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Cardiac remodelling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161309/dronedarone-produces-early-regression-of-myocardial-remodelling-in-structural-heart-disease
#1
Begoña Quintana-Villamandos, Jose Juan Gomez de Diego, María Jesús Delgado-Martos, David Muñoz-Valverde, María Luisa Soto-Montenegro, Manuel Desco, Emilio Delgado-Baeza
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in hypertension is associated with a greater risk of sustained supraventricular/atrial arrhythmias. Dronedarone is an antiarrhythmic agent that was recently approved for the treatment of atrial fibrillation. However, its effect on early regression of LVH has not been reported. We tested the hypothesis that short-term administration of dronedarone induces early regression of LVH in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). METHODS: Ten-month-old male SHRs were randomly assigned to an intervention group (SHR-D), where animals received dronedarone treatment (100 mg/kg) for a period of 14 days, or to a control group (SHR) where rats were given vehicle...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159313/fibrosis-and-atrial-fibrillation-computerized-and-optical-mapping-a-view-into-the-human-atria-at-submillimeter-resolution
#2
Brian J Hansen, Jichao Zhao, Vadim V Fedorov
Recent studies strongly suggest that the majority of atrial fibrillation (AF) patients with diagnosed or subclinical cardiac diseases have established or even pre-existing fibrotic structural remodeling, which may lead to conduction abnormalities and reentrant activity that sustain AF. As conventional treatments fail to treat AF in far too many cases, an urgent need exists to identify specific structural arrhythmogenic fibrosis patterns, which may maintain AF, in order to identify effective ablation targets for AF treatment...
June 2017: JACC. Clinical Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158523/treatment-of-myocardial-infarction-with-gene-modified-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-a-small-molecular-hydrogel
#3
Zhiye Wu, Guoqin Chen, Jianwu Zhang, Yongquan Hua, Jinliang Li, Bei Liu, Anqing Huang, Hekai Li, Minsheng Chen, Caiwen Ou
The effect of transplanted rat mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be reduced by extracellular microenvironment in myocardial infarction (MI). We tested a novel small-molecular hydrogel (SMH) on whether it could provide a scaffold for hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-modified MSCs and alleviate ventricular remodeling while preserving cardiac function after MI. Overexpression of HGF in MSCs increased Bcl-2 and reduced Bax and caspase-3 levels in response to hypoxia in vitro. Immunocytochemistry demonstrated that cardiac troponin (cTnT), desmin and connexin 43 expression were significantly enhanced in the 5-azacytidine (5-aza) with SMH group compared with the 5-aza only group in vitro and in vivo...
November 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158499/cardiac-myocyte-mir-29-promotes-pathological-remodeling-of-the-heart-by-activating-wnt-signaling
#4
Yassine Sassi, Petros Avramopoulos, Deepak Ramanujam, Laurenz Grüter, Stanislas Werfel, Simon Giosele, Andreas-David Brunner, Dena Esfandyari, Aikaterini S Papadopoulou, Bart De Strooper, Norbert Hübner, Regalla Kumarswamy, Thomas Thum, Xiaoke Yin, Manuel Mayr, Bernhard Laggerbauer, Stefan Engelhardt
Chronic cardiac stress induces pathologic hypertrophy and fibrosis of the myocardium. The microRNA-29 (miR-29) family has been found to prevent excess collagen expression in various organs, particularly through its function in fibroblasts. Here, we show that miR-29 promotes pathologic hypertrophy of cardiac myocytes and overall cardiac dysfunction. In a mouse model of cardiac pressure overload, global genetic deletion of miR-29 or antimiR-29 infusion prevents cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis and improves cardiac function...
November 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158256/heart-failure-induced-activation-of-phospholipase-ipla2%C3%AE-%C3%A2-generates-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic-acids-opening-the-mitochondrial-permeability-transition-pore
#5
Sung Ho Moon, Xinping Liu, Ari M Cedars, Kui Yang, Michael A Kiebish, Susan M Joseph, John Kelley, Christopher M Jenkins, Richard W Gross
Congestive heart failure typically arises from cardiac myocyte necrosis/apoptosis, associated with the pathological opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP). mPTP opening decreases the mitochondrial membrane potential leading to the activation of Ca(2+)-independent phospholipase A2γ (iPLA2γ) and the production of downstream toxic metabolites. However, the array of enzymatic mediators and the exact chemical mechanisms responsible for modulating myocardial mPTP opening remain unclear...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158033/resident-fibroblast-expansion-during-cardiac-growth-and-remodeling
#6
Malina J Ivey, Jill T Kuwabara, Jonathan T Pai, Richard E Moore, Zuyue Sun, Michelle D Tallquist
Cardiac fibrosis, denoted by the deposition of extracellular matrix, manifests with a variety of diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, and myocardial infarction. Underlying this pathological extracellular matrix secretion is an expansion of fibroblasts. The mouse is now a common experimental model system for the study of cardiovascular remodeling and elucidation of fibroblast responses to cardiac growth and stress is vital for understanding disease processes. Here, using diverse but fibroblast specific markers, we report murine fibroblast distribution and proliferation in early postnatal, adult, and injured hearts...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158000/functional-genomic-fabrics-are-remodeled-in-a-mouse-model-of-chagasic-cardiomyopathy-and-restored-following-cell-therapy
#7
Dumitru A Iacobas, Sanda Iacobas, Herbert B Tanowitz, Antonio Campos de Carvalho, David C Spray
We previously found that, in a mouse model of Chagas cardiomyopathy (CCC), 18% of the 9390 quantified unigenes were significantly regulated by Trypanosoma cruzi infection. However, treatment with bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (MNCs) resulted in 84% transcriptomic recovery. We have applied new algorithms to reanalyze these datasets with respect to specific pathways [CCC, cardiac muscle contraction (CMC) and chemokine signaling (CCS)]. In addition to the levels of expression of individual genes we also calculated gene expression variability and coordination of expression of each gene with all others...
November 17, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157081/regulation-of-becn1-mediated-autophagy-by-hspb6-insights-from-a-human-hspb6-s10f-mutant
#8
Guan-Sheng Liu, Hongyan Zhu, Wen-Feng Cai, Xiaohong Wang, Min Jiang, Kobina Essandoh, Elizabeth Vafiadaki, Kobra Haghighi, Chi Keung Lam, George Gardner, George Adly, Persoulla Nicolaou, Despina Sanoudou, Qiangrong Liang, Jack Rubinstein, Guo-Chang Fan, Evangelia G Kranias
HSPB6/Hsp20 (heat shock protein family B [small] member 6) has emerged as a novel cardioprotector against stress-induced injury. We identified a human mutant of HSPB6 (HSPB6(S10F)) exclusively present in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) patients. Cardiac expression of this mutant in mouse hearts resulted in remodeling and dysfunction, which progressed to heart failure and early death. These detrimental effects were associated with reduced interaction of mutant HSPB6(S10F) with BECN1/Beclin 1, leading to BECN1 ubiquitination and its proteosomal degradation...
November 20, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156835/indonesian-herbal-medicine-prevents-hypertension-induced-left-ventricular-hypertrophy-by-diminishing-nadph-oxidase-dependent-oxidative-stress
#9
Erna Sulistyowati, Jong-Hau Hsu, Yuan-Bin Cheng, Fang-Rong Chang, Ying-Fu Chen, Jwu-Lai Yeh
Indonesian herbal medicine Centella asiatica, Justicia gendarussa and Imperata cylindrica decoction (CJID) are known to be efficacious for hypertension. Oxidative stress plays an important role in hypertension-induced left ventricular hypertrophy (H-LVH). This study evaluated whether CJID inhibit cardiac remodeling in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) through mechanism of oxidative stress-related cardiac-NADPH oxidase (NOXs) pathway: NOX1, NOX2 and NOX4. Forty-weeks-old SHRs and normotensive-WKY rats, were both randomly divided into 2 groups: CJID and control...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155983/meox1-accelerates-myocardial-hypertrophic-decompensation-through-gata4
#10
Dan Lu, Jizheng Wang, Jing Li, Feifei Guan, Xu Zhang, Wei Dong, Ning Liu, Shan Gao, Lianfeng Zhang
Aims: Pathological hypertrophy is the result of gene network regulation, which ultimately leads to adverse cardiac remodelling and heart failure (HF), and is accompanied by the reactivation of a 'foetal gene programme'. The Mesenchyme homeobox 1 (Meox1) gene is one of the foetal programme genes. Meox1 may play a role in embryonic development, but its regulation of pathological hypertrophy is not known. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of Meox1 on pathological hypertrophy, including familial and pressure overload-induced hypertrophy, and its potential mechanism of action...
November 16, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155786/isolation-and-cultivation-of-adult-rat-cardiomyocytes
#11
Franziska Nippert, Rolf Schreckenberg, Klaus-Dieter Schlüter
In an intact heart, adjacent cells influence adult cardiomyocytes. With the method of isolation and cultivation of adult cardiomyocytes, a precise investigation of the behavior of these cells under specific treatments and environments is possible. This manuscript presents a protocol for successful isolation and cultivation of adult rat ventricular cardiomyocytes (ARVC). The rat is sacrificed by cervical dislocation under deep anesthesia. Then, the heart is extracted and the aorta is uncovered. Subsequently, perfusion on the Langendorff perfusion system with calcium depletion and collagenase treatment is performed...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155027/serum-level-of-transforming-growth-factor-beta-1-is-associated-with-left-atrial-voltage-in-patients-with-chronic-atrial-fibrillation
#12
Shilu Zhao, Mingfang Li, Weizhu Ju, Lingyun Gu, Fengxiang Zhang, Hongwu Chen, Kai Gu, Bing Yang, Minglong Chen
BACKGROUND: Atrial tissue fibrosis can cause electrical or structural remodeling in patients with atrial fibrillation. Transforming growth factor beta 1(TGF-β1) signaling acts as a central role in fibroblast activation. In this report, we aimed to investigate the relationship between serum level of TGF-β1 and mean left atrial voltage in patients with chronic atrial fibrillation (CAF). METHODS: A total of 16 consecutive adult patients with CAF who underwent catheter ablation were enrolled...
November 15, 2017: Indian Pacing and Electrophysiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154888/activation-of-yap1-taz-signaling-in-ischemic-heart-disease-and-dilated-cardiomyopathy
#13
Ning Hou, Ying Wen, Xun Yuan, Haodong Xu, Xuejun Wang, Faqian Li, Bo Ye
Genetic manipulation of key components of the evolutionally conserved Hippo pathway has shown that the precise control of these signaling molecules is critical to cardiac development and response to stresses. However, how this pathway is involved in the progression of cardiac dysfunction in different heart diseases remains unclear. We investigated the expressional levels and subcellular localization of Yap1, Taz, and Tead1 and determined Hippo target gene expression in failing human hearts with ischemic heart disease (IHD) and idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDC) and mouse desmin-related cardiomyopathy (DES)...
November 15, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153575/persistent-iron-within-the-infarct-core%C3%A2-after-st-segment-elevation-myocardial-infarction-implications-for-left-ventricular-remodeling-and-health%C3%A2-outcomes
#14
Jaclyn Carberry, David Carrick, Caroline Haig, Nadeem Ahmed, Ify Mordi, Margaret McEntegart, Mark C Petrie, Hany Eteiba, Stuart Hood, Stuart Watkins, Mitchell Lindsay, Andrew Davie, Ahmed Mahrous, Ian Ford, Naveed Sattar, Paul Welsh, Aleksandra Radjenovic, Keith G Oldroyd, Colin Berry
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine the incidence and prognostic significance of persistent iron in patients post-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). BACKGROUND: The clinical significance of persistent iron within the infarct core after STEMI complicated by acute myocardial hemorrhage is poorly understood. METHODS: Patients who sustained an acute STEMI were enrolled in a cohort study (BHF MR-MI [Detection and Significance of Heart Injury in ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction])...
November 10, 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153564/sex-dimorphism-in-the-myocardial-response-to-aortic-stenosis
#15
Thomas A Treibel, Rebecca Kozor, Marianna Fontana, Camilla Torlasco, Patricia Reant, Sveeta Badiani, Maria Espinoza, John Yap, Javier Diez, Alun D Hughes, Guy Lloyd, James C Moon
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to explore sex differences in myocardial remodeling in aortic stenosis (AS) by using echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), and biomarkers. BACKGROUND: AS is a disease of both valve and left ventricle (LV). Sex differences in LV remodeling are reported in AS and may play a role in disease phenotyping. METHODS: This study was a prospective assessment of patients awaiting surgical valve replacement for severe AS using echocardiography, the 6-min walking test, biomarkers (high-sensitivity troponin T and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide), and CMR with late gadolinium enhancement and extracellular volume fraction, which dichotomizes the myocardium into matrix and cell volumes...
November 10, 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153203/galectin-3-in-heart-failure-an-update-of-the-last-3%C3%A2-years
#16
REVIEW
Carolin Gehlken, Navin Suthahar, Wouter C Meijers, Rudolf A de Boer
Galectin-3 plays a role in tissue inflammation, repair, and fibrosis. This article specifically focuses on heart failure (HF), in which galectin-3 has been shown to be a useful biomarker in prognosis and risk stratification, especially in HF with preserved ejection fraction. Experimental research has shown that galectin-3 directly induces pathologic remodeling of the heart, and is therefore considered a culprit protein in the development of cardiac fibrosis in HF, with potentially relevant clinical implications...
January 2018: Heart Failure Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152949/effects-of-valproic-acid-on-sympathetic-activity-and-left-ventricularmyocardial-remodelling-in-rats-during-pressure-overload
#17
Yang Liu, Siyu Li, Zhigang Zhang, Zhanjun Lv, Huijie Jiang, Xiao Tan, Fengquan Liu
Background/aim: Pressure overload induces cardiac remodelling and results in heart failure. Enhanced sympathetic outflow participates in the development of cardiac remodelling for the duration of pressure overload as an independent factor. Valproic acid has recently been shown to reduce neuronal injury and have antiinflammatory and antiapoptotic effects as a histone deacetylase inhibitor. We speculate that the drug plays a specific role in alleviating cardiac remodelling by inhibiting sympathetic activity. Materials and methods: Surgery of partial abdominal aortic constriction was performed on male Sprague-Dawley rats...
November 13, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152859/deletion-of-the-egf-receptor-in-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-prevents-chronic-angiotensin-ii-induced-arterial-wall-stiffening-and-media-thickening
#18
Barbara Schreier, Mirja Hünerberg, Sigrid Mildenberger, Sindy Rabe, Daniel Bethmann, Claudia Wickenhauser, Michael Gekle
AIM: In vivo vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) EGF receptor (EGFR) contributes to acute angiotensin II (AII) effects on vascular tone and blood pressure. The ubiquitously expressed EGFR has been implicated in vascular remodeling preceding end-organ damage by pharmacological inhibition, and AII signaling in cultured vascular cells is partly EGFR dependent. However the role of VSMC-EGFR in vivo during AII-induced pathophysiological processes is not known. METHODS: The present study assesses the in vivo relevance of VSMC-EGFR during chronic AII challenge without further stressors, using a mouse model with inducible, VSMC-specific EGFR knock out (VSMC-EGFR-KO)...
November 20, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152614/ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated-kinase-role-in-myocardial-remodeling
#19
Patsy Thrasher, Mahipal Singh, Krishna Singh
Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated kinase (ATM) is a serine/threonine kinase. Mutations in the ATM gene cause a rare autosomal multisystemic disease known as Ataxia-telangiectasia (AT). Individuals with mutations in both copies of the ATM gene suffer from increased susceptibility to ionizing radiation, predisposition to cancer, insulin resistance, immune deficiency, and premature aging. Patients with one mutated allele make-up ~1.4 to 2% of the general population. These individuals are spared from most of the symptoms of the disease...
2017: Journal of Rare Diseases Research & Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151454/changes-in-serum-fibroblast-growth-factor-23-in-patients-with-acute-myocardial-infarction
#20
Hideaki Takahashi, Michishige Ozeki, Tomohiro Fujisaka, Hideaki Morita, Shu-Ichi Fujita, Yoshihiro Takeda, Kensaku Shibata, Koichi Sohmiya, Masaaki Hoshiga, Junko Tamaki, Nobukazu Ishizaka
BACKGROUND: Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) induces cardiac remodeling. We investigated the changes in serum FGF23 levels in patients diagnosed with acute myocardial infarction (AMI).Methods and Results:A total of 44 patients diagnosed with AMI were included in the current study. All patients underwent emergency percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The median of peak creatine kinase (CK) and CKMB values was 1,816 U/L and 159 U/L, respectively. Serum levels of FGF23, calcium, and inorganic phosphate (iP) were measured before PCI, and on days 1, 3, 5, 7 after PCI...
November 18, 2017: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
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