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Penetrating brain injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29887193/the-intracranial-number-of-foreign-bodies-as-a-predictor-of-mortality-after-penetrating-brain-injury
#1
Mustafa Bolatkale, Ahmet Cagdas Acara
Penetrating brain injury (PBI) is the most lethal form of traumatic brain injury, which is a leading cause of mortality. PBI has a mortality rate of 23%-93% and 87%-100% with poor neurological status. Despite the use of various prognostic factors there is still a need for a specific prognostic factor for early prediction of mortality in PBI to reduce mortality and provide good outcomes with cost-effective surgical treatments. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive value of the number of intracranial foreign bodies (FBs) on mortality in PBI in the Emergency Department...
June 2, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29883694/effect-of-mannose-targeting-of-hydroxyl-pamam-dendrimers-on-cellular-and-organ-biodistribution-in-a-neonatal-brain-injury-model
#2
Anjali Sharma, Joshua E Porterfield, Elizabeth Smith, Rishi Sharma, Sujatha Kannan, Rangaramanujam M Kannan
Neurotherapeutics for the treatment of central nervous system (CNS) disorders must overcome challenges relating to the blood-brain barrier (BBB), brain tissue penetration, and the targeting of specific cells. Neuroinflammation mediated by activated microglia is a major hallmark of several neurological disorders, making these cells a desirable therapeutic target. Building on the promise of hydroxyl-terminated generation four polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers (D4-OH) for penetrating the injured BBB and targeting activated glia, we explored if conjugation of targeting ligands would enhance and modify brain and organ uptake...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29845700/cough-response-to-aspiration-in-thin-and-thick-fluids-during-fees-in-hospitalized-inpatients
#3
Anna Miles, Mary McFarlane, Samantha Scott, Alexandra Hunting
BACKGROUND: The modifications of fluid viscosity and/or volume are common strategies in dysphagia management, with increased viscosity or reduced volume intended to reduce aspiration. Little attention has been given to whether cough response to aspiration varies across different viscosities and volumes. AIMS: This prospective observational study investigated aspiration prevalence and cough response to aspiration in thin and thick fluids of two different volumes in patients referred for flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) in an acute hospital setting...
May 30, 2018: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29795758/radiosynthesis-and-evaluation-of-11-c-hd-800-a-high-affinity-brain-penetrant-pet-tracer-for-imaging-microtubules
#4
Kiran Kumar Solingapuram Sai, Jaya Prabhakaran, Gayathri Ramanathan, Stephanie Rideout, Christopher Whitlow, Akiva Mintz, J John Mann, J S Dileep Kumar
Microtubules (MTs) are highly abundant throughout the cytoskeleton, and their dysfunction is implicated in the pathogenesis of malignancies, various neurodegenerative disorders, and brain injuries. Validated radiotracers reported so far for MTs are [11 C]paclitaxel, [18 F]fluoropaclitaxel, and [11 C]docetaxel; however, they are well-characterized substrates of efflux transporters and consequently have poor uptake into the brain due to minimal blood brain barrier (BBB) penetration. PET imaging of MT expression requires radiolabeled BBB penetrating MT ligands, and it may offer a direct and more sensitive approach for early diagnosis, monitoring disease progression, and treatment effects in brain diseases and assessing the clinical potential of targeted therapeutics and treatments...
May 10, 2018: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789575/tamoxifen-induced-knockdown-of-the-mitochondrial-calcium-uniporter-in-thy1-expressing-neurons-protects-mice-from-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury
#5
Matthew Nichols, Evgeny V Pavlov, George S Robertson
The mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) mediates high-capacity mitochondrial calcium uptake that stimulates energy production. However, excessive MCU activity can cause ischemic heart injury. To examine if the MCU is also involved in hypoxic/ischemic (HI) brain injury, we have generated conditional MCU knockout mice by tamoxifen (TMX) administration to adult MCU-floxed (MCUfl/fl ) mice expressing a construct encoding Thy1-cre/ERT2-eYFP. Relative to TMX/Thy1-cre/ERT2-eYFP controls, HI-induced sensorimotor deficits, forebrain neuron loss and mitochondrial damage were decreased for conditional MCU knockout mice...
May 22, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777884/neurosurgical-management-of-self-inflicted-cranial-crossbow-injury
#6
Charles G Kulwin, Andrew DeNardo, Saad Khairi, Troy Payner
BACKGROUND: While gun-related penetrating traumatic brain injuries make up the majority of cranial missile injuries, low-velocity penetrating injuries present significant clinical difficulties that cannot necessarily be identically managed. Bow hunting is an increasingly popular pastime, and a crossbow allows a unique mechanism to cause a self-inflicted cranial injury with a large, low-velocity projectile. Historically, arrow removal is described in an operating room setting, which provides limited knowledge of the location of vascular injury in the setting of post-removal hemorrhage, and may represent an inefficient use of operating room availability...
May 16, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769639/a-novel-cell-penetrating-peptide-protects-against-neuron-apoptosis-after-cerebral-ischemia-by-inhibiting-the-nuclear-translocation-of-annexin-a1
#7
Xing Li, Lu Zheng, Qian Xia, Lu Liu, Meng Mao, Huijuan Zhou, Yin Zhao, Jing Shi
Nuclear translocation of annexin A1 (ANXA1) has recently been reported to participate in neuronal apoptosis after cerebral ischemia. Prevention of the nuclear translocation of ANXA1 should therefore inhibit neuronal apoptosis and protect against cerebral stroke. Here, we found that, in the repeat III domain of ANXA1, the amino-acid residues from R228 to F237 function as a unique nuclear translocation signal (NTS) and are required for nuclear translocation of ANXA1. Intriguingly, we synthesized a cell-penetrating peptide derived by conjugating the trans-activator of transcription (Tat) domain to the NTS sequence...
May 16, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743006/unique-properties-associated-with-the-brain-penetrant-iron-chelator-hbed-reveal-remarkable-beneficial-effects-after-brain-trauma
#8
Saher Khalaf, Abdullah Shafique Ahmad, K V D Ranga Chamara, Sylvain Dore
Iron is postulated to contribute to secondary injury after brain trauma through various pathways including oxidative stress and inflammation. Therefore, one goal is to limit iron toxicity by either directly limiting iron activity, or limiting the secondary cascade mediated by iron, therefore rescuing brain damage after trauma. HBED is a unique iron chelator that has the ability to cross the intact blood brain barrier, it has a higher affinity to iron, and it has a longer half-life than most commonly used chelators...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742216/pain-assessment-of-traumatic-brain-injury-victims-using-the-brazilian-version-of-the-behavioral-pain-scale
#9
Caíque Jordan Nunes Ribeiro, Andra Carla Santos de Araújo, Saulo Barreto Brito, Daniele Vieira Dantas, Mariangela da Silva Nunes, José Antonio Barreto Alves, Maria do Carmo de Oliveira Ribeiro
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the validity and reliability of the Brazilian version of the Behavioral Pain Scale (BPS-Br) in victims of traumatic brain injury. METHODS: Observational prospective study with paired and repeated measures conducted at two intensive care units (clinical and surgical) of a large general hospital. The convenience sample consisted of adult victims of moderate or severe penetrating or blunt craniocerebral trauma who were sedated and mechanically ventilated...
March 2018: Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731669/transcranial-light-emitting-diode-therapy-for-neuropsychological-improvement-after-traumatic-brain-injury-a-new-perspective-for-diffuse-axonal-lesion-management
#10
REVIEW
João Gustavo Rocha Peixoto Dos Santos, Wellingson Silva Paiva, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira
The cost of traumatic brain injury (TBI) for public health policies is undeniable today. Even patients who suffer from mild TBI may persist with cognitive symptoms weeks after the accident. Most of them show no lesion in computed tomography or conventional magnetic resonance imaging, but microstructural white matter abnormalities (diffuse axonal lesion) can be found in diffusion tensor imaging. Different brain networks work together to form an important part of the cognition process, and they can be affected by TBI...
2018: Medical Devices: Evidence and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707426/is-electroconvulsive-therapy-a-treatment-for-depression-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#11
Anja Srienc, Puneet Narang, Simrat Sarai, Yee Xiong, Steven Lippmann
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can be caused by blunt or penetrating injury to the head. The pathophysiological evolution of TBI involves complex biochemical and genetic changes. Common sequelae of TBI include seizures and psychiatric disorders, particularly depression. In considering pharmacologic interventions for treating post-TBI depression, it is important to remember that TBI patients have a higher risk of seizures; therefore, the benefits of prescribing medications that lower the seizure threshold need to be weighed against the risk of seizures...
April 1, 2018: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705606/neuroprotective-effects-of-protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-1b-inhibitor-on-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-in-mice
#12
Meiling Sun, Hisanao Izumi, Yasuharu Shinoda, Kohji Fukunaga
Akt (Protein kinase B, PKB), a serine/threonine kinase, plays a critical role in cell development, growth, and survival. Akt phosphorylation mediates a neuroprotective effect against ischemic injury. Recently, a protein-tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP1B) inhibitor (KY-226) was developed to elicit anti-diabetic and anti-obesity effects via enhancement of insulin signaling. Previously, we reported that the nonselective PTP1B inhibitor, sodium orthovanadate, rescued neurons from delayed neuronal death during brain ischemia...
April 26, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693490/fatal-wounding-pattern-and-causes-of-potentially-preventable-death-following-the-pulse-night-club-shooting-event
#13
E Reed Smith, Geoff Shapiro, Babak Sarani
BACKGROUND: Mortality following shooting is related to time to provision of initial and definitive care. An understanding of the wounding pattern, opportunities for rescue, and incidence of possibly preventable death is needed to achieve the goal of zero preventable deaths following trauma. METHODS: A retrospective study of autopsy reports for all victims involved in the Pulse Nightclub Shooting was performed. The site of injury, probable site of fatal injury, and presence of potentially survivable injury (defined as survival if prehospital care is provided within 10 minutes and trauma center care within 60 minutes of injury) was determined independently by each author...
April 25, 2018: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690927/effects-of-transcranial-led-therapy-on-the-cognitive-rehabilitation-for-diffuse-axonal-injury-due-to-severe-acute-traumatic-brain-injury-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
João Gustavo Rocha Peixoto Dos Santos, Ana Luiza Costa Zaninotto, Renato Amaro Zângaro, Ana Maria Costa Carneiro, Iuri Santana Neville, Almir Ferreira de Andrade, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira, Wellingson Silva Paiva
BACKGROUND: Photobiomodulation describes the use of red or near-infrared light to stimulate or regenerate tissue. It was discovered that near-infrared wavelengths (800-900 nm) and red (600 nm) light-emitting diodes (LED) are able to penetrate through the scalp and skull and have the potential to improve the subnormal cellular activity of compromised brain tissue. Different experimental and clinical studies were performed to test LED therapy for traumatic brain injury (TBI) with promising results...
April 24, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679667/systemic-delivery-of-bace1-sirna-through-neuron-targeted-nanocomplexes-for-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Pengzhen Wang, Xiaoyao Zheng, Qian Guo, Peng Yang, Xiaoying Pang, Kang Qian, Wei Lu, Qizhi Zhang, Xinguo Jiang
β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) is a key enzyme to cleave the amyloid precursor protein to develop Alzheimer's disease (AD). Reducing BACE1 expression in central neuron through RNA interference technology shows great promise to overcome AD. However, to obtain an efficient and neurons-specific delivery of siRNA against BACE1 through systemic administration remains challenging. Here, we design and prepare siRNA nano-carriers based on PEGylated poly(2-(N,N-dimethylamino) ethyl methacrylate) (PEG-PDMAEMA) modified with both the CGN peptide for blood-brain barrier (BBB) penetration and the Tet1 peptide for neuron-specific binding...
June 10, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673800/blindness-after-facial-trauma-epidemiology-incidence-and-risk-factors-a-27-year-cohort-study-of-5708-patients
#16
Panagiotis Stathopoulos, Dimosthenis Igoumenakis, Michalis Mezitis, George Rallis
OBJECTIVES: This was a 27-year study of a cohort of 5708 patients who had sustained maxillofacial fractures. Our purpose was to present the etiology, mechanism of trauma, site, and concomitant injuries that led to visual loss. We hypothesize that fractures caused by high-energy impact of the midface may be associated with blindness. A discussion of the treatment approaches is also included. STUDY DESIGN: The study included 5708 patients who had sustained a maxillofacial fracture during the years 1985-2012...
March 23, 2018: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661290/factors-affecting-the-caloric-and-protein-intake-over-time-in-critically-ill-trauma-patients
#17
Tobias Haltmeier, Kenji Inaba, Beat Schnüriger, Stefano Siboni, Elizabeth Benjamin, Lydia Lam, Damon Clark, Demetrios Demetriades
BACKGROUND: Major trauma leads to increased nutritional requirements. However, little is known about the actual amount of calories and protein administered and the factors affecting the intake over time in critically ill trauma patients. METHODS: Prospective study including 100 trauma patients admitted to the Los Angeles County + University of Southern California Medical Center intensive care unit between March 2014 and October 2014. Inclusion criteria were age > 16 y, surgery at admission, and no oral nutrition...
June 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29635589/operation-brain-trauma-therapy-2016-update
#18
Patrick M Kochanek, Helen M Bramlett, C Edward Dixon, W Dalton Dietrich, Stefania Mondello, Kevin K W Wang, Ronald L Hayes, Audrey Lafrenaye, John T Povlishock, Frank C Tortella, Samuel M Poloyac, Philip Empey, Deborah A Shear
Operation brain trauma therapy (OBTT) is a multi-center, pre-clinical drug and biomarker screening consortium for traumatic brain injury (TBI). Therapies are screened across three rat models (parasagittal fluid percussion injury, controlled cortical impact [CCI], and penetrating ballistic-like brain injury). Operation brain trauma therapy seeks to define therapies that show efficacy across models that should have the best chance in randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and/or to define model-dependent therapeutic effects, including TBI protein biomarker responses, to guide precision medicine-based clinical trials in targeted pathologies...
March 1, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29635565/a-family-s-affair-caring-for-veterans-with-penetrating-traumatic-brain-injury
#19
Roxana E Delgado, Kimberly Peacock, Barbara Elizondo, Margaret Wells, Jordan H Grafman, Mary J Pugh
Approximately 1.1 million family members are primary caregivers to post 9/11 veterans. These military caregivers assume a role that requires a long-term commitment that may affect their own health status; however, the impact on health among military caregivers is underestimated and underrepresented. As part of a larger retrospective cohort study that aimed to assess the health-related outcomes of post 9/11 veterans with penetrating traumatic brain injury (pTBI), we examined the health impact of caregiving on caregivers...
March 1, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605023/a-subgroup-analysis-of-penetrating-injuries-to-the-pancreas-777-patients-from-the-national-trauma-data-bank-2010-2014
#20
Bradley Phillips, Lauren Turco, Dan McDonald, Elizabeth Mause, Ryan W Walters
BACKGROUND: This study is the first to analyze penetrating injuries to the pancreas within subgroups of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), early deaths, and potential survivors. Our objectives were to identify national patterns of injury, predictors of mortality, and to validate the American Association for Surgery of Trauma Organ Injury Scale (AAST-OIS) pancreas injury grades by mortality. Secondary outcomes included hospital and intensive care unit length of stay and days on mechanical ventilation...
May 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
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