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Penetrating brain injury

Vladimir Živković, Danica Cvetković, Irina Damjanjuk, Slobodan Nikolić
A 63-year-old mechanic, diagnosed with schizophrenia, was found next to a hydraulic press used for removing car wheel bearings. He was in a sitting position, bent towards the machine, with his head placed between the piston and the pressing plate. His flexed left arm was resting on the lever beneath the machine pedestal, and on the right side there was a power switch that was still in the "on" position. His right arm was beside his body, but away from the machine. On the pressing plate, beneath the decedents head, was a piece of bloody cloth...
September 6, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Hannah E Woriax, Mark E Hamill, Carol M Gilbert, Christopher M Reed, Emily R Faulks, Katie M Love, Daniel I Lollar, Michael S Nussbaum, Bryan R Collier
We investigated the patterns of injury associated with major midface trauma. Our hypothesis is that midface injuries are associated with a decrease in certain traumatic brain injuries as well as major torso injuries. The registry of our Level I trauma center was queried for all adult patients treated over 25 years from 1989 to 2013. Patients with midface fractures were identified based on the ICD-9 code. Associated injuries were defined based both on individual ICD-9 codes as well as the Barell Injury Matrix...
August 1, 2018: American Surgeon
André Lindsey, Jennifer Mozeiko, Frank Krueger, Jordan Grafman, Carl Coelho
The objective of the present study was to investigate structural changes in the narrative discourse of individuals with penetrating traumatic brain injury (pTBI) following immediate and delayed story retellings. Additionally, the potential influence of immediate memory, working memory, and executive functions on narrative discourse performance were examined. The narrative discourse of two groups, 123 with pTBI and 44 non-brain injured (NBI), was sampled. Participants were asked to retell a wordless picture story immediately after viewing it and again 30-min later...
September 1, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Wayan Niryana, Hendry Irawan, I Putu Eka Widyadharma
BACKGROUND: A non-powder firearm including air shotgun remains a significant source of injury to children. It causes severe damage and can involve the brain, eyes, heart, abdomen, and other body parts. CASE REPORT: A toddler boy was accidentally shot by an air shotgun at the forehead, and there was no sign of neurological deficit, both before and after surgical removal of the pellet. Herein, we report a case of air shotgun pellet which penetrated a toddler's head from the forehead, all the way up to the occiput...
August 20, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Abitter Yücel, Hilal Yücel, Mustafa Güllüev, Necat Alataş
Transnasal penetrating brain injuries are rare and a medical emergency, which needs to be treated promptly. A 4-year-old male patient was brought to our emergency room with a knife sticking out of his nose. The patient was immediately taken to the operating room and the knife was removed under general anesthesia. No cerebrospinal fluid leakage or any bleeding was seen and so the operation was terminated. The authors herein report a penetrating brain trauma through to the cella turcica with a knife that improved without any sequelae at a child...
August 28, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
T Pham, C VanWoudenberg, I Chandrasekar
A male fetus was delivered by emergent caesarean section after a term pregnant mother was caught in crossfire and sustained gunshot injury to her abdomen. Examination of the infant was unremarkable except for a small laceration of the scalp at the anterior fontanelle. Skull radiography showed a dense bullet shaped opacity in the brain. He was managed conservatively and was discharged home on full feeds with normal neurological examination. He developed seizures and progressive hydrocephalus, and underwent a ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt placement at 5 weeks of age...
August 20, 2018: Journal of Neonatal-perinatal Medicine
Tracey A Brickell, Louis M French, Sara M Lippa, Rael T Lange
OBJECTIVES: To determine the (a) health status and caregiving appraisal and (b) influence of perceived burden on health and appraisal in a sample of caregivers helping service member/veterans (SMVs) following a traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: Participants were caregivers (N = 283, female = 96.1%, 86.2% = spouse/partner) of SMVs who sustained a mild-severe or penetrating TBI. Participants completed the Caregiver Appraisal Scale (CAS) and the SF-36v2 Health Survey (SF-36v2)...
August 27, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
Lai Yee Leung, Katherine Cardiff, Xiaofang Yang, Bernard Srambical Wilfred, Janice Gilsdorf, Deborah Shear
Selective brain cooling (SBC) can potentially maximize the neuroprotective benefits of hypothermia for traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients without the complications of whole body cooling. We have previously developed a method that involved extraluminal cooling of common carotid arteries, and demonstrated the feasibility, safety and efficacy for treating isolated TBI in rats. The present study evaluated the neuroprotective effects of 4-h SBC in a rat model of penetrating ballistic-like brain injury (PBBI) combined with hypoxemic and hypotensive insults (polytrauma)...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Jyoti A Chuckowree, Zhendan Zhu, Mariana Brizuela, Ka M Lee, Catherine A Blizzard, Tracey C Dickson
Microtubule dynamics underpin a plethora of roles involved in the intricate development, structure, function, and maintenance of the central nervous system. Within the injured brain, microtubules are vulnerable to misalignment and dissolution in neurons and have been implicated in injury-induced glial responses and adaptive neuroplasticity in the aftermath of injury. Unfortunately, there is a current lack of therapeutic options for treating traumatic brain injury (TBI). Thus, using a clinically relevant model of mild TBI, lateral fluid percussion injury (FPI) in adult male Thy1-YFPH mice, we investigated the potential therapeutic effects of the brain-penetrant microtubule-stabilizing agent, epothilone D...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
So Yeong Cheon, Jeong Min Kim, Eun Jung Kim, So Yeon Kim, Eun Hee Kam, Chun-Chang Ho, Sang-Kyou Lee, Bon-Nyeo Koo
Patients undergoing surgery can suffer from various complications, including post-operative bleeding, local or systematic infection, and neurologic disorders. Major surgery can initiate innate immune responses and trigger overproduction of inflammatory mediators, which can contribute to organ dysfunction. Inflammasomes are innate immune complexes, which are connected to the pathogenesis of various diseases, including atherosclerosis, hemorrhagic brain injury, and Alzheimer's disease. In the present study, we hypothesized that nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing-like receptor protein (NLRP) inflammasomes may have a role in the pathological effects of surgery...
August 7, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Stian Solumsmoen, Jesper Kelsen
Penetrating brain injuries due to gunshots are rare in Denmark. This is a case report of the successful treatment of a 31-year-old man who was shot in the right frontal region of the head. The bullet went through his brain without damaging the large intracranial vessels. On admission he had a GCS of 9. Haematoma removal and bifrontal craniectomy was performed to obtain lowering of the intracranial pressure. One year after the incidence the patient was able return to work. This case report illustrates the importance of early prehospital and neurointensive treatment with lowering of the intracranial pressure and highly specialised rehabilitation...
August 13, 2018: Ugeskrift for Laeger
Denis N Silachev, Egor Y Plotnikov, Irina B Pevzner, Ljubava D Zorova, Anastasia V Balakireva, Mikhail V Gulyaev, Yury A Pirogov, Vladimir P Skulachev, Dmitry B Zorov
Neonatal hypoxia⁻ischemia is one of the main causes of mortality and disability of newborns. To study the mechanisms of neonatal brain cell damage, we used a model of neonatal hypoxia⁻ischemia in seven-day-old rats, by annealing of the common carotid artery with subsequent hypoxia of 8% oxygen. We demonstrate that neonatal hypoxia⁻ischemia causes mitochondrial dysfunction associated with high production of reactive oxygen species, which leads to oxidative stress. Targeted delivery of antioxidants to the mitochondria can be an effective therapeutic approach to treat the deleterious effects of brain hypoxia⁻ischemia...
July 27, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Ehab A M El-Shoura, Basim A S Messiha, Souty M Z Sharkawi, Ramadan A M Hemeida
Localized tissue renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is an interesting pathway of organ damage. Here, the effect of the brain-penetrating angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor perindopril was studied on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced brain damage, with and without exogenous angiotensin (Ang)-II administration. Animals were divided into 6 groups; a normal control group, an LPS control group (LPS, 3 mg/kg, i.p., single dose), two treatment groups receiving perindopril (1 and 2 mg/kg/day, i.p.) for 7 days before LPS administration, and two Ang-II/perindopril/LPS groups receiving perindopril and LPS, followed by a single dose of Ang-II solution (5 µl, i...
September 5, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Simone Mader, Lior Brimberg, John N Soltys, Jeffrey L Bennett, Betty Diamond
Maternal antibodies provide protection for the developing fetus. Transplacental transport of pathogenic autoantibodies might pose a risk for the developing fetus. The transport of antibodies across the placenta to the fetal circulation occurs through the neonatal Fc salvage receptor (FcRn). During gestation, maternal autoantibodies are able to penetrate the embryonic brain before a functional intact blood-brain barrier is established. Brain-reactive antibodies to the water channel protein aquaporin-4 (AQP4) are a hallmark finding in neuromyelitis optica (NMO), a neurological disease that predominantly affects women, many of whom are of childbearing age...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
André Lindsey, Erin Hurley, Jennifer Mozeiko, Carl Coelho
Purpose: The Story Goodness Index (SGI) is a hybrid analysis of narrative discourse combining 2 macrostructural measures: story grammar and story completeness. Initially proposed by Lê and colleagues (Lê, Coelho, Mozeiko, & Grafman, 2011), the SGI is intended to characterize the discourse performance of individuals with cognitive-communication disorders. In this study, the SGI was utilized to examine the discourse of 2 groups, one with closed head injuries and another with non-brain injured (NBI) peers...
July 27, 2018: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Jeffrey J Bazarian, Peter Biberthaler, Robert D Welch, Lawrence M Lewis, Pal Barzo, Viktoria Bogner-Flatz, P Gunnar Brolinson, Andras Büki, James Y Chen, Robert H Christenson, Dallas Hack, J Stephen Huff, Sandeep Johar, J Dedrick Jordan, Bernd A Leidel, Tobias Lindner, Elizabeth Ludington, David O Okonkwo, Joseph Ornato, W Frank Peacock, Kara Schmidt, Joseph A Tyndall, Arastoo Vossough, Andy S Jagoda
BACKGROUND: More than 50 million people worldwide sustain a traumatic brain injury (TBI) annually. Detection of intracranial injuries relies on head CT, which is overused and resource intensive. Blood-based brain biomarkers hold the potential to predict absence of intracranial injury and thus reduce unnecessary head CT scanning. We sought to validate a test combining ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), at predetermined cutoff values, to predict traumatic intracranial injuries on head CT scan acutely after TBI...
September 2018: Lancet Neurology
Aileen Chau, Wanting Zhong, Barry Gordon, Frank Krueger, Jordan Grafman
Neuroimaging studies have reported a large network of brain regions involved in altruism. However, these studies are unable to determine if these regions are necessary for altruistic attitudes. Here, we examined the brain-basis of everyday altruistic attitudes ([Self-Report Altruism Scale]; e.g., helping a stranger with car troubles) and potential factors (i.e., alexithymia [Toronto Alexithymia Scale] such as empathic concern [Interpersonal Reactivity Index]) that may moderate this relationship. We carried out whole-brain voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping and region of interest analyses to study a large sample of patients (n = 130) with penetrating traumatic brain injuries...
August 2018: Neuropsychologia
K Sathish, Vinod Ashok Chaudhari, Abilash Srinivasa Murthy
Transorbital intracranial injuries are uncommon and mostly accidental in nature. These injuries are usually associated with high mortality. The key to preventing this mortality involves an early diagnosis of intracranial injuries and immediate and appropriate management. Any delay can pose a serious risk to the patient's life. A case of a 55-year-old man who had experienced an accidental self-fall while riding a bicycle is presented. Initially, he was treated at a primary health center. He was referred to the tertiary care institute due to unavailability of ancillary investigation at the primary health center...
September 2018: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
Jonathan P Robson, Bettina Wagner, Elisabeth Glitzner, Frank L Heppner, Thomas Steinkellner, Deeba Khan, Claudia Petritsch, Daniela D Pollak, Harald H Sitte, Maria Sibilia
Mice lacking the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) develop an early postnatal degeneration of the frontal cortex and olfactory bulbs and show increased cortical astrocyte apoptosis. The poor health and early lethality of EGFR-/- mice prevented the analysis of mechanisms responsible for the neurodegeneration and function of the EGFR in the adult brain. Here, we show that postnatal EGFR-deficient neural stem cells are impaired in their self-renewal potential and lack clonal expansion capacity in vitro. Mice lacking the EGFR in the brain (EGFRΔbrain ) show low penetrance of cortical degeneration compared to EGFR-/- mice despite genetic recombination of the conditional allele...
July 20, 2018: FEBS Journal
Kristen E DeDominicis, Hye Hwang, Casandra M Cartagena, Deborah A Shear, Angela M Boutté
Treatments to improve outcomes following severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) are limited but may benefit from understanding subacute-chronic brain protein profiles and identifying biomarkers suitable for use in this time. Acute alterations in the well-known TBI biomarkers glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), αII-spectrin, and their breakdown products (BDPs) have been well established, but little is known about the subacute-chronic post-injury profiles of these biomarkers. Thus, the current study was designed to determine the extended profile of these TBI-specific biomarkers both in brain tissue and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF)...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
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