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Penetrating brain injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320070/dexpramipexole-improves-bioenergetics-and-outcome-in-experimental-stroke
#1
Mirko Muzzi, Elisabetta Gerace, Daniela Buonvicino, Elisabetta Coppi, Francesco Resta, Laura Formentini, Riccardo Zecchi, Laura Tigli, Daniele Guasti, Martina Ferri, Emidio Camaioni, Alessio Masi, Domenico E Pellegrini-Giampietro, Guido Mannaioni, Daniele Bani, Anna M Pugliese, Alberto Chiarugi
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of dexpramipexole, a drug recently tested in ALS patients able to bind F1Fo ATP synthase and increase mitochondrial ATP production, on experimental ischemic brain injury. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The effects of dexpramipexole on bioenergetics, Ca(2+) fluxes, electrophysiological functions and death were evaluated in primary neural cultures and hippocampal slices exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). The drug's impact on infarct volumes and neurological functions was also evaluated in mice subjected to proximal or distal MCAo...
March 20, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273031/new-monocyte-locomotion-inhibitory-factor-analogs-protect-against-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-rats
#2
Xiaoping Wang, Chao Wang, Yan Yang, Jingman Ni
Monocyte locomotion inhibitory factor (MLIF) is an oligopeptide with anti-inflammatory properties. The carboxyl-terminal end group Cys-Asn-Ser serves as the pharmacophore of MLIF. The aim of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of two new synthetic analogs, Arg-Cys-Asn-Ser and D-Cys-Asn-Ser, on focal cerebral ischemia, which were designed and synthesized to increase the penetrability and enzymatic stability of Cys-Asn-Ser. Ninety-one male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups: I - Sham; II - Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R); III - Nimodipine; IV - Cys-Asn-Ser; V - D-Cys-Asn-Ser; and VI - Arg-Cys-Asn-Ser...
February 27, 2017: Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271364/does-preliminary-optimisation-of-an-anatomically-correct-skull-brain-model-using-simple-simulants-produce-clinically-realistic-ballistic-injury-fracture-patterns
#3
P F Mahoney, D J Carr, R J Delaney, N Hunt, S Harrison, J Breeze, I Gibb
Ballistic head injury remains a significant threat to military personnel. Studying such injuries requires a model that can be used with a military helmet. This paper describes further work on a skull-brain model using skulls made from three different polyurethane plastics and a series of skull 'fills' to simulate brain (3, 5, 7 and 10% gelatine by mass and PermaGel™). The models were subjected to ballistic impact from 7.62 × 39 mm mild steel core bullets. The first part of the work compares the different polyurethanes (mean bullet muzzle velocity of 708 m/s), and the second part compares the different fills (mean bullet muzzle velocity of 680 m/s)...
March 7, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264750/bilateral-nail-gun-traumatic-brain-injury-presents-as-intentional-overdose-a-case-report
#4
Judith Alain, Pascal Lavergne, Maude St-Onge, Myreille D'Astous, Stéphane Côté
This report describes a rare but life-threatening case of a suicide attempt initially considered as intentional overdose at the emergency department. Persistent altered mental status, despite normal toxicology investigations, led the attending team to order a head computed tomography scan, which revealed a bilateral penetrating nail gun injury with a right temporal hematoma for which a decompressive craniectomy was performed. Although voluntary intoxication is the most frequent form of suicide attempt, emergency physicians must be alert and maintain a broad differential diagnosis...
March 7, 2017: CJEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261893/astrocyte-activation-and-capillary-remodeling-in-a-modified-bilateral-common-carotid-artery-occlusion-mice
#5
Jiangman Song, Di Nan, Qihua He, Lu Yang, Huailian Guo
OBJECTIVE: The cerebral ischemia leads to brain dysfunction with neuron degeneration and responses from astrocytes and vessels. The aim of this study was to study the changes of astrocyte and microvessel in a modified bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (modified BCCAO) mice. METHODS: Adult transgenic Tie-2 GFP mice were subject to modified BCCAO operation and cranial window implantation. Cerebral blood flow and neurological injury was examined after ischemia...
March 6, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257392/prehospital-hypertonic-fluid-resuscitation-for-trauma-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Claire de Crescenzo, Farzam Gorouhi, Edgardo S Salcedo, Joseph M Galante
BACKGROUND: Prehospital assessment of a patient's circulation status and appropriate resuscitation with intravenous fluids plays a critical role in patients with obvious hemorrhage or systolic blood pressure below 90 mmHg. OBJECTIVES: We assessed the efficacy and safety of prehospital administration of crystalloids, or colloids to improve the survival rate of trauma patients with acceptable safety profile. DATA SOURCES: We searched SCOPUS, Embase, TRIP database, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Ovid MEDLINE, and PubMed as per search protocol from 1 January 1900 to 12 February 2015...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255632/population-based-autopsy-study-of-traumatic-fatalities
#7
S Saar, A Lomp, J Laos, V Mihnovitš, R Šalkauskas, T Lustenberger, M Väli, U Lepner, P Talving
BACKGROUND: Injuries result in 5.8 million global fatalities annually and are the leading cause of death in younger individuals. Nevertheless, population-based autopsy investigations on traumatic deaths are scarce. We set out to study all consecutive autopsies on traumatic fatalities performed in a 5-year time segment in Estonia. METHODS: After the ethics review board approval, all consecutive autopsies after blunt or penetrating deaths occurring in prehospital or in-hospital settings between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2013, were retrospectively reviewed using the National Forensic Medicine Database...
March 2, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250730/therapeutic-potential-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-bdnf-and-a-small-molecular-mimics-of-bdnf-for-traumatic-brain-injury
#8
REVIEW
Mary Wurzelmann, Jennifer Romeika, Dong Sun
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major health problem worldwide. Following primary mechanical insults, a cascade of secondary injuries often leads to further neural tissue loss. Thus far there is no cure to rescue the damaged neural tissue. Current therapeutic strategies primarily target the secondary injuries focusing on neuroprotection and neuroregeneration. The neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has significant effect in both aspects, promoting neuronal survival, synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis...
January 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249550/amelioration-of-penetrating-ballistic-like-brain-injury-induced-cognitive-deficits-after-neuronal-differentiation-of-transplanted-human-neural-stem-cells
#9
Markus S Spurlock, Aminul Islam Ahmed, Karla N Rivera, Shoji Yokobori, Stephanie W Lee, Pingdewinde N Sam, Deborah A Shear, Michael P Hefferan, Thomas G Hazel, Karl K Johe, Shyam Gajavelli, Frank C Tortella, Ross Bullock
Penetrating traumatic brain injury (PTBI) is one of the major cause of death and disability worldwide. Previous studies in penetrating ballistic-like brain injury (PBBI), a PTBI rat model revealed widespread peri-lesional neurodegeneration, similar to that seen in humans following gunshot wound to head, which is unmitigated by any available therapies to date. Therefore, we evaluated human neural stem cell (hNSC) engraftment to putatively exploit the potential of cell therapy that has been seen in other central nervous system injury models...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230627/surgical-outcomes-after-trauma-pneumonectomy-revisited
#10
Kazuhide Matsushima, Alberto Aiolfi, Caroline Park, David Rosen, Aaron Strumwasser, Elizabeth Benjamin, Kenji Inaba, Demetrios Demetriades
INTRODUCTION: Trauma pneumonectomy has been historically associated with an exceedingly high morbidity and mortality. The recent advent of standardized reporting and data-collecting measures has facilitated large volume data-analysis on predictors and outcomes of trauma pneumonectomy. The purpose of this study is to describe patient characteristics and outcomes of the patients who underwent trauma pneumonectomy in the modern era and identify clinical factors associated with postoperative mortality...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210956/mdivi-1-alleviates-early-brain-injury-after-experimental-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-in-rats-possibly-via-inhibition-of-drp1-activated-mitochondrial-fission-and-oxidative-stress
#11
Pei Wu, Yuchen Li, Shiyi Zhu, Chunlei Wang, Jiaxing Dai, Guang Zhang, Bingjie Zheng, Shancai Xu, Ligang Wang, Tongyu Zhang, PeiQuan Zhou, John H Zhang, Huaizhang Shi
Mdivi-1 is a selective inhibitor of mitochondrial fission protein, Drp1, and can penetrate the blood-brain barrier. Previous studies have shown that Mdivi-1 improves neurological outcomes after ischemia, seizures and trauma but it remains unclear whether Mdivi-1 can attenuate early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We thus investigated the therapeutic effect of Mdivi-1 on early brain injury following SAH. Rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham; SAH; SAH + vehicle; and SAH + Mdivi-1...
February 16, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199219/clinical-applications-of-near-infrared-diffuse-correlation-spectroscopy-and-tomography-for-tissue-blood-flow-monitoring-and-imaging
#12
Yu Shang, Ting Li, Guoqiang Yu
Near-infrared (NIR) light enables the deep tissue investigation of microvascular hemodynamics. Blood flow is one such available observable promoting a wealth of physiological insight both individually and in combination with other metrics. Diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) and, to a lesser extent, diffuse correlation tomography (DCT), have received interest over the past two decades as noninvasive methods for tissue blood flow measurement and imaging. DCS employs coherent point-illumination NIR light to penetrate deep tissues and commonly uses avalanche photodiodes to detect temporal speckle fluctuations of the diffuse light in a single speckle area of tissue surface, which are sensitive to the motions of red blood cells in the microvasculature of the detected tissue volume...
February 15, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193695/cortical-spreading-depression-closes-paravascular-space-and-impairs-glymphatic-flow-implications-for-migraine-headache
#13
Aaron J Schain, Agustin Melo-Carrillo, Andrew M Strassman, Rami Burstein
Functioning of the glymphatic system, a network of paravascular tunnels through which cortical interstitial solutes are cleared from the brain, has recently been linked to sleep and traumatic brain injury, both of which can affect the progression of migraine. This led us to investigate the connection between migraine and the glymphatic system. Taking advantage of a novel in vivo method we developed using two-photon microscopy to visualize the paravascular space (PVS) in naive uninjected mice, we show that a single wave of cortical spreading depression (CSD), an animal model of migraine aura, induces a rapid and nearly complete closure of the PVS around surface as well as penetrating cortical arteries and veins lasting several minutes, and gradually recovering over 30 min...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163066/development-of-a-simple-rapid-and-robust-intrathecal-catheterization-method-in-the-rat
#14
Curt Mazur, Bethany Fitzsimmons, Fredrik Kamme, Brandon Nichols, Berit Powers, Ed Wancewicz
BACKGROUND: The blood brain barrier (BBB) is an impediment to the development of large and highly charged molecules as therapeutics for diseases and injuries of the central nervous system (CNS). Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) are large (6000-8000MW) and highly charged and therefore do not cross the BBB. A method of circumventing the blood brain barrier to test ASOs, and other non-BBB penetrant molecules, as CNS therapeutics is the direct administration of these molecules to the CNS tissue or cerebral spinal fluid...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137866/endothelium-targeted-overexpression-of-heat-shock-protein-27-ameliorates-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-after-ischemic-brain-injury
#15
Yejie Shi, Xiaoyan Jiang, Lili Zhang, Hongjian Pu, Xiaoming Hu, Wenting Zhang, Wei Cai, Yanqin Gao, Rehana K Leak, Richard F Keep, Michael V L Bennett, Jun Chen
The damage borne by the endothelial cells (ECs) forming the blood-brain barrier (BBB) during ischemic stroke and other neurological conditions disrupts the structure and function of the neurovascular unit and contributes to poor patient outcomes. We recently reported that structural aberrations in brain microvascular ECs-namely, uncontrolled actin polymerization and subsequent disassembly of junctional proteins, are a possible cause of the early onset BBB breach that arises within 30-60 min of reperfusion after transient focal ischemia...
February 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137632/generation-6-hydroxyl-pamam-dendrimers-improve-cns-penetration-from-intravenous-administration-in-a-large-animal-brain-injury-model
#16
Fan Zhang, J Trent Magruder, Yi-An Lin, Todd C Crawford, Joshua C Grimm, Christopher M Sciortino, Mary Ann Wilson, Mary E Blue, Sujatha Kannan, Michael V Johnston, William A Baumgartner, Rangaramanujam M Kannan
Hypothermic circulatory arrest (HCA) provides neuroprotection during cardiac surgery but entails an ischemic period that can lead to excitotoxicity, neuroinflammation, and subsequent neurologic injury. Hydroxyl polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers target activated microglia and damaged neurons in the injured brain, and deliver therapeutics in small and large animal models. We investigated the effect of dendrimer size on brain uptake and explored the pharmacokinetics in a clinically-relevant canine model of HCA-induced brain injury...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129254/regionally-specific-brain-volumetric-and-cortical-thickness-changes-in-hiv-infected-patients-in-the-haart-era
#17
Ryan Sanford, Ana Lucia Fernandez Cruz, Susan C Scott, Nancy E Mayo, Lesley K Fellows, Beau M Ances, D Louis Collins
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment still occurs in a substantial subset of HIV-infected patients, despite effective viral suppression with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Structural brain changes may provide clues about the underlying pathophysiology. This study provides a detailed spatial characterization of the pattern and extent of brain volume changes associated with HIV and relates these brain measures to cognitive ability and clinical variables. METHODS: Multiple novel neuroimaging techniques (deformation-based morphometry, voxel-based morphometry, and cortical modeling) were used to assess regional brain volumes in 125 HIV-infected patients and 62 HIV-uninfected individuals...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112032/spermidine-preconditioning-ameliorates-laurate-induced-brain-injury-by-maintaining-mitochondrial-stability
#18
Yi Zhang, Jie Yin, Lang Zhang, Chu-Chu Qi, Ze-Lin Ma, Li-Ping Gao, De-Gui Wang, Yu-Hong Jing
Ischemic precondition plays a protective effect during cerebral ischemia. This effect partly depends on the autophagic activity. However, whether the activity of autophagy can exert the protective effects after cerebral ischemia is unclear. In this study, rats were treated with spermidine, an activator of autophagy, and injected with sodium laurate via the internal carotid artery to stimulate cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD). The effects of the spermidine precondition on brain injury were evaluated by behavioural test, histology assay, ultrastructure observation, and autophagic-related signals...
March 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103389/the-use-of-antioxidants-in-the-treatment-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#19
Whitney Venegoni, Qiuhua Shen, Amanda R Thimmesch, Meredith Bell, John B Hiebert, Janet D Pierce
AIMS: The aim of this study was to discuss secondary traumatic brain injury, the mitochondria and the use of antioxidants as a treatment. BACKGROUND: One of the leading causes of death globally is traumatic brain injury, affecting individuals in all demographics. Traumatic brain injury is produced by an external blunt force or penetration resulting in alterations in brain function or pathology. Often, with a traumatic brain injury, secondary injury causes additional damage to the brain tissue that can have further impact on recovery and the quality of life...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095679/non-naturally-occurring-small-molecule-microtubule-stabilizing-agents-a-potential-tactic-for-cns-directed-therapies
#20
REVIEW
Carlo Ballatore, Kurt R Brunden, John Q Trojanowski, Virginia M-Y Lee, Amos B Smith
Several independent studies indicate that microtubule (MT)-stabilizing agents hold considerable promise as candidate therapeutics for a wide spectrum of conditions of the central nervous system (CNS), from brain tumors to spinal cord injury, as well as a number of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal lobar degeneration, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Although the identification and development of candidate compounds for CNS-directed MT-stabilizing therapies has been a challenge in drug discovery for many years, a growing number of molecules have now been identified that exhibit both MT-stabilizing activity and brain penetration...
January 18, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
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