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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821666/gabaergic-interneuron-differentiation-in-the-basal-forebrain-is-mediated-through-direct-regulation-of-glutamic-acid-decarboxylase-isoforms-by-dlx-homeobox-transcription-factors
#1
Trung N Le, Qing-Ping Zhou, Inma Cobos, Shunzhen Zhang, Jamie Zagozewski, Sara Japoni, Jerry Vriend, Tracie Parkinson, Guoyan Du, John L Rubenstein, David D Eisenstat
γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) is the key inhibitory neurotransmitter in the cortex but regulation of its synthesis during forebrain development is poorly understood. In the telencephalon, members of the distal-less (Dlx) homeobox gene family are expressed in, and regulate the development of, the basal ganglia primodia from which many GABAergic neurons originate and migrate to other forebrain regions. The Dlx1/Dlx2 double knockout mice die at birth with abnormal cortical development, including loss of tangential migration of GABAergic inhibitory interneurons to the neocortex (Anderson et al...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821448/cognitive-impairment-and-gene-expression-alterations-in-a-rodent-model-of-binge-eating-disorder
#2
A Chawla, Z A Cordner, G Boersma, T H Moran
Binge eating disorder (BED) is defined as recurrent, distressing over-consumption of palatable food (PF) in a short time period. Clinical studies suggest that individuals with BED may have impairments in cognitive processes, executive functioning, impulse control, and decision-making, which may play a role in sustaining binge eating behavior. These clinical reports, however, are limited and often conflicting. In this study, we used a limited access rat model of binge-like behavior in order to further explore the effects of binge eating on cognition...
August 15, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820746/no-effects-of-d-cycloserine-enhancement-in-exposure-with-response-prevention-therapy-in-panic-disorder-with-agoraphobia-a-double-blind-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Mieke Klein Hofmeijer-Sevink, Puck Duits, Marleen M Rijkeboer, Adriaan W Hoogendoorn, Harold J van Megen, Nienke C Vulink, Damiaan A Denys, Marcel A van den Hout, Anton J van Balkom, Danielle C Cath
PURPOSE/BACKGROUND: D-cycloserine (DCS) is a partial N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor agonist that potentially augments response to exposure therapy in anxiety disorders by enhancing extinction learning. This randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled augmentation trial examined (1) the effectiveness of adding 125 mg of DCS to exposure therapy (before or directly after the first 6 treatment sessions) in patients with panic disorder with agoraphobia and (2) the effectiveness of DCS augmentation preceding exposure relative to DCS augmentation directly postexposure...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819795/leptin-regulation-of-synaptic-function-at-hippocampal-ta-ca1-and-sc-ca1-synapses-implications-for-health-and-disease
#4
Gemma McGregor, Jenni Harvey
Growing evidence indicates that the endocrine hormone leptin regulates hippocampal synaptic function in addition to its established role as a hypothalamic satiety signal. Indeed, numerous studies show that leptin facilitates the cellular events that underlie hippocampal learning and memory including activity-dependent synaptic plasticity and glutamate receptor trafficking, indicating that leptin may be a potential cognitive enhancer. Although there has been extensive investigation into the modulatory role of leptin at hippocampal Schaffer collateral (SC)-CA1 synapses, recent evidence indicates that leptin also potently regulates excitatory synaptic transmission at the anatomically distinct temporoammonic (TA) input to hippocampal CA1 neurons...
August 18, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819289/escrt-iii-membrane-trafficking-misregulation-contributes-to-fragile-x-syndrome-synaptic-defects
#5
Dominic J Vita, Kendal Broadie
The leading cause of heritable intellectual disability (ID) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD), Fragile X syndrome (FXS), is caused by loss of the mRNA-binding translational suppressor Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP). In the Drosophila FXS disease model, we found FMRP binds shrub mRNA (human Chmp4) to repress Shrub expression, causing overexpression during the disease state early-use critical period. The FXS hallmark is synaptic overelaboration causing circuit hyperconnectivity. Testing innervation of a central brain learning/memory center, we found FMRP loss and Shrub overexpression similarly increase connectivity...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819155/context-conditioning-in-humans-using-commercially-available-immersive-virtual-reality
#6
Marijn C W Kroes, Joseph E Dunsmoor, Wayne E Mackey, Mason McClay, Elizabeth A Phelps
Despite a wealth of knowledge on how humans and nonhuman animals learn to associate meaningful events with cues in the environment, far less is known about how humans learn to associate these events with the environment itself. Progress on understanding spatiotemporal contextual processes in humans has been slow in large measure by the methodological constraint of generating and manipulating immersive spatial environments in well-controlled laboratory settings. Fortunately, immersive Virtual Reality (iVR) technology has improved appreciably and affords a relatively straightforward methodology to investigate the role of context on learning, memory, and emotion while maintaining experimental control...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819097/the-non-coding-rna-bc1-regulates-experience-dependent-structural-plasticity-and-learning
#7
Victor Briz, Leonardo Restivo, Emanuela Pasciuto, Konrad Juczewski, Valentina Mercaldo, Adrian C Lo, Pieter Baatsen, Natalia V Gounko, Antonella Borreca, Tiziana Girardi, Rossella Luca, Julie Nys, Rogier B Poorthuis, Huibert D Mansvelder, Gilberto Fisone, Martine Ammassari-Teule, Lutgarde Arckens, Patrik Krieger, Rhiannon Meredith, Claudia Bagni
The brain cytoplasmic (BC1) RNA is a non-coding RNA (ncRNA) involved in neuronal translational control. Absence of BC1 is associated with altered glutamatergic transmission and maladaptive behavior. Here, we show that pyramidal neurons in the barrel cortex of BC1 knock out (KO) mice display larger excitatory postsynaptic currents and increased spontaneous activity in vivo. Furthermore, BC1 KO mice have enlarged spine heads and postsynaptic densities and increased synaptic levels of glutamate receptors and PSD-95...
August 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818702/the-effects-of-cannabinoid-receptors-activation-and-glucocorticoid-receptors-deactivation-in-the-amygdala-and-hippocampus-on-the-consolidation-of-a-traumatic-event
#8
Noa Shoshan, Irit Akirav
Ample evidence demonstrates that fear learning contributes significantly to many anxiety pathologies including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The endocannabinoid (eCB) system may offer therapeutic benefits for PTSD and it is a modulator of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis. Here we compared the separated and combined effects of blocking glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) using the GR antagonist RU486 and enhancing CB1r signaling using the CB1/2 receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 in the CA1 and basolateral amygdala (BLA) on the consolidation of traumatic memory...
August 14, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818658/cue-dependent-inhibition-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#9
Zachary W Adams, Michael Meinzer, Howard Mandel, Joshua Voltin, Blaine Caughron, Floyd R Sallee, Mark Hamner, Zhewu Wang
OBJECTIVE: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are common among military veterans, but the comorbidity of these two psychiatric disorders remains largely unstudied. Evaluating response inhibition and cue-dependent learning as behavioral and neurocognitive mechanisms underlying ADHD/PTSD can inform etiological models and development of tailored interventions. METHOD: A cued go/no-go task evaluated response inhibition in 160 adult males...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817803/developmental-dysfunction-of-vip-interneurons-impairs-cortical-circuits
#10
Renata Batista-Brito, Martin Vinck, Katie A Ferguson, Jeremy T Chang, David Laubender, Gyorgy Lur, James M Mossner, Victoria G Hernandez, Charu Ramakrishnan, Karl Deisseroth, Michael J Higley, Jessica A Cardin
GABAergic interneurons play important roles in cortical circuit development. However, there are multiple populations of interneurons and their respective developmental contributions remain poorly explored. Neuregulin 1 (NRG1) and its interneuron-specific receptor ERBB4 are critical genes for interneuron maturation. Using a conditional ErbB4 deletion, we tested the role of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-expressing interneurons in the postnatal maturation of cortical circuits in vivo. ErbB4 removal from VIP interneurons during development leads to changes in their activity, along with severe dysregulation of cortical temporal organization and state dependence...
August 16, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817785/diving-into-the-world-of-alcohol-teratogenesis-a-review-of-zebrafish-models-of-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders
#11
Yohaan Fernandes, Desirè M Buckley, Johann K Eberhart
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) refer to the entire suite of deleterious outcomes resulting from embryonic alcohol exposure. Along with other reviews in this edition, we provide insight into how animal models, specifically the zebrafish; have informed our understanding of FASD. We first provide a brief introduction to FASD. We discuss the zebrafish as a model organism and its strengths for alcohol research. We detail how zebrafish has been used to model some of the major defects present in FASD. These include behavioral defects, such as social behavior as well as learning and memory, and structural defects, disrupting organs such as the brain, sensory organs, heart and craniofacial skeleton...
August 17, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816912/distance-learning-adhd-quality-improvement-in-primary-care-a-cluster-randomized-trial
#12
Alexander G Fiks, Stephanie L Mayne, Jeremy J Michel, Jeffrey Miller, Manju Abraham, Andrew Suh, Abbas F Jawad, James P Guevara, Robert W Grundmeier, Nathan J Blum, Thomas J Power
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a distance-learning, quality improvement intervention to improve pediatric primary care provider use of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) rating scales. METHODS: Primary care practices were cluster randomized to a 3-part distance-learning, quality improvement intervention (web-based education, collaborative consultation with ADHD experts, and performance feedback reports/calls), qualifying for Maintenance of Certification (MOC) Part IV credit, or wait-list control...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816910/acceptability-of-group-visits-for-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-pediatric-clinics
#13
Nerissa S Bauer, Nina Azer, Paula D Sullivan, Dorota Szczepaniak, Sarah M Stelzner, Stephen M Downs, Aaron E Carroll
OBJECTIVE: Children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have ongoing needs that impair home and school functioning. Group visit models are a promising way to deliver timely parenting support but family and provider acceptance has not previously been examined. The objective was to describe the acceptability of ADHD group visits in busy pediatric clinics based on caregivers, child participants and facilitators. METHODS: Data were analyzed from school-age children and caregivers who participated in one of two 12-month long randomized controlled studies of the ADHD group visit model from 2012 to 2013 or 2014 to 2015...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816204/deep-band-modulated-phrase-perception-in-quiet-and-noise-in-individuals-with-auditory-neuropathy-spectrum-disorder-and-sensorineural-hearing-loss
#14
Hemanth Narayan Shetty, Vishal Kooknoor
CONTEXT: Deep band modulation (DBM) improves speech perception in individuals with learning disability and older adults, who had temporal impairment in them. However, it is unclear on perception of DBM phrases at quiet and noise conditions in individuals with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD) and sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL), as these individuals suffer from temporal impairment. AIM: The aim is to study the effect of DBM and noise on phrase perception in individuals with normal hearing, SNHL, and ANSD...
July 2017: Noise & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815659/expanding-exposure-based-interventions-for-eating-disorders
#15
Erin E Reilly, Lisa M Anderson, Sasha Gorrell, Katherine Schaumberg, Drew A Anderson
Initial trials evaluating exposure-based interventions for eating disorders (EDs) in the 1980s demonstrated mixed results. Since that time, innovations in exposure therapy for anxiety disorders have yielded insights that can be used to refine and expand the approach to effectively target ED behaviors. This article provides a brief summary of relevant advances in exposure therapy for anxiety and outlines how these advances may be adapted and evaluated for use with ED samples. More specifically, we propose shifting to an inhibitory learning framework, considering treatment targets other than fear, and increasing variability in exposure techniques represent three important areas for future study...
August 16, 2017: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814961/compound-schisandra-ginseng-notoginseng-lycium-extract-ameliorates-scopolamine-induced-learning-and-memory-disorders-in-mice
#16
Ning Li, Cong Liu, Shu Jing, Mengyang Wang, Han Wang, Jinghui Sun, Chunmei Wang, Jianguang Chen, He Li
Schisandra, Ginseng, Notoginseng, and Lycium barbarum are traditional Chinese medicinal plants sharing cognitive-enhancing properties. To design a functional food to improve memory, we prepared a compound Schisandra-Ginseng-Notoginseng-Lycium (CSGNL) extract and investigated its effect on scopolamine-induced learning and memory loss in mice. To optimize the dose ratios of the four herbal extracts in CSGNL, orthogonal experiments were performed. Mice were administered CSGNL by gavage once a day for 30 days and then mouse learning and memory were evaluated by Morris water maze and step-through tests...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814546/mglu7-potentiation-rescues-cognitive-social-and-respiratory-phenotypes-in-a-mouse-model-of-rett-syndrome
#17
Rocco G Gogliotti, Rebecca K Senter, Nicole M Fisher, Jeffrey Adams, Rocio Zamorano, Adam G Walker, Anna L Blobaum, Darren W Engers, Corey R Hopkin, J Scott Daniels, Carrie K Jones, Craig W Lindsley, Zixiu Xiang, P Jeffrey Conn, Colleen M Niswender
Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in the methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene. The cognitive impairments seen in mouse models of RTT correlate with deficits in long-term potentiation (LTP) at Schaffer collateral (SC)-CA1 synapses in the hippocampus. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 7 (mGlu7) is the predominant mGlu receptor expressed presynaptically at SC-CA1 synapses in adult mice, and its activation on GABAergic interneurons is necessary for induction of LTP. We demonstrate that pathogenic mutations in MECP2 reduce mGlu7 protein expression in brain tissue from RTT patients and in MECP2-deficient mouse models...
August 16, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814475/developmental-pathway-genes-and-neural-plasticity-underlying-emotional-learning-and-stress-related-disorders
#18
Marissa E Maheu, Kerry J Ressler
The manipulation of neural plasticity as a means of intervening in the onset and progression of stress-related disorders retains its appeal for many researchers, despite our limited success in translating such interventions from the laboratory to the clinic. Given the challenges of identifying individual genetic variants that confer increased risk for illnesses like depression and post-traumatic stress disorder, some have turned their attention instead to focusing on so-called "master regulators" of plasticity that may provide a means of controlling these potentially impaired processes in psychiatric illnesses...
September 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814474/role-of-the-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis-in-aversive-learning-and-memory
#19
Travis D Goode, Stephen Maren
Surviving threats in the environment requires brain circuits for detecting (or anticipating) danger and for coordinating appropriate defensive responses (e.g., increased cardiac output, stress hormone release, and freezing behavior). The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is a critical interface between the "affective forebrain"-including the amygdala, ventral hippocampus, and medial prefrontal cortex-and the hypothalamic and brainstem areas that have been implicated in neuroendocrine, autonomic, and behavioral responses to actual or anticipated threats...
September 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814472/neurobiology-of-fear-and-specific-phobias
#20
René Garcia
Fear, which can be expressed innately or after conditioning, is triggered when a danger or a stimulus predicting immediate danger is perceived. Its role is to prepare the body to face this danger. However, dysfunction in fear processing can lead to psychiatric disorders in which fear outweighs the danger or possibility of harm. Although recognized as highly debilitating, pathological fear remains insufficiently treated, indicating the importance of research on fear processing. The neurobiological basis of normal and pathological fear reactions is reviewed in this article...
September 2017: Learning & Memory
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