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Cardiac remodelling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324981/hemodynamic-determinants-and-ventriculo-arterial-coupling-are-sex-associated-in-heart-failure-patients
#1
Peter L Kerkhof, Guy R Heyndrickx, John K-J Li
End-systolic volume (ESV) and end-diastolic volume (EDV) are key parameters in the analysis of left ventricular (LV) function, and the study of cardiac remodeling. The volume regulation graph (VRG) relates these fundamental determinants, and permits convenient stratification for clinically relevant covariates. This contribution analyzes sex-associated differences in hemodynamic parameters for 197 heart failure (HF) patients, evaluated by biplane ventriculography, in combination with arterial pressure. We calculated LV parameters such as stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO), ESV, EDV, ejection fraction (EF), end-systolic elastance (Emax), besides arterial parameters: effective arterial elastance (Ea), elastance ratio (the coupling index k), peripheral resistance (Rs), pulse pressure (PP), and arterial compliance (C), all normalized for body surface area when appropriate...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319597/relationship-between-changes-in-blood-pressure-and-left-ventricular-mass-over-1-year-in-end-stage-renal-disease
#2
Bradley Sarak, Ron Wald, Marc B Goldstein, Djeven P Deva, Jonathon Leipsic, Mercedeh Kiaii, General Leung, Joseph J Barfett, Jeffrey Perl, Darren A Yuen, Kim A Connelly, Andrew T Yan
OBJECTIVE: The optimal timing of blood pressure (BP) measurement is not firmly established for patients undergoing hemodialysis. We sought to assess which BP measurement change best correlates with changes in left ventricular mass index (LVMI) over 1 year in patients with end-stage renal disease. METHODS: Fifty-seven patients were included in a prospective cohort study comparing the cardiovascular impact of conversion to in-center nocturnal hemodialysis versus continuing conventional hemodialysis...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319168/targeting-chronic-cardiac-remodeling-with-cardiac-progenitor-cells-in-a-murine-model-of-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#3
Janine C Deddens, Dries A Feyen, Peter-Paul Zwetsloot, Maike A Brans, Sailay Siddiqi, Linda W van Laake, Pieter A Doevendans, Joost P Sluijter
BACKGROUND: Translational failure for cardiovascular disease is a substantial problem involving both high research costs and an ongoing lack of novel treatment modalities. Despite the progress already made, cell therapy for chronic heart failure in the clinical setting is still hampered by poor translation. We used a murine model of chronic ischemia/reperfusion injury to examine the effect of minimally invasive application of cardiac progenitor cells (CPC) in cardiac remodeling and to improve clinical translation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317477/circulating-biomarkers-of-collagen-metabolism-and-prognosis-of-heart-failure-with-reduced-or-mid-range-ejection-fraction
#4
Joana Moura Ferreira, Sara Moura Ferreira, Maria João Ferreira, Inês Falcão-Pires
BACKGROUND: Change in the architecture and composition of cardiac extracellular matrix is a key element in adverse cardiac remodeling that occurs during heart failure. Most of the times, the result is the development of fibrosis, which has a huge impact on the pathophysiology and clinical outcomes of heart failure syndromes. Several molecules related to collagen metabolism detectable in the blood have been proposed as biomarkers of myocardial fibrosis. Despite concerns regarding the true ability of these biomarkers to reflect quantitative and qualitative changes in myocardial collagen, a growing body of evidence suggests that they may play a potential role in several aspects of heart failure management...
March 17, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316086/cardiac-fibrosis-in-the-ageing-heart-contributors-and-mechanisms
#5
Lu Lu, Jingbin Guo, Yue Hua, Kevin Huang, Ruth Magaye, Jake Cornell, Darren J Kelly, Christopher Reid, Danny Liew, Yingchun Zhou, Aihua Chen, Wei Xiao, Qiang Fu, Bing Hui Wang
Cardiac fibrosis refers to an excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) in cardiac tissue. Fibrotic tissue is stiffer and less compliant, resulting in subsequent cardiac dysfunction and heart failure. Cardiac fibrosis in the ageing heart may involve activation of fibrogenic signalling and inhibition of anti-fibrotic signalling, leading to an imbalance of ECM turnover. Excessive accumulation of ECM such as collagen in older patients contributes to progressive ventricular dysfunction. Overexpression of collagen is derived from various sources, including higher levels of fibrogenic growth factors, proliferation of fibroblasts and cellular trans-differentiation...
March 18, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315562/improvement-in-left-ventricular-intrinsic-dyssynchrony-with-cardiac-resynchronization-therapy
#6
Serdar Bozyel, Ayşen Ağaçdiken Ağır, Tayfun Şahin, Umut Çelikyurt, Müjdat Aktaş, Onur Argan, İrem Yılmaz, Kurtuluş Karaüzüm, Emir Derviş, Ahmet Vural, Dilek Ural
OBJECTIVE: Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) has been shown to induce a structural and electrical remodeling; the data on whether left ventricle (LV) reverse remodeling is associated with restitution of intrinsic contraction pattern are unknown. In this study, we investigated the presence of improvement in left ventricular intrinsic dyssynchrony in patients with CRT. METHODS: A total of 45 CRT recipients were prospectively studied. Dyssynchrony indexes including interventricular mechanical delay (IVMD) and tissue Doppler velocity opposing-wall delay (OWD) as well as QRS duration on 12-lead surface electrocardiogram were recorded before CRT device implantation...
March 3, 2017: Anatolian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315329/atorvastatin-prevents-angiotensin-ii-induced-myocardial-hypertrophy-in-vitro-via-ccaat-enhancer-binding-protein-%C3%AE
#7
Yintao Chen, Shasha Yu, Naijin Zhang, Yuan Li, Shuang Chen, Ye Chang, Guozhe Sun, Yingxian Sun
Previous evidences suggested that atorvastatin not only reduced blood lipids but also reduced myocardial hypertrophy and remodeling. And it was reported that C/EBPβ (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β) played a pivotal role both in the physiologic and pathological cardiac hypertrophy. However, it has not been reported before whether this signaling pathway of C/EBPβ participates in protective effect of atorvastatin for hypertrophy cardiomyocytes. In present study, We found that overexpression of C/EBPβ significantly abrogated the effect of atorvastatin on increasing Bcl-2/Bax and PGC-1α while the early and late apoptosis rate increased and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was reduced...
March 14, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315072/direct-myosin-activation-by-omecamtiv-mecarbil-for-heart-failure-with-reduced-ejection-fraction
#8
Mitchell A Psotka, John R Teerlink
Myosin is the indispensable molecular motor that utilizes chemical energy to produce force for contraction within the cardiac myocyte. Myosin activity is gated by intracellular calcium levels which are regulated by multiple upstream signaling cascades that can be altered for clinical utility using inotropic medications. In contrast to clinically available cardiac inotropes, omecamtiv mecarbil is a novel direct myosin activator developed to augment left ventricular systolic function without the undesirable secondary effects of altered calcium homeostasis...
March 18, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303170/tbhq-alleviated-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-apoptosis-and-oxidative-stress-by-perk-nrf2-crosstalk-in-methamphetamine-induced-chronic-pulmonary-toxicity
#9
Yun Wang, Yu-Han Gu, Ming Liu, Yang Bai, Li-Ye Liang, Huai-Liang Wang
Methamphetamine (MA) leads to cardiac and pulmonary toxicity expressed as increases in inflammatory responses and oxidative stress. However, some interactions may exist between oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS). The current study is designed to investigate if both oxidative stress and ERS are involved in MA-induced chronic pulmonary toxicity and if antioxidant tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) alleviated ERS-apoptosis and oxidative stress by PERK-Nrf2 crosstalk. In this study, the rats were randomly divided into control group, MA-treated group (MA), and MA plus TBHQ-treated group (MA + TBHQ)...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303103/multipronged-therapeutic-effects-of-chinese-herbal-medicine-qishenyiqi-in-the-treatment-of-acute-myocardial-infarction
#10
Yong Wang, Weili Lin, Chun Li, Sarita Singhal, Gaurav Jain, Lixin Zhu, Linghui Lu, Ruixin Zhu, Wei Wang
Background: Based on global gene expression profile, therapeutic effects of Qishenyiqi (QSYQ) on acute myocardial infarction (AMI) were investigated by integrated analysis at multiple levels including gene expression, pathways involved and functional group. Methods: Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: Sham-operated, AMI model (left anterior descending coronary artery ligation) and QSYQ-treated group. Cardiac tissues were obtained for analysing digital gene expression. Sequencing and transcriptome analyses were performed collaboratively, including analyses of differential gene expression, gene co-expression network, targeted attack on network and functional grouping...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302203/-changes-in-serum-chromogranin-a-and-urotensin-ii-levels-in-children-with-chronic-heart-failure
#11
Yao-Yao Cheng, Jin-Dou An, Song Feng, Wei Ge
OBJECTIVE: To examine the changes in serum chromogranin A (CgA) and urotensin II (U II) levels in children with chronic heart failure (CHF) and their clinical significance. METHODS: A total of 58 children with CHF, among whom 17 had endocardial fibroelastosis (EFE) and 41 had dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), were selected as CHF group, and 20 healthy children were selected as control group. Serum levels of CgA and U II were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the level of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) was determined by bi-directional lateral flow immunoassay...
March 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298286/echo-parameters-for-differential-diagnosis-in-cardiac-amyloidosis-a-head-to-head-comparison-of-deformation-and-nondeformation-parameters
#12
Efstathios D Pagourelias, Oana Mirea, Jürgen Duchenne, Johan Van Cleemput, Michel Delforge, Jan Bogaert, Tatyana Kuznetsova, Jens-Uwe Voigt
BACKGROUND: A plethora of echo parameters has been suggested for distinguishing cardiac amyloidosis (CA) from other causes of myocardial thickening with, however, scarce data on their head-to-head comparison. This study aimed at comparing the diagnostic accuracy of various deformation and conventional echo parameters in differentiating CA from other hypertrophic substrates, especially in the gray zone of mild hypertrophy (maximum wall thickness ≤16 mm) or normal ejection fraction (EF)...
March 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293551/timely-pulmonary-valve-replacement-may-allow-preservation-of-left-ventricular-circumferential-strain-in-patients-with-tetralogy-of-fallot
#13
Barbara E U Burkhardt, Marí Nieves Velasco Forte, Saravanan Durairaj, Isma Rafiq, Israel Valverde, Animesh Tandon, John Simpson, Tarique Hussain
INTRODUCTION: Patients with Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) and pulmonary insufficiency and a dilated right ventricle (RV) may suffer from a reduction in left ventricular (LV) performance. It is not clear whether timely pulmonary valve replacement (PVR) preserves LV mechanics. METHODS: Ten TOF patients who underwent PVR were identified from hospital records, and pre- and postoperative cardiac magnetic resonance images were post-processed with a semi-automatic tissue tracking software...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293100/adenosine-a2a-receptor-agonist-prevents-cardiac-remodeling-and-dysfunction-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-male-rats-after-myocardial-infarction
#14
Jaqueline S da Silva, Daniele Gabriel-Costa, Roberto T Sudo, Hao Wang, Leanne Groban, Emanuele B Ferraz, José Hamilton M Nascimento, Carlos Alberto M Fraga, Eliezer J Barreiro, Gisele Zapata-Sudo
BACKGROUND: This work evaluated the hypothesis that 3,4-methylenedioxybenzoyl-2-thienylhydrazone (LASSBio-294), an agonist of adenosine A2A receptor, could be beneficial for preventing cardiac dysfunction due to hypertension associated with myocardial infarction (MI). METHODS: Male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were randomly divided into four groups (six animals per group): sham-operation (SHR-Sham), and myocardial infarction rats (SHR-MI) were treated orally either with vehicle or LASSBio-294 (10 and 20 mg...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292861/assessment-of-diffuse-ventricular-myocardial-fibrosis-using-native-t1-in-children-with-repaired-tetralogy-of-fallot
#15
Deane Yim, Eugenie Riesenkampff, Pablo Caro-Dominguez, Shi-Joon Yoo, Mike Seed, Lars Grosse-Wortmann
BACKGROUND: Myocardial fibrosis is linked with adverse clinical outcomes in adults after tetralogy of Fallot repair (rTOF). Native T1 times (T1) by cardiac magnetic resonance have been shown to be a surrogate marker of diffuse myocardial fibrosis. The objective was to quantify native T1 in children post-rTOF and to evaluate their relationship with surgical, imaging, and clinical factors. METHODS AND RESULTS: A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed. Midventricular native T1 were obtained in 100 children post-rTOF using a modified look-locker inversion recovery cardiac magnetic resonance sequence and compared with 35 pediatric controls...
March 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292860/cardiac-computed-tomography-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-the-evaluation-of-mitral-and-tricuspid-valve-disease-implications-for-transcatheter-interventions
#16
Christopher Naoum, Philipp Blanke, João L Cavalcante, Jonathon Leipsic
Transcatheter interventions to treat mitral and tricuspid valve disease are becoming increasingly available because of the growing number of elderly patients with significant comorbidities or high operative risk. Thorough clinical and imaging evaluation in these patients is essential. The latter involves both characterization of the mechanism and severity of valvular disease as well as determining the hemodynamic consequences and extent of ventricular remodeling, which is an important predictor of future outcomes...
March 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290814/-assessment-of-the-impact-of-nicorandil-on-the-quality-of-life-and-prognosis-indicators-in-patients-with-stable-angina
#17
Ryabikhin Ryabikhin, M E Mozheiko, Y Krasilnikova
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of nicorandil on the elasticity of the great vessels, cardiac functional parameters and quality of life in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). MATERIAL AND METHODS: In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of nicorandil was attended by 154 patients with stable angina III functional class (FC), divided into 2 comparable age and sex group. Study duration was 12 months. RESULTS: In the group treated with nicorandil compared with placebo, the number of angina attacks and nitrate intake of short-significantly reduced, improved elastic properties of large arteries, improved quality of life...
December 2016: Kardiologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290476/emerin-plays-a-crucial-role-in-nuclear-invagination-and-in-the-nuclear-calcium-transient
#18
Masaya Shimojima, Shinsuke Yuasa, Chikaaki Motoda, Gakuto Yozu, Toshihiro Nagai, Shogo Ito, Mark Lachmann, Shin Kashimura, Makoto Takei, Dai Kusumoto, Akira Kunitomi, Nozomi Hayashiji, Tomohisa Seki, Shugo Tohyama, Hisayuki Hashimoto, Masaki Kodaira, Toru Egashira, Kenshi Hayashi, Chiaki Nakanishi, Kenji Sakata, Masakazu Yamagishi, Keiichi Fukuda
Alteration of the nuclear Ca(2+) transient is an early event in cardiac remodeling. Regulation of the nuclear Ca(2+) transient is partly independent of the cytosolic Ca(2+) transient in cardiomyocytes. One nuclear membrane protein, emerin, is encoded by EMD, and an EMD mutation causes Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD). It remains unclear whether emerin is involved in nuclear Ca(2+) homeostasis. The aim of this study is to elucidate the role of emerin in rat cardiomyocytes by means of hypertrophic stimuli and in EDMD induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell-derived cardiomyocytes in terms of nuclear structure and the Ca(2+) transient...
March 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289072/downregulation-of-mir-15a-b-accelerates-fibrotic-remodelling-in-the-type-2-diabetic-human-and-mouse-heart
#19
Shruti Rawal, Pujika Emani Munasinghe, Prashanth Thevakar, Jason Kar Sheng Lew, Gregory T Jones, Michael Ja Willams, Philip Davis, Richard W Bunton, Ivor F Galvin, Patrick Manning, Regis R Lamberts, Rajesh G Katare
AIM: Myocardial fibrosis is a well established cause of increased myocardial stiffness and subsequent diastolic dysfunction in the diabetic heart. The molecular regulators that drive the process of fibrotic events in the diabetic heart are still unknown. We determined the role of the microRNA (miR)-15 family in fibrotic remodelling of the diabetic heart. METHODS AND RESULTS: Right atrial appendage (RAA) and left ventricular (LV) biopsy tissues collected from diabetic and non-diabetic patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery showed significant downregulation of miR-15a and -15b...
March 13, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289018/adrenergic-signaling-strengthens-cardiac-myocyte-cohesion
#20
Camilla Schinner, Franziska Vielmuth, Vera Rötzer, Matthias Hiermaier, Mariya Radeva, Thu K Co, Eva Hartlieb, Andreas Schmidt, Axel Imhof, Ahmed Messoudi, Anja Horn, Angela Schlipp, Volker Spindler, Jens Waschke
Rationale: The sympathetic nervous system is a major mediator of heart function. Intercalated discs (ICDs) composed of desmosomes, adherens junctions and gap junctions provide the structural backbone for coordinated contraction of cardiac myocytes. Objective: Gap junctions dynamically remodel to adapt to sympathetic signaling. However, it is unknown whether such rapid adaption also occurs for the adhesive function provided by desmosomes and adherens junctions. Methods and Results: Atomic force microscopy revealed that β-adrenergic signaling enhances both the number of desmoglein 2 (Dsg2) -specific interactions along cell junctions and the mean Dsg2-mediated binding forces, whereas N-cadherin-mediated interactions were not affected...
March 13, 2017: Circulation Research
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