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Cardiac remodelling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231509/a-single-injection-of-protein-loaded-coacervate-gel-significantly-improves-cardiac-function-post-infarction
#1
H K Awada, D W Long, Z Wang, M P Hwang, K Kim, Y Wang
After myocardial infarction (MI), the heart undergoes fibrotic pathological remodeling instead of repair and regeneration. With multiple pathologies developing after MI, treatment using several proteins is expected to address this range of pathologies more effectively than a single-agent therapy. A factorial design of experiments study guided us to combine three complementary factors in one injection: tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-3 (TIMP-3) was embedded in a fibrin gel for signaling in the initial phase of the treatment, while basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) and stromal cell-derived factor 1-alpha (SDF-1α) were embedded in heparin-based coacervates for sustained release and distributed within the same fibrin gel to exert their effects over a longer period...
February 17, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231026/late-administration-of-a-palladium-lipoic-acid-complex-poly-mva-modifies-cardiac-mitochondria-but-not-functional-or-structural-manifestations-of-radiation-induced-heart-disease-in-a-rat-model
#2
Vijayalakshmi Sridharan, John W Seawright, Francis J Antonawich, Merrill Garnett, Maohua Cao, Preeti Singh, Marjan Boerma
Exposure of the heart to ionizing radiation can cause adverse myocardial remodeling. In small animal models, local heart irradiation causes persistent alterations in cardiac mitochondrial function and swelling. POLY-MVA is a dietary supplement that contains a palladium lipoic acid complex that targets mitochondrial complex I and has been demonstrated to have greater redox potential than lipoic acid alone. POLY-MVA improves mitochondrial function and anti-oxidant enzyme activity in the aged rat heart. In this study, we tested whether POLY-MVA can mitigate cardiac effects of ionizing radiation...
February 23, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229226/pericoronary-adipose-tissue-ratio-is-a-stronger-associated-factor-of-plaque-vulnerability-than-epicardial-adipose-tissue-on-coronary-computed-tomography-angiography
#3
Ryo Okubo, Rine Nakanishi, Mikihito Toda, Daiga Saito, Ippei Watanabe, Takayuki Yabe, Hideo Amano, Tatsushi Hirai, Takanori Ikeda
This study was designed to clarify the influence of pericoronary adipose tissue (PAT) on plaque vulnerability using coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). A total of 103 consecutive patients who underwent CCTA and subsequent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) using intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) for coronary artery disease were enrolled. The PAT ratio was calculated as the sum of the perpendicular thickness of the visceral layer between the coronary artery and the pericardium, or the coronary artery and the surface of the heart at the PCI site, divided by the PAT thickness without a plaque in the same vessel...
February 22, 2017: Heart and Vessels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228942/effects-of-renal-denervation-on-vascular-remodelling-in-patients-with-heart-failure-and-preserved-ejection-fraction-a-randomised-control-trial
#4
Hitesh C Patel, Carl Hayward, Jennifer Keegan, Peter D Gatehouse, Ronak Rajani, Rajdeep S Khattar, Raad H Mohiaddin, Stuart D Rosen, Alexander R Lyon, Carlo di Mario
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of renal denervation (RDT) on micro- and macro-vascular function in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). DESIGN: A prospective, randomised, open-controlled trial with blinded end-point analysis. SETTING: A single-centre London teaching hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-five patients with HFpEF who were recruited into the RDT-PEF trial. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Macro-vascular: 24-h ambulatory pulse pressure, aorta distensibilty (from cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR), aorta pulse wave velocity (CMR), augmentation index (peripheral tonometry) and renal artery blood flow indices (renal MR)...
January 2017: JRSM Cardiovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228941/renal-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-cardiac-hypertrophy-in-mice-cardiac-morphological-and-morphometric-characterization
#5
Rogério Cirino-Silva, Fernanda V Kmit, Mayra Trentin-Sonoda, Karina K Nakama, Karine Panico, Juliana M Alvim, Thiago R Dreyer, Herculano Martinho-Silva, Marcela S Carneiro-Ramos
BACKGROUND: Tissue remodeling is usually dependent on the deposition of extracellular matrix that may result in tissue stiffness and impaired myocardium contraction. OBJECTIVES: We had previously demonstrated that renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) is able to induce development of cardiac hypertrophy in mice. Therefore, we aimed to characterize renal I/R-induced cardiac hypertrophy. DESIGN: C57BL/6 J mice were subjected to 60 minutes' unilateral renal pedicle occlusion, followed by reperfusion (I/R) for 5, 8, 12 or 15 days...
January 2017: JRSM Cardiovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228734/%C3%AE-subunits-functionally-differentiate-human-kv4-3-potassium-channel-splice-variants
#6
Geoffrey W Abbott
The human ventricular cardiomyocyte transient outward K(+) current (Ito) mediates the initial phase of myocyte repolarization and its disruption is implicated in Brugada Syndrome and heart failure (HF). Human cardiac Ito is generated primarily by two Kv4.3 splice variants (Kv4.3L and Kv4.3S, diverging only by a C-terminal, S6-proximal, 19-residue stretch unique to Kv4.3L), which are differentially remodeled in HF, but considered functionally alike at baseline. Kv4.3 is regulated in human heart by β subunits including KChIP2b and KCNEs, but their effects were previously assumed to be Kv4...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228731/increased-hemodynamic-load-in-early-embryonic-stages-alters-endocardial-to-mesenchymal-transition
#7
Madeline Midgett, Claudia S López, Larry David, Alina Maloyan, Sandra Rugonyi
Normal blood flow is essential for proper heart formation during embryonic development, as abnormal hemodynamic load (blood pressure and shear stress) results in cardiac defects seen in congenital heart disease. However, the progressive detrimental remodeling processes that relate altered blood flow to cardiac defects remain unclear. Endothelial-mesenchymal cell transition is one of the many complex developmental events involved in transforming the early embryonic outflow tract into the aorta, pulmonary trunk, interventricular septum, and semilunar valves...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227221/fundamentals-of-left-ventricular-volume-representation
#8
Peter L Kerkhof, Peter L Kerkhof, Peter L Kerkhof
The volume regulation graph is meant to relate the fundamental determinants of left ventricular (LV) function, namely end-systolic volume (ESV) and end-diastolic volume (EDV). This representation permits evaluation of the LV remodeling process, convenient stratification for clinically relevant covariates, as well as inscription of iso-stroke volume (SV) and iso-ejection fraction (EF) trajectories, the latter two as linear relationships. This retrospective study discusses LV volumetric parameters obtained from 155 patients (65 females) covering a wide spectrum of heart diseases...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227219/hemodynamic-determinants-and-ventriculo-arterial-coupling-are-sex-associated-in-heart-failure-patients
#9
Peter L Kerkhof, Guy R Heyndrickx, John K-J Li, Peter L Kerkhof, Guy R Heyndrickx, John K-J Li, Peter L Kerkhof, John K J Li, Guy R Heyndrickx
End-systolic volume (ESV) and end-diastolic volume (EDV) are key parameters in the analysis of left ventricular (LV) function, and the study of cardiac remodeling. The volume regulation graph (VRG) relates these fundamental determinants, and permits convenient stratification for clinically relevant covariates. This contribution analyzes sex-associated differences in hemodynamic parameters for 197 heart failure (HF) patients, evaluated by biplane ventriculography, in combination with arterial pressure. We calculated LV parameters such as stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO), ESV, EDV, ejection fraction (EF), end-systolic elastance (Emax), besides arterial parameters: effective arterial elastance (Ea), elastance ratio (the coupling index k), peripheral resistance (Rs), pulse pressure (PP), and arterial compliance (C), all normalized for body surface area when appropriate...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226541/combined-reconstruction-of-atrial-morphology-and-paracardial-fat-depositions-to-study-remodeling-in-atrial-fibrillation
#10
N Popovic, P Haemers, R Willems, P Claus, N Popovic, P Haemers, R Willems, P Claus, P Claus, P Haemers, N Popovic, R Willems
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most frequent sustained cardiac arrhythmia. AF is shown to be a progressive disease, which is strongly associated with important structural (morphological and histological), electrical and mechanical remodeling of the left atrium (LA). Adipose tissue accumulation has been shown to be a risk factor in AF. We set out to explore the connection between adipose tissue coverage of the LA surface, for both the complete LA and specific regions and the progression of AF. In this study we propose a methodology to study the regional coverage of the left-atrial wall with adipose tissue based on magnetic resonance data...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225202/cardiac-remodeling-in-preterm-infants-with-prolonged-exposure-to-a-patent-ductus-arteriosus
#11
Koert de Waal, Nilkant Phad, Nick Collins, Andrew Boyle
BACKGROUND: Sustained volume load due to a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) leads to cardiac remodeling. Remodeling changes can become pathological and are associated with cardiovascular disease progression. Data on remodeling changes in preterm infants is not available. METHODS: Clinical and echocardiography data were collected in preterm infants <30 weeks gestation on postnatal day 3 and then every 7-14 days until closure of the ductus arteriosus. Images were analyzed using conventional techniques and speckle tracking...
February 22, 2017: Congenital Heart Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225063/targeted-inhibition-of-focal-adhesion-kinase-attenuates-cardiac-fibrosis-and-preserves-heart-function-in-adverse-cardiac-remodeling
#12
Jie Zhang, Guangpu Fan, Hui Zhao, Zhiwei Wang, Fei Li, Peide Zhang, Jing Zhang, Xu Wang, Wei Wang
Cardiac fibrosis in post-myocardial infarction (MI), seen in both infarcted and non-infarcted myocardium, is beneficial to the recovery of heart function. But progressively pathological fibrosis impairs ventricular function and leads to poor prognosis. FAK has recently received attention as a potential mediator of fibrosis, our previous study reported that pharmacological inhibition of FAK can attenuate cardiac fibrosis in post MI models. However, the long-term effects on cardiac function and adverse cardiac remodelling were not clearly investigated...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224334/the-trpm4-channel-is-functionally-important-for-the-beneficial-cardiac-remodeling-induced-by-endurance-training
#13
Mélanie Gueffier, Justin Zintz, Karen Lambert, Amanda Finan, Franck Aimond, Nourdine Chakouri, Christophe Hédon, Mathieu Granier, Pierre Launay, Jérôme Thireau, Sylvain Richard, Marie Demion
Cardiac hypertrophy (CH) is an adaptive process that exists in two distinct forms and allows the heart to adequately respond to an organism's needs. The first form of CH is physiological, adaptive and reversible. The second is pathological, irreversible and associated with fibrosis and cardiomyocyte death. CH involves multiple molecular mechanisms that are still not completely defined but it is now accepted that physiological CH is associated more with the PI3-K/Akt pathway while the main signaling cascade activated in pathological CH involves the Calcineurin-NFAT pathway...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223437/long-term-administration-of-eicosapentaenoic-acid-improves-post-myocardial-infarction-cardiac-remodeling-in-mice-by-regulating-macrophage-polarization
#14
Masayuki Takamura, Keisuke Kurokawa, Hiroshi Ootsuji, Oto Inoue, Hikari Okada, Ayano Nomura, Shuichi Kaneko, Soichiro Usui
BACKGROUND: Consumption of n-3 fatty acids reduces the incidence of cardiovascular mortality in populations that consume diets rich in fish oil. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is an n-3 fatty acid known to reduce the frequency of nonfatal coronary events; however, the frequency of mortality after myocardial infarction (MI) is not reduced. The aims of this study were to determine whether long-term administration of EPA regulated cardiac remodeling after MI and to elucidate the underlying therapeutic mechanisms of EPA...
February 21, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223093/association-between-circulating-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-2-and-cardiac-remodeling-in-hypertensive-patients
#15
Shichao Li, Zhijun Wang, Xiuhong Yang, Bo Hu, Yuling Huang, Sujing Fan
BACKGROUND: Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of hypertension-induced cardiac remodeling and exhibits cardioprotective properties in hypertensive animal models. Evidence that ACE2 is an important regulator of hypertensive cardiac remodeling in humans has not been addressed directly yet. METHODS: A total of 161 patients with essential hypertension and 47 age- and sex-matched normotensive healthy subjects were consecutively recruited...
February 18, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222921/relationships-between-left-ventricular-structure-and-function-according-to-cardiac-mri-and-cardiac-biomarkers-in-end-stage-renal-disease
#16
Bryan A Ross, Ron Wald, Marc B Goldstein, Darren A Yuen, Jonathon Leipsic, Mercedeh Kiaii, Andrea Rathe, Djeven P Deva, Anish Kirpalani, Olugbenga O Bello, John J Graham, Howard Leong-Poi, Kim A Connelly, Andrew T Yan
BACKGROUND: We sought to assess the relationships between left ventricular (LV) remodelling and the mechanical and uremic stressors in hemodialysis patients. METHODS: In this prospective 2-centre cohort study, 67 prevalent hemodialysis patients were followed for 1 year. Data on routine bloodwork and predialysis blood pressure (BP) measurements were collected over a 12-week period. LV end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) and LV mass (LVM) were measured using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and indexed...
December 3, 2016: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222749/the-impact-of-trans-catheter-aortic-valve-replacement-induced-left-bundle-branch-block-on-cardiac-reverse-remodeling
#17
Laura E Dobson, Tarique A Musa, Akhlaque Uddin, Timothy A Fairbairn, Owen J Bebb, Peter P Swoboda, Philip Haaf, James Foley, Pankaj Garg, Graham J Fent, Christopher J Malkin, Daniel J Blackman, Sven Plein, John P Greenwood
BACKGROUND: Left bundle branch block (LBBB) is common following trans-catheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) and has been linked to increased mortality, although whether this is related to less favourable cardiac reverse remodeling is unclear. The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of TAVR induced LBBB on cardiac reverse remodeling. METHODS: 48 patients undergoing TAVR for severe aortic stenosis were evaluated. 24 patients with new LBBB (LBBB-T) following TAVR were matched with 24 patients with a narrow post-procedure QRS (nQRS)...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222576/may-a-unitary-autonomic-index-help-assess-autonomic-cardiac-regulation-in-elite-athletes-preliminary-observations-on-the-national-italian-olympic-committee-team
#18
Roberto Sala, Mara Malacarne, Fabio Tosi, Manuela Benzi, Nadia Solaro, Stefano Tamorri, Antonio Spataro, Massimo Pagani, Daniela Lucini
BACKGROUND: Long term endurance training, as occurring in elite athletes, is associated to cardiac neural remodeling in favor of cardioprotective vagal mechanisms, resulting in resting bradycardia and augmented contribution of cardiac parasympathetic nerve activity. Autonomic assessment can be performed by way of Heart Rate Variability. This technique however provides multiple indices, and there is not yet complete agreement on their specific significance. Purpose of the study was to assess whether a rank transformation and radar plot could provide a unitary autonomic index, capable to show a correlation between intensity of individual work and quality of autonomic regulation...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220556/association-between-central-sleep-apnea-and-left-ventricular-structure-the-multi-ethnic-study-of-atherosclerosis
#19
Sogol Javaheri, Ravi K Sharma, David A Bluemke, Susan Redline
We assessed whether the presence of central sleep apnea is associated with adverse left ventricular structural changes. We analysed 1412 participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis who underwent both overnight polysomnography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Subjects had been recruited 10 years earlier when free of cardiovascular disease. Our main exposure is the presence of central sleep apnea as defined by central apnea-hypopnea index = 5 or the presence of Cheyne-Stokes breathing...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220073/enhanced-late-na-and-ca-currents-as-effective-antiarrhythmic-drug-targets
#20
REVIEW
Hrayr S Karagueuzian, Arash Pezhouman, Marina Angelini, Riccardo Olcese
While recent advances clarified the molecular and cellular modes of action of antiarrhythmic drugs (AADs), their link to suppression of dynamical arrhythmia mechanisms remains only partially understood. The current classifications of AADs (Classes I, III, and IV) rely on blocking peak Na, K and L-type calcium currents (ICa,L), with Class II with dominant beta receptor blocking activity and Class V including drugs with diverse classes of actions. The discovery that the calcium and redox sensor, cardiac Ca/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) enhances both the late Na (INa-L) and the late ICa,L in patients at high risk of VT/VF provided a new and a rational AAD target...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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