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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445588/the-relative-importance-of-pollinator-abundance-and-species-richness-for-the-temporal-variance-of-pollination-services
#1
Mark A Genung, Jeremy Fox, Neal M Williams, Claire Kremen, John Ascher, Jason Gibbs, Rachael Winfree
The relationship between biodiversity and the stability of ecosystem function is a fundamental question in community ecology, and hundreds of experiments have shown a positive relationship between species richness and the stability of ecosystem function. However, these experiments have rarely accounted for common ecological patterns, most notably skewed species abundance distributions and non-random extinction risks, making it difficult to know whether experimental results can be scaled up to larger, less manipulated systems...
April 26, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444386/coevolution-with-pollinating-resin-midges-led-to-resin-filled-nurseries-in-the-androecia-gynoecia-and-tepals-of-kadsura-schisandraceae
#2
Shi-Xiao Luo, Ting-Ting Liu, Fei Cui, Zi-Yin Yang, Xiao-Ying Hu, Susanne S Renner
Background and Aims: Resin is a defence against herbivores and a floral reward in a few African and South American species whose bee pollinators collect it for nest construction. Here we describe a new role for floral resin from the Asian genus Kadsura (Schisandraceae). Kadsura tepals tightly cover a globe formed by carpels (in females) or near-fused stamens with fleshy connectives (in male flowers of most, but not all species). Methods: We carried out field observations at four sites in China and used pollinator behavioural assays, chemical analyses and time-calibrated insect and plant phylogenies to investigate the specificity of the interactions and their relationship to floral structure...
April 21, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444378/how-efficient-is-apis-cerana-hymenoptera-apidae-in-pollinating-cabbage-brassica-oleracea-var-capitata-pollination-behavior-pollinator-effectiveness-pollinator-requirement-and-impact-of-pollination
#3
Johnson Stanley, Khushboo Sah, Avupati Rns Subbanna, G Preetha, JaiPrakash Gupta
Cabbage is a cross-pollinated crop because of sporophytic self-incompatibility, and honey bees play an important role in its pollination. Though Asian honey bees, Apis cerana F., are used in pollination of cabbage, the rate of visitation, behavior, pollinator efficacy, and impact on seed-set are to be determined. Apis cerana occupy a share of 19.18% of all the flower visitors of cabbage in natural habitat of North Western Indian Himalayas. Pollination behavior in terms of peak activity, flowers processed per unit time, time spent per flower, and time spent in search of flowers are studied separately for both pollen and nectar foragers...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441779/glyoxalase-goes-green-the-expanding-roles-of-glyoxalase-in-plants
#4
REVIEW
Subramanian Sankaranarayanan, Muhammad Jamshed, Abhinandan Kumar, Logan Skori, Sabine Scandola, Tina Wang, David Spiegel, Marcus A Samuel
The ubiquitous glyoxalase enzymatic pathway is involved in the detoxification of methylglyoxal (MG), a cytotoxic byproduct of glycolysis. The glyoxalase system has been more extensively studied in animals versus plants. Plant glyoxalases have been primarily associated with stress responses and their overexpression is known to impart tolerance to various abiotic stresses. In plants, glyoxalases exist as multigene families, and new roles for glyoxalases in various developmental and signaling pathways have started to emerge...
April 24, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440881/overexpression-of-a-type-i-isopentenyl-pyrophosphate-isomerase-of-artemisia-annua-in-the-cytosol-leads-to-high-arteannuin-b-production-and-artemisinin-increase
#5
Dongming Ma, Gui Li, Fatima Alejos-Gonzalez, Yue Zhu, Zhen Xue, Aimin Wang, Hui Zhang, Xing Li, Hechun Ye, Hong Wang, Benye Liu, De-Yu Xie
We recently characterized a gene-terpene network that is associated with artemisinin biosynthesis in self-pollinated (SP) Artemisia annua, an effective antimalarial plant. We hypothesize that an alteration of gene expression in the network may improve the production of artemisinin and its precursors. In this study, we cloned an isopentenyl pyrophosphate isomerase (IPPI) cDNA, AaIPPI1, from Artemisia annua (Aa). The full-length cDNA encodes a type I IPPI containing a plastid transit peptide (PTP) at its amino terminus...
April 25, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440562/the-evolvability-of-herkogamy-quantifying-the-evolutionary-potential-of-a-composite-trait
#6
Øystein H Opedal, Geir H Bolstad, Thomas F Hansen, W Scott Armbruster, Christophe Pélabon
Accurate estimates of trait evolvabilities are central to predicting the short-term evolutionary potential of populations, and hence their ability to adapt to changing environments. We quantify and evaluate the evolvability of herkogamy, the spatial separation of male and female structures in flowers, a key floral trait associated with variation in mating systems. We compiled genetic-variance estimates for herkogamy and related floral traits, computed evolvabilities, and compared these among trait groups and among species differing in their mating systems...
April 25, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439457/pollinator-diversity-and-reproductive-success-of-epipactis-helleborine-l-crantz-orchidaceae-in-anthropogenic-and-natural-habitats
#7
Agnieszka Rewicz, Radomir Jaskuła, Tomasz Rewicz, Grzegorz Tończyk
BACKGROUND: Epipactis helleborine is an Eurasian orchid species which prefers woodland environments but it may also spontaneously and successfully colonise human-made artificial and disturbed habitats such as roadsides, town parks and gardens. It is suggested that orchids colonising anthropogenic habitats are characterised by a specific set of features (e.g., large plant size, fast flower production). However, as it is not well known how pollinator diversity and reproductive success of E...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439283/floral-mass-per-area-and-water-maintenance-traits-are-correlated-with-floral-longevity-in-paphiopedilum-orchidaceae
#8
Feng-Ping Zhang, Ying-Jie Yang, Qiu-Yun Yang, Wei Zhang, Tim J Brodribb, Guang-You Hao, Hong Hu, Shi-Bao Zhang
Floral longevity (FL) determines the balance between pollination success and flower maintenance. While a longer floral duration enhances the ability of plants to attract pollinators, it can be detrimental if it negatively affects overall plant fitness. Longer-lived leaves display a positive correlation with their dry mass per unit area, which influences leaf construction costs and physiological functions. However, little is known about the association among FL and floral dry mass per unit area (FMA) and water maintenance traits...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438120/transcriptomic-analysis-links-gene-expression-to-unilateral-pollen-pistil-reproductive-barriers
#9
Amanda K Broz, Rafael F Guerrero, April M Randle, You Soon Baek, Matthew W Hahn, Patricia A Bedinger
BACKGROUND: Unilateral incompatibility (UI) is an asymmetric reproductive barrier that unidirectionally prevents gene flow between species and/or populations. UI is characterized by a compatible interaction between partners in one direction, but in the reciprocal cross fertilization fails, generally due to pollen tube rejection by the pistil. Although UI has long been observed in crosses between different species, the underlying molecular mechanisms are only beginning to be characterized...
April 24, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435856/dynamic-microbiome-evolution-in-social-bees
#10
Waldan K Kwong, Luis A Medina, Hauke Koch, Kong-Wah Sing, Eunice Jia Yu Soh, John S Ascher, Rodolfo Jaffé, Nancy A Moran
The highly social (eusocial) corbiculate bees, comprising the honey bees, bumble bees, and stingless bees, are ubiquitous insect pollinators that fulfill critical roles in ecosystem services and human agriculture. Here, we conduct wide sampling across the phylogeny of these corbiculate bees and reveal a dynamic evolutionary history behind their microbiota, marked by multiple gains and losses of gut associates, the presence of generalist as well as host-specific strains, and patterns of diversification driven, in part, by host ecology (for example, colony size)...
March 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434859/tissue-specific-emission-of-e-%C3%AE-bergamotene-helps-resolve-the-dilemma-when-pollinators-are-also-herbivores
#11
Wenwu Zhou, Anke Kügler, Erica McGale, Alexander Haverkamp, Markus Knaden, Han Guo, Franziska Beran, Felipe Yon, Ran Li, Nathalie Lackus, Tobias G Köllner, Julia Bing, Meredith C Schuman, Bill S Hansson, Danny Kessler, Ian T Baldwin, Shuqing Xu
More than 87% of flowering plant species are animal-pollinated [1] and produce floral scents and other signals to attract pollinators. These floral cues may however also attract antagonistic visitors, including herbivores [2]. The dilemma is exacerbated when adult insects pollinate the same plant that their larvae consume. It remains largely unclear how plants maximize their fitness under these circumstances. Here we show that in the night-flowering wild tobacco Nicotiana attenuata, the emission of a sesquiterpene, (E)-α-bergamotene, in flowers increases adult Manduca sexta moth-mediated pollination success, while the same compound in leaves is known to mediate indirect defense against M...
April 13, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430996/asymmetric-hybridization-in-cattails-typha-spp-and-its-implications-for-the-evolutionary-maintenance-of-native-typha-latifolia
#12
Sara J Pieper, Allison A Nicholls, Joanna R Freeland, Marcel E Dorken
Cattails (Typha spp.) have become an increasingly dominant component of wetlands in eastern North America and this dominance is largely attributable to the high frequency of Typha × glauca, the hybrid of native T. latifolia and putatively introduced T. angustifolia. Hybridization in this group is asymmetric, with T. angustifolia nearly always the maternal parent of F1 hybrids. However, the magnitude of hybrid infertility and whether mating asymmetries extend to the formation of advanced-generation hybrids have not been examined...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430814/how-the-ovules-get-enclosed-in-magnoliaceous-carpels
#13
Xin Zhang, Wenzhe Liu, Xin Wang
Angiosperms distinguish themselves from gymnosperms by their ovules that are enclosed before pollination. However, how the ovules get enclosed in angiosperms remains a mystery, especially for Magnoliaceae. The only key to this mystery is finding a series of carpels transitional from fully closed with enclosed ovules to open with naked ovules. We use routine paraffin section technology, LM, SEM to document the morphology and anatomy of carpel variation in Michelia figo (Magnoliaceae). A series of carpel variations within a single flower of Michelia figo (Magnoliaceae) are documented, in which the ovules are exposed in atypical carpels...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430395/flower-colour-polymorphism%C3%A2-in-the-mediterranean-basin-occurrence-maintenance-and-implications-for-speciation
#14
REVIEW
E Narbona, H Wang, P L Ortiz, M Arista, E Imbert
Flower colour polymorphism (FCP) is the occurrence of at least two discrete flower colour variants in the same population. Despite a vast body of research concerning the maintenance and evolutionary consequences of FCP, only recently has the spatial variation in morph frequencies among populations been explored. Here we have summarized the biochemical and genetic basis of FCP, the factors that have been proposed to explain their maintenance, and the importance of FCP and its geographic variation in the speciation process...
April 21, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429781/geographic-variation-in-floral-traits-and-the-capacity-of-autonomous-selfing-across-allopatric-and-sympatric-populations-of-two-closely-related-centaurium-species
#15
Dorien Schouppe, Rein Brys, Mario Vallejo-Marin, Hans Jacquemyn
Floral traits and the relative contribution of autonomous selfing to total seed set varies geographically and is often driven by the availability and abundance of suitable pollinators and/or the presence of co-flowering relatives. In the latter case, competition for pollinator services and costs of hybridization can select for floral traits that reduce interspecific gene flow and contribute to prezygotic isolation, potentially leading to geographic variation in floral divergence between allopatric and sympatric populations...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428861/does-the-morphological-fit-between-flowers-and-pollinators-affect-pollen-deposition-an-experimental-test-in-a-buzz-pollinated-species-with-anther-dimorphism
#16
Lislie Solís-Montero, Mario Vallejo-Marín
Some pollination systems, such as buzz-pollination, are associated with floral morphologies that require a close physical interaction between floral sexual organs and insect visitors. In these systems, a pollinator's size relative to the flower may be an important feature determining whether the visitor touches both male and female sexual organs and thus transfers pollen between plants efficiently. To date, few studies have addressed whether in fact the "fit" between flower and pollinator influences pollen transfer, particularly among buzz-pollinated species...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428840/an-internet-based-platform-for-the-estimation-of-outcrossing-potential-between-cultivated-and-chilean-vascular-plants
#17
Pablo Cid, Carlos Aguirre, Miguel Ángel Sánchez, Daniel Zamorano, Maritza Mihoc, Erika Salazar, Gustavo Chacón, Humberto Navarrete, Marcelo Rosas, Humberto Prieto
A national-scale study of outcrossing potential within Chilean vascular flora was conducted using an upgraded algorithm, which adds parameters such as pollinator agents, climate, and geographic conditions. Datasets were organized and linked in a Web platform (www.flujogenico.cl), in which the development of a total outcrossing potential (TOP) predictor was formulated. The TOP predictor is the engine in the Web platform, which models the effect of a type of agricultural practice on others (coexistence calculation mode) and on the environment (biodiversity calculation mode)...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428799/a-novel-cytoplasmic-male-sterility-in-brassica-napus-inap-cms-with-carpelloid-stamens-via-protoplast-fusion-with-chinese-woad
#18
Lei Kang, Pengfei Li, Aifan Wang, Xianhong Ge, Zaiyun Li
A novel cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in Brassica napus (inap CMS) was selected from the somatic hybrid with Isatis indigotica (Chinese woad) by recurrent backcrossing. The male sterility was caused by the conversion of tetradynamous stamens into carpelloid structures with stigmatoid tissues at their tips and ovule-like tissues in the margins, and the two shorter stamens into filaments without anthers. The feminized development of the stamens resulted in the complete lack of pollen grains, which was stable in different years and environments...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428199/experimental-insights-on-darwin-s-cross-promotion-hypothesis-in-tristylous-purple-loosestrife-lythrum-salicaria
#19
Joana Costa, Sílvia Castro, João Loureiro, Spencer C H Barrett
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Darwin proposed that the reciprocal arrangement of anthers and stigmas in heterostylous plants promotes cross-pollination through pollen segregation on pollinators' bodies. The floral tube in most heterostylous species constrains the feeding posture of pollinators determining the site of contact with sex organs located at different heights within a flower. Here, we evaluate Darwin's hypothesis in tristylous Lythrum salicaria, a species with a partially tubular corolla, and examine the extent to which the location of sex organs within a flower influence compatible and incompatible pollination...
April 20, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424715/temporal-petal-closure-benefits-reproductive-development-of-magnolia-denudata-magnoliaceae-in-early-spring
#20
Liya Liu, Chulan Zhang, Xiangyu Ji, Zhixiang Zhang, Ruohan Wang
The Magnoliaceae shows strong phylogenetic niche conservatism, in which temporal petal closure has been extensively reported. However, it is yet elusive whether temporal petal closure is an idle floral character inherited from their ancestors or an adaptive trait to their habitats. Here, we monitored the process of temporal floral closure and re-opening in a thermogenic plant, Magnolia denudata (Magnoliaceae). Furthermore, we artificially interrupted temporal petal closure and investigated its effects on development of female and male gametophytes...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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