/dl in control animals, p<0.0001, N = 7-11. After 6 months of diabetes mellitus (DM) induction, the rats were sacrificed after recording the functionality of their hearts...
2016: PloS One
V A Nevzorova, E A Kochetkova, L G Ugai, Yu V Maistrovskaya, E A Khludeeva
AIM: To define the role of circulating biomarkers for the metabolism of collagen and intercellular substance and vascular remodeling in the development of osteoporosis (OP) in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Functional hemodynamic parameters, bone mineral density (BMD) in the lumbar spine and femoral neck and the serum levels of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), MMP-9/TIMP-1 complex, C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type 1 (CITP), and endothelin-1 (ET-1) were determined in 27 high-risk IPAH patients and 30 healthy volunteers...
2016: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
J Patrick Gonzalez, Sergii Kyrychenko, Victoria Kyrychenko, Joel S Schneider, Celine J Granier, Eric Himelman, Kevin Lahey, Qingshi Zhao, Ghassan Yehia, Yuan-Xiang Tao, Mantu Bhaumik, Natalia Shirokova, Diego Fraidenraich
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is characterized by the loss of the protein dystrophin, leading to muscle fragility, progressive weakening, and susceptibility to mechanical stress. Although dystrophin-negative mdx mouse models have classically been used to study DMD, phenotypes appear mild compared to patients. As a result, characterization of muscle pathology, especially in the heart, has proven difficult. We report that injection of mdx embryonic stem cells (ESCs) into Wild Type (WT) blastocysts produces adult mouse chimeras with severe DMD phenotypes in the heart and skeletal muscle...
October 13, 2016: Stem Cells
Xi Fang, Matthew J Stroud, Kunfu Ouyang, Li Fang, Jianlin Zhang, Nancy D Dalton, Yusu Gu, Tongbin Wu, Kirk L Peterson, Hsien-Da Huang, Ju Chen, Nanping Wang
Adipose tissue is a key endocrine organ that governs systemic homeostasis. PPARγ is a master regulator of adipose tissue signaling that plays an essential role in insulin sensitivity, making it an important therapeutic target. The selective PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone (RSG) has been used to treat diabetes. However, adverse cardiovascular effects have seriously hindered its clinical application. Experimental models have revealed that PPARγ activation increases cardiac hypertrophy. RSG stimulates cardiac hypertrophy and oxidative stress in cardiomyocyte-specific PPARγ knockout mice, implying that RSG might stimulate cardiac hypertrophy independently of cardiomyocyte PPARγ...
October 6, 2016: JCI Insight
Michael Bennardo, Faisal J Alibhai, Elena V Tsimakouridze, Nirmala Chinnappareddy, Peter Podobed, Cristine J Reitz, W Glen Pyle, Jeremy A Simpson, Tami A Martino
Diurnal or circadian rhythms are fundamentally important for healthy cardiovascular physiology, and play a role in timing of onset and tolerance to myocardial infarction (MI) in patients. Whether time of day of MI triggers different molecular and cellular responses that can influence myocardial remodelling is not known. This study was designed to test whether time of day of MI triggers different gene expression, humoral, and innate inflammatory responses that contribute to cardiac repair after MI. Mice were infarcted by left anterior descending coronary artery ligation (MI model) within a 2 hour time window either shortly after lights on or lights off, and the early remodelling responses at 8 hours post infarction were examined...
October 12, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Baoling Zhu, Kai Liu, Chengzhi Yang, Yuhui Qiao, Zijian Li
Cardiac remodeling is the pathological basis of various cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we found gender-related differences in β-adrenergic receptor (AR)-mediated pathological cardiac remodeling. Cardiac remodeling model was established by subcutaneous injection of isoprenaline (ISO) for 14 days. Heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and echocardiography were obtained on 7th and 14th days during ISO administration. Myocardial cross-sectional area and the ratio of heart mass to tibia length (HM/TL) were detected to assess cardiac hypertrophy...
August 7, 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Kristen Kokkonen, David A Kass
Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) form an 11-member superfamily comprising 100 different isoforms that regulate the second messengers cyclic adenosine or guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP or cGMP). These PDE isoforms differ with respect to substrate selectivity and their localized control of cAMP and cGMP within nanodomains that target specific cellular pools and synthesis pathways for the cyclic nucleotides. Seven PDE family members are physiologically relevant to regulating cardiac function, disease remodeling of the heart, or both: PDE1 and PDE2, both dual-substrate (cAMP and cGMP) esterases; PDE3, PDE4, and PDE8, which principally hydrolyze cAMP; and PDE5A and PDE9A, which target cGMP...
October 12, 2016: Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology
Constantin von Deuster, Eva Sammut, Liya Asner, David Nordsletten, Pablo Lamata, Christian T Stoeck, Sebastian Kozerke, Reza Razavi
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study is to assess the dynamic alterations of myocardial microstructure and strain between diastole and systole in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy relative to healthy controls using the magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging, myocardial tagging, and biomechanical modeling. METHODS AND RESULTS: Dual heart-phase diffusion tensor imaging was successfully performed in 9 patients and 9 controls. Tagging data were acquired for the diffusion tensor strain correction and cardiac motion analysis...
October 2016: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
Jingrui Chen, Wenjie Cao, Patrick Fordjour Asare, Ming Lv, Zhu Yan, Lan Li, Jing Wei, Hui Gao, Han Zhang, Haoping Mao, Xiumei Gao, Guanwei Fan
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Danhong injection (DHI) is a standardized product extracted from Radix et Rhizoma Salviae Miltiorrhizae and Flos Carthami ,which has been long applied mainly used to treat ischemic encephalopathy and cardiac diseases including myocardial infarction and angina in clinical practice. AIM OF THE STUDY: Aim of this study was to investigate the salutary effects of DHI by slowing ventricular remodeling and improving cardiac function after myocardial infarction (MI) in rats...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Jacqueline K Andersen, Ingvild Oma, Richard A Prayson, Ingjerd Lien Kvelstad, Sven Martin Almdahl, Morten Wang Fagerland, Ivana Hollan
BACKGROUND: The cause of premature cardiovascular disease (CVD) in inflammatory rheumatic diseases (IRDs) has not been fully elucidated. As inflammation may play a role, we wanted to compare the occurrence and extent of inflammatory cell infiltrates (ICIs), small vessel vasculitis, and the amount of adipose tissue and collagen in cardiac biopsies taken from patients with coronary artery disease with and without IRDs. METHODS: From among the Feiring Heart Biopsy Study subjects, we selected patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting from whom paraffin-embedded, formalin-fixed specimens from the right atrium were available...
October 12, 2016: Arthritis Research & Therapy
Shweta R Motiwala, Hanna K Gaggin
Left ventricular remodeling appears to be a critical link between cardiac injury and the development and progression of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Several drug and device therapies that modify and reverse the remodeling process in patients with HFrEF are closely associated with improvement in clinical outcomes. Reverse remodeling, including partial or complete recovery of systolic function and structure, is possible but its determinants are incompletely understood. Methods to predict reverse remodeling in response to therapy are not well defined...
October 10, 2016: Current Heart Failure Reports
Bin Yang, Ping Yan, Hui Gong, Lin Zuo, Ying Shi, Jian Guo, Rui Guo, Jun Xie, Bao Li
Myocyte apoptosis is a key determinant of cardiac recovery and prognosis of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK), a member of TNF superfamily, is a pro-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic cytokine implicated in physiological tissue regeneration and wound repair and is closely related to cardiac remodeling, dysfunction and fibrosis. However, the role of TWEAK and its receptor Fn14 in the cardiomyocyte apoptosis is still poorly understood...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
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