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Penetrating brain injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515545/traumatic-brain-injury-and-neuropsychiatric-complications
#1
REVIEW
Saeed Ahmed, Hema Venigalla, Hema Madhuri Mekala, Sara Dar, Mudasar Hassan, Shahana Ayub
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) occurs when a blow or jolt to the head or a penetrating injury results in damage to the brain. It is the most frequent cause of hospitalization in young people with a higher prevalence in men. TBI is the leading cause of disability and mortality between the ages 1 and 45. TBI can be caused either by the direct result of trauma or due to a complication of the primary injury. The most common etiological factors for TBI are falls, road traffic accidents, violent physical assaults, and injuries associated with athletic activities...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485037/serotonin-axons-in-the-neocortex-of-the-adult-female-mouse-regrow-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#2
Tymoteusz J Kajstura, Sarah E Dougherty, David J Linden
It is widely held that injured neurons in the central nervous system do not undergo axonal regrowth. However, there is mounting evidence that serotonin axons are a notable exception. Serotonin axons undergo long-distance regrowth in the neocortex after amphetamine lesion, and, following a penetrating stab injury, they can regrow from cut ends to traverse the stab rift. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is clinically prevalent and can lead to pathologies, such as depression, that are related to serotonergic dysfunction...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484551/self-inflicted-stab-with-a-knife-an-unusual-mode-of-penetrating-brain-injury
#3
Zeeshan Qazi, Bal Krishna Ojha, Anil Chandra, Sunil Kumar Singh, Chhitij Srivastava, Nishant Verma, Tushar B Patil
Self-inflicted penetrating injuries have been very rarely described in the medical literature. We describe a middle-aged woman, who had driven a long knife inside her skull with the help of a brick. She had done this to get relief from chronic headache, which was troubling her for 10 years. Patient was hemodynamically stable and had Glassgow Coma scale score of 15. She was immediately operated to remove the knife and evacuate the acute subdural hematoma. Patient made a steady postoperative recovery. Psychiatric and neurological evaluation in the postoperative period revealed features of mixed anxiety and depressive disorder with migraine, for which she was started on treatment...
April 2017: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482157/enhancing-continuous-online-microdialysis-using-dexamethasone-measurement-of-dynamic-neurometabolic-changes-during-spreading-depolarization
#4
Erika L Varner, Chi Leng Leong, Andrea Jaquins-Gerstl, Kathryn M Nesbitt, Martyn G Boutelle, Adrian Charles Michael
Microdialysis is well established in chemical neuroscience as a mainstay technology for real time intracranial chemical monitoring in both animal models and human patients. Evidence shows that microdialysis can be enhanced by mitigating the penetration injury caused during the insertion of microdialysis probes into brain tissue. Herein, we show that retrodialysis of dexamethasone in the rat cortex enhances the microdialysis detection of K+ and glucose transients induced by spreading depolarization. Without dexamethasone, quantification of glucose transients was unreliable by 5 days after probe insertion...
May 8, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481163/body-temperature-after-ems-transport-association-with-traumatic-brain-injury-outcomes
#5
Joshua B Gaither, Vatsal Chikani, Uwe Stolz, Chad Viscusi, Kurt Denninghoff, Bruce Barnhart, Terry Mullins, Amber D Rice, Moses Mhayamaguru, Jennifer J Smith, Samuel M Keim, Bentley J Bobrow, Daniel W Spaite
INTRODUCTION: Low body temperatures following prehospital transport are associated with poor outcomes in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, a minimal amount is known about potential associations across a range of temperatures obtained immediately after prehospital transport. Furthermore, a minimal amount is known about the influence of body temperature on non-mortality outcomes. The purpose of this study was to assess the correlation between temperatures obtained immediately following prehospital transport and TBI outcomes across the entire range of temperatures...
May 8, 2017: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480980/exogenous-progesterone-is-neuroprotective-following-injury-to-the-male-zebra-finch-brain
#6
Katherine Katie Blackshear, Stephanie Giessner, John P Hayden, Kelli A Duncan
The use of progesterone following brain injury has a controversial history. On one hand, some lab-based models have showed progesterone as being neuroprotective, but on the other, clinical trials have showed quite the opposite. One of many complaints that arose from this discrepancy was the lack of a diverse pool of animal models and paradigms employed during the preclinical phase. However, over the past decade, the zebra finch has emerged as an optimal organism for the study of steroid-mediated neuroprotection...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477140/chondroitin-sulfate-impairs-neural-stem-cell-migration-through-rock-activation
#7
Layla T Galindo, Mayara T V V Mundim, Agnes S Pinto, Gabrielly M D Chiarantin, Maíra E S Almeida, Marcelo L Lamers, Alan R Horwitz, Marinilce F Santos, Marimelia Porcionatto
Brain injuries such as trauma and stroke lead to glial scar formation by reactive astrocytes which produce and secret axonal outgrowth inhibitors. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPG) constitute a well-known class of extracellular matrix molecules produced at the glial scar and cause growth cone collapse. The CSPG glycosaminoglycan side chains composed of chondroitin sulfate (CS) are responsible for its inhibitory activity on neurite outgrowth and are dependent on RhoA activation. Here, we hypothesize that CSPG also impairs neural stem cell migration inhibiting their penetration into an injury site...
May 5, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472086/mild-and-repetitive-very-mild-axonal-stretch-injury-triggers-cystoskeletal-mislocalization-and-growth-cone-collapse
#8
Yiing C Yap, Anna E King, Rosanne M Guijt, Tongcui Jiang, Catherine A Blizzard, Michael C Breadmore, Tracey C Dickson
Diffuse axonal injury is a hallmark pathological consequence of non-penetrative traumatic brain injury (TBI) and yet the axonal responses to stretch injury are not fully understood at the cellular level. Here, we investigated the effects of mild (5%), very mild (0.5%) and repetitive very mild (2×0.5%) axonal stretch injury on primary cortical neurons using a recently developed compartmentalized in vitro model. We found that very mild and mild levels of stretch injury resulted in the formation of smaller growth cones at the tips of axons and a significantly higher number of collapsed structures compared to those present in uninjured cultures, when measured at both 24 h and 72 h post injury...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461247/systemic-antimir-337-3p-delivery-inhibits-cerebral-ischemia-mediated-injury
#9
Xiaomin Wang, Yalikun Suofu, Berkcan Akpinar, Sergei V Baranov, Jinho Kim, Diane L Carlisle, Yu Zhang, Robert M Friedlander
Modulation of miRNA expression has been shown to be beneficial in the context of multiple diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine if an inhibitor of miR-337-3p is neuroprotective for hypoxic injury after tail vein injection. We evaluated miR-337-3p expression levels and in brain tissue in vivo before and after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) in mice. Subsequently, a custom locked nucleic acid (LNA) antimir-337-3p oligonucleotide was developed and tested in vitro after induction of oxygen glucose-deprivation (OGD) and in vivo by injection into the mouse tail vein for 3 consecutive days before pMCAO...
April 28, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452880/acute-and-sub-acute-microrna-dysregulation-is-associated-with-cytokine-responses-in-the-rodent-model-of-penetrating-ballistic-like-brain-injury
#10
David Johnson, Casandra M Cartagena, Frank C Tortella, Jitendra R Dave, Kara E Schmid, Angela M Boutté
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small stable RNAs that regulate translational degradation or repression of genes involved in brain trauma-mediated inflammation. More recently, miRNAs have emerged as potential novel TBI biomarkers. The aim of this study was to determine if a select set of miRNAs (miR-21, Let-7i, miR-124a, miR-146a, miR-107) that were previously associated with TBI models and clinical studies would be dysregulated and correlated to inflammatory cytokine abundance in the rat penetrating ballistic-like brain injury (PBBI) model...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452872/combination-therapy-of-levetiracetam-and-gabapentin-against-nonconvulsive-seizures-induced-by-penetrating-traumatic-brain-injury
#11
Xi-Chun M Lu, Ying Cao, Andrea Mountney, Zhilin Liao, Deborah A Shear, Frank C Tortella
BACKGROUND: Post-traumatic seizures are a medical problem affecting patients with traumatic brain injury. Yet effective treatment is lacking owing to the limitations of anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) applicable to these patients. METHOD: In this study, we evaluated the dose-response efficacy of levetiracetam (12.5-100.0mg/kg) and gabapentin (1.25-25.0mg/kg) administered either individually or in pairs at fixed-dose ratios as a combination in mitigating post-traumatic nonconvulsive seizures induced by severe penetrating ballistic-like brain injury (PBBI) in rats...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452700/presentation-workup-and-management-of-penetrating-transorbital-and-transnasal-injuries-a-case-report-and-systematic-review
#12
Saied Ghadersohi, Elisabeth H Ference, Kara Detwiller, Robert C Kern
BACKGROUND: A foreign body (FB) penetrating intracranially after passing transorbitally or transnasally is a rare occurrence. However, otolaryngologists are increasingly being asked to participate in the care of these patients for both endoscopic removal of the object and repair of any skull base defects. OBJECTIVE: To assess the presentation, workup, and management of transnasal or transorbital penetrating FB injury. METHODS: Systematic review of the presentation, workup, and management of transnasal or transorbital penetrating FB injury; plus, a case report of a 53-year-old woman with a transorbital penetrating rose bush branch...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Rhinology & Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450914/syringe-needle-skull-penetration-reduces-brain-injuries-and-secondary-inflammation-following-intracerebral-neural-stem-cell-transplantation
#13
Mou Gao, Qin Dong, Hongtian Zhang, Yang Yang, Jianwei Zhu, Zhijun Yang, Minhui Xu, Ruxiang Xu
Intracerebral neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation is beneficial for delivering stem cell grafts effectively, however, this approach may subsequently result in brain injury and secondary inflammation. To reduce the risk of promoting brain injury and secondary inflammation, two methods were compared in the present study. Murine skulls were penetrated using a drill on the left side and a syringe needle on the right. Mice were randomly divided into three groups (n=84/group): Group A, receiving NSCs in the left hemisphere and PBS in the right; group B, receiving NSCs in the right hemisphere and PBS in the left; and group C, receiving equal NSCs in both hemispheres...
March 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435118/transoral-intracranial-injury-via-middle-skull-base-by-a-blunt-chopstick-in-a-child
#14
Thiti Samuthrat, Ke Ye, Ying Tong
BACKGROUND: Transoral penetrating injury from a blunt-tipped chopstick is unusual and should be promptly dealt with since it is associated with high morbidity and mortality. CASE DESCRIPTION: We report a peculiar case of a 2-year-old girl who suffered from a transoral penetrating brain injury after falling onto a bamboo chopstick, which penetrated through the hard palate and eventually led to middle skull base fracture as well as temporal lobe laceration and contusion...
April 20, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429734/neuroprotective-pentapeptide-cn-105-is-associated-with-reduced-sterile-inflammation-and-improved-functional-outcomes-in-a-traumatic-brain-injury-murine-model
#15
Daniel T Laskowitz, Haichen Wang, Tony Chen, David T Lubkin, Viviana Cantillana, Tian Ming Tu, Dawn Kernagis, Guanen Zhou, Gary Macy, Bradley J Kolls, Hana N Dawson
At present, there are no proven pharmacological treatments demonstrated to improve long term functional outcomes following traumatic brain injury(TBI). In the setting of non-penetrating TBI, sterile brain inflammatory responses are associated with the development of cerebral edema, intracranial hypertension, and secondary neuronal injury. There is increasing evidence that endogenous apolipoprotein E(apoE) modifies the neuroinflammatory response through its role in downregulating glial activation, however, the intact apoE holoprotein does not cross the blood-brain barrier due to its size...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423968/penetrating-brain-injury-with-a-metal-bar-and-a-knife-report-of-two-interesting-cases
#16
Alireza Tabibkhooei, Morteza Taheri, Sadra Rohani, Iran Chanideh, Hessam Rahatlou
Introduction Penetrating brain injury (PBI) is uncommon among the civilian population. Here, we report two interesting cases of PBI. Case presentation The first patient was a 20-year-old male who sustained a penetrating head injury with a metal bar during an accident at work. The patient underwent early surgical intervention, and related meningitis was treated with antibiotics. The patient was discharged 45 days later with no deficit. The second patient was a 34-year-old male who was the victim of a violence attack and was admitted to hospital...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392301/biological-and-cognitive-underpinnings-of-religious-fundamentalism
#17
Wanting Zhong, Irene Cristofori, Joseph Bulbulia, Frank Krueger, Jordan Grafman
Beliefs profoundly affect people's lives, but their cognitive and neural pathways are poorly understood. Although previous research has identified the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) as critical to representing religious beliefs, the means by which vmPFC enables religious belief is uncertain. We hypothesized that the vmPFC represents diverse religious beliefs and that a vmPFC lesion would be associated with religious fundamentalism, or the narrowing of religious beliefs. To test this prediction, we assessed religious adherence with a widely-used religious fundamentalism scale in a large sample of 119 patients with penetrating traumatic brain injury (pTBI)...
April 6, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383475/alterations-in-bdnf-and-igf-1-protein-levels-following-penetrating-ballistic-like-brain-injury-in-rats
#18
Sindhu K Madathil, Ying Deng-Bryant, Bernard S Wilfred, Lai Yee Leung, Janice S Gilsdorf, Deborah A Shear
BACKGROUND: Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) are essential for neuroplasticity and neuronal survival. Despite the importance of these endogenous factors in mediating post-traumatic recovery, little is known about their response after penetrating type traumatic brain injury (TBI). The objective of this study was to quantify the expression levels BDNF and IGF-1, two well-known neuroplasticity mediators, following penetrating ballistic-like brain injury (PBBI)...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382259/traumatic-tension-pneumocephalus-two-cases-and-comprehensive-review-of-literature
#19
REVIEW
Promod Pillai, Rohit Sharma, Larami MacKenzie, Eugene F Reilly, Paul R Beery, Thomas J Papadimos, Stanislaw Peter A Stawicki
Although traumatic pneumocephalus is not uncommon, it rarely evolves into tension pneumocephalus (TP). Characterized by the presence of increasing amounts of intracranial air and concurrent appearance or worsening neurological symptoms, TP can be devastating if not recognized and treated promptly. We present two cases of traumatic TP and a concise review of literature on this topic. Two cases of traumatic TP are presented. In addition, a literature search revealed 20 additional cases, of which 18 had sufficient information for inclusion...
January 2017: International Journal of Critical Illness and Injury Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366471/phosphodiesterase-4-inhibition-restored-hippocampal-long-term-potentiation-after-primary-blast
#20
Edward W Vogel, Fatima N Morales, David F Meaney, Cameron R Bass, Barclay Morrison
Due to recent military conflicts and terrorist attacks, blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) presents a health concern for military and civilian personnel alike. Although secondary blast (penetrating injury) and tertiary blast (inertia-driven brain deformation) are known to be injurious, the effects of primary blast caused by the supersonic shock wave interacting with the skull and brain remain debated. Our group previously reported that in vitro primary blast exposure reduced long-term potentiation (LTP), the electrophysiological correlate of learning and memory, in rat organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHSCs) and that primary blast affects key proteins governing LTP...
March 31, 2017: Experimental Neurology
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