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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740612/3-hydroxykynurenine-a-tryptophan-metabolite-generated-during-the-infection-is-active-against-trypanosoma-cruzi
#1
Carolina P Knubel, Constanza Insfran, Fernando F Martinez, Cintia Diaz Lujan, Ricardo E Fretes, Martin G Theumer, Laura Cervi, Claudia C Motran
The antiparasitic activity of 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK), one of the major tryptophan catabolites of the kynurenine pathway, against both Trypanosoma cruzi evolutive forms that are important for human infection, trypomastigotes (Tps) and amastigotes (Am), possible targets in the parasite and the drug toxicity to mammalian cells have been investigated. 3-HK showed a potent activity against Am with IC50 values in the micromolar concentration range, while the IC50 values to cause Tps death was ∼6000-times higher, indicating that the replicative form present in the vertebrate hosts is much more susceptible to 3-HK than bloodstream Tps...
July 13, 2017: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739840/mitochondrial-sirtuins-in-cardiometabolic-diseases
#2
REVIEW
Xiaoqiang Tang, Xiao-Feng Chen, Hou-Zao Chen, De-Pei Liu
Mitochondria are heterogeneous and essentially contribute to cellular functions and tissue homeostasis. Mitochondrial dysfunction compromises overall cell functioning, tissue damage, and diseases. The advances in mitochondrion biology increase our understanding of mitochondrial dynamics, bioenergetics, and redox homeostasis, and subsequently, their functions in tissue homeostasis and diseases, including cardiometabolic diseases (CMDs). The functions of mitochondria mainly rely on the enzymes in their matrix...
August 15, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738827/bacterial-tail-anchors-can-target-to-the-mitochondrial-outer-membrane
#3
Güleycan Lutfullahoğlu-Bal, Abdurrahman Keskin, Ayşe Bengisu Seferoğlu, Cory D Dunn
BACKGROUND: During the generation and evolution of the eukaryotic cell, a proteobacterial endosymbiont was re-fashioned into the mitochondrion, an organelle that appears to have been present in the ancestor of all present-day eukaryotes. Mitochondria harbor proteomes derived from coding information located both inside and outside the organelle, and the rate-limiting step toward the formation of eukaryotic cells may have been development of an import apparatus allowing protein entry to mitochondria...
July 24, 2017: Biology Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726641/a-plant-fungal-type-phosphoenolpyruvate-carboxykinase-located-in-the-parasite-mitochondrion-ensures-glucose-independent-survival-of-toxoplasma-gondii
#4
Richard Nitzsche, Özlem Günay-Esiyok, Maximilian Tischer, Vyacheslav Zagoriy, Nishith Gupta
Toxoplasma gondii is considered as one of the most successful intracellular pathogens, because it can reproduce in varied nutritional milieus, encountered in diverse host-cell types of essentially any warm-blooded organism. Our earlier work has demonstrated that the acute (tachyzoite) stage of T. gondii depends on cooperativity of glucose and glutamine catabolism to meet biosynthetic demands. Either of these two nutrients can sustain the parasite survival; however, what determines the metabolic plasticity has not been resolved yet...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721182/mitochondria-in-oocyte-aging-current-understanding
#5
REVIEW
D Zhang, D Keilty, Z F Zhang, R C Chian
The oocyte is the largest cell found in multicellular organisms. Mitochondria, as the energy factories for cells, are found in high numbers in oocytes, as they provide the energy for oocyte maturation, fertilization, and embryo formation via oxidative phosphorylation. Failure of assisted reproduction is mainly attributed to oocyte aging and increased aneuploidy. As the most numerous organelle in the oocyte, the mitochondrion has been confirmed as a crucial player in the process of oocyte aging, which is highly influenced by mitochondrion dysfunction...
March 2017: Facts, Views & Vision in ObGyn
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709769/exploring-the-mitochondrial-microrna-import-pathway-through-polynucleotide-phosphorylase-pnpase
#6
Danielle L Shepherd, Quincy A Hathaway, Mark V Pinti, Cody E Nichols, Andrya J Durr, Shruthi Sreekumar, Kristen M Hughes, Seth M Stine, Ivan Martinez, John M Hollander
Cardiovascular disease is the primary cause of mortality for individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus. During the diabetic condition, cardiovascular dysfunction can be partially attributed to molecular changes in the tissue, including alterations in microRNA (miRNA) interactions. MiRNAs have been reported in the mitochondrion and their presence may influence cellular bioenergetics, creating decrements in functional capacity. In this study, we examined the roles of Argonaute 2 (Ago2), a protein associated with cytosolic and mitochondrial miRNAs, and Polynucleotide Phosphorylase (PNPase), a protein found in the inner membrane space of the mitochondrion, to determine their role in mitochondrial miRNA import...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707887/full-characterization-of-localization-diversity-in-human-protein-interactome
#7
Lixin Cheng, Kaili Fan, Yan Huang, Dong Wang, Kwong-Sak Leung
Spatial-temporal regulation amongst proteins forms dynamic networks in cells. Co-existence in common cell compartments can improve biological reliability of the protein-protein interactions. However, this is usually overlooked by most proteomic studies and leads to unrealistic discoveries. In this paper, we systematically characterize the interaction localization diversity in human protein interactome using localization coefficient, a novel metric proposed for assessing how diversely the interactions localize among cell compartments...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705740/proteomics-analysis-of-human-placenta-reveals-glutathione-metabolism-dysfunction-as-the-underlying-pathogenesis-for-preeclampsia
#8
Xiaohan Jin, Zhongwei Xu, Jin Cao, Ping Shao, Maobin Zhou, Zhe Qin, Yan Liu, Fang Yu, Xin Zhou, Wenjie Ji, Wei Cai, Yongqiang Ma, Chengyan Wang, Nana Shan, Ning Yang, Xu Chen, Yuming Li
Hypertensive disorder in pregnancy (HDP) refers to a series of diseases that cause the hypertension during pregnancy, including HDP, preeclampsia (PE) and eclampsia. This study screens differentially expressed proteins of placenta tissues in PE cases using 2D LC-MS/MS quantitative proteomics strategy. A total of 2281 proteins are quantified, of these, 145 altering expression proteins are successfully screened between PE and control cases (p<0.05). Bioinformatics analysis suggests that these proteins are mainly involved in many biological processes, such as oxidation reduction, mitochondrion organization, and acute inflammatory response...
July 10, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698807/the-2d-structure-of-the-t-brucei-preedited-rps12-mrna-is-not-affected-by-macromolecular-crowding
#9
W-Matthias Leeder, Stephan Voskuhl, H Ulrich Göringer
Mitochondrial transcript maturation in African trypanosomes requires RNA editing to convert sequence-deficient pre-mRNAs into translatable mRNAs. The different pre-mRNAs have been shown to adopt highly stable 2D folds; however, it is not known whether these structures resemble the in vivo folds given the extreme "crowding" conditions within the mitochondrion. Here, we analyze the effects of macromolecular crowding on the structure of the mitochondrial RPS12 pre-mRNA. We use high molecular mass polyethylene glycol as a macromolecular cosolute and monitor the structure of the RNA globally and with nucleotide resolution...
2017: Journal of Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695670/mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-cerebral-metabolic-abnormalities-in-patients-with-mitochondrial-encephalomyopathy-subtypes-evidence-from-proton-mr-spectroscopy-and-muscle-biopsy
#10
Feng-Nan Niu, Hai-Lan Meng, Lei-Lei Chang, Hong-Yan Wu, Wei-Ping Li, Ren-Yuan Liu, Hui-Ting Wang, Bing Zhang, Yun Xu
AIMS: Accumulated evidence indicates that cerebral metabolic features, evaluated by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1) H-MRS), are sensitive to early mitochondrion dysfunction associated with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy (ME). The metabolite ratios of lactate (lac)/Cr, N-acetyl aspartate (NAA)/creatine (Cr), total choline (tCho)/Cr, and myoinositol (mI)/Cr are measured in the infarct-like lesions by (1) H-MRS and may reveal metabolic changes associated with ME. However, the application of this molecular imaging technique in the investigation of the pathology of ME subtypes is unknown...
August 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693212/korean-scutellaria-baicalensis-georgi-flavonoid-extract-induces-mitochondrially-mediated-apoptosis-in-human-gastric-cancer-ags-cells
#11
Venu Venkatarame Gowda Saralamma, Ho Jeong Lee, Gyeong Eun Hong, Hyeon Soo Park, Silvia Yumnam, Suchismita Raha, Won Sup Lee, Eun Hee Kim, Nak Ju Sung, Sang Joon Lee, Jeong Doo Heo, Gon Sup Kim
Korean Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi has been widely used in Korean folk medicines for its range of medicinal benefits, including its anticancer effect. The aim of the present study was to investigate the underlying molecular mechanism of action of a flavonoid extract from Korean Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (FSB) on AGS human gastric cancer cells (gastric adenocarcinoma) in which FSB exhibits an anticancer effect. Treatment of AGS cells with FSB significantly inhibited cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner...
July 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688209/quantifying-the-efficiency-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-translocation-tags
#12
Amy M Ehrenworth, Mitchell A Haines, Amy Wong, Pamela Peralta-Yahya
Compartmentalization of metabolic pathways into organelles of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been used to improve chemical production. Pathway compartmentalization aids chemical production by bringing enzymes into close proximity to one another, placing enzymes near key starting metabolites or essential co-factors, increasing the effective concentration of metabolic intermediates, and providing a more suitable chemical environment for enzymatic activity. Although several translocation tags have been used to localize enzymes to different yeast organelles, their translocation efficiencies have not been quantified...
July 8, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686997/management-of-epilepsy-in-merrf-syndrome
#13
REVIEW
Josef Finsterer, Sinda Zarrouk-Mahjoub
Myoclonic epilepsy with ragged-red fibers (MERRF) syndrome is a rare syndromic mitochondrial disorder (MID) with a broad phenotypic but narrow genotypic heterogeneity. One of the predominant phenotypic features in addition to myopathy is epilepsy. The most frequent seizure type in MERRF is generalised myoclonic seizure but also focal myoclonic, focal atonic, generalised tonic-clonic, generalised atonic, generalised myoclonic-atonic, typical absences, or tonic-clonic seizures of unknown onset have been reported...
June 24, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682772/ultrastructure-of-the-spermatozoon-of-macvicaria-obovata-digenea-opecoelidae-a-parasite-of-sparus-aurata-pisces-teleostei-from-the-gulf-of-gab%C3%A3-s-mediterranean-sea
#14
Hichem Kacem, Yann Quilichini, Lassad Neifar, Jordi Torres, Jordi Miquel
The ultrastructural organization of the spermatozoon of the digenean Macvicaria obovata (Opecoelidae) is described by transmission electron microscopy. Alive digeneans were collected from the digestive tract of Sparus aurata (Teleostei, Sparidae), caught from the Gulf of Gabès in Chebba, Tunisia (Eastern Mediterranean Sea). The male gamete of M. obovata is a filiform cell, tapered at both extremities and exhibits typical characters such as two axonemes of different lengths showing the 9+'1' trepaxonematan pattern, a nucleus, mitochondria, two bundles of parallel cortical microtubules, external ornamentation of the plasma membrane, spine-like bodies and granules of glycogen...
September 26, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676395/phosphorylation-of-rat-brain-purified-mitochondrial-voltage-dependent-anion-channel-by-c-jun-n-terminal-kinase-3-modifies-open-channel-noise
#15
Rajeev Gupta
The drift kinetic energy of ionic flow through single ion channels cause vibrations of the pore walls which are observed as open-state current fluctuations (open-channel noise) during single-channel recordings. Vibration of the pore wall leads to transitions among different conformational sub-states of the channel protein in the open-state. Open-channel noise analysis can provide important information about the different conformational sub-state transitions and how biochemical modifications of ion channels would affect their transport properties...
July 1, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668825/clinical-implications-of-augmenter-of-liver-regeneration-in-cancer-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Kevin H Nguyen, Austin H Nguyen, Deepa V Dabir
BACKGROUND/AIM: Hepatocellular carcinoma is a substantial healthcare burden with high prevalence and poor prognosis. As such, efforts are continually made to uncover molecules relevant in cancer biology, that are exploitable as targets for therapy. The mitochondrion is the powerhouse of the cell and exhibits altered functionality in the malignant state, including aberrant regulation of apoptosis and cellular respiration. Augmenter of liver regeneration (ALR) is a multifunctional mitochondrial protein that demonstrates anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic properties and plays a key role in liver regeneration...
July 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662177/a-new-approach-for-the-assessment-of-the-toxicity-of-polyphenol-rich-compounds-with-the-use-of-high-content-screening-analysis
#17
Magdalena Boncler, Jacek Golanski, Magdalena Lukasiak, Malgorzata Redzynia, Jaroslaw Dastych, Cezary Watala
The toxicity of in vitro tested compounds is usually evaluated based on AC50 values calculated from dose-response curves. However, there is a large group of compounds for which a standard four-parametric sigmoid curve fitting may be inappropriate for estimating AC50. In the present study, 22 polyphenol-rich compounds were prioritized from the least to the most toxic based on the total area under and over the dose-response curves (AUOC) in relation to baselines. The studied compounds were ranked across three key cell indicators (mitochondrial membrane potential, cell membrane integrity and nuclear size) in a panel of five cell lines (HepG2, Caco-2, A549, HMEC-1, and 3T3), using a high-content screening (HCS) assay...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658305/predicting-human-protein-subcellular-localization-by-heterogeneous-and-comprehensive-approaches
#18
Chi-Hua Tung, Chi-Wei Chen, Han-Hao Sun, Yen-Wei Chu
Drug development and investigation of protein function both require an understanding of protein subcellular localization. We developed a system, REALoc, that can predict the subcellular localization of singleplex and multiplex proteins in humans. This system, based on comprehensive strategy, consists of two heterogeneous systematic frameworks that integrate one-to-one and many-to-many machine learning methods and use sequence-based features, including amino acid composition, surface accessibility, weighted sign aa index, and sequence similarity profile, as well as gene ontology function-based features...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655332/conditional-knock-out-of-lipoic-acid-protein-ligase-1-reveals-redundancy-pathway-for-lipoic-acid-metabolism-in-plasmodium-berghei-malaria-parasite
#19
Min Wang, Qiong Wang, Xiang Gao, Zhong Su
BACKGROUND: Lipoic acid is a cofactor for α-keto acid dehydrogenase system that is involved in the central energy metabolism. In the apicomplexan parasite, Plasmodium, lipoic acid protein ligase 1 (LplA1) and LplA2 catalyse the ligation of acquired lipoic acid to the dehydrogenase complexes in the mitochondrion. The enzymes LipB and LipA mediate lipoic acid synthesis and ligation to the enzymes in the apicoplast. These enzymes in the lipoic acid metabolism machinery have been shown to play important roles in the biology of Plasmodium parasites, but the relationship between the enzymes is not fully elucidated...
June 27, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654182/the-d-lactate-dehydrogenase-modld1-is-essential-for-growth-and-infection-related-development-in-magnaporthe-oryzae
#20
Tengsheng Zhou, Li Qin, Xiaohan Zhu, Wenyun Shen, Jitao Zou, Zonghua Wang, Yangdou Wei
Rice blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae is initiated by the attachment of conidia to plant surfaces. Germ tubes emerging from conidia develop melanized appressoria to physically penetrate the host surface. Previous studies revealed that appressorium development requires the breakdown of storage lipids and glycogen that occur in peroxisomes and the cytosol respectively, culminating in production of pyruvate. However, the downstream product(s) entering the mitochondria for further oxidation is unclear...
May 18, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
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