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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922144/sleep-patterns-and-dysfunctions-in-children-with-learning-problems
#1
Ramkumar Aishworiya, Po Fun Chan, Jennifer Sh Kiing, Shang Chee Chong, Stacey Kh Tay
INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to determine the sleep patterns and dysfunctions in children with learning problems in comparison against a local population-based sample. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Parents of 200 children with learning problems and 372 parents of a local population-based sample of typically developing (TD) children were recruited to complete a questionnaire on their child's sleep patterns and sleep problems. The Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) is a validated parent-reported sleep screening questionnaire that contains 54 items identifying sleep behaviours in children...
November 2016: Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921352/posttraumatic-stress-disorder-associated-with-unexpected-death-of-a-loved-one-cross-national-findings-from-the-world-mental-health-surveys
#2
Lukoye Atwoli, Dan J Stein, Andrew King, Maria Petukhova, Sergio Aguilar-Gaxiola, Jordi Alonso, Evelyn J Bromet, Giovanni de Girolamo, Koen Demyttenaere, Silvia Florescu, Josep Maria Haro, Elie G Karam, Norito Kawakami, Sing Lee, Jean-Pierre Lepine, Fernando Navarro-Mateu, Siobhan O'Neill, Beth-Ellen Pennell, Marina Piazza, Jose Posada-Villa, Nancy A Sampson, Margreet Ten Have, Alan M Zaslavsky, Ronald C Kessler
BACKGROUND: Unexpected death of a loved one (UD) is the most commonly reported traumatic experience in cross-national surveys. However, much remains to be learned about posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after this experience. The WHO World Mental Health (WMH) survey initiative provides a unique opportunity to address these issues. METHODS: Data from 19 WMH surveys (n = 78,023; 70.1% weighted response rate) were collated. Potential predictors of PTSD (respondent sociodemographics, characteristics of the death, history of prior trauma exposure, history of prior mental disorders) after a representative sample of UDs were examined using logistic regression...
December 6, 2016: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921340/brain-activation-during-fear-extinction-predicts-exposure-success
#3
Tali Manber Ball, Sarah E Knapp, Martin P Paulus, Murray B Stein
BACKGROUND: Exposure therapy, a gold-standard treatment for anxiety disorders, is assumed to work via extinction learning, but this has never been tested. Anxious individuals demonstrate extinction learning deficits, likely related to less ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and more amygdala activation, but the relationship between these deficits and exposure outcome is unknown. We tested whether anxious individuals who demonstrate better extinction learning report greater anxiety reduction following brief exposure...
December 6, 2016: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921139/reduced-inattention-and-hyperactivity-and-improved-cognition-after-marine-oil-extract-pcso-524%C3%A2-supplementation-in-children-and-adolescents-with-clinical-and-subclinical-symptoms-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo
#4
James D Kean, Jerome Sarris, Andrew Scholey, Richard Silberstein, Luke A Downey, Con Stough
INTRODUCTION: This study investigated the effects of a marine oil extract (PCSO-524®) on inattention, hyperactivity, mood and cognition in children and adolescents. PCSO-524® is a standardised lipid extract of the New Zealand green-lipped mussel and is an inflammatory modulator that inhibits the 5'-lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase pathways and decreases concentrations of the pro-inflammatory arachidonic acid (AA). METHODS: PCSO-524® or a matched placebo was administered for 14 weeks to 144 participants (123 males/21 females; mean age 8...
December 5, 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920965/an-evaluation-of-the-impact-of-supervision-intensity-supervisor-qualifications-and-caseload-on-outcomes-in-the-treatment-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#5
Dennis R Dixon, Erik Linstead, Doreen Granpeesheh, Marlena N Novack, Ryan French, Elizabeth Stevens, Laura Stevens, Alva Powell
Ample research has shown the benefits of intensive applied behavior analysis (ABA) treatment for autism spectrum disorder (ASD); research that investigates the role of treatment supervision, however, is limited. The present study examined the relationship between mastery of learning objectives and supervision hours, supervisor credentials, years of experience, and caseload in a large sample of children with ASD (N = 638). These data were retrieved from a large archival database of children with ASD receiving community-based ABA services...
December 2016: Behavior Analysis in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919830/newly-acquired-and-reactivated-contextual-fear-memories-are-more-intense-and-prone-to-generalize-after-activation-of-prelimbic-cortex-nmda-receptors
#6
Ana C Vanvossen, Marina A M Portes, Rafael Scoz-Silva, Hugo B Reichmann, Cristina A J Stern, Leandro J Bertoglio
Activity in the rodent prelimbic (PL) cortex contributes to consolidation, retrieval and reconsolidation of learned fear. The PL cortex is considered homologous to the primate dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). In patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the dACC is often reported to be hyperactive after acquisition and/or around the retrieval of the traumatic memory. It is still unknown, however, whether there is a relationship between altered dACC functioning at these time points and PTSD-associated behavioral outcomes, such as fear overgeneralization...
December 2, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919700/exposure-to-sevoflurane-anesthesia-during-development-does-not-impair-aspects-of-attention-during-adulthood-in-rats
#7
Kathy L Murphy, Jill McGaughy, Paula L Croxson, Mark G Baxter
Exposure to general anesthetic agents during development has been associated with neurotoxicity and long-term behavioral impairments in rodents and non-human primates. The phenotype of anesthetic-induced cognitive impairment has a robust learning and memory component, however less is known about other psychological domains. Data from retrospective human patient studies suggest that children undergoing multiple procedures requiring general anesthesia are at increased risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder...
December 2, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919695/metabolomics-identifies-perturbations-in-amino-acid-metabolism-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-of-the-learned-helplessness-rat-model-of-depression
#8
Xinyu Zhou, Lanxiang Liu, Yuqing Zhang, Juncai Pu, Lining Yang, Chanjuan Zhou, Shuai Yuan, Hanping Zhang, Peng Xie
Major depressive disorder is a serious psychiatric condition associated with high rates of suicide and is a leading cause of health burden worldwide. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of major depression are still essentially unclear. In our study, a non-targeted gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomics approach was used to investigate metabolic changes in the prefrontal cortex of the learned helplessness rat model of depression. Body-weight measurements and behavioral tests including the active escape test, sucrose preference test, forced swimming test, elevated plus-maze and open field test were used to assess changes in the behavioral spectrum after inescapable footshock stress...
December 2, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918323/group-psychotherapeutic-factors-and-perceived-social-support-among-veterans-with-ptsd-symptoms
#9
Daniel W Cox, Jess J Owen, John S Ogrodniczuk
One of the most potent protective factors against psychiatric symptoms after military trauma is perceived social support. Although group psychotherapy has been linked with increasing social support, no research has evaluated which therapeutic mechanisms are associated with this increase beyond symptom reduction. We investigated which interpersonal therapeutic factors were related to changes in social support, beyond posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom reduction. Participants were 117 veterans in a multimodal outpatient group psychotherapy treatment designed to reduce PTSD symptoms and interpersonal difficulties...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918287/measuring-discrimination-and-reversal-learning-in-mouse-models-within-4-days-and-without-prior-food-deprivation
#10
Esther Remmelink, August B Smit, Matthijs Verhage, Maarten Loos
Many neurological and psychiatric disorders are characterized by deficits in cognitive flexibility. Modeling cognitive flexibility in mice enables the investigation of mechanisms underlying these deficits. The majority of currently available behavioral tests targeting this cognitive domain are reversal learning tasks that require scheduled food restriction, extended training periods and labor-intensive, and stress-inducing animal handling. Here, we describe a novel 4-day (4-d) continuously running task measuring discrimination- and reversal learning in an automated home cage (CognitionWall DL/RL task) that largely eliminates these limitations...
November 2016: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918283/muscarinic-acetylcholine-receptors-act-in-synergy-to-facilitate-learning-and-memory
#11
Katherine Leaderbrand, Helen J Chen, Kevin A Corcoran, Anita L Guedea, Vladimir Jovasevic, Jurgen Wess, Jelena Radulovic
Understanding how episodic memories are formed and retrieved is necessary if we are to treat disorders in which they malfunction. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR) in the hippocampus and cortex underlie memory formation, but there is conflicting evidence regarding their role in memory retrieval. Additionally, there is no consensus on which mAChR subtypes are critical for memory processing. Using pharmacological and genetic approaches, we found that (1) encoding and retrieval of contextual memory requires mAChR in the dorsal hippocampus (DH) and retrosplenial cortex (RSC), (2) memory formation requires hippocampal M3 and cooperative activity of RSC M1 and M3, and (3) memory retrieval is more impaired by inactivation of multiple M1-M4 mAChR in DH or RSC than inactivation of individual receptor subtypes...
November 2016: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918275/behavioral-mechanisms-of-context-fear-generalization-in-mice
#12
Kylie A Huckleberry, Laura B Ferguson, Michael R Drew
There is growing interest in generalization of learned contextual fear, driven in part by the hypothesis that mood and anxiety disorders stem from impaired hippocampal mechanisms of fear generalization and discrimination. However, there has been relatively little investigation of the behavioral and procedural mechanisms that might control generalization of contextual fear. We assessed the relative contribution of different contextual features to context fear generalization and characterized how two common conditioning protocols-foreground (uncued) and background (cued) contextual fear conditioning-affected context fear generalization...
December 2016: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917704/parent-child-interaction-in-motor-speech-therapy
#13
Aravind Kumar Namasivayam, Vibhuti Jethava, Margit Pukonen, Anna Huynh, Debra Goshulak, Robert Kroll, Pascal van Lieshout
PURPOSE: This study measures the reliability and sensitivity of a modified Parent-Child Interaction Observation scale (PCIOs) used to monitor the quality of parent-child interaction. The scale is part of a home-training program employed with direct motor speech intervention for children with speech sound disorders. METHOD: Eighty-four preschool age children with speech sound disorders were provided either high- (2×/week/10 weeks) or low-intensity (1×/week/10 weeks) motor speech intervention...
December 5, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917451/reversal-learning-reveals-cognitive-deficits-and-altered-prediction-error-encoding-in-the-ventral-striatum-in-huntington-s-disease
#14
Katharina Nickchen, Rebecca Boehme, Maria Del Mar Amador, Thomas D Hälbig, Katharina Dehnicke, Patricia Panneck, Joachim Behr, Konstantin Prass, Andreas Heinz, Lorenz Deserno, Florian Schlagenhauf, Josef Priller
Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative condition characterized by a triad of movement disorder, neuropsychiatric symptoms and cognitive deficits. The striatum is particularly vulnerable to the effects of mutant huntingtin, and cell loss can already be found in presymptomatic stages. Since the striatum is well known for its role in reinforcement learning, we hypothesized to find altered behavioral and neural responses in HD patients in a probabilistic reinforcement learning task performed during functional magnetic resonance imaging...
December 5, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916859/postnatal-gene-therapy-improves-spatial-learning-despite-the-presence-of-neuronal-ectopia-in-a-model-of-neuronal-migration-disorder
#15
Huaiyu Hu, Yu Liu, Kevin Bampoe, Yonglin He, Miao Yu
Patients with type II lissencephaly, a neuronal migration disorder with ectopic neurons, suffer from severe mental retardation, including learning deficits. There is no effective therapy to prevent or correct the formation of neuronal ectopia, which is presumed to cause cognitive deficits. We hypothesized that learning deficits were not solely caused by neuronal ectopia and that postnatal gene therapy could improve learning without correcting the neuronal ectopia formed during fetal development. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated spatial learning of cerebral cortex-specific protein O-mannosyltransferase 2 (POMT2, an enzyme required for O-mannosyl glycosylation) knockout mice and compared to the knockout mice that were injected with an adeno-associated viral vector (AAV) encoding POMT2 into the postnatal brains with Barnes maze...
November 29, 2016: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916665/task-modulations-and-clinical-manifestations-in-the-brain-functional-connectome-in-1615-fmri-datasets
#16
Tobias Kaufmann, Dag Alnæs, Christine Lycke Brandt, Nhat Trung Doan, Karolina Kauppi, Francesco Bettella, Trine V Lagerberg, Akiah O Berg, Srdjan Djurovic, Ingrid Agartz, Ingrid S Melle, Torill Ueland, Ole A Andreassen, Lars T Westlye
OBJECTIVE: An abundance of experimental studies have motivated a range of models concerning the cognitive underpinnings of severe mental disorders, yet the conception that cognitive and brain dysfunction is confined to specific cognitive domains and contexts has limited ecological validity. Schizophrenia and bipolar spectrum disorders have been conceptualized as disorders of brain connectivity; yet little is known about the pervasiveness across cognitive tasks. METHOD: To address this outstanding issue of context specificity, we estimated functional network connectivity from fMRI data obtained during five cognitive tasks (0-back, 2-back, go/no-go, recognition of positive faces, negative faces) in 90 patients with schizophrenia, 97 patients with bipolar spectrum disorder, and 136 healthy controls, including 1615 fMRI datasets in total...
December 1, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916640/ppar-agonists-could-tissue-targeting-pave-the-way
#17
Anne Bugge, Dorte Holst
Over the last couple of decades, the PPAR family of transcription factors has received much attention from the pharmaceutical industry due to their profound ability to improve glucose and lipid metabolism upon agonist activation. However, more recently the interest in these nuclear receptors has faded because several clinical trials have shown that it is difficult to develop a ligand that significantly ameliorates glucose and lipid metabolism disorders without concomitantly inducing unacceptable side-effects...
December 1, 2016: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916623/multiple-beneficial-effects-of-melanocortin-mc4-receptor-agonists-in-experimental-neurodegenerative-disorders-therapeutic-perspectives
#18
REVIEW
Daniela Giuliani, Alessandra Ottani, Laura Neri, Davide Zaffe, Paolo Grieco, Jerzy Jochem, Gian Maria Cavallini, Anna Catania, Salvatore Guarini
Melanocortin peptides induce neuroprotection in acute and chronic experimental neurodegenerative conditions. Melanocortins likewise counteract systemic responses to brain injuries. Furthermore, they promote neurogenesis by activating critical signaling pathways. Melanocortin-induced long-lasting improvement in synaptic activity and neurological performance, including learning and memory, sensory-motor orientation and coordinated limb use, has been consistently observed in experimental models of acute and chronic neurodegeneration...
December 1, 2016: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916232/neuroinflammation-in-intrauterine-growth-restriction
#19
REVIEW
Julie A Wixey, Kirat K Chand, Paul B Colditz, S Tracey Bjorkman
Disruption to the maternal environment during pregnancy from events such as hypoxia, stress, toxins, inflammation, and reduced placental blood flow can affect fetal development. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is commonly caused by chronic placental insufficiency, interrupting supply of oxygen and nutrients to the fetus resulting in abnormal fetal growth. IUGR is a major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality, occurring in approximately 5-10% of pregnancies. The fetal brain is particularly vulnerable in IUGR and there is an increased risk of long-term neurological disorders including cerebral palsy, epilepsy, learning difficulties, behavioural difficulties and psychiatric diagnoses...
November 25, 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914943/disadvantageous-decision-making-in-borderline-personality-disorder-partial-support-from-a-meta-analytic-review
#20
REVIEW
Christian Paret, Christine Jennen-Steinmetz, Christian Schmahl
To achieve long-term goals, organisms evaluate outcomes and expected consequences of their behaviors. Unfavorable decisions maintain many symptoms of borderline personality disorder (BPD); therefore, a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying decision-making in BPD is needed. In this review, the current literature comparing decision-making in patients with BPD versus healthy controls is analyzed. Twenty-eight empirical studies were identified through a structured literature search. The effect sizes from studies applying comparable experimental tasks were analyzed...
November 30, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
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