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Gamma GT

Benjamin D Rusk, Robert L Carver, John P Gibbons, Kenneth R Hogstrom
The purpose of this work was to evaluate differences in dose resulting from the use of copper aperture inserts compared to lead-alloy (Cerrobend) aperture inserts for electron beam therapy. Specifically, this study examines if copper aperture inserts can be used clinically with the same commissioning data measured using lead-alloy aperture inserts. The copper inserts were acquired from .decimal, LLC and matching lead-alloy, Cerrobend inserts were constructed in-house for 32 com-binations of nine square insert field sizes (2 × 2 to 20 × 20 cm2) and five applicator sizes (6 × 6 to 25 × 25 cm2)...
2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
Mark D Wanklyn, Ghirmay Kidane, Liz Crees
The aim of this study was to assess the suitability of the Im'RT MatriXX 2D ion chamber array for performing verification measurements on the Varian Eclipse electron Monte Carlo (eMC) algorithm for a range of clinical energies (6, 12, and 20 MeV) on a Varian 2100iX linear accelerator. Firstly, the suitability of the MatriXX for measuring percentage depth doses (PDD) in water was assessed, including characterization of the inherent buildup found in the MatriXX. Secondly the suitability of the MatriXX for measuring dose distributions in homogeneous and heterogeneous phantoms was assessed using gamma analysis at 3%/3 mm...
2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
Fulsen Bozkus, Nursel Dikmen, Hatice Sahin, Anil Samur
BACKGROUND: Gamma-glutamyl transferase (gamma-GT) is an enzyme present in the cell membranes, which is used as a new biomarker in prediction of inflammation, myocardial infarction, stroke, and cardiac death. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between serum levels of gamma-GT and cardiovascular disease in subjects with COPD and the correlation between serum gamma-GT level and degree of the limitation of air flow in COPD. METHODS: A total of 70 subjects (46...
September 6, 2016: Respiratory Care
Karlijn Stouten, Jurgen A Riedl, Jolanda Droogendijk, Rob Castel, Joost van Rosmalen, Ron J van Houten, Paul Berendes, Pieter Sonneveld, Mark-David Levin
BACKGROUND: Macrocytic anaemia (MCV ≥ 100 fL) is a relatively common finding in general practice. However, literature on the prevalence of the different causes in this population is limited. The prevalence of macrocytic anaemia and its underlying aetiology were analysed in a general practice population. The potential effect of the different aetiology on survival was also evaluated. METHODS: Between the 1st of February 2007 and the 1st of February 2015, patients aged 50 years or older and presenting to their general practitioner with a newly diagnosed anaemia, were included in the study...
2016: BMC Family Practice
H Khonsari, M Schneider, S Al-Mahdawi, Y G Chianea, M Themis, C Parris, M A Pook, M Themis
Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease caused by deficiency of frataxin protein, with the primary sites of pathology being the large sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and the cerebellum. FRDA is also often accompanied by severe cardiomyopathy and diabetes mellitus. Frataxin is important in mitochondrial iron-sulphur cluster (ISC) biogenesis and low frataxin expression is due to a GAA repeat expansion in intron 1 of the FXN gene. FRDA cells are genomically unstable, with increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and sensitivity to oxidative stress...
August 12, 2016: Gene Therapy
Chun-Hung Yang, Heng-Yuan Chang, Yi-Chuan Chen, Chia-Chen Lu, Shyh-Shyun Huang, Guan-Jhong Huang, Hsin-Chih Lai
OBJECTIVE: To study whether the ethanol extract of Phellinus merrillii (EPM) has chemopreventive potential against liver carcinogenesis. METHODS: Thirty male Spraque-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control group, EPM control group, hepatocarcinoma control group, low-dose EPM group and high-dose EPM group, 6 in each group. Using the Solt and Farber protocol in a rat model of hepatocarcinogenesis, the chemopreventive effect of EPM on diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-initiated, 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF) and partial hepatectomy (PH)-promoted liver carcinogenesis in rats was evaluated...
August 2, 2016: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
Sundararaj Rubila, Thottiam Vasudevan Ranganathan, Kunnathur Murugesan Sakthivel
The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate Zingiber officinale paste against Dalton's lymphoma ascites (DLA)-induced tumours in Swiss albino mice. Experimental animals received Z. officinale paste (low dose 100 mg/kg bw and high dose 500 mg/kg bw) orally for eight alternative days. Treatment with Z. officinale paste showed significant increase in haemoglobin level and decrease in aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma glutamyl transferase (γ-GT) level...
July 19, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Hermann Feldmeier, Miklos Hazay, Megumi Sato, Pongvongsa Tiengkham, Futoshi Nishimoto, Hongwei Jiang, Vatsana Sopraseuth, Kazuhiko Moji
BACKGROUND: Infections with the food-borne trematode Opisthorchis viverinni are common in Southeast Asia. In Lao PDR alone, two million people are supposed to be infected. Opisthorchiasis may cause severe liver disease, eventually leading to cholangiocarcinoma. The objective of this study is to assess the eating habits, complaints, symptoms, signs and ultrasonographical findings in three different areas of Savannakhet Province. METHODS: Study participants were recruited in Lahanam village in the flood-prone lowland of, Sonkhone district, Savannakhet Province (group A); in Non Somboon village, a community located on a hilly plateau in the same district (group B); and in staff of Savannakhet Province Hospital, Savannakhet town (group C)...
2016: Tropical Medicine and Health
Luciano Pellegrini, Gianni Belcaro, Mark Dugall, Marcello Corsi, Roberta Luzzi, Masayuki Hosoi
BACKGROUND: The aim of this registry study was to evaluate Robuvit® (French oak wood extract) supplementation in the evolution of moderate functional hepatic failure (MTHF) due to alcohol. Recent studies have indicated the protective effect of oak wood (QR) extracts on liver injury. This registry included patients with MTHF characterized by: decreased albumin levels; increased total bilirubin, altered hepatic functions enzymes, increased oxidative stress, negative viral hepatitis markers...
September 2016: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
Woudri Oosthuizen, Leoné Malan, Jacobus D Scheepers, Marike Cockeran, Nicolaas T Malan
The behavioral defense coping response (DefS) as a measure of coping with emotional stress may increase alcohol intake (gamma glutamyl transferase (γGT)), the risk for coronary artery disease (CAD) and insulin sensitivity (homeostasis model assessment, HOMA). We assessed associations between coping and cardiometabolic risk markers in a bi-ethnic cohort (N = 390) from South Africa. Ambulatory blood pressure (BP) and ECG, fasting blood and coping scores were obtained. Africans, and mostly when utilizing DefS, showed higher 24h BP, a low-grade inflammatory state, central obesity, increased HOMA [4...
2016: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
Giovanni Maconi, Federica Furfaro, Walter Fries, Alessandra Dell'Era, Cristina Bezzio, Giuseppe Costantino, Vittorio Giuliano, Angela Alibrandi, Tom Guzowski, Gabrio Bassotti
BACKGROUND&AIMS: Excessive intestinal gas and liver steatosis are frequent sonographic findings. Both of these appear to be caused by variations of the gut microflora. We assessed the relationship between ultrasonographic detection of intestinal gas and liver steatosis. METHODS: This study included 204 consecutive patients (99 male; mean age 53.0±15.6 years), who underwent ultrasonography for abdominal complaints or follow up of benign lesions. Body mass index (BMI), biochemical liver markers, sonographic presence of liver steatosis and/or degree of intestinal gas interfering with the examination were collected...
July 4, 2016: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Magdy Mohammed, Eman Abdel-Gawad, Sameh Awwad, Eman Kandil, Basma El-Agamy
Nanotechnology research is booming worldwide, and the general belief is that medical and biological applications will form the greatest sector of expansion over the next decade. With this in mind, this study was designed to evaluate the therapeutic effects of a synthesized tricalcium phosphate nanocomposite material (nano-TCP) on hepatocarcinoma in a rat model, as initiated with diethylnitrosamine (DEN) and promoted with phenobarbital (PB). Hepatocarcinoma was induced with intraperitoneal injections of DEN (50 mg·(kg body mass)(-1)) 3 times a week for 2 weeks...
June 2016: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
S Harsini, V Ziaee, F Tahghighi, M Mahmoudi, A Rezaei, S Soltani, M Sadr, M H Moradinejad, Y Aghighi, N Rezaei
PURPOSE: Juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE) is a severe and chronic autoimmune disease of unknown origin. Inflammatory cytokines can play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of JSLE, while their secretion is under genetic control. The current investigation was performed to analyse the associations of particular single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) genes in a case control study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The allele, genotype and haplotype frequencies of the polymorphic IL-2 (G/T at -330, rs2069762, and G/T at +166, rs2069763) and IFN-γ (A/T at +874, rs2430561) genes were estimated in 59 patients with JSLE by contrast with 140 healthy controls using polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primers method...
September 2016: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
F Tomei, S Ricci, F De Marco, C Sacco, P Ricci, B Pimpinella, B Scala, S Corsale, R Massimi, T Caciari, V Anzelmo, A Sancini, T Casale, G Tomei, M V Rosati
INTRODUCTION: The aim of our study is to compare liver damage in "outdoor" environment technicians, a category occupationally exposed, and in "indoor" workers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied 142 male technicians of the environment exposed to urban pollution and 142 male "indoor" workers not exposed. We compared mean and standard deviation of the following liver parameters: glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), gamma-glutamyl-traspeptidasi (γGT) and alkaline phosphatase (PHA), total bilirubin (TB) and direct (DB)...
March 2016: La Clinica Terapeutica
Maja Malenica, Besim Prnjavorac, Adlija Causevic, Tanja Dujic, Tamer Bego, Sabina Semiz
INTRODUCTION: Because of increasing prevalence of T2MD worldwide, it's very important to recognize risk factors for diabetic complications, as soon as possible. Symptoms of complications appear a few or many years after tissue damage. So, it's imperative to establish surveillance of diabetics with laboratory and other diagnostic procedures for early recognition of diabetic complications. Follow up of clinical curs of diabetes, by using databases of patients, provide possibility for permanent analysis of important laboratory parameters and any changes could be registered...
April 2016: Acta Informatica Medica: AIM
Sanaa Sabet Botros, Naglaa Mohamed El-Lakkany, Olfat Ali Hammam, Abdel-Naser Abdel-Aal Sabra, Alaa Awad Taha
Dimethyl dimethoxy biphenyl dicarboxylate (DDB) has been extensively used in the treatment of liver diseases accounting for 1-6% of the global disease burden. Cell replication, DNA synthesis, and proliferation, providing significant information about behavior of cells were examined in mice exposed to subchronic administration with DDB. Conventional liver functions specifically gamma-glutamyltransferase (γ-GT), a marker expressing liver canceration was also investigated. Normal mice were allocated into two groups each of 10 mice...
April 2016: Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research
Mareike Held, Florian Cremers, Penny K Sneed, Steve Braunstein, Shannon E Fogh, Jean Nakamura, Igor Barani, Angelica Perez-Andujar, Jean Pouliot, Olivier Morin
A clinical workflow was developed for urgent palliative radiotherapy treatments that integrates patient simulation, planning, quality assurance, and treatment in one 30-minute session. This has been successfully tested and implemented clinically on a linac with MV CBCT capabilities. To make this approach available to all clin-ics equipped with common imaging systems, dose calculation accuracy based on treatment sites was assessed for other imaging units. We evaluated the feasibility of palliative treatment planning using on-board imaging with respect to image quality and technical challenges...
2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
Jie Yang, Grace Tang, Pengpeng Zhang, Margie Hunt, Seng B Lim, Thomas LoSasso, Gig Mageras
Hypofractionated treatments generally increase the complexity of a treatment plan due to the more stringent constraints of normal tissues and target coverage. As a result, treatment plans contain more modulated MLC motions that may require extra efforts for accurate dose calculation. This study explores methods to minimize the differences between in-house dose calculation and actual delivery of hypofractionated volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT), by focusing on arc approximation and tongue-and-groove (TG) modeling...
2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
M Maddah, S Harsini, A Rezaei, M Sadr, S Zoghi, M H Moradinejad, V Ziaee, N Rezaei
BACKGROUND: Cytokines, including interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), seem to play a role in the pathogenesis of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of IL-2 and IFN-γ single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with susceptibility to JIA in an Iranian population. METHODS: Genomic DNA of 54 Iranian patients with JIA and 139 healthy unrelated controls were typed for IL-2 (G/T at -330 and +166) as well as IFN-γ gene (A/T at +874), using polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primers method, and compared between patients and controls...
July 2016: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
Leonardo S Roever, Elmiro S Resende, Angélica L D Diniz, Nilson Penha-Silva, Fernando C Veloso, Antonio Casella-Filho, Paulo M M Dourado, Antonio C P Chagas
Ectopic visceral fat (VF) and subcutaneous fat (SCF) are associated with cardiovascular risk factors. Gender differences in the correlations of cardiovascular disease risk factors and ectopic fat in the Brazilian population still lacking. Cross-sectional study with 101 volunteers (50.49% men; mean age 56.5 ± 18, range 19-74 years) drawn from the Uberlândia Heart Study underwent ultrasonography assessment of abdominal visceral adipose tissue with convex transducer of 3.5 MHz of frequency. The thickness of VF was ultrasonographically measured by the distance between the inner face of the abdominal muscle and the posterior face of abdominal aorta, 1 cm above the umbilicus...
March 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
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