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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154260/spectral-windows-analysis-method-for-monitoring-anthropogenic-radionuclides-in-real-time-environmental-gamma-ray-scintillation-spectrometry
#1
Elena Prieto, Ramon Casanovas, Marçal Salvadó
This paper proposes an analysis methodology based on the spectral windows technique aimed for environmental real-time gamma-ray spectra obtained with scintillation detectors. The method permits to monitor activity concentrations of selected isotopes, such as anthropogenic radionuclides like <sup>137</sup>Cs and <sup>131</sup>I, by removing the Compton scattering plus other external contributions and resolving peak overlapping within any window. Activity concentrations are presented for <sup>137</sup>Cs, <sup>131</sup>I, <sup>214</sup>Bi and <sup>214</sup>Pb when applying the method to a monitor using a LaBr<sub>3</sub>(Ce) detector...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076457/investigating-the-generalisation-of-an-atlas-based-synthetic-ct-algorithm-to-another-centre-and-mr-scanner-for-prostate-mr-only-radiotherapy
#2
Jonathan Wyatt, Jason A Dowling, Charles G Kelly, Jill McKenna, Emily Johnstone, Richard Speight, Ann Henry, Peter B Greer, Hazel Mhairi McCallum
There is increasing interest in MR-only radiotherapy planning since it provides superb soft-tissue contrast without the registration uncertainties inherent in a CT-MR registration. However MR images cannot readily provide the electron density information necessary for radiotherapy dose calculation. An algorithm which generates synthetic CT's for dose calculations from MR images of the prostate using an atlas of 3 T MR images has been previously reported by two of the authors. This paper aimed to evaluate this algorithm using MR data acquired at a different field strength and a different centre to the algorithm atlas...
October 27, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049384/ideal-cardiovascular-health-predicts-lower-risk-of-abnormal-liver-enzymes-levels-in-the-chilean-national-health-survey-2009-2010
#3
Antonio García-Hermoso, Anthony C Hackney, Robinson Ramírez-Vélez
High levels of gamma glutamyltransferase (gamma-GT) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), as well as fatty liver index (FLI) has been associated with higher cardiovascular disease risk factors in adults. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between gamma-GT, ALT, and fatty liver index FLI levels across a gradient number of ideal cardiovascular health metrics in a representative sample of adults from the Chilean National Health Survey 2009-2010. Data from 1,023 men and 1,449 women (≥ 15 years) from the Chilean Health Survey 2009-2010 were analyzed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971991/targeted-gamma-secretase-inhibition-of-notch-signaling-activation-in-acute-renal-injury
#4
Jean-Christophe Wyss, Rajesh Kumar, Josip Mikulic, Manfred Schneider, Johannes D Aebi, Lucienne Juillerat-Jeanneret, Dela Golshayan
The Notch pathway has been reported to control tissue damage in acute kidney diseases. To investigate potential beneficial nephroprotective effects of targeting Notch, we developed chemically functionalized γ-secretase inhibitors (GSIs) targeting γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (γ-GT) and/or γ-glutamylcyclotransfase (γ-GCT), two enzymes overexpressed in the injured kidney, and evaluated them in in vivo murine models of acute tubular and glomerular damage. Exposure of the animals to disease-inducing drugs together with the functionalized GSIs improved proteinuria and, to some extent, kidney dysfunction...
September 27, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965581/low-blood-lead-levels-impair-intellectual-and-hematological-function-in-children-from-cartagena-caribbean-coast-of-colombia
#5
Neda Alvarez-Ortega, Karina Caballero-Gallardo, Jesus Olivero-Verbel
Lead produces numerous biochemical and physiological changes in humans, including hematological disorders, toxic effects on the central nervous system and in the function of several organs. The aim of this study was to determine blood lead levels (BLL) in children from Cartagena, Colombia, associating those with hematological and liver damage markers, the intelligence quotient (IQ), as well as with gene expression of the aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALAD), superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), gamma interferon (INF-γ), tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and tumor protein (p53)...
December 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922104/interleukin-2-interferon-gamma-gene-polymorphisms-in-recurrent-aphthous-stomatitis
#6
Shamsolmoulouk Najafi, Hila Yousefi, Mahsa Mohammadzadeh, Alireza Zare Bidoki, Elham Farhadi, Nima Rezaei
Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is the most common oral ulcerative inflammatory disease with unknown etiology. IL-2 and IFN-γ are secreted by Th1 cells and the elevated levels of them have been reported in RAS. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of IL-2 and IFN-γ genes could alter the cytokine production. The aim of this study was to investigate frequencies of IL-2 and IFN-γ alleles and genotypes in a group of patients with minor-RAS (MiRAS). PCR-SSP method used to type genomic DNA of 64 Iranian patients with MiRAS for IL-2 gene (G -330 T) and (G +166 T) and IFN-γ gene at position UTR5644 (A/T)...
2017: Prague Medical Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851958/predictive-value-of-serum-gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase-for-future-cardiometabolic-dysregulation-in-adolescents-a-10-year-longitudinal-study
#7
Chien-Ming Lin, Chang-Hsun Hsieh, Chien-Hsing Lee, Dee Pei, Jiunn-Diann Lin, Chung-Ze Wu, Yao-Jen Liang, Yi-Jen Hung, Yen-Lin Chen
Serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (γ-GT) is implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adults. The relationships between γ-GT and cardiometabolic dysregulation remains unclear in adolescents. We enrolled 7,072 Taiwanese adolescents and followed them for a median of 6.8 years. The optimal cut-off values (CoVs) of baseline γ-GT to predict future MetS, hypertension (HTN), and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) were determined by receiving operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Using these CoVs, the participants were divided into normal- and high-level groups...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844848/nano-sized-titanium-dioxide-toxicity-in-rat-prostate-and-testis-possible-ameliorative-effect-of-morin
#8
Nancy N Shahin, Maha M Mohamed
This study investigated the effect of short-term oral exposure to nano-sized titanium dioxide (nTiO2) on Wistar rat prostate and testis, and the associating reproductive-related alterations. The study also evaluated the potential ameliorative effect of the natural flavonoid, morin, on nTiO2-induced aberrations. Intragastric administration of nTiO2 (50mg/kg/day for 1, 2 and 3weeks) increased testicular gamma-glutamyltransferase (γ-GT) activity and decreased testicular steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and c-kit gene expression, serum testosterone level and sperm count...
November 1, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837044/estimation-of-lung-shunt-fraction-from-simultaneous-fluoroscopic-and-nuclear-images
#9
Sandra van der Velden, Remco Bastiaannet, Arthur J A T Braat, Marnix G E H Lam, Max A Viergever, Hugo W A M de Jong
Radioembolisation with yttrium-90 ((90)Y) is increasingly used as a treatment of unresectable liver malignancies. For safety, a scout dose of technetium-99m macroaggregated albumin ((99m)Tc-MAA) is used prior to the delivery of the therapeutic activity to mimic the deposition of (90)Y. One-day procedures are currently limited by the lack of nuclear images in the intervention room. To cope with this limitation, an interventional simultaneous fluoroscopic and nuclear imaging device is currently being developed...
October 12, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799926/daily-runoff-prediction-using-the-linear-and-non-linear-models
#10
Alireza Sharifi, Yagob Dinpashoh, Rasoul Mirabbasi
Runoff prediction, as a nonlinear and complex process, is essential for designing canals, water management and planning, flood control and predicting soil erosion. There are a number of techniques for runoff prediction based on the hydro-meteorological and geomorphological variables. In recent years, several soft computing techniques have been developed to predict runoff. There are some challenging issues in runoff modeling including the selection of appropriate inputs and determination of the optimum length of training and testing data sets...
August 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749373/dosimetric-evaluation-of-a-commercial-proton-spot-scanning-monte-carlo-dose-algorithm-comparisons-against-measurements-and-simulations
#11
Jatinder Saini, Dominic Maes, Alexander Egan, Stephen R Bowen, Sara St James, Martin Janson, Tony Wong, Charles Bloch
RaySearch Americas Inc. (NY) has introduced a commercial Monte Carlo dose algorithm (RS-MC) for routine clinical use in proton spot scanning. In this report, we provide a validation of this algorithm against phantom measurements and simulations in GATE/GEANT4 software package. We also compared the performance of RayStation analytical algorithm (RS-PBA) against the RS-MC algorithm. Methods: A beam model (G-MC) for spot scanning gantry at our proton center was implemented in the GATE software package. The model was validated against measurements in a water phantom and was used for benchmarking the RS-MC...
July 27, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718770/benchmarking-gate-geant4-for-16-o-ion-beam-therapy
#12
Andreas F Resch, Hermann Fuchs, Dietmar Georg
Oxygen ([Formula: see text]) ions are a potential alternative to carbon ions in ion beam therapy. Their enhanced linear energy transfer indicates a higher relative biological effectiveness and a reduced oxygen enhancement ratio. Due to the limited availability of [Formula: see text] ion beams, Monte Carlo (MC) transport codes are important research tools for investigating their potential. The purpose of this study was to validate GATE/Geant4 for [Formula: see text] ion beam therapy using experimental data from literature...
September 5, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684134/exercise-training-reduces-alcohol-consumption-but-does-not-affect-hpa-axis-activity-in-heavy-drinkers
#13
Kalliopi Georgakouli, Eirini Manthou, Panagiotis Georgoulias, Anastasia Ziaka, Ioannis G Fatouros, Georgios Mastorakos, Yiannis Koutedakis, Yannis Theodorakis, Athanasios Z Jamurtas
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that physical exercise could have potential beneficial effects in substance abusers, which are based on both physiological and psychological theories. Although a few studies have examined the effect of exercise on alcohol intake and fitness in individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUDs), there is a gap in the literature concerning the physiological and biochemical mechanisms that could be affected by physical exercise in this population. PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study was to examine physiological and biochemical responses to exercise after an 8-week supervised exercise training (ET) intervention in heavy drinkers...
July 3, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660888/use-of-a-gamma-2-herpesvirus-as-a-vector-to-deliver-antibodies-to-rhesus-monkeys
#14
G F Bischof, Y C Shin, S P Fuchs, J M Martinez-Navio, W A Lauer, E G Rakasz, R C Desrosiers
The gamma-2 herpesvirus of rhesus monkeys, rhesus monkey rhadinovirus (RRV), persists principally in B cells of its host. We constructed recombinant strains of RRV expressing the rhesus monkey-derived anti-SIV monoclonal antibodies 4L6 and 5L7 and compared the RRV-mediated in vivo delivery of these antibodies in rhesus monkeys with previous studies that utilized intramuscular delivery with an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector. Recombinant RRV-4L6 and RRV-5L7 were both shown to stably produce the antibodies in persistently infected B-cell lines in culture...
August 2017: Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641570/1h-post-load-blood-glucose-in-the-identification-of-proatherogenic-cardiometabolic-profile-in-obesity
#15
Djordje S Popovic, Dragana Tomic-Naglic, Milena Mitrovic, Zeljko Zivanovic, Bojan Vukovic, Edita Stokic
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Current data show that 1h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) blood glucose (1h-BG) might identify persons at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases more precisely than fasting blood glucose (FBG) and 2h OGTT blood glucose (2h-BG). The aim of study was to determine whether is justified to use 1h-BG over traditional blood glucose measurements, in cardiometabolic profiling of obese individuals. METHOD: Cross-sectional study enrolled 60 obese individuals without previous history of diabetes and other cardiometabolic disorders...
2017: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638431/erzhi-pill%C3%A2-repairs-experimental-liver-injury-via-tsc-mtor-signaling-pathway-inhibiting-excessive-apoptosis
#16
Bu-Gao Zhou, Hai-Mei Zhao, Xiu-Yun Lu, Xin Wang, Yong Zou, Rong Xu, Hai-Yang Yue, Yi Liu, Zheng-Yun Zuo, Duan-Yong Liu
The present study aimed to investigate the mechanism of hepatoprotective effect of Erzhi Pill (EZP) on the liver injury via observing TSC/mTOR signaling pathway activation. The experimental liver injury was induced by 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF) treatment combined with partial hepatectomy (PH). EZP treated 2-AAF/PH-induced liver injury by the therapeutic and prophylactic administration. After the administration of EZP, the activities of aspartic transaminase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GT) were decreased, followed by the decreased levels of hepatocyte apoptosis and caspase-3 expression...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605332/protective-effect-of-curcumin-against-carbofuran-induced-toxicity-in-wistar-rats
#17
Binitha P Purushothaman, Ramadasan Kuttan
Pesticide carbofuran (Furadan) is known to be an inhibitor of nerve impulses by its inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. Oral administration of carbofuran also produced tissue damage as evidenced by the increased the activities of creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and gamma glutamyl transferase (γ-GT) in tissues and serum. Against carbofuran, curcumin restored the activities of acetylcholinesterase, LDH, CK and γ- GT in animals. Curcumin also restored the reduced mitochondrial enzymes in rat liver caused by carbofuran...
2017: Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581438/environmental-monitoring-through-use-of-silica-based-tld
#18
Z Siti Rozaila, M U Khandaker, S F Abdul Sani, Siti Norbaini Sabtu, Y M Amin, M J Maah, D A Bradley
The sensitivity of a novel silica-based fibre-form thermoluminescence dosimeter was tested off-site of a rare-earths processing plant, investigating the potential for obtaining baseline measurements of naturally occurring radioactive materials. The dosimeter, a Ge-doped collapsed photonic crystal fibre (PCFc) co-doped with B, was calibrated against commercially available thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) (TLD-200 and TLD-100) using a bremsstrahlung (tube-based) x-ray source. Eight sampling sites within 1 to 20 km of the perimeter of the rare-earth facility were identified, the TLDs (silica- as well as TLD-200 and TLD-100) in each case being buried within the soil at fixed depth, allowing measurements to be obtained, in this case for protracted periods of exposure of between two to eight months...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567043/simultaneous-subcutaneous-and-intranasal-administration-of-a-caf01-adjuvanted-chlamydia-vaccine-elicits-elevated-iga-and-protective-th1-th17-responses-in-the-genital-tract
#19
Jeanette Erbo Wern, Maria Rathmann Sorensen, Anja Weinreich Olsen, Peter Andersen, Frank Follmann
The selection of any specific immunization route is critical when defining future vaccine strategies against a genital infection like Chlamydia trachomatis (C.t.). An optimal Chlamydia vaccine needs to elicit mucosal immunity comprising both neutralizing IgA/IgG antibodies and strong Th1/Th17 responses. A strategic tool to modulate this immune profile and mucosal localization of vaccine responses is to combine parenteral and mucosal immunizations routes. In this study, we investigate whether this strategy can be adapted into a two-visit strategy by simultaneous subcutaneous (SC) and nasal immunization...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357030/factors-associated-with-long-term-survival-after-liver-transplantation-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#20
Sven Pischke, Marie C Lege, Moritz von Wulffen, Antonio Galante, Benjamin Otto, Malte H Wehmeyer, Uta Herden, Lutz Fischer, Björn Nashan, Ansgar W Lohse, Martina Sterneck
AIM: To identify predictive factors associated with long-term patient and graft survival (> 15 years) in liver transplant recipients. METHODS: Medical charts of all de novo adult liver transplant recipients (n = 140) who were transplanted in Hamburg between 1997 and 1999 were retrospectively reviewed. In total, 155 transplantations were identified in this time period (15 re-transplantations). Twenty-six orthotopic liver transplant (OLT) recipients were early lost to follow-up due to moving to other places within 1 year after transplantation...
March 18, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
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