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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150620/the-role-of-forelimb-motor-cortex-areas-in-goal-directed-action-in-mice
#1
Karin Morandell, Daniel Huber
Mammalian motor cortex consists of several interconnected subregions thought to play distinct roles in voluntary movements, yet their specific role in decision making and execution is not completely elucidated. Here we used transient optogenetic inactivation of the caudal forelimb area (CFA) and rostral forelimb area (RFA) in mice as they performed a directional joystick task. Based on a vibrotactile cue applied to their forepaw, mice were trained to push or pull a joystick after a delay period. We found that choice and execution are temporally segregated processes...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150619/reduced-orbitofrontal-thalamic-functional-connectivity-related-to-suicidal-ideation-in-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder
#2
Kiwon Kim, Sung-Woo Kim, Woojae Myung, Cheol E Han, Maurizio Fava, David Mischoulon, George I Papakostas, Sang Won Seo, Hana Cho, Joon-Kyung Seong, Hong Jin Jeon
Despite recent developments in neuroimaging, alterations of brain functional connectivity in major depressive disorder (MDD) patients with suicidal ideation are poorly understood. This study investigated specific changes of suicidal ideation in functional connectivity of MDD patients. Whole brain functional connectivity in 46 patients with MDD (23 with suicidal ideation and 23 without) and 36 age- and gender- matched healthy controls were compared using resting-state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) analyzed with network-based statistics (NBS) and graph-theoretical methods...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150615/balancing-a-genetic-toggle-switch-by-real-time-feedback-control-and-periodic-forcing
#3
Jean-Baptiste Lugagne, Sebastián Sosa Carrillo, Melanie Kirch, Agnes Köhler, Gregory Batt, Pascal Hersen
Cybergenetics is a novel field of research aiming at remotely pilot cellular processes in real-time with to leverage the biotechnological potential of synthetic biology. Yet, the control of only a small number of genetic circuits has been tested so far. Here we investigate the control of multistable gene regulatory networks, which are ubiquitously found in nature and play critical roles in cell differentiation and decision-making. Using an in silico feedback control loop, we demonstrate that a bistable genetic toggle switch can be dynamically maintained near its unstable equilibrium position for extended periods of time...
November 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150507/divalent-metal-cations-potentiate-the-predatory-capacity-of-amoeba-for-cryptococcus-neoformans
#4
Man Shun Fu, Arturo Casadevall
Among the best studied interaction between soil phagocytic predators and a human pathogenic fungus is that of Acanthamoeba castellanii and Cryptococcus neoformans The experimental conditions used in amoeba-fungal confrontation assays can have major effects on whether the fungus or the protozoan is ascendant in the interaction. In the presence of Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) in PBS, C. neoformans was consistently killed when incubated with A. castellanii. A. castellanii survived better in the presence of Mg(2+) and Ca(2+), even when incubated with C...
November 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150418/immune-enhancing-formulas-for-patients-with-cancer-undergoing-esophagectomy-systematic-review-protocol
#5
Astrid Naranjo, Elizabeth Isenring, Laisa Teleni
BACKGROUND: Adult patients with an esophageal cancer can potentially be compromised with postoperative leaks or fistulae if patients' nutritional status is in a vulnerable stage. Currently in Australia, there is a growing need for clinicians to know whether use of immune-enhancing formulas (IEFs) containing Arg, omega-3, and RNA are a cost-effective approach compared with isonitrogenous-isocaloric formulas to reduce postoperative infectious complications in esophagectomy patients. Since IEFs may carry higher costs, this has led to inconsistencies in practice among clinicians and hospitals...
November 17, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150392/improvement-in-quality-of-life-after-bariatric-surgery-sleeve-versus-bypass
#6
Dirk P A Versteegden, Magaly J J Van Himbeeck, Simon W Nienhuijs
BACKGROUND: Obesity is steadily growing to be the largest threat to human health in this century, not only increasing prevalence of obesity-related co-morbidity but also impairing health-related quality of life (QoL). Bariatric surgery has shown to improve co-morbidity as well as QoL. OBJECTIVES: To assess the differences in improvement in QoL for the 2 most performed procedures: laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (SG) and laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB)...
October 16, 2017: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150170/evaluating-the-content-and-development-of-decision-aid-tools-for-the-management-of-menopause-a-scoping-review
#7
REVIEW
Tasneem Siyam, Humirah Sultani, Sue Ross, Trish Chatterley, Nese Yuksel
OBJECTIVE: Decision-making during menopause (especially surgical menopause) can be complex given the variability in risk-benefit perceptions of menopausal treatments. Decision aid tools (DATs) help women participate in decision-making about options. Our objective is to identify and evaluate the content and development of DATs for managing menopause, with a special focus on surgical menopause. METHODS: We systematically searched electronic databases, including MEDLINE and EMBASE, from inception to March 2017 for relevant records...
December 2017: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150095/-towards-a-better-use-of-midazolam-in-end-of-life-a-survey-in-a-department-of-medical-oncology
#8
Aurélie Beneton, Alexis Vallard, Christelle Brosse, Géraldine Poenou, Cécile Pacaut, Nicolas Magné, Stéphanie Morisson
INTRODUCTION: At the end of life of cancer patients, sedation is sometimes needed, in order to palliate unbearable symptoms that other treatments fail to relieve. Midazolam is currently recommended for sedation and its prescription is guided by national guidelines. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the practices of midazolam prescription in a department of medical oncology and to compare the results with French national recommendations in order to improve the midazolam use in case of sedation...
November 14, 2017: Bulletin du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150031/thoracic-surgery-in-the-pregnant-patient
#9
REVIEW
Brian Whang
Thoracic surgeons are sometimes asked to consult on the management of a patient who is pregnant. Conditions commonly encountered are empyema, spontaneous pneumothorax, and diaphragmatic hernia. Lung cancer is rarely seen in pregnancy, but its incidence is rising. Diagnostic imaging and perioperative management involve the navigation of fetal risks and nuances in maternal physiology. Shared decision making within a multidisciplinary framework will optimally guide the course of management.
February 2018: Thoracic Surgery Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149998/computational-complexity-and-human-decision-making
#10
REVIEW
Peter Bossaerts, Carsten Murawski
The rationality principle postulates that decision-makers always choose the best action available to them. It underlies most modern theories of decision-making. The principle does not take into account the difficulty of finding the best option. Here, we propose that computational complexity theory (CCT) provides a framework for defining and quantifying the difficulty of decisions. We review evidence showing that human decision-making is affected by computational complexity. Building on this evidence, we argue that most models of decision-making, and metacognition, are intractable from a computational perspective...
December 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149872/process-quality-of-decision-making-in-multidisciplinary-cancer-team-meetings-a-structured-observational-study
#11
Pola Hahlweg, Sarah Didi, Levente Kriston, Martin Härter, Yvonne Nestoriuc, Isabelle Scholl
BACKGROUND: The quality of decision-making in multidisciplinary team meetings (MDTMs) depends on the quality of information presented and the quality of team processes. Few studies have examined these factors using a standardized approach. The aim of this study was to objectively document the processes involved in decision-making in MDTMs, document the outcomes in terms of whether a treatment recommendation was given (none vs. singular vs. multiple), and to identify factors related to type of treatment recommendation...
November 17, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149853/cost-of-delivering-health-care-services-at-primary-health-facilities-in-ghana
#12
Maxwell Ayindenaba Dalaba, Paul Welaga, Chieko Matsubara
BACKGROUND: There is limited knowledge on the cost of delivering health services at primary health care facilities in Ghana which is posing a challenge in resource allocations. This study therefore estimated the cost of providing health care in primary health care facilities such as Health Centres (HCs) and Community-based Health Planning and Services (CHPS) in Ghana. METHODS: The study was cross-sectional and quantitative data was collected from the health provider perspective...
November 17, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149750/friends-or-foes-monetized-life-cycle-assessment-and-cost-benefit-analysis-of-the-site-remediation-of-a-former-gas-plant
#13
Lies Huysegoms, Sandra Rousseau, Valérie Cappuyns
Site contamination is a global concern because of the potential risks for human health and ecosystem quality. Every contaminated site has its own specific characteristics and the increased availability and efficiency of remediation techniques makes the choice of remediation alternative increasingly complicated. In this paper an attributional Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of the secondary environmental impacts of a site remediation is performed and its results are monetized using two different monetization techniques, namely Stepwise 2006 and Ecovalue 08...
November 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149684/combining-benford-s-law-and-machine-learning-to-detect-money-laundering-an-actual-spanish-court-case
#14
Elena Badal-Valero, José A Alvarez-Jareño, Jose M Pavía
OBJECTIVES: This paper is based on the analysis of the database of operations from a macro-case on money laundering orchestrated between a core company and a group of its suppliers, 26 of which had already been identified by the police as fraudulent companies. In the face of a well-founded suspicion that more companies have perpetrated criminal acts and in order to make better use of what are very limited police resources, we aim to construct a tool to detect money laundering criminals...
November 11, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149679/innovative-urban-forestry-governance-in-melbourne-investigating-green-placemaking-as-a-nature-based-solution
#15
Natalie Marie Gulsrud, Kelly Hertzog, Ian Shears
A nature-based approach to climate resilience aims to challenge and re-frame conventional environmental management methods by refocusing solutions from technological strategies to socio-ecological principles such as human well-being and community-based governance models, thereby improving and legitimizing the delivery of ecosystem services (ES). There are, however, many challenges to applying a socio-ecological agenda to urban climate resilience and thereby re-framing ES delivery as community and people focused, a knowledge gap extensively outlined in the environmental governance literature...
November 14, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149658/evaluating-casama-contextualized-semantic-maps-for-summarization-of-lung-cancer-studies
#16
Jean I Garcia-Gathright, Nicholas J Matiasz, Carlos Adame, Karthik V Sarma, Lauren Sauer, Nova F Smedley, Marshall L Spiegel, Jennifer Strunck, Edward B Garon, Ricky K Taira, Denise R Aberle, Alex A T Bui
OBJECTIVE: It is crucial for clinicians to stay up to date on current literature in order to apply recent evidence to clinical decision making. Automatic summarization systems can help clinicians quickly view an aggregated summary of literature on a topic. Casama, a representation and summarization system based on "contextualized semantic maps," captures the findings of biomedical studies as well as the contexts associated with patient population and study design. This paper presents a user-oriented evaluation of Casama in comparison to a context-free representation, SemRep...
November 3, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149641/site-closure-management-strategies-and-the-responsiveness-of-conservation-outcomes-in-recreational-fishing
#17
Lei Gao, Atakelty Hailu
We develop and use an empirically based model, which integrates fishing behaviour and a coral reef system, to evaluate outcomes from site closure strategies to manage the effects of recreational fishing. The model is designed to estimate management effects in complex settings with two-way feedback effects (between fishing and ecosystem dynamics) as well as spillover effects where the closure of a site (or sites) leads to the redistribution of fishing effort. An iconic coral reef system is used as a case study...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149614/risky-business-the-circuits-that-impact-stress-induced-decision-making
#18
Amy F T Arnsten, Daeyeol Lee, Christopher Pittenger
How does stress promote risky decision-making? Friedman et al. find that stress disrupts inhibition of striatal circuits by prefrontal cortex, rendering animals insensitive to potential losses. This may help explain how stress contributes to substance abuse and how it can disinhibit automatic behaviors, such as tics in Tourette syndrome.
November 16, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149606/chronic-stress-alters-striosome-circuit-dynamics-leading-to-aberrant-decision-making
#19
Alexander Friedman, Daigo Homma, Bernard Bloem, Leif G Gibb, Ken-Ichi Amemori, Dan Hu, Sebastien Delcasso, Timothy F Truong, Joyce Yang, Adam S Hood, Katrina A Mikofalvy, Dirk W Beck, Norah Nguyen, Erik D Nelson, Sebastian E Toro Arana, Ruth H Vorder Bruegge, Ki A Goosens, Ann M Graybiel
Effective evaluation of costs and benefits is a core survival capacity that in humans is considered as optimal, "rational" decision-making. This capacity is vulnerable in neuropsychiatric disorders and in the aftermath of chronic stress, in which aberrant choices and high-risk behaviors occur. We report that chronic stress exposure in rodents produces abnormal evaluation of costs and benefits resembling non-optimal decision-making in which choices of high-cost/high-reward options are sharply increased...
November 16, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149505/an-international-continence-society-ics-report-on-the-terminology-for-adult-neurogenic-lower-urinary-tract-dysfunction-anlutd
#20
Jerzy B Gajewski, Brigitte Schurch, Rizwan Hamid, Márcio Averbeck, Ryuji Sakakibara, Enrico F Agrò, Tamara Dickinson, Christopher K Payne, Marcus J Drake, Bernie T Haylen
INTRODUCTION: The terminology for adult neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (ANLUTD) should be defined and organized in a clinically based consensus Report. METHODS: This Report has been created by a Working Group under the auspices and guidelines of the International Continence Society (ICS) Standardization Steering Committee (SSC) assisted at intervals by external referees. All relevant definitions for ANLUTD were updated on the basis of research over the last 14 years...
November 17, 2017: Neurourology and Urodynamics
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