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Penetrating brain injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044049/acute-in-vivo-testing-of-a-conformal-polymer-microelectrode-array-for-multi-region-hippocampal-recordings
#1
Huijing Xu, Ahuva Weltman Hirschberg, Kee Scholten, Ted W Berger, Dong Song, Ellis Meng
OBJECTIVE: The success of a cortical prosthetic device relies upon its ability to attain resolvable spikes from many neurons in particular neural networks over long periods of time. Traditionally, lifetimes of neural recordings are greatly limited by the body's immune response against the foreign implant which causes neuronal death and glial scarring. This immune reaction is posited to be exacerbated by micromotion between the implant, which is often rigid, and the surrounding, soft brain tissue and attenuates the quality of recordings over time...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028747/nervous-system-delivery-of-antilysophosphatidic-acid-antibody-by-nasal-application-attenuates-mechanical-allodynia-after-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rats
#2
Andreas Eisenried, Anders C N Meidahl, Michael Klukinov, Alexander Z Tzabazis, Roger A Sabbadini, J David Clark, David C Yeomans
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lipid that impacts neurological outcomes after neurotrauma by inhibiting neuroregeneration, promoting inflammation, and contributing to behavioral deficits. Blocking LPA signaling with a novel anti-LPA monoclonal antibody (mAb) is neuroprotective after traumatic brain injury (TBI) if given to injured animals whose blood-brain barrier (BBB) has been compromised. It is hypothesized that the anti-LPA mAb could improve chronic pain initiated by TBI. However, poor brain penetration after systemic application of the antibody makes access to the central nervous system (CNS) problematic in situations where the BBB is intact...
November 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025196/prenatal-molecular-diagnosis-in-rasa1-related-disease
#3
Aurélien Palmyre, Mélanie Eyries, Marie-Victoire Senat, Augustin Ozanne, Stéphanie Staraci, Philippe Dufour, Thierry Chinet, Pascal Lacombe, Florent Soubrier, Philippe Charron
RASA1-related disease is a rare autosomal dominant disease characterized by capillary malformations, arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) and/or arteriovenous fistulas (AFVs). Penetrance is nearly complete and vascular malformations may cause serious complications such as organ injury due to oxygenation disorder, brain abscess, hemorrhage and stroke. Early diagnosis is useful in order to discuss optimal management, including AVMs/AVFs embolization or surgical procedures, and try to prevent some of the complications...
October 12, 2017: Prenatal Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981349/hearing-complaints-among-veterans-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#4
Frederick J Gallun, Melissa A Papesh, M Samantha Lewis
It has been shown that there is an increased risk for impaired auditory function following traumatic brain injury (TBI) in Veterans. Evidence is strongest in the area of self-report, but behavioural and electrophysiological data have been obtained that are consistent with these complaints. Peripheral and central dysfunction have both been observed. Historically, studies have focused on penetrating head injuries where central injury is more easily documented than in mild closed head injuries, but several recent reports have expanded the literature to include closed head injuries as well...
2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951213/a-novel-function-of-neuroglobin-for-neuroregeneration-in-mice-after-optic-nerve-injury
#5
Kayo Sugitani, Yoshiki Koriyama, Mayuko Sera, Kunizo Arai, Kazuhiro Ogai, Keisuke Wakasugi
Neuroglobin (Ngb) is a recently discovered heme protein in the vertebrate brain that can bind to oxygen molecules. Mammalian Ngb plays a crucial role in neuroprotection under conditions of oxidative stress. To investigate other potential functions of Ngb, we investigated the mouse retinal Ngb system following optic nerve injury. In the retina of control mice, Ngb immunoreactivity was limited to the retinal ganglion cell (RGC) layer, and this immunoreactivity rapidly decreased to less than 50% of the control level 5 days after optic nerve injury...
November 25, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948121/novel-use-of-an-image-guided-stereotactic-approach-in-trauma-for-localization-of-transcranial-bullet
#6
Dat T Vo, George F Cravens, Robert E Germann
Penetrating brain injuries from gunshot wounds can carry a poor prognosis and require an aggressive, multifaceted approach to obtain a good prognosis and outcome. An initial evaluation requires appropriate imaging studies followed by management and prophylaxis against increased intracranial pressure, infection, and seizures. Surgical management is then followed to ensure the watertight closure of any wounds, removal of any areas of hematoma, and removal of any potential areas of infection. In this paper, we report the case of a patient who presented with a self-inflicted gunshot wound to the head and then received aggressive medical and surgical management...
July 21, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932245/electromagnetic-fields-for-the-regulation-of-neural-stem-cells
#7
REVIEW
Mengchu Cui, Hongfei Ge, Hengli Zhao, Yongjie Zou, Yujie Chen, Hua Feng
Localized magnetic fields (MFs) could easily penetrate the scalp, skull, and meninges, thus inducing an electrical current in both the central and peripheral nervous systems, which is primarily used in transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) for inducing specific effects on different regions or cells that play roles in various brain activities. Studies of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) have led to novel attractive therapeutic approaches. Neural stem cells (NSCs) in adult human brain are able to self-renew and possess multidifferential ability to maintain homeostasis and repair damage after acute central nervous system...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929759/selective-inhibitors-of-dual-leucine-zipper-kinase-dlk-map3k12-with-activity-in-a-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
Snahel Patel, William J Meilandt, Rebecca I Erickson, Jinhua Chen, Gauri Deshmukh, Anthony A Estrada, Reina N Fuji, Paul Gibbons, Amy Gustafson, Seth F Harris, Jose Imperio, Wendy Liu, Xingrong Liu, Yichin Liu, Joseph P Lyssikatos, Changyou Ma, Jianping Yin, Joseph W Lewcock, Michael Siu
Significant data exists to suggest that dual leucine zipper kinase (DLK, MAP3K12) is a conserved regulator of neuronal degeneration following neuronal injury and in chronic neurodegenerative disease. Consequently, there is considerable interest in the identification of DLK inhibitors with a profile compatible with development for these indications. Herein, we use structure-based drug design combined with a focus on CNS drug-like properties to generate compounds with superior kinase selectivity and metabolic stability as compared to previously disclosed DLK inhibitors...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918531/penetrating-orbital-trauma-leading-to-trans-orbital-brain-herniation
#9
Siddharth Vankipuram, Chittij Srivastava, B K Ojha, Sushant Sahoo
INTRODUCTION: Development of a posttraumatic herniation of brain parenchyma through the orbit is a rare complication of orbital roof fracture. Mostly, the injury is due to a direct impact to the frontal region resulting in orbital roof fracture with dural defect and herniation of cerebrospinal fluid or brain parenchyma. These patients present with acute or gradually progressive proptosis with impending risk of loss of vision and mandate surgical decompression of optic nerve with watertight closure of the dural defect...
September 16, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884751/tuberculous-meningitis
#10
REVIEW
Robert J Wilkinson, Ursula Rohlwink, Usha Kant Misra, Reinout van Crevel, Nguyen Thi Hoang Mai, Kelly E Dooley, Maxine Caws, Anthony Figaji, Rada Savic, Regan Solomons, Guy E Thwaites
Tuberculosis remains a global health problem, with an estimated 10.4 million cases and 1.8 million deaths resulting from the disease in 2015. The most lethal and disabling form of tuberculosis is tuberculous meningitis (TBM), for which more than 100,000 new cases are estimated to occur per year. In patients who are co-infected with HIV-1, TBM has a mortality approaching 50%. Study of TBM pathogenesis is hampered by a lack of experimental models that recapitulate all the features of the human disease. Diagnosis of TBM is often delayed by the insensitive and lengthy culture technique required for disease confirmation...
September 8, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875887/the-spectrum-and-outcome-of-paediatric-traumatic-brain-injury-in-kwazulu-natal-province-south-africa-has-not-changed-over-the-last-two-decades
#11
J J P Buitendag, V Y Kong, J L Bruce, G L Laing, D L Clarke, P Brysiewicz
OBJECTIVES: This retrospective review of a prospectively entered and maintained hybrid electronic trauma registry was intended to develop a comprehensive overview of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children and adolescents and to compare it with previous audits from our local environment and from other developing world centres. All TBI patients admitted to hospital were included in this study. We reviewed the age, gender, outcomes, radiological findings and treatment of the patients. METHODS: All patients aged ≤18 years old who were admitted by the Pietermaritzburg Metropolitan Trauma Service (PMTS) with TBI between December 2012 and December 2016 were included in this audit...
August 25, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861035/molecular-disorganization-of-axons-adjacent-to-human-cortical-microinfarcts
#12
Hamza Coban, Spencer Tung, Bryan Yoo, Harry V Vinters, Jason D Hinman
Cortical microinfarcts (CMIs) are microscopically identified wedge-shaped ischemic lesions that occur at or near the cortical surface and result from occlusion of penetrating arterioles. These microscopic lesions can be observed with high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging in aging brains and in patients with cerebrovascular disease. Recent studies have suggested that strategically located microinfarcts strongly correlate with cognitive deficits, which can contribute to Alzheimer's disease as well as other forms of dementia...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856242/3d-visualization-of-individual-regenerating-retinal-ganglion-cell-axons-reveals-surprisingly-complex-growth-paths
#13
Eric R Bray, Markus Noga, Kinjal Thakor, Yunfang Wang, Vance P Lemmon, Kevin K Park, Pantelis Tsoulfas
Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), the sole output cells of the retina, are a heterogeneous population of neurons that project axons to visual targets in the brain. Like most CNS neurons, RGCs are considered incapable of mounting long distance axon regeneration. Using immunolabeling-enabled 3D imaging of solvent-cleared organs (iDISCO) in transgenic mice, we tracked the entire paths of individual RGC axons and show that adult RGCs are highly capable of spontaneous long-distance regeneration, even without any treatment...
July 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828175/combination-of-dura-turning-over-and-decompressive-craniectomy-a-new-pattern-of-surgery-for-cerebral-infarction-caused-by-craniocerebral-gunshot-injury
#14
Qi-Yong Mei, Yao Li, Chao He, Hong-Wei Shan, Yun-Kun Wang, Yan Dong, Ming-Kun Yu, Li-Jun Hou
BACKGROUND: Craniocerebral gunshot injury refers to a wound caused by a bullet passing through or lodged in brain tissue, resulting in the loss of function of a certain area or other fatal damage to the human brain. Craniocerebral gunshot injury is usually life-threatening and is very common in modern warfare, accounting for the majority of battle casualties. Most of the patients suffer from acute cerebral infarction caused by vascular injury. Lack of early and solid battlefield emergency medical interference adds to the risk of death among the wounded...
2017: Military Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817120/the-erythropoietin-derived-peptide-mk-x-and-erythropoietin-have-neuroprotective-effects-against-ischemic-brain-damage
#15
Seung-Jun Yoo, Bongki Cho, Deokho Lee, Gowoon Son, Yeong-Bae Lee, Hyung Soo Han, Eunjoo Kim, Chanil Moon, Cheil Moon
Erythropoietin (EPO) has been well known as a hematopoietic cytokine over the past decades. However, recent reports have demonstrated that EPO plays a neuroprotective role in the central nervous system, and EPO has been considered as a therapeutic target in neurodegenerative diseases such as ischemic stroke. Despite the neuroprotective effect of EPO, clinical trials have shown its unexpected side effects, including undesirable proliferative effects such as erythropoiesis and tumor growth. Therefore, the development of EPO analogs that would confer neuroprotection without adverse effects has been attempted...
August 17, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780000/systemic-infusions-of-anti-interleukin-1%C3%AE-neutralizing-antibodies-reduce-short-term-brain-injury-after-cerebral-ischemia-in-the-ovine-fetus
#16
Xiaodi Chen, Virginia Hovanesian, Syed Naqvi, Yow-Pin Lim, Richard Tucker, John E Donahue, Edward G Stopa, Barbara S Stonestreet
Perinatal hypoxic-ischemic reperfusion (I/R)-related brain injury is a leading cause of neurologic morbidity and life-long disability in children. Infants exposed to I/R brain injury develop long-term cognitive and behavioral deficits, placing a large burden on parents and society. Therapeutic strategies are currently not available for infants with I/R brain damage, except for hypothermia, which can only be used in full term infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Moreover, hypothermia is only partially protective...
August 2, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765287/genetic-inhibition-of-receptor-interacting-protein-kinase-1-reduces-cell-death-and-improves-functional-outcome-after-intracerebral-hemorrhage-in-mice
#17
Sevda Lule, Limin Wu, Lauren M McAllister, William J Edmiston, Joon Yong Chung, Emily Levy, Yi Zheng, Peter J Gough, John Bertin, Alexei Degterev, Eng H Lo, Michael J Whalen
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Recent studies using cultured cells and rodent intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) models have implicated RIPK1 (receptor interacting protein kinase-1) as a driver of programmed necrosis and secondary injury based on use of chemical inhibitors. However, these inhibitors have off-target effects and cannot be used alone to prove a role for RIPK1. The aim of the current study was to examine the effect of genetic inhibition of the kinase domain of RIPK1 in a mouse ICH model...
September 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764996/coagulopathy-as-a-predictor-of-mortality-after-penetrating-traumatic-brain-injury
#18
Lindley E Folkerson, Duncan Sloan, Elizabeth Davis, Ryan S Kitagawa, Bryan A Cotton, John B Holcomb, Jeffrey S Tomasek, Charles E Wade
STUDY HYPOTHESIS: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of mortality with penetrating TBI (p-TBI) patients having worse outcomes. These patients are more likely to be coagulopathic than blunt TBI (b-TBI) patients, thus we hypothesize that coagulopathy would be an early predictor of mortality. METHODS: We identified highest-level trauma activation patients who underwent an admission head CT and had ICU admission orders from August 2009-May 2013, excluding those with polytrauma and anticoagulant use...
July 5, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761517/role-of-routine-repeat-computed-tomography-of-brain-in-patients-with-mild-and-moderate-traumatic-brain-injury-a-prospective-study
#19
Jayun M Shah, Kairav S Shah, Jinendra Kumar, Ponraj K Sundaram
BACKGROUND: Computed tomography (CT) has become the primary investigative modality for traumatic brain injury (TBI) and there are established guidelines for the initial CT (CT-1). There are no specific guidelines for scheduling repeat CT in TBI. This study was carried out to compare the usefulness of unscheduled repeat CT (UCT-2) with scheduled repeat CT (SCT-2) in the presence or absence of neurological deterioration and to identify risk factors associated with radiological worsening (RW)...
July 2017: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760404/retinal-toxicity-after-accidental-intravitreal-injection-of-mepivacaine-and-adrenaline
#20
F López-Herrero, J L Sánchez-Vicente, J Monge-Esquivel, E Parra-Oviedo, A Martínez-Borrego, A Muñoz-Morales
CASE REPORT: The case is presented of a 32 year-old male with no medical history of interest who suffered a traffic accident with mild traumatic brain injury. He had a left supraciliary incised and contused wound that extended to the left upper eyelid, with no loss of vision. After palpebral anaesthetic injection, there was a sudden visual acuity decrease in the left eye and hyposphagma located between I-III at 4mm from the limbus, with increased intraocular pressure. A whitish lesion with a central haemorrhagic focus was observed in the ocular fundus, corresponding to the area where the hyposphagma was located...
July 28, 2017: Archivos de la Sociedad Española de Oftalmología
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