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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342092/metabolic-alterations-in-cancer-cells-and-the-emerging-role-of-oncometabolites-as-drivers-of-neoplastic-change
#1
REVIEW
Zhengqiu Zhou, Elochukwu Ibekwe, Yevgen Chornenkyy
The mitochondrion is an important organelle and provides energy for a plethora of intracellular reactions. Metabolic dysregulation has dire consequences for the cell, and alteration in metabolism has been identified in multiple disease states-cancer being one. Otto Warburg demonstrated that cancer cells, in the presence of oxygen, undergo glycolysis by reprogramming their metabolism-termed "aerobic glycolysis". Alterations in metabolism enable cancer cells to gain a growth advantage by obtaining precursors for macromolecule biosynthesis, such as nucleic acids and lipids...
January 17, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330687/evaluation-of-the-mitochondria-related-redox-and-bioenergetics-effects-of-gastrodin-in-sh-sy5y-cells-exposed-to-hydrogen-peroxide
#2
Marcos Roberto de Oliveira, Flávia Bittencourt Brasil, Cristina Ribas Fürstenau
Mitochondrion is the main site of ATP production in animal cells and also orchestrates signaling pathways associated with cell survival and death. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked to bioenergetics and redox impairment in human diseases, such as neurodegeneration and cardiovascular disease. Protective agents able to attenuate mitochondrial impairment are of pharmacological interest. Gastrodin (GAS; 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol 4-O-beta-D-glucoside) is a phenolic glucoside obtained from the Chinese herbal medicine Gastrodia elata Blume and exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic effects in several cell types...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299929/proteome-of-bovine-mitochondria-and-rod-outer-segment-disks-commonalities-and-differences
#3
Maurizio Bruschi, Andrea Petretto, Federico Caicci, Martina Bartolucci, Daniela Calzia, Laura Santucci, Lucia Manni, Luca A Ramenghi, Gian Marco Ghiggeri, Carlo E Traverso, Giovanni Candiano, Isabella Panfoli
The retinal rod outer segment (OS) is a stack of disks surrounded by the plasma membrane, housing proteins related to phototransduction, as well as mitochondrial proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos). This prompted us to compare the proteome of bovine OS disks and mitochondria, to assess the significant top gene signatures of each sample. The two proteomes, obtained by LTQ-Orbitrap Velos mass spectrometry, were compared by statistical analyses. 4139 proteins were identified, 2045 of which overlapping in the two sets...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297363/critical-illness-and-flat-batteries
#4
REVIEW
Mervyn Singer
An exaggerated, dysregulated host response to insults such as infection (i.e. sepsis), trauma and ischaemia-reperfusion injury can result in multiple organ dysfunction and death. While the focus of research in this area has largely centred on inflammation and immunity, a crucial missing link is the precise identification of mechanisms at the organ level that cause this physiological-biochemical failure. Any hypothesis must reconcile this functional organ failure with minimal signs of cell death, availability of oxygen, and (often) minimal early local inflammatory cell infiltrate...
December 28, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287109/biogenesis-of-the-mitochondrial-dna-inheritance-machinery-in-the-mitochondrial-outer-membrane-of-trypanosoma-brucei
#5
Sandro Käser, Mathilde Willemin, Felix Schnarwiler, Bernd Schimanski, Daniel Poveda-Huertes, Silke Oeljeklaus, Beat Haenni, Benoît Zuber, Bettina Warscheid, Chris Meisinger, André Schneider
Mitochondria cannot form de novo but require mechanisms that mediate their inheritance to daughter cells. The parasitic protozoan Trypanosoma brucei has a single mitochondrion with a single-unit genome that is physically connected across the two mitochondrial membranes with the basal body of the flagellum. This connection, termed the tripartite attachment complex (TAC), is essential for the segregation of the replicated mitochondrial genomes prior to cytokinesis. Here we identify a protein complex consisting of three integral mitochondrial outer membrane proteins-TAC60, TAC42 and TAC40-which are essential subunits of the TAC...
December 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275436/transcriptomic-profiles-of-the-bovine-mammary-gland-during-lactation-and-the-dry-period
#6
Wen-Ting Dai, Yi-Xuan Zou, Robin R White, Jian-Xin Liu, Hong-Yun Liu
The initiation and maintenance of lactation are complex phenomena governed by biochemical and endocrine processes in the mammary gland (MG). Although DNA-based approaches have been used to study the onset of lactation, more comprehensive RNA-based techniques may be critical in furthering our understanding of gene alterations that occur to support lactation in the bovine MG. To further determine how gene profiles vary during lactation compared with the dry period, RNA-seq transcriptomic analysis was used to identify differentially expressed genes (DEG) in bovine MG tissues from animals that were lactating and not lactating...
December 23, 2017: Functional & Integrative Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274359/ho-1-mediates-bay-11-7085-induced-ferroptosis
#7
Ling-Chu Chang, Shih-Kai Chiang, Shuen-Ei Chen, Yung-Luen Yu, Ruey-Hwang Chou, Wei-Chao Chang
Ferroptosis is a form of oxidative cell death and has become a chemotherapeutic target for cancer treatment. BAY 11-7085 (BAY), which is a well-known IκBα inhibitor, suppressed viability in cancer cells via induction of ferroptotic death in a NF-κB-independent manner. Reactive oxygen species scavenging, relief of lipid peroxidation, replenishment of glutathione and thiol-containing agents, as well as iron chelation, rescued BAY-induced cell death. BAY upregulated a variety of Nrf2 target genes related to redox regulation, particularly heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1)...
December 20, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261511/biomechanistic-insights-into-the-roles-of-oxidative-stress-in-generating-complex-neurological-disorders
#8
Mohammad Yusuf, Maria Khan, Majed A Robaian, Riaz A Khan
Neurological diseases like Alzheimer's, epilepsy, Parkinsonism, depression, Huntington's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis prevailing globally are considered to be deeply influenced by oxidative stress based changes in the biochemical settings of the organs. The excess oxygen concentration triggers the production of reactive oxygen species and even the intrinsic antioxidant enzyme system, i.e., SOD, CAT and GSHPx fails to manage their levels and keep them under desirable limits. This consequently leads to oxidation of protein, lipids, and nucleic acids in the brain resulting in apoptosis, proteopathy, proteasomes and mitochondrion dysfunction, glial cell activation as well as neuroinflammation...
June 27, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250098/reconstruction-of-oryza-sativa-indica-genome-scale-metabolic-model-and-its-responses-to-varying-rubisco-activity-light-intensity-and-enzymatic-cost-conditions
#9
Ankita Chatterjee, Benazir Huma, Rahul Shaw, Sudip Kundu
To combat decrease in rice productivity under different stresses, an understanding of rice metabolism is needed. Though there are different genome scale metabolic models (GSMs) of Oryza sativa japonica, no GSM with gene-protein-reaction association exist for Oryza sativa indica. Here, we report a GSM, OSI1136 of O.s. indica, which includes 3602 genes and 1136 metabolic reactions and transporters distributed across the cytosol, mitochondrion, peroxisome, and chloroplast compartments. Flux balance analysis of the model showed that for varying RuBisCO activity (Vc/Vo) (i) the activity of the chloroplastic malate valve increases to transport reducing equivalents out of the chloroplast under increased photorespiratory conditions and (ii) glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and phosphoglycerate kinase can act as source of cytosolic ATP under decreased photorespiration...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246940/hsp27-mediated-extracellular-and-intracellular-signaling-pathways-synergistically-confer-chemo-resistance-in-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-tongue
#10
Guopei Zheng, Zhijie Zhang, Hao Liu, Yan Xiong, Liyun Luo, Xiaoting Jia, Cong Peng, Qiong Zhang, Nan Li, Yixue Gu, Minying Lu, Ying Song, Hao Pan, Jinbao Liu, Wanqing Liu, Zhimin He
PURPOSE: Squamous cell carcinoma of tongue (SCCT) is the most common type of the oral cavity carcinoma. Chemo-resistance in SCCT is common and the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. We aim to identify key molecules and signaling pathways mediating chemo-resistance in SCCT. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Using a proteomic approach we identify that the HSP27 was a potential mediator for chemo-resistance in SCCT cells. To further validate this role of HSP27, we performed various mechanistic studies using in vitro and in vivo models as well as serum and tissue samples of SCCT patients...
December 15, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243970/reactive-oxygen-species-damage-drives-cardiac-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction-following-acute-nano-titanium-dioxide-inhalation-exposure
#11
Cody E Nichols, Danielle L Shepherd, Quincy A Hathaway, Andrya J Durr, Dharendra Thapa, Alaeddin Abukabda, Jinghai Yi, Timothy R Nurkiewicz, John M Hollander
Nanotechnology offers innovation in products from cosmetics to drug delivery, leading to increased engineered nanomaterial (ENM) exposure. Unfortunately, health impacts of ENM are not fully realized. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is among the most widely produced ENM due to its use in numerous applications. Extrapulmonary effects following pulmonary exposure have been identified and may involve reactive oxygen species (ROS). The goal of this study was to determine the extent of ROS involvement on cardiac function and the mitochondrion following nano-TiO2 exposure...
December 15, 2017: Nanotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238745/dye-based-mito-thermometry-and-its-application-in-thermogenesis-of-brown-adipocytes
#12
Tao-Rong Xie, Chun-Feng Liu, Jian-Sheng Kang
Mitochondrion is the main intracellular site for thermogenesis and attractive energy expenditure targeting for obesity therapy. Here, we develop a method of mitochondrial thermometry based on Rhodamine B methyl ester, which equilibrates as a thermosensitive mixture of nonfluorescent and fluorescent resonance forms. Using this approach, we are able to demonstrate that the efficacy of norepinephrine-induced thermogenesis is low, and measure the maximum transient rate of temperature increase in brown adipocytes...
2017: Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214600/apoptosis-induction-by-alantolactone-in-breast-cancer-mda-mb-231-cells-through-reactive-oxygen-species-mediated-mitochondrion-dependent-pathway
#13
Li Cui, Weiquan Bu, Jie Song, Liang Feng, Tingting Xu, Dan Liu, Wenbo Ding, Jianhua Wang, Changyang Li, Binge Ma, Yi Luo, Ziyu Jiang, Chengcheng Wang, Juan Chen, Jian Hou, Hongmei Yan, Lei Yang, Xiaobin Jia
Alantolactone is a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from Inula helenium L. Although alantolactone possesses anti-inflammation and apoptosis-induction activities, the underlying mechanism of anti-cancer effect on human breast cancer cells remains largely unknown. In this study, we explored the possibility of alantolactone as an apoptosis-inducing cytotoxic agent using MDA-MB-231 cells as in vitro model. Alantolactone significantly induced its apoptosis, demonstrated by cell cycle analysis, annexin V-APC/7-AAD double staining and dUTP nick end labeling...
December 6, 2017: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212938/subcellular-localization-and-functional-characterization-of-gii-4-norovirus-encoded-ntpase
#14
Ju-Bei Yen, Ling-Huei Wei, Lee-Wen Chen, Li-Yu Chen, Chien-Hui Hung, Shie-Shan Wang, Pey-Jium Chang
The genotype GII.4 variants of human noroviruses (HuNVs) are recognized as the major agent of global gastroenteritis outbreaks. Due to the lack of an efficient cell culture system for HuNV propagation, the exact roles of HuNV-encoded non-structural proteins (including Nterm, NTPase, P22, VPg, Pro and RdRp) in viral replication or pathogenesis have not yet been fully understood. Here, we report the molecular characterization of the GII.4 HuNV-encoded NTPase (or designated as GII-NTPase). Results from our studies showed that GII-NTPase forms vesicular or non-vesicular textures in the cell cytoplasm, and the non-vesicular fraction of GII-NTPase significantly localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) or mitochondria...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212019/pervasive-within-mitochondrion-single-nucleotide-variant-heteroplasmy-as-revealed-by-single-mitochondrion-sequencing
#15
Jacqueline Morris, Young-Ji Na, Hua Zhu, Jae-Hee Lee, Hoa Giang, Alexandra V Ulyanova, Gordon H Baltuch, Steven Brem, H Isaac Chen, David K Kung, Timothy H Lucas, Donald M O'Rourke, John A Wolf, M Sean Grady, Jai-Yoon Sul, Junhyong Kim, James Eberwine
A number of mitochondrial diseases arise from single-nucleotide variant (SNV) accumulation in multiple mitochondria. Here, we present a method for identification of variants present at the single-mitochondrion level in individual mouse and human neuronal cells, allowing for extremely high-resolution study of mitochondrial mutation dynamics. We identified extensive heteroplasmy between individual mitochondrion, along with three high-confidence variants in mouse and one in human that were present in multiple mitochondria across cells...
December 5, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211049/living-organisms-author-their-read-write-genomes-in-evolution
#16
REVIEW
James A Shapiro
Evolutionary variations generating phenotypic adaptations and novel taxa resulted from complex cellular activities altering genome content and expression: (i) Symbiogenetic cell mergers producing the mitochondrion-bearing ancestor of eukaryotes and chloroplast-bearing ancestors of photosynthetic eukaryotes; (ii) interspecific hybridizations and genome doublings generating new species and adaptive radiations of higher plants and animals; and, (iii) interspecific horizontal DNA transfer encoding virtually all of the cellular functions between organisms and their viruses in all domains of life...
December 6, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209325/probiotic-enhanced-intestinal-immunity-in-broilers-against-subclinical-necrotic-enteritis
#17
Hesong Wang, Xueqin Ni, Xiaodan Qing, Lei Liu, Jing Lai, Abdul Khalique, Guangyao Li, Kangcheng Pan, Bo Jing, Dong Zeng
Along with banning of antibiotics, necrotic enteritis (NE), especially subclinical NE (SNE) whereby no clinical signs are present in chicks, has become one of the most threatening problems in poultry industry. Therefore, increasing attention has been focused on research and application of effective probiotic strains, as an alternative to antibiotics, to prevent SNE in broilers. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of Lactobacillus johnsonii BS15 on the prevention of SNE in broilers. Specifically, assessment determined the growth performance and indexes related to intestinal mucosal immunity in the ileum and cecal tonsil of broilers...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208990/comparative-transcriptomic-analysis-of-tibetan-gynaephora-to-explore-the-genetic-basis-of-insect-adaptation-to-divergent-altitude-environments
#18
Qi-Lin Zhang, Li Zhang, Xing-Zhuo Yang, Xiao-Tong Wang, Xiao-Peng Li, Juan Wang, Jun-Yuan Chen, Ming-Long Yuan
Adaptation of insects to different altitudes remain largely unknown, especially those endemic to the Tibetan Plateau (TP). Here, we generated the transcriptomes of Gynaephora menyuanensis and G. alpherakii, inhabiting different high altitudes on the TP, and used these and the previously available transcriptomic and genomic sequences from low-altitude insects to explore potential genetic basis for divergent high-altitude adaptation in Gynaephora. An analysis of 5,869 orthologous genes among Gynaephora and other three low-altitude insects uncovered that fast-evolving genes and positively selected genes (PSGs) in the two Gynaephora species were enriched in energy metabolism and hypoxia response categories (e...
December 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202332/chloro-triphenylphosphine-gold-i-a-forefront-reagent-in-gold-chemistry-as-apoptotic-agent-for-cancer-cells
#19
M P Chrysouli, C N Banti, N Kourkoumelis, N Panayiotou, G S Markopoulos, A J Tasiopoulos, S K Hadjikakou
The antiproliferative activity of the gold complex [Au(tpp)Cl] (1) (tpp=triphenyphosphine) against human breast adenocarcinoma cells (MCF-7) and normal human fetal lung fibroblast cells (MRC-5) was investigated. The compound exhibits stronger activity against MCF-7 cells than cisplatin. The apoptotic pathway, especially though the mitochondrion damage was concluded by cell cycle arrest, flow cytometry using Annexin V-Fluorescein IsoThioCyanate (FITC) and Propidium Iodide (PI) as indicators, assays and permeabilization of the mitochondrial membrane tests...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190729/increased-mmab-level-in-mitochondria-as-a-novel-biomarker-of-hepatotoxicity-induced-by-efavirenz
#20
Zhimi Tan, Xiaofang Jia, Fang Ma, Yanling Feng, Hongzhou Lu, Jun-O Jin, Dage Wu, Lin Yin, Li Liu, Lijun Zhang
BACKGROUND: Efavirenz (EFV), a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), has been widely used in the therapy of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Some of its toxic effects on hepatic cells have been reported to display features of mitochondrial dysfunction through bioenergetic stress and autophagy, etc. However, alteration of protein levels, especially mitochondrial protein levels, in hepatic cells during treatment of EFV has not been fully investigated. METHODS: We built a cell model of EFV-induced liver toxicity through treating Huh-7 cells with different concentrations of EFV for different time followed by the analysis of cell viability using cell counting kit -8 (CCK8) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) using 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) and MitoSox dye...
2017: PloS One
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