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Jifeng Yuan, Pranjul Mishra, Chi Bun Ching
Medium branched-chain esters can be used not only as a biofuel but are also useful chemicals with various industrial applications. The development of economically feasible and environment friendly bio-based fuels requires efficient cell factories capable of producing desired products in high yield. Herein, we sought to use a number of strategies to engineer Saccharomyces cerevisiae for high-level production of branched-chain esters. Mitochondrion-based expression of ATF1 gene in a base strain with an overexpressed valine biosynthetic pathway together with expression of mitochondrion-relocalized α-ketoacid decarboxylase (encoded by ARO10) and alcohol dehydrogenase (encoded by ADH7) not only produced isobutyl acetate, but also 3-methyl-1-butyl acetate and 2-methyl-1-butyl acetate...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
Wolfgang Voos, Witold Jaworek, Anne Wilkening, Michael Bruderek
Mitochondria are essential constituents of a eukaryotic cell by supplying ATP and contributing to many mayor metabolic processes. As endosymbiotic organelles, they represent a cellular subcompartment exhibiting many autonomous functions, most importantly containing a complete endogenous machinery responsible for protein expression, folding and degradation. This article summarizes the biochemical processes and the enzymatic components that are responsible for maintaining mitochondrial protein homoeostasis. As mitochondria lack a large part of the required genetic information, most proteins are synthesized in the cytosol and imported into the organelle...
October 15, 2016: Essays in Biochemistry
Mark V Pinti, Quincy A Hathaway, John M Hollander
Heart failure (HF) is an endpoint resulting from a number of disease states. The prognosis for HF patients is poor with survival rates precipitously low. Energy metabolism is centrally linked to the development of HF and it involves the proteomic remodeling of numerous pathways, many of which are targeted to the mitochondrion. MicroRNA (miRNA) are noncoding RNAs that influence post-transcriptional gene regulation. MiRNA have garnered considerable attention for their ability to orchestrate changes to the transcriptome and ultimately the proteome, during HF...
October 14, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Pengmian Feng, Jidong Zhang, Hua Tang, Wei Chen, Hao Lin
Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) are implicated in various biological processes. Recent findings have demonstrated that the function of ncRNAs correlates with their provenance. Therefore, the recognition of ncRNAs from different organelle genomes will be helpful to understand their molecular functions. However, the weakness of experimental techniques limits the progress toward studying organellar ncRNAs and their functional relevance. As a complement of experiments, computational method provides an important choice to identify ncRNA in different organelles...
October 13, 2016: Interdisciplinary Sciences, Computational Life Sciences
Hesti Lina Wiraswati, Emilie Hangen, Ana Belén Sanz, Ngoc-Vy Lam, Camille Reinhardt, Allan Sauvat, Ariane Mogha, Alberto Ortiz, Guido Kroemer, Nazanine Modjtahedi
Mitochondrial apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) is a redox-active enzyme that participates to the biogenesis/maintenance of complex I of the respiratory chain, yet also contributes to catabolic reactions in the context of regulated cell death when AIF translocates to the cytosol and to the nucleus. Here we explore the contribution of AIF to cell death induced by menadione (2-methyl-1,4-naphtoquinone; also called vitamin K3) in conditions in which this pro-oxidant does not cause the mitochondrial release of AIF, yet causes caspase-independent cell killing...
October 11, 2016: Oncotarget
Tanes I Lima, Hygor N Araujo, Eveline S Menezes, Carlos H Sponton, Michel B Araújo, Lucas H M Bomfim, André L Queiroz, Madla A Passos, Thais Amaral E Sousa, Sandro M Hirabara, Amanda R Martins, Helena C L B Sampaio, Alice Rodrigues, Rui Curi, Everardo M Carneiro, Antônio C Boschero, Leonardo R Silveira
Mitochondria play a critical role in several cellular processes and cellular homeostasis. Mitochondrion dysfunction has been correlated with numerous metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. MicroRNAs are non-coding RNAs that have emerged as key regulators of cell metabolism. The microRNAs act as central regulators of metabolic gene networks by leading to the degradation of their target messenger RNA or repression of protein translation. In addition, vesicular and non-vesicular circulating miRNAs exhibit a potential role as mediators of the cross-talk between the skeletal muscle and other tissues/organs...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Prasad Kottayil Padmanabhan, Ouafa Zghidi-Abouzid, Mukesh Samant, Carole Dumas, Bruno Guedes Aguiar, Jerome Estaquier, Barbara Papadopoulou
DDX3 is a highly conserved member of ATP-dependent DEAD-box RNA helicases with multiple functions in RNA metabolism and cellular signaling. Here, we describe a novel function for DDX3 in regulating the mitochondrial stress response in the parasitic protozoan Leishmania. We show that genetic inactivation of DDX3 leads to the accumulation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) associated with a defect in hydrogen peroxide detoxification. Upon stress, ROS production is greatly enhanced, causing mitochondrial membrane potential loss, mitochondrial fragmentation, and cell death...
October 13, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
Bhabatosh Banik, Brett W Askins, Shanta Dhar
The field of intracellular organelle targeting using nanoparticle (NP) is mushrooming rapidly. Thus, the area of nanotechnology-enabled targeting of mitochondrion, the cellular powerhouse, for diseases characterized by mitochondrial dysfunctions such as cancer, diseases of the central nervous system, and cardiovascular diseases is also growing at a rapid pace. Optimization of a NP's ability to target the mitochondria requires quantification of the particles in this subcellular organelle and isolation of mitochondria from the cells...
October 13, 2016: Nanoscale
Hui Liu, Mei Zhao, Jin Wang, Mingpei Pang, Zhenzhou Wu, Liqing Zhao, Zhinan Yin, Zhangyong Hong
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has many advantages in treating cancers, but the lack of ideal photosensitizers continues to be a major limitation restricting the clinical utility of PDT. This study aimed to overcome this obstacle by generating pyropheophorbide-a-loaded polyethylene glycol-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (NPs) for efficient tumor-targeted PDT. The fabricated NPs were efficiently internalized in the mitochondrion by cancer cells, and they efficiently killed cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner when activated with light...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Christian Arstad, Paulo Refinetti, David Warren, Karl-Erik Giercksky, Per Olaf Ekstrøm
To bypass possible nuclear contamination and to exclusively amplify DNA from the mitochondrion, a set of 23 primers was selected. On the mitochondrial DNA selection fragments, a second set of fragments was used to amplify and identify mutant fractions with a detection limit of 1% . This mutation scanning method analyzed 76% of the mitochondrial genome and was used to examine 94 tumours from different tissues of origin. In all, 87 tumours had one or more mutations, leaving seven samples without observed mutations...
October 11, 2016: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
Jon Andoni Sánchez, Amparo Alfonso, Olivier P Thomas, Luís M Botana
Previous works with autumnalamide reported that Store Operated Calcium (SOC) channels were blocked through mitochondrial modulation. In the present paper we studied the effect of autumnalamide on ionomycin Ca(2+) fluxes. Thus, autumnalamide did not modify ionomycin-sensitive intracellular pools while the ionomycin-induced Ca(2+) influx was blocked with similar potency whether the incubation was done before or after ionomycin-sensitive pools depletion. Nevertheless, autumnalamide was not able to inhibit ionomycin-induced Ca(2+) influx once the membrane channels were activated...
September 28, 2016: Immunobiology
Thomas Kerforne, Frédéric Favreau, Raphaël Thuillier, Thierry Hauet, Michel Pinsard
The increased number of patients in waiting list for renal transplantation requires the establishment of recommendations regarding graft preservation techniques. The preservation method impacts graft function and survival particularly in case of extended criteria donors. Based on our experience, the aim of this review is to establish a decisional diagram to draw graft management to 5years in relation to donor type and graft quality. Novel biomarkers are necessary to evaluate graft quality. Nuclear magnetic resonance or transcriptomic analyses are promising...
October 3, 2016: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
Suprabhat Mukherjee, Niladri Mukherjee, Prajna Gayen, Priya Roy, Santi P Sinha Babu
Human diseases caused by the infectious parasites have been one of the major problems throughout the evolutionary journey. Protozoan and metazoan parasitic infections result in a large number of deaths, disabilities and socio-economic loss worldwide to date. Despite our best efforts of developing suitable antiparasitics, these infections take a massive toll on human health. The prevalence of emerging resistance to the existing drugs, lack of efficacy and toxic side effects came out as added complications. Being enlisted under 'neglected' category, serious diseases like leishmaniases, filariases, trypanosomiases etc...
October 4, 2016: Current Drug Metabolism
Tomoyo Sakata-Kato, Dyann F Wirth
Given that resistance to all drugs in clinical use has arisen, discovery of new anti-malarial drug targets is eagerly anticipated. The Plasmodium mitochondrion has been considered a promising drug target largely based on its significant divergence from the host organelle as well as its involvement in ATP production and pyrimidine biosynthesis. However, the functions of Plasmodium mitochondrial protein complexes and associated metabolic pathways are not fully characterized. Here, we report the development of novel and robust bioenergetic assay protocols for Plasmodium falciparum asexual parasites utilizing a Seahorse Bioscience XFe24 Extracellular Flux Analyzer...
October 9, 2016: ACS Infectious Diseases
Sachin V Surve, Brian C Jensen, Meredith Heestand, Muriel Mazet, Terry K Smith, Frédéric Bringaud, Marilyn Parsons, Achim Schnaufer
In the slender bloodstream form, Trypanosoma brucei mitochondria are repressed for many functions. Multiple components of mitochondrial complex I, NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase, are expressed in this stage, but electron transfer through complex I is not essential. Here we investigate the role of the parasite's second NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase, NDH2, which is composed of a single subunit that also localizes to the mitochondrion. While inducible knockdown of NDH2 had a modest growth effect in bloodstream forms, NDH2 null mutants, as well as inducible knockdowns in a complex I deficient background, showed a greater reduction in growth...
October 4, 2016: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
Ruslan Aphasizhev, Takuma Suematsu, Liye Zhang, Inna Aphasizheva
RNA uridylation is a significant transcriptome-shaping factor in protists, fungi, metazoans, and plants. The 3' U-additions are catalyzed by terminal uridyltransferases (TUTases), a diverse group of enzymes that along with non-canonical poly(A) polymerases form a distinct group in the superfamily of DNA polymerase β-like nucleotidyl transferases. Within and across studied organisms and subcellular compartments, TUTases differ in nucleotide triphosphate selectivity, interacting partners, and RNA targets. A general premise linking RNA uridylation to 3'-5' degradation received support from several studies of small RNAs and mRNA turnover...
October 7, 2016: RNA Biology
Manpreet K Dhami, Thomas Hartwig, Tadashi Fukami
Priority effects, in which the order of species arrival dictates community assembly, can have a major influence on species diversity, but the genetic basis of priority effects remains unknown. Here, we suggest that nitrogen scavenging genes previously considered responsible for starvation avoidance may drive priority effects by causing rapid resource depletion. Using single-molecule sequencing, we de novo assembled the genome of the nectar-colonizing yeast, Metschnikowia reukaufii, across eight scaffolds and complete mitochondrion, with gap-free coverage over gene spaces...
October 12, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Ross J Hill, Alessa Ringel, Ellen Knuepfer, Robert W Moon, Michael J Blackman, Christiaan van Ooij
StAR-related lipid-transfer (START) domains are phospholipid or sterol binding modules that are present in many proteins. START-domain-containing proteins (START proteins) play important functions in eukaryotic cells, including the redistribution of phospholipids to subcellular compartments and delivering sterols to the mitochondrion for steroid synthesis. How the activity of the START domain is regulated remains unknown for most of these proteins. The Plasmodium falciparum START protein PFA0210c (PF3D7_0104200) is a broad-spectrum phospholipid transfer protein that is conserved in all sequenced Plasmodium species and is most closely related to the mammalian START proteins STARD2 and STARD7...
October 2, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Fuqiang Xing, Qiuqiang Zhan, Yiduo He, Jiesheng Cui, Sailing He, Guanyu Wang
Recent studies have reported that exposure of mammalian cells to microwave radiation may have adverse effects such as induction of cell apoptosis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying microwave induced mammalian cell apoptosis are not fully understood. Here, we report a novel mechanism: exposure to 1800MHz microwave radiation induces p53-dependent cell apoptosis through cytochrome c-mediated caspase-3 activation pathway. We first measured intensity of microwave radiation from several electronic devices with an irradiation detector...
2016: PloS One
Yann Quilichini, Abdoulaye J S Bakhoum, Jean-Lou Justine, Rodney A Bray, Cheikh T Bâ, Bernard Marchand
Spermatological characteristics of species from two monorchiid genera, Opisthomonorchis and Paramonorcheides, have been investigated, for the first time, by means of transmission electron microscopy. The ultrastructural study reveals that the mature spermatozoon of Opisthomonorchis dinema and Paramonorcheides selaris share several characters such as the presence of two axonemes of different lengths showing the 9+"1" pattern of the Trepaxonemata, a nucleus, two mitochondria, two bundles of parallel cortical microtubules, external ornamentation of the plasma membrane, spine-like bodies, granules of glycogen and similar morphologies of the anterior and posterior extremities...
2016: PeerJ
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