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Penetrating brain injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193516/the-effectiveness-of-clinical-pathway-directed-care-on-hospitalisation-related-outcomes-in-patients-with-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-a-quasi-experimental-study
#1
Warda Ramadan Abouzeid Mohamed, Matthew J Leach, Nagwa Ahmad Reda, Mohammad Mohamed Abd-Ellatif, Mona Aly Mohammed, Mervat Anwar Abdel Aziz
BACKGROUND: Severe traumatic brain injury (STBI) is a major cause of disability and mortality in young adults. Clinical pathways endeavour to bring evidence and clinical practice closer together to foster the delivery of best practice and to improve patient outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of clinical pathway directed care to usual care on hospitalisation-related outcomes in patients with STBI. DESIGN: Quasi-experimental study...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183666/microembolism-of-single-cortical-arterioles-can-induce-spreading-depression-and-ischemic-injury-a-potential-trigger-for-migraine-and-related-mri-lesions
#2
REVIEW
Buket Dönmez-Demir, Muge Yemisci, Kıvılcım Kılıç, Yasemin Gürsoy-Özdemir, Figen Söylemezoğlu, Michael Moskowitz, Turgay Dalkara
Increasing epidemiological evidence suggests an association between migraine with aura (MA) and cardiovascular events. There is experimental as well as clinical evidence implying cerebral microembolism as a potential trigger for MA attacks. Microembolism may also account for some of the ischemic MRI lesions more commonly observed in MA than in general population. Limited size of clinically-silent MRI lesions suggests isolated occlusion of a small vessel. However, it is not known whether selective thrombosis of a small arteriole (e...
November 25, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168791/administration-of-protocatechuic-acid-reduces-traumatic-brain-injury-induced-neuronal-death
#3
Sang Hwon Lee, Bo Young Choi, Song Hee Lee, A Ra Kho, Jeong Hyun Jeong, Dae Ki Hong, Sang Won Suh
Protocatechuic acid (PCA) was first purified from green tea and has shown numerous biological activities, including anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-atherosclerotic effects. The effect of PCA on traumatic brain injury (TBI)-induced neuronal death has not previously been evaluated. TBI is defined as damage to the brain resulting from external mechanical force, such as rapid acceleration or deceleration, impact, blast waves, or penetration by a projectile. TBI causes neuronal death in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex...
November 23, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139308/the-impact-of-deployment-and-traumatic-brain-injury-on-the-health-and-behavior-of-children-of-us-military-service-members-and-veterans
#4
Tracey A Brickell, Louis M French, Sara M Lippa, Rael T Lange
This study examined the impact of service member/veteran (SMV) combat deployment and traumatic brain injury (TBI) on the health and behavior of his or her children. Participants were 104 female spouse caregivers of US SMVs who had sustained a mild, severe, or penetrating TBI. Participants completed the Children's Health and Behavior Questionnaire (CHBQ; r = .758 to .881) that evaluates school grades, behavior, medical health, emotional health, and social participation: (a) prior to the first combat deployment, (b) in the month prior to the TBI, (c) within 2 years after the TBI, and (d) 2 or more years after the TBI...
November 1, 2017: Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125266/decision-making-in-very-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-glasgow-coma-scale-3-5-a-literature-review-of-acute-neurosurgical-management-of-the-most-severely-threatened-brain-trauma-patients
#5
Jeroen van Dijck, Florence Reith, Inge van Erp, Thomas van Essen, Andrew Maas, Wilco C Peul, Godard de Ruiter
BACKGROUND: Patients presenting with an early GCS score of 3-5 after blunt or penetrating skull-brain assaults are categorized as having sustained a very severe Traumatic Brain Injury (vs-TBI). This category is often overlooked in literature. Impact on patients and families lives however is huge and the question "whether to surgically treat or not" frequently poses a dilemma to treating physicians. Little is known about mortality and outcome, compared to what is known for the group of severe TBI patients (s-TBI) (GCS 3- 8)...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120874/unusual-suicide-by-a-speargun-shot-through-the-mouth-a-case-report
#6
Youssef Nouma, Sami Krimi, Karama Regaieg
We report an unusual case of suicide committed with a speargun shot through the mouth, causing a penetrating brain injury. The special features of the present case are not only related to the method chosen for the purpose but also to the difficulties encountered in confirming the diagnosis. Although this type of suicide has been previously reported, this case is particularly interesting in terms of the shooting mechanism and manner of death. Because of the length of the weapon, which was apparently used and found at the scene, a suicidal manner of death first seemed unlikely and the possibility of a simulated suicide was raised...
November 9, 2017: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098785/modulation-of-scar-tissue-formation-in-injured-nervous-tissue-cultivated-on-surface-engineered-coralline-scaffolds
#7
Orly Eva Weiss, Roni Mina Hendler, Eyal Aviv Canji, Tzachy Morad, Maytal Foox, Yitshak Francis, Zvy Dubinski, Ido Merfeld, Liat Hammer, Danny Baranes
Following traumatic brain injury, there is no restoration of the lost nervous tissue, mainly due to the formation of a scar. One promising strategy to overcome this hurdle is grafting scaffolds that can disturb the scar blockade, enabling cell invasion into the wound. The aragonite skeleton of corals is useful scaffolds for testing this strategy, being supportive for neural cells in culture. The purpose of this work was to check if a contact between a coralline scaffold and an injured nervous tissue affects scar formation and if this effect can be regulated by engineering the scaffold's surface topology...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29088692/pediatric-facial-fractures-an-assessment-of-airway-management
#8
Stephen L Viviano, Ian C Hoppe, Jordan N Halsey, Jeffrey S Chen, Gerardo J Russo, Edward S Lee, Mark S Granick
Pediatric facial fractures present unique and challenging management considerations, especially with regards to airway management. Anatomical differences in children increase both airway resistance and the difficulty of intubation. A surgical airway may be required if intubation is unable to be performed. The purpose of this study was to examine a single center's experience with pediatric facial fractures to determine the frequency of advanced airway use, as well as the risk factors that may predispose a patient to requiring an advanced airway...
November 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071378/comparison-of-pecarn-and-catch-clinical-decision-rules-in-children-with-minor-blunt-head-trauma
#9
Ö Bozan, G Aksel, H A Kahraman, Ö Giritli, S E Eroğlu
INTRODUCTION AND PURPOSE: Computerized brain tomography (CBT) imaging plays a key role in the management of patients with head trauma, and there is an indication for CBT in moderate and severe injuries. However, it is difficult to determine an indication for CBT in patients with minor head trauma. The primary aim of this study is to compare the efficiency of the most commonly used clinical decision rules: the guidelines of the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN), and those of the Canadian Assessment of Tomography for Childhood Head Injury (CATCH)...
October 25, 2017: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044049/acute-in-vivo-testing-of-a-conformal-polymer-microelectrode-array-for-multi-region-hippocampal-recordings
#10
Huijing Xu, Ahuva Weltman Hirschberg, Kee Scholten, Ted W Berger, Dong Song, Ellis Meng
OBJECTIVE: The success of a cortical prosthetic device relies upon its ability to attain resolvable spikes from many neurons in particular neural networks over long periods of time. Traditionally, lifetimes of neural recordings are greatly limited by the body's immune response against the foreign implant which causes neuronal death and glial scarring. This immune reaction is posited to be exacerbated by micromotion between the implant, which is often rigid, and the surrounding, soft brain tissue and attenuates the quality of recordings over time...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028747/nervous-system-delivery-of-antilysophosphatidic-acid-antibody-by-nasal-application-attenuates-mechanical-allodynia-after-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rats
#11
Andreas Eisenried, Anders C N Meidahl, Michael Klukinov, Alexander Z Tzabazis, Roger A Sabbadini, J David Clark, David C Yeomans
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lipid that impacts neurological outcomes after neurotrauma by inhibiting neuroregeneration, promoting inflammation, and contributing to behavioral deficits. Blocking LPA signaling with a novel anti-LPA monoclonal antibody (mAb) is neuroprotective after traumatic brain injury (TBI) if given to injured animals whose blood-brain barrier (BBB) has been compromised. It is hypothesized that the anti-LPA mAb could improve chronic pain initiated by TBI. However, poor brain penetration after systemic application of the antibody makes access to the central nervous system (CNS) problematic in situations where the BBB is intact...
November 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025196/prenatal-molecular-diagnosis-in-rasa1-related-disease
#12
Aurélien Palmyre, Mélanie Eyries, Marie-Victoire Senat, Augustin Ozanne, Stéphanie Staraci, Philippe Dufour, Thierry Chinet, Pascal Lacombe, Florent Soubrier, Philippe Charron
RASA1-related disease is a rare autosomal dominant disease characterized by capillary malformations, arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), and/or arteriovenous fistulas (AFVs). Penetrance is nearly complete and vascular malformations may cause serious complications such as organ injury due to oxygenation disorder, brain abscess, hemorrhage, and stroke. Early diagnosis is useful in order to discuss optimal management, including AVMs/AVFs embolization or surgical procedures, and try to prevent some of the complications...
October 12, 2017: Prenatal Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981349/hearing-complaints-among-veterans-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#13
Frederick J Gallun, Melissa A Papesh, M Samantha Lewis
It has been shown that there is an increased risk for impaired auditory function following traumatic brain injury (TBI) in Veterans. Evidence is strongest in the area of self-report, but behavioural and electrophysiological data have been obtained that are consistent with these complaints. Peripheral and central dysfunction have both been observed. Historically, studies have focused on penetrating head injuries where central injury is more easily documented than in mild closed head injuries, but several recent reports have expanded the literature to include closed head injuries as well...
2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951213/a-novel-function-of-neuroglobin-for-neuroregeneration-in-mice-after-optic-nerve-injury
#14
Kayo Sugitani, Yoshiki Koriyama, Mayuko Sera, Kunizo Arai, Kazuhiro Ogai, Keisuke Wakasugi
Neuroglobin (Ngb) is a recently discovered heme protein in the vertebrate brain that can bind to oxygen molecules. Mammalian Ngb plays a crucial role in neuroprotection under conditions of oxidative stress. To investigate other potential functions of Ngb, we investigated the mouse retinal Ngb system following optic nerve injury. In the retina of control mice, Ngb immunoreactivity was limited to the retinal ganglion cell (RGC) layer, and this immunoreactivity rapidly decreased to less than 50% of the control level 5 days after optic nerve injury...
November 25, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948121/novel-use-of-an-image-guided-stereotactic-approach-in-trauma-for-localization-of-transcranial-bullet
#15
Dat T Vo, George F Cravens, Robert E Germann
Penetrating brain injuries from gunshot wounds can carry a poor prognosis and require an aggressive, multifaceted approach to obtain a good prognosis and outcome. An initial evaluation requires appropriate imaging studies followed by management and prophylaxis against increased intracranial pressure, infection, and seizures. Surgical management is then followed to ensure the watertight closure of any wounds, removal of any areas of hematoma, and removal of any potential areas of infection. In this paper, we report the case of a patient who presented with a self-inflicted gunshot wound to the head and then received aggressive medical and surgical management...
July 21, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932245/electromagnetic-fields-for-the-regulation-of-neural-stem-cells
#16
REVIEW
Mengchu Cui, Hongfei Ge, Hengli Zhao, Yongjie Zou, Yujie Chen, Hua Feng
Localized magnetic fields (MFs) could easily penetrate the scalp, skull, and meninges, thus inducing an electrical current in both the central and peripheral nervous systems, which is primarily used in transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) for inducing specific effects on different regions or cells that play roles in various brain activities. Studies of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) have led to novel attractive therapeutic approaches. Neural stem cells (NSCs) in adult human brain are able to self-renew and possess multidifferential ability to maintain homeostasis and repair damage after acute central nervous system...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929759/selective-inhibitors-of-dual-leucine-zipper-kinase-dlk-map3k12-with-activity-in-a-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
Snahel Patel, William J Meilandt, Rebecca I Erickson, Jinhua Chen, Gauri Deshmukh, Anthony A Estrada, Reina N Fuji, Paul Gibbons, Amy Gustafson, Seth F Harris, Jose Imperio, Wendy Liu, Xingrong Liu, Yichin Liu, Joseph P Lyssikatos, Changyou Ma, Jianping Yin, Joseph W Lewcock, Michael Siu
Significant data exists to suggest that dual leucine zipper kinase (DLK, MAP3K12) is a conserved regulator of neuronal degeneration following neuronal injury and in chronic neurodegenerative disease. Consequently, there is considerable interest in the identification of DLK inhibitors with a profile compatible with development for these indications. Herein, we use structure-based drug design combined with a focus on CNS drug-like properties to generate compounds with superior kinase selectivity and metabolic stability as compared to previously disclosed DLK inhibitors...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918531/penetrating-orbital-trauma-leading-to-trans-orbital-brain-herniation
#18
Siddharth Vankipuram, Chittij Srivastava, B K Ojha, Sushant Sahoo
INTRODUCTION: Development of a posttraumatic herniation of brain parenchyma through the orbit is a rare complication of orbital roof fracture. Mostly, the injury is due to a direct impact to the frontal region resulting in orbital roof fracture with dural defect and herniation of cerebrospinal fluid or brain parenchyma. These patients present with acute or gradually progressive proptosis with impending risk of loss of vision and mandate surgical decompression of optic nerve with watertight closure of the dural defect...
September 16, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884751/tuberculous-meningitis
#19
REVIEW
Robert J Wilkinson, Ursula Rohlwink, Usha Kant Misra, Reinout van Crevel, Nguyen Thi Hoang Mai, Kelly E Dooley, Maxine Caws, Anthony Figaji, Rada Savic, Regan Solomons, Guy E Thwaites
Tuberculosis remains a global health problem, with an estimated 10.4 million cases and 1.8 million deaths resulting from the disease in 2015. The most lethal and disabling form of tuberculosis is tuberculous meningitis (TBM), for which more than 100,000 new cases are estimated to occur per year. In patients who are co-infected with HIV-1, TBM has a mortality approaching 50%. Study of TBM pathogenesis is hampered by a lack of experimental models that recapitulate all the features of the human disease. Diagnosis of TBM is often delayed by the insensitive and lengthy culture technique required for disease confirmation...
October 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875887/the-spectrum-and-outcome-of-paediatric-traumatic-brain-injury-in-kwazulu-natal-province-south-africa-has-not-changed-over-the-last-two-decades
#20
J J P Buitendag, V Y Kong, J L Bruce, G L Laing, D L Clarke, P Brysiewicz
OBJECTIVES: This retrospective review of a prospectively entered and maintained hybrid electronic trauma registry was intended to develop a comprehensive overview of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children and adolescents and to compare it with previous audits from our local environment and from other developing world centres. All TBI patients admitted to hospital were included in this study. We reviewed the age, gender, outcomes, radiological findings and treatment of the patients. METHODS: All patients aged ≤18 years old who were admitted by the Pietermaritzburg Metropolitan Trauma Service (PMTS) with TBI between December 2012 and December 2016 were included in this audit...
August 25, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
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