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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475173/presence-of-artisanal-gold-mining-predicts-mercury-bioaccumulation-in-five-genera-of-bats-chiroptera
#1
Anjali Kumar, Timothy J Divoll, Priya M Ganguli, Florencia A Trama, Carl H Lamborg
Mercury, a toxic trace metal, has been used extensively as an inexpensive and readily available method of extracting gold from fine-grained sediment. Worldwide, artisanal mining is responsible for one third of all mercury released into the environment. By testing bat hair from museum specimens and field collected samples from areas both impacted and unimpacted by artisanal gold mining in Perú, we show monomethylmercury (MMHg) has increased in the last 100 years. MMHg concentrations were also greatest in the highest bat trophic level (insectivores), and in areas experiencing extractive artisanal mining...
February 20, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474855/multidimensionality-of-plant-defenses-and-herbivore-niches-implications-for-eco-evolutionary-dynamics
#2
Nicolas Loeuille, Céline Hauzy
Plant defenses are very diverse and often involve contrasted costs and benefits. Quantitative defenses, whose protective effect is dependent on the dose, are effective against a wide range of herbivores, but often divert energy from growth and reproduction. Qualitative defenses often have little allocation costs. However, while deterrent to some herbivores, they often incur costs through other interactions within the community (eg, decrease in pollination or attraction of other enemies). In the present work, we model the evolutionary dynamics of these two types of defenses, as well and the evolutionary dynamics of the herbivore niche...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474414/reproductive-ecology-and-stand-structure-of-joshua-tree-forests-across-climate-gradients-of-the-mojave-desert
#3
Samuel B St Clair, Joshua Hoines
Climate change is restructuring plant populations and can result in range shifts depending on responses at various life stages of plants. In 2013, a widespread and episodic flowering event provided an opportunity to characterize how Joshua tree's reproductive success and population structure vary in response to the climate variability across its range. We examined the reproductive success and stand structure of 10 Joshua tree populations distributed across the Mojave Desert. Joshua tree density varied by more than an order of magnitude across sites...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471501/contemporary-ecological-interactions-improve-models-of-past-trait-evolution
#4
Matthew C Hutchinson, Marília P Gaiarsa, Daniel B Stouffer
Despite the fact that natural selection underlies both traits and interactions, evolutionary models often neglect that ecological interactions may, and in many cases do, influence the evolution of traits. Here, we explore the interdependence of ecological interactions and functional traits in the pollination associations of hawkmoths and flowering plants. Specifically, we develop an adaptation of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck model of trait evolution that allows us to study the influence of plant corolla depth and observed hawkmoth-plant interactions on the evolution of hawkmoth proboscis length...
February 20, 2018: Systematic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471479/seasonal-effects-and-the-impact-of-in-hive-pesticide-treatments-on-parasite-pathogens-and-health-of-honey-bees
#5
Brenna E Traver, Haley K Feazel-Orr, Katelyn M Catalfamo, Carlyle C Brewster, Richard D Fell
Honey bee, Apis mellifera (L.; Hymenoptera: Apidae), populations are in decline and their losses pose a serious threat for crop pollination and food production. The specific causes of these losses are believed to be multifactorial. Pesticides, parasites and pathogens, and nutritional deficiencies have been implicated in the losses due to their ability to exert energetic stress on bees. While our understanding of the role of these factors in honey bee colony losses has improved, there is still a lack of knowledge of how they impact the immune system of the honey bee...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471414/examination-of-a-managed-pollinator-strategy-for-almond-production-using-apis-mellifera-hymenoptera-apidae-and-osmia-lignaria-hymenoptera-megachilidae
#6
Theresa L Pitts-Singer, Derek R Artz, Stephen S Peterson, Natalie K Boyle, Gordon I Wardell
Pollination services provided by managed bees are essential for California almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.; Rosales: Rosaceae) production. Currently, pollination needs are met by rented or owned Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae; honey bee) colonies. Excessive demand on a challenged A. mellifera industry to provide strong colonies in early spring has caused sharp increases in rental prices over the past decade, inviting the consideration of alternative pollinators in addition to, or in place of, A. mellifera...
February 17, 2018: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468039/differences-among-six-woody-perennials-native-to-northern-europe-in-their-level-of-genetic-differentiation-and-adaptive-potential-at-fine-local-scale
#7
Albin Lobo, Jon Kehlet Hansen, Lars Nørgaard Hansen, Erik Dahl Kjær
The ability of perennial species to adapt their phenology to present and future temperature conditions is important for their ability to retain high fitness compared to other competing plant species, pests, and pathogens. Many transplanting studies with forest tree species have previously reported substantial genetic differentiation among populations within their native range. However, the question of "how local is local" is still highly debated in conservation biology because studies on genetic patterns of variation within and among populations at the local scale are limited and scattered...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467601/the-evolution-of-musicality-what-can-be-learned-from-language-evolution-research
#8
REVIEW
Andrea Ravignani, Bill Thompson, Piera Filippi
Language and music share many commonalities, both as natural phenomena and as subjects of intellectual inquiry. Rather than exhaustively reviewing these connections, we focus on potential cross-pollination of methodological inquiries and attitudes. We highlight areas in which scholarship on the evolution of language may inform the evolution of music. We focus on the value of coupled empirical and formal methodologies, and on the futility of mysterianism , the declining view that the nature, origins and evolution of language cannot be addressed empirically...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466433/novel-optimization-technique-of-isolated-microgrid-with-hydrogen-energy-storage
#9
Eman Hassan Beshr, Hazem Abdelghany, Mahmoud Eteiba
This paper presents a novel optimization technique for energy management studies of an isolated microgrid. The system is supplied by various Distributed Energy Resources (DERs), Diesel Generator (DG), a Wind Turbine Generator (WTG), Photovoltaic (PV) arrays and supported by fuel cell/electrolyzer Hydrogen storage system for short term storage. Multi-objective optimization is used through non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm to suit the load requirements under the given constraints. A novel multi-objective flower pollination algorithm is utilized to check the results...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460199/delayed-selfing-ensures-reproductive-assurance-in-utricularia-praeterita-and-utricularia-babui-in-western-ghats
#10
Anjali Chaudhary, S R Yadav, Rajesh Tandon
Numerous bladderwort (Utricularia) species are distributed worldwide, but their reproductive biology is rarely investigated. Bladderworts are known to depend on tiny organisms to meet a significant proportion of their energy requirement by trapping them in bladders. However, information on the extent of their reliance on insects for pollination success is limited. We examined the reproductive strategy of two Utricularia species viz. Utricularia praeterita and U. babui, endemic to Western Ghats, India. The main aspects of the investigation involved floral biology, breeding system, pollination mechanism, and reproductive success...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455732/morphological-and-chemical-studies-of-artificial-andrographis-paniculata-polyploids
#11
Qi-Qing Li, Jian Zhang, Ji-Hua Liu, Bo-Yang Yu
Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees (AP) is commonly used for the treatment of many infectious diseases and has been cultivated widely in Asian countries, and has been included in United States Pharmacopoeia as a dietary supplement, but the cultivars of A. paniculata are not abundant due to its self-pollinated. With the aims to enrich AP resources and provide materials for after breeding we explored the polyploidy induction. Different explants, colchicine concentration, and treatment time were tested. After identification by flow cytometry, eleven polyploid plants with different morphologic traits were obtained...
February 2018: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454112/comparative-proteomic-analysis-of-the-maize-responses-to-early-leaf-senescence-induced-by-preventing-pollination
#12
Liancheng Wu, Shunxi Wang, Lei Tian, Liuji Wu, Mingna Li, Jun Zhang, Pei Li, Weiqiang Zhang, Yanhui Chen
The aim of this study was to explore the molecular mechanisms of induced leaf senescence by preventing pollination in maize using a proteomic method combined with other physiological methods. An elite maize inbred line Yu816 were selected for evaluation of its senescence mechanism. Phenotypic and chlorophyll content analysis revealed that the onset of leaf senescence occurred earlier in non-pollinated (NONPOL) leaves than pollinated (POL) leaves. Leaf protein species of NONPOL and POL leaves were separately extracted and their proteomes were assessed using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) analysis...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452376/the-vacuolar-transportome-of-plant-specialized-metabolites
#13
Rita de Brito Francisco, Enrico Martinoia
The plant vacuole is a cellular compartment that is essential to plant development and growth. Often plant vacuoles accumulate specialized metabolites, also called secondary metabolites, which constitute functionally and chemically diverse compounds that exert in planta many essential functions and improve the plant's fitness. These metabolites provide for example chemical defence against herbivorous and pathogens or chemical attractants (colour and fragrance) to attract pollinators. The chemical composition of the vacuole is dynamic and is altered during development and as a response to environmental changes...
February 14, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450587/morphogenetic-alterations-in-melipona-quadrifasciata-anthidioides-hymenoptera-apidae-associated-with-pesticides
#14
Arlete Prado-Silva, Lorena Andrade Nunes, Jádilla Mendes Dos Santos, Paulo Roberto Antunes de Mello Affonso, Ana Maria Waldschmidt
Bees are major pollinators of both native flora and cultured crops. Nonetheless, despite their key functional role in ecosystems and agriculture, bee populations have been affected worldwide by deforestation and contamination by insecticides. Conversely, little is known about the effects of pesticides on morphogenetic development of neotropical stingless bees. We compared the fluctuating asymmetry (FA) in newly emerged bees and foragers of Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides exposed to pesticides (experimental greenhouse and cultivated field)...
February 7, 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449491/species-turnover-promotes-the-importance-of-bee-diversity-for-crop-pollination-at-regional-scales
#15
Rachael Winfree, James R Reilly, Ignasi Bartomeus, Daniel P Cariveau, Neal M Williams, Jason Gibbs
Ecologists have shown through hundreds of experiments that ecological communities with more species produce higher levels of essential ecosystem functions such as biomass production, nutrient cycling, and pollination, but whether this finding holds in nature (that is, in large-scale and unmanipulated systems) is controversial. This knowledge gap is troubling because ecosystem services have been widely adopted as a justification for global biodiversity conservation. Here we show that, to provide crop pollination in natural systems, the number of bee species must increase by at least one order of magnitude compared with that in field experiments...
February 16, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449477/the-value-of-pollinator-species-diversity
#16
Claire Kremen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 16, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448919/jasmonic-acid-facilitates-flower-opening-and-floral-organ-development-through-the-upregulated-expression-of-slmyb21-transcription-factor-in-tomato
#17
Tomoko Niwa, Takamasa Suzuki, Yumiko Takebayashi, Rie Ishiguro, Tetsuya Higashiyama, Hitoshi Sakakibara, Sumie Ishiguro
Plants coordinate the timing of flower opening with pollen and gynoecium maturation to achieve successful pollination. However, little is known about how the coordination is executed. We found that flower bud development was paused immediately before flower opening in a jasmonic acid (JA)-insensitive tomato mutant, jai1-1. Phytohormone measurement and RNA analysis in flower buds revealed that newly synthesised JA peaked at two days before flower opening and the expression of a transcription factor gene SlMYB21 delayed in jai1-1...
February 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447375/coupling-individual-kernel-filling-processes-with-source-sink-interactions-into-greenlab-maize
#18
Yuntao Ma, Youjia Chen, Jinyu Zhu, Lei Meng, Yan Guo, Baoguo Li, Gerrit Hoogenboom
Background and Aims: Failure to account for the variation of kernel growth in a cereal crop simulation model may cause serious deviations in the estimates of crop yield. The goal of this research was to revise the GREENLAB-Maize model to incorporate source- and sink-limited allocation approaches to simulate the dry matter accumulation of individual kernels of an ear (GREENLAB-Maize-Kernel). Methods: The model used potential individual kernel growth rates to characterize the individual potential sink demand...
February 13, 2018: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446831/the-importance-of-key-floral-bioactive-compounds-to-honey-bees-for-the-detection-and-attraction-of-hybrid-vegetable-crops-and-increased-seed-yield
#19
Flore Mas, Aimee Harper, Rachael Horner, Taylor Welsh, Peter Jaksons, David M Suckling
BACKGROUND: Crop breeding programmes generally select for traits for improved yield and human consumption preferences. Yet, they often overlook one fundamental trait essential for insect-pollinated crops: Pollinator attraction. This is even more critical for hybrid plants that rely on cross-pollination between the male-fertile line and the male-sterile line to set seeds. We investigated the role of floral odours for honey bee pollination that could explain the poor seed yield in hybrid crops...
February 15, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446179/genomic-diversity-of-a-nectar-yeast-clusters-into-metabolically-but-not-geographically-distinct-lineages
#20
Manpreet K Dhami, Thomas Hartwig, Andrew D Letten, Michael Banf, Tadashi Fukami
Both dispersal limitation and environmental sorting can affect genetic variation in populations, but their contribution remains unclear, particularly in microbes. We sought to determine the contribution of geographic distance (as a proxy for dispersal limitation) and phenotypic traits (as a proxy for environmental sorting), including morphology, metabolic ability, and interspecific competitiveness, to the genotypic diversity in a nectar yeast species, Metschnikowia reukaufii. To measure genotypic diversity, we sequenced the genomes of 102 strains of M...
February 15, 2018: Molecular Ecology
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