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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932036/current-concepts-of-pemphigus-with-a-deep-insight-into-its-molecular-aspects
#1
REVIEW
Jayakiran Madala, Rithika Bashamalla, M Praveen Kumar
Pemphigus vulgaris is an autoimmune bullous disease involving both the skin and mucosal areas, which is characterized by intraepithelial flaccid blisters and erosions. The pathogenesis of this disease is not yet completely established, but novel intuitions into its pathogenesis have recently been published. An unanswered question in its pathophysiology is the mechanism of acantholysis or loss of keratinocyte cell adhesion. Acantholysis seems to result from a communal action of autoantibodies against numerous keratinocyte self-antigens, of which desmogleins 1 and 3, desmocollins and nondesmosome components, such as the mitochondrion, might take part in the disease initiation...
May 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology: JOMFP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925492/detection-of-hereditary-hearing-loss-gene-by-dna-microarray
#2
G-Y Han, Z Xu, Q-S Li, H-Y Shen, W Zhang, J Liang
OBJECTIVE: Screening genes in patients suffering clinically sporadic deafness, using DNA microarray, and evaluating the application value of the clinical detection. PATIENTS AND METHODS: DNA extracted from patients' venous blood was amplified by PCR, and hybridization was carried out in a myriad class clean room. Nine mutation sites of four deaf genes commonly seen in Chinese people were tested. RESULTS: Among 24 patients, 7 cases with mutations were detected, with a positive rate of 29...
August 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921987/a-novel-aryl-urea-fatty-acid-that-targets-the-mitochondrion-and-depletes-cardiolipin-to-promote-killing-of-breast-cancer-cells
#3
Tristan Rawling, Hassan Choucair, Nooshin Koolaji, Kirsi Bourget, Sarah E Allison, Yong-Juan Chen, Colin R Dunstan, Michael Murray
Cancer cell mitochondria are promising anticancer drug targets because they control cell death and are structurally and functionally different from normal cell mitochondria. We synthesized aryl-urea fatty acids and found that the analogue 16({[4-chloro-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]carbamoyl}amino)hexadecanoic acid (13b) decreased proliferation and activated apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. In mechanistic studies 13b emerged as the prototype of a novel class of mitochondrion-targeted agents that deplete cardiolipin and promote cancer cell death...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920632/acute-cardiotoxicity-induced-by-doxorubicin-in-right-ventricle-is-associated-with-increase-of-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis-in-rats
#4
N Anghel, H Herman, C Balta, M Rosu, M S Stan, D Nita, A Ivan, Z Galajda, A Ardelean, A Dinischiotu, A Hermenean
Doxorubicin (DOX) is one of the most effective chemotherapeutic agents, but its efficiency is seriously limited by the risk of developing cardiomyopathy. The most recognized cardiotoxic effect is left ventricular (LF) dysfunction, but MRI and echocardiography data demonstrated significant right ventricle (RV) function impairment. In order to clarify this aspect, the present study investigated the potential of DOX to induce acute RV cardiotoxicity at the same time as LV impairment. Rats were intraperitoneally (i...
September 18, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917260/roles-of-sigma-1-receptors-on-mitochondrial-functions-relevant-to-neurodegenerative-diseases
#5
REVIEW
Tzu-Yu Weng, Shang-Yi Anne Tsai, Tsung-Ping Su
The sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) is a chaperone that resides mainly at the mitochondrion-associated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane (called the MAMs) and acts as a dynamic pluripotent modulator in living systems. At the MAM, the Sig-1R is known to play a role in regulating the Ca(2+) signaling between ER and mitochondria and in maintaining the structural integrity of the MAM. The MAM serves as bridges between ER and mitochondria regulating multiple functions such as Ca(2+) transfer, energy exchange, lipid synthesis and transports, and protein folding that are pivotal to cell survival and defense...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916841/some-liked-it-hot-a-hypothesis-regarding-establishment-of-the-proto-mitochondrial-endosymbiont-during-eukaryogenesis
#6
Cory D Dunn
Eukaryotic cells are characterized by a considerable increase in subcellular compartmentalization when compared to prokaryotes. Most evidence suggests that the earliest eukaryotes consisted of mitochondria derived from an α-proteobacterial ancestor enclosed within an archaeal host cell. However, what benefits the archaeal host and the proto-mitochondrial endosymbiont might have obtained at the beginning of this endosymbiotic relationship remains unclear. In this work, I argue that heat generated by the proto-mitochondrion initially permitted an archaeon living at high temperatures to colonize a cooler environment, thereby removing apparent limitations on cellular complexity...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Molecular Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915410/aiegens-for-biological-process-monitoring-and-disease-theranostics
#7
REVIEW
Xinggui Gu, Ryan T K Kwok, Jacky W Y Lam, Ben Zhong Tang
Biological processes are of great significance for the normal physiological functions of living organisms and closely related to the health. Monitoring of biological processes and diagnosis of diseases based on fluorescent techniques would provide comprehensive insight into mechanism of life and pathogenesis of diseases, precisely guiding therapeutic effect in theranostics. It largely relied on fluorophores with the properties of excellent photostability, large Stokes shift, high signal-to-noise ratio and free of aggregation-caused quenching (ACQ) effect...
September 4, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900919/the-role-of-mitochondria-in-the-activation-maintenance-of-soce-store-operated-ca-2-entry-and-mitochondria
#8
András Spät, Gergö Szanda
Mitochondria extensively modify virtually all cellular Ca(2+) transport processes, and store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) is no exception to this rule. The interaction between SOCE and mitochondria is complex and reciprocal, substantially altering and, ultimately, fine-tuning both capacitative Ca(2+) influx and mitochondrial function. Mitochondria, owing to their considerable Ca(2+) accumulation ability, extensively buffer the cytosolic Ca(2+) in their vicinity. In turn, the accumulated ion is released back into the neighboring cytosol during net Ca(2+) efflux...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892507/extreme-genome-diversity-in-the-hyper-prevalent-parasitic-eukaryote-blastocystis
#9
Eleni Gentekaki, Bruce A Curtis, Courtney W Stairs, Vladimír Klimeš, Marek Eliáš, Dayana E Salas-Leiva, Emily K Herman, Laura Eme, Maria C Arias, Bernard Henrissat, Frédérique Hilliou, Mary J Klute, Hiroshi Suga, Shehre-Banoo Malik, Arthur W Pightling, Martin Kolisko, Richard A Rachubinski, Alexander Schlacht, Darren M Soanes, Anastasios D Tsaousis, John M Archibald, Steven G Ball, Joel B Dacks, C Graham Clark, Mark van der Giezen, Andrew J Roger
Blastocystis is the most prevalent eukaryotic microbe colonizing the human gut, infecting approximately 1 billion individuals worldwide. Although Blastocystis has been linked to intestinal disorders, its pathogenicity remains controversial because most carriers are asymptomatic. Here, the genome sequence of Blastocystis subtype (ST) 1 is presented and compared to previously published sequences for ST4 and ST7. Despite a conserved core of genes, there is unexpected diversity between these STs in terms of their genome sizes, guanine-cytosine (GC) content, intron numbers, and gene content...
September 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888069/a-novel-missense-mutation-in-aifm1-results-in-axonal-polyneuropathy-and-misassembly-of-oxphos-complexes
#10
Bo Hu, Michael Wang, Ryan Castoro, Megan Simmons, Richard Dortch, Robin Yawn, Jun Li
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: AIFM1 (apoptosis-inducing factor, mitochondrion-associated-1) in mitochondria has captured a great attention due to its well-described function in apoptosis. Mutations in AIFM1 have resulted in multiple clinical phenotypes, including CMTX4. These syndromes usually involve multiple locations within the nervous system and/or multiple organs. This study describes a novel missense mutation in AIFM1 and its associated peripheral nerve disease. METHODS: Patients with AIFM1 mutation were characterized clinically, electrophysiologically, genetically and by MRI imaging...
September 9, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882593/real-time-subpixel-accuracy-tracking-of-single-mitochondria-in-neurons-reveals-heterogeneous-mitochondrial-motion
#11
Adolfo Alsina, Wu Ming Lai, Wai Kin Wong, Xianan Qin, Min Zhang, Hyokeun Park
Mitochondria are essential for cellular survival and function. In neurons, mitochondria are transported to various subcellular regions as needed. Thus, defects in the axonal transport of mitochondria are related to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, and the movement of mitochondria has been the subject of intense research. However, the inability to accurately track mitochondria with subpixel accuracy has hindered this research. Here, we report an automated method for tracking mitochondria based on the center of fluorescence...
September 4, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874574/effect-of-cell-cycle-arrest-on-intermediate-metabolism-in-the-marine-diatom-phaeodactylum-tricornutum
#12
Joomi Kim, Christopher M Brown, Min Kyung Kim, Elizabeth H Burrows, Stéphane Bach, Desmond S Lun, Paul G Falkowski
The inhibitor NU 2058 [6-(cyclohexylmethoxy)-9H-purin-2-amine] leads to G1-phase cell cycle arrest in the marine diatom, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, by binding to two cyclin-dependent kinases, CDKA1 and CDKA2. NU 2058 has no effect on photosynthetic attributes, such as Fv/Fm, chlorophyll a/cell, levels of D2 PSII subunits, or RbcL; however, cell cycle arrest leads to unbalanced growth whereby photosynthetic products that can no longer be used for cell division are redirected toward carbohydrates and triacylglycerols (TAGs)...
September 5, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873329/mitochondrial-mutations-in-human-cancer-curation-of-translation
#13
Maϊwen Caudron-Herger, Sven Diederichs
As a genetic disease, cancer is caused by the activation of oncogenes and the inhibition of tumor suppressor genes via genetic and epigenetic mechanisms. Given the important role of energy metabolism in tumors, we analyzed the cancer-derived mutations occurring in the DNA of the mitochondrion. Mutations in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) compared to nuclear DNA are 62% decreased relative to the coding length per chromosome. We find that the majority of these mutations affects highly conserved nucleotides - significantly exceeding the conservation of the mtDNA - and are devoid of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)...
September 5, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871542/measurement-of-tricarboxylic-acid-cycle-enzyme-activities-in-plants
#14
Rebeca Patricia Omena-Garcia, Wagner L Araújo, Yves Gibon, Alisdair R Fernie, Adriano Nunes-Nesi
Mitochondria are vital cytoplasmic organelle of eukaryotic cells responsible for oxidative energy metabolism and the synthesis of intermediates utilized in various other metabolic pathways. The functions of mitochondrion are the oxidation of organic acids by the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and the synthesis of ATP by the oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondrial electron transport chain. The TCA cycle is composed by a set of enzymes that are essential for optimal functioning of the primary carbon metabolism in plants...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865997/functional-characterisation-of-the-methionine-sulfoxide-reductase-repertoire-in-trypanosoma-brucei
#15
Sergio A Guerrero, Diego G Arias, Matias S Cabeza, Michelle C Y Law, Maria D'Amico, Ambika Kumar, Shane R Wilkinson
To combat the deleterious effects that oxidation of the sulfur atom in methionine to sulfoxide may bring, aerobic cells express repair pathways involving methionine sulfoxide reductases (MSRs) to reverse the above reaction. Here, we show that Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of African trypanosomiasis, expresses two distinct trypanothione-dependent MSRs that can be distinguished from each other based on sequence, sub-cellular localisation and substrate preference. One enzyme found in the parasite's cytosol, shows homology to the MSRA family of repair proteins and preferentially metabolises the S epimer of methionine sulfoxide...
September 1, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854599/mitochondrial-genome-assemblies-of-elysia-timida-and-elysia-cornigera-and-the-response-of-mitochondrion-associated-metabolism-during-starvation
#16
Cessa Rauch, Gregor Christa, Jan de Vries, Christian Woehle, Sven B Gould
Some sacoglossan sea slugs sequester functional plastids (kleptoplasts) from their food, which continue to fix CO2 in a light dependent manner inside the animals. In plants and algae, plastid and mitochondrial metabolism are linked in ways that reach beyond the provision of energy-rich carbon compounds through photosynthesis, but how slug mitochondria respond to starvation or alterations in plastid biochemistry has not been explored. We assembled the mitochondrial genomes of the plastid-sequestering sea slugs Elysia timida and Elysia cornigera from RNA-Seq data that was complemented with standard sequencing of mitochondrial DNA through primer walking...
July 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852135/peptide-ss-31-upregulates-frataxin-expression-and-improves-the-quality-of-mitochondria-implications-in-the-treatment-of-friedreich-ataxia
#17
Hongting Zhao, Huihui Li, Shuangying Hao, Jiping Chen, Jing Wu, Chuanhui Song, Meng Zhang, Tong Qiao, Kuanyu Li
Friedreich ataxia is a progressive neurodegenerative disease caused by the expansion of GAA trinucleotide repeats within the first intron of the FXN gene, which encodes frataxin. The pathophysiology of the disease is thought to be derived from the decrease of Fe-S cluster biogenesis due to frataxin deficiency. There is currently no effective treatment for the disease. In our study, we demonstrated that treatment with the mitochondrion-targeted peptide SS-31 reduced frataxin deficiency-induced oxidative stress in lymphoblasts and fibroblasts derived from patients...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840286/adrenal-chromaffin-cells-exposed-to-5-ns-pulses-require-higher-electric-fields-to-porate-intracellular-membranes-than-the-plasma-membrane-an-experimental-and-modeling-study
#18
Josette Zaklit, Gale L Craviso, Normand Leblanc, Lisha Yang, P Thomas Vernier, Indira Chatterjee
Nanosecond-duration electric pulses (NEPs) can permeabilize the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), causing release of Ca(2+) into the cytoplasm. This study used experimentation coupled with numerical modeling to understand the lack of Ca(2+) mobilization from Ca(2+)-storing organelles in catecholamine-secreting adrenal chromaffin cells exposed to 5-ns pulses. Fluorescence imaging determined a threshold electric (E) field of 8 MV/m for mobilizing intracellular Ca(2+) whereas whole-cell recordings of membrane conductance determined a threshold E-field of 3 MV/m for causing plasma membrane permeabilization...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Membrane Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839913/biological-action-in-read-write-genome-evolution
#19
REVIEW
James A Shapiro
Many of the most important evolutionary variations that generated phenotypic adaptations and originated novel taxa resulted from complex cellular activities affecting genome content and expression. These activities included (i) the symbiogenetic cell merger that produced the mitochondrion-bearing ancestor of all extant eukaryotes, (ii) symbiogenetic cell mergers that produced chloroplast-bearing ancestors of photosynthetic eukaryotes, and (iii) interspecific hybridizations and genome doublings that generated new species and adaptive radiations of higher plants and animals...
October 6, 2017: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838618/microbe-mitochondrion-crosstalk-and-health-an-emerging-paradigm
#20
REVIEW
Prashant Bajpai, Aarti Darra, Anurag Agrawal
Human mitochondria are descendants of microbes and altered mitochondrial function has been implicated in processes ranging from ageing to diabetes. Recent work has highlighted the importance of gut microbial communities in human health and disease. While the spotlight has been on the influence of such communities on the human immune system and the extraction of calories from otherwise indigestible food, an important but less investigated link between the microbes and mitochondria remains unexplored. Microbial metabolites including short chain fatty acids as well as other molecules such as pyrroloquinoline quinone, fermentation gases, and modified fatty acids influence mitochondrial function...
August 24, 2017: Mitochondrion
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