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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822496/deconstructing-pollinator-community-effectiveness
#1
REVIEW
Bryony K Willcox, Marcelo A Aizen, Saul A Cunningham, Margaret M Mayfield, Romina Rader
Effective pollination is a complex, context-dependent phenomenon determined by both species-level and community-level factors. While pollinator communities are constituted by interacting organisms in a shared environment, these factors are often simplified or overlooked when quantifying species-level pollinator effectiveness alone. Here, we review the recent literature on pollinator effectiveness to identify the pros and cons of existing methods and outline three important areas for future research: plant-pollinator interactions, heterospecific pollen transfer and variation in pollination outcomes...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822495/crop-pollination-services-at-the-landscape-scale
#2
REVIEW
Gesine Pufal, Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter, Alexandra-Maria Klein
Managed and wild pollinators of different functional groups can provide pollination services in agricultural landscapes. These pollinators differ in their resource requirements and response to the amount and arrangement of different habitat types, that is, landscape composition and configuration. Most current approaches to test landscape effects on pollinators and pollination services are either applied to central individual crop fields or other landscape elements but rarely consider that pollinators depend on and make use of multiple habitat elements in an entire landscape...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822494/wild-bee-nutritional-ecology-predicting-pollinator-population-dynamics-movement-and-services-from-floral-resources
#3
REVIEW
S Hollis Woodard, Shalene Jha
Pollination services are inherently shaped by floral resource availability, through the mediation of pollinator population dynamics and the influence on energetically costly processes, such as foraging. Here, we review recent insights that have improved our mechanistic understanding of how floral resources shape bee populations and pollination services. Our scope includes advances in our understanding of how individual bees and their populations are shaped by nutrient availability; investigations into how contemporary floral resource landscapes influence foraging; and new insights into how these relationships are indirectly impacted by biotic and abiotic factors across communities and landscapes...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822490/the-role-of-disease-in-bee-foraging-ecology
#4
REVIEW
Hauke Koch, Mark Jf Brown, Philip C Stevenson
Diseases have important but understudied effects on bee foraging ecology. Bees transmit and contract diseases on flowers, but floral traits including plant volatiles and inflorescence architecture may affect transmission. Diseases spill over from managed or invasive pollinators to native wild bee species, and impacts of emerging diseases are of particular concern, threatening pollinator populations and pollination services. Here we review how parasites can alter the foraging behaviour of bees by changing floral preferences and impairing foraging efficiency...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822483/the-behavioral-ecology-of-nectar-robbing-why-be-tactic-constant
#5
REVIEW
Judith L Bronstein, Jessica L Barker, Elinor M Lichtenberg, Leif L Richardson, Rebecca E Irwin
How do animals forage for variable food resources? For animals foraging at flowers, floral constancy has provided a framework for understanding why organisms visit some flowers while bypassing others. We extend this framework to the flower-handling tactics that visitors employ. Nectar robbers remove nectar through holes bitten in flowers, often without pollinating. Many foragers can switch between robbing and visiting flowers legitimately to gain access to nectar. We document that even though individuals can switch foraging tactics, they often do not...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822482/towards-an-integrated-species-and-habitat-management-of-crop-pollination
#6
REVIEW
Lucas A Garibaldi, Fabrice Requier, Orianne Rollin, Georg Ks Andersson
Pollination deficits are widespread in current agriculture, so improving management for crop pollination is critical. Here we review the two most common management approaches to enhance crop pollination, species and habitat management, by providing referenced lists of successful examples. We pinpoint that these approaches have been studied in isolation from each other, with little discussion on potential synergies and trade-offs between them. The potential costs of species management (e.g., loss of biodiversity due to biological invasion), as well as the potential benefits to managed pollinator species from habitat restoration, are rarely quantified...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821863/the-heat-shock-response-and-humoral-immune-response-are-mutually-antagonistic-in-honey-bees
#7
Mia McKinstry, Charlie Chung, Henry Truong, Brittany A Johnston, Jonathan W Snow
The honey bee is of paramount importance to humans in both agricultural and ecological settings. Honey bee colonies have suffered from increased attrition in recent years, stemming from complex interacting stresses. Defining common cellular stress responses elicited by these stressors represents a key step in understanding potential synergies. The proteostasis network is a highly conserved network of cellular stress responses involved in maintaining the homeostasis of protein production and function. Here, we have characterized the Heat Shock Response (HSR), one branch of this network, and found that its core components are conserved...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821570/juvenile-hormone-but-not-nutrition-or-social-cues-affects-reproductive-maturation-in-solitary-alkali-bees-nomia-melanderi
#8
Karen M Kapheim, Makenna M Johnson
Eusocial insect colonies are defined by extreme variation in reproductive activity among castes, but the ancestral conditions from which this variation arose are unknown. Investigating the factors that contribute to variation in reproductive physiology among solitary insects that are closely related to social species can help to fill this gap. We experimentally tested the role of nutrition, juvenile hormone, and social cues on reproductive maturation in solitary alkali bees (Halictidae: Nomia melanderi). We find that alkali bee females emerge from overwintering with small Dufour's glands and small ovaries, containing oocytes in the early stages of development...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820587/flupyrimin-a-novel-insecticide-acting-at-the-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors
#9
Yasumichi Onozaki, Ryo Horikoshi, Ikuya Ohno, Shigeki Kitsuda, Kathleen A Durkin, Tomonori Suzuki, Chiaki Asahara, Natsuko Hiroki, Rena Komabashiri, Rikako Shimizu, Shogo Furutani, Makoto Ihara, Kazuhiko Matsuda, Masaaki Mitomi, Shinzo Kagabu, Katsuhito Uomoto, Motohiro Tomizawa
A novel chemotype insecticide flupyrimin (FLP) [N-[(E)-1-(6-chloro-3-pyridinylmethyl)pyridin-2(1H)-ylidene]-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide], discovered by Meiji Seika Pharma, has unique biological properties including outstanding potency to imidacloprid (IMI)-resistant rice pests together with superior safety toward pollinators. Intriguingly, FLP acts as a nicotinic antagonist in American cockroach neurons and [3H]FLP binds to the multiple high-affinity binding components in house fly nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptor (nAChR) preparation...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819165/atp-sensitive-inwardly-rectifying-potassium-channel-regulation-of-viral-infections-in-honey-bees
#10
Scott T O'Neal, Daniel R Swale, Troy D Anderson
Honey bees are economically important pollinators of a wide variety of crops that have attracted the attention of both researchers and the public alike due to unusual declines in the numbers of managed colonies in some parts of the world. Viral infections are thought to be a significant factor contributing to these declines, but viruses have proven a challenging pathogen to study in a bee model and interactions between viruses and the bee antiviral immune response remain poorly understood. In the work described here, we have demonstrated the use of flock house virus (FHV) as a model system for virus infection in bees and revealed an important role for the regulation of the bee antiviral immune response by ATP-sensitive inwardly rectifying potassium (KATP) channels...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817641/honey-bee-apis-mellifera-colony-health-and-pathogen-composition-in-migratory-beekeeping-operations-involved-in-california-almond-pollination
#11
William Glenny, Ian Cavigli, Katie F Daughenbaugh, Rosemarie Radford, Susan E Kegley, Michelle L Flenniken
Honey bees are important pollinators of agricultural crops. Pathogens and other factors have been implicated in high annual losses of honey bee colonies in North America and some European countries. To further investigate the relationship between multiple factors, including pathogen prevalence and abundance and colony health, we monitored commercially managed migratory honey bee colonies involved in California almond pollination in 2014. At each sampling event, honey bee colony health was assessed, using colony population size as a proxy for health, and the prevalence and abundance of seven honey bee pathogens was evaluated using PCR and quantitative PCR, respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815499/marker-removal-in-transgenic-plants-using-cre-recombinase-delivered-with-potato-virus-x
#12
Lilya Kopertekh, Joachim Schiemann
In this chapter we present an alternative method to develop marker-free transgenic plants. It makes use of the Cre/loxP recombination system from bacteriophage P1 and consists of two essential components. The first component is the transgenic plant containing a loxP-flanked marker gene. The second component is a cre transient expression vector based on potato virus X. The great benefit of this transient delivery method consists in the avoidance of stable integration of the cre recombinase gene into the plant genome...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815278/phenotypic-genetic-and-molecular-characterization-of-7b-1-a-conditional-male-sterile-mutant-in-tomato
#13
Anna Pucci, Maurizio Enea Picarella, Andrea Mazzucato
We characterized the photoperiod-sensitive 7B - 1 male-sterile mutant in tomato, showing its allelism with stamenless - 2 . Mapping experiments indicated SlGLO2 , a B-class MADS-box family member, as a strong candidate to underlie the 7B - 1 mutation. The interest in male sterility (MS) dates back to a long time due to its perspective use in hybrid seed production. Here, we characterize 7B-1, a photoperiod-sensitive male-sterile (ms) mutant in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), in which stamens are restored to fertility by permissive growth conditions in short days (SD)...
August 16, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811881/self-and-intra-morph-incompatibility-and-selection-analysis-of-an-inconspicuous-distylous-herb-growing-on-the-tibetan-plateau-primula-tibetica
#14
Xian-Feng Jiang, Qing-Jun Li
There is discussion over whether pollen limitation exerts selection on floral traits to increase floral display or selects for traits that promote autonomous self-fertilization. Some studies have indicated that pollen limitation does not mediate selection on traits associated with either pollinator attraction or self-fertilization. Primula tibetica is an inconspicuous cross-fertilized plant that may suffer from pollen limitation. We conducted a selection analysis on P. tibetica to investigate whether pollen limitation results in selection for an increased floral display in case the evolution of autonomous self-fertilization has been difficult for this plant...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810705/flowers-as-a-reservoir-of-yeast-diversity-description-of-wickerhamiella-nectarea-f-a-sp-nov-and-wickerhamiella-natalensis-f-a-sp-nov-from-south-african-flowers-and-pollinators-and-transfer-of-related-candida-species-to-the-genus-wickerhamiella-as-new-combinations
#15
Clara de Vega, Rafael G Albaladejo, Beatriz Guzmán, Sandy-Lynn Steenhuisen, Steven D Johnson, Carlos M Herrera, Marc-André Lachance
Flowers offer favourable microenvironments for yeast growth, and are increasingly recognised as a rich source of novel yeast species. Independent surveys of yeasts associated with flowers and pollinators in South Africa led to the discovery of 38 strains of two new species. Physiological profiles and analysis of the internal transcribed spacer and the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit rRNA gene showed that they represent two novel species that belong to the Wickerhamiella clade. We describe the species as Wickerhamiella nectarea f...
August 1, 2017: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808562/floral-scent-and-species-divergence-in-a-pair-of-sexually-deceptive-orchids
#16
Daniel D L Gervasi, Marc-Andre Selosse, Mathieu Sauve, Wittko Francke, Nicolas J Vereecken, Salvatore Cozzolino, Florian P Schiestl
Speciation is typically accompanied by the formation of isolation barriers between lineages. Commonly, reproductive barriers are separated into pre- and post-zygotic mechanisms that can evolve with different speed. In this study, we measured the strength of different reproductive barriers in two closely related, sympatric orchids of the Ophrys insectifera group, namely Ophrys insectifera and Ophrys aymoninii to infer possible mechanisms of speciation. We quantified pre- and post-pollination barriers through observation of pollen flow, by performing artificial inter- and intraspecific crosses and analyzing scent bouquets...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808545/dioecious-plants-are-more-precocious-than-cosexual-plants-a-comparative-study-of-relative-sizes-at-the-onset-of-sexual-reproduction-in-woody-species
#17
Itsuki Ohya, Satoshi Nanami, Akira Itoh
The reproductive capacities of dioecious plant species may be limited by severe pollen limitation and narrow seed shadows for the two reasons. First, they are unable to self-pollinate, and seed production occurs only with pollinator movement from males to females. Second, only 50% of the individuals in populations contribute to seed production. Despite these handicaps, dioecious plants maintain their populations in plant communities with cooccurring cosexual plants, and no substantial difference in population growth rates has been found between dioecious and cosexual plants...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808317/bumblebee-colony-development-following-chronic-exposure-to-field-realistic-levels-of-the-neonicotinoid-pesticide-thiamethoxam-under-laboratory-conditions
#18
Dara A Stanley, Nigel E Raine
Neonicotinoid pesticides are used in agriculture to reduce damage from crop pests. However, beneficial insects such as bees can come into contact with these pesticides when foraging in treated areas, with potential consequences for bee declines and pollination service delivery. Honeybees are typically used as a model organism to investigate insecticide impacts on bees, but relatively little is known about impacts on other taxa such as bumblebees. In this experiment, we chronically exposed whole mature bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) colonies to field-realistic levels of the neonicotinoid thiamethoxam (2...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806914/expansion-and-evolutionary-patterns-of-cysteine-rich-peptides-in-plants
#19
Xing Liu, Huping Zhang, Huijun Jiao, Leiting Li, Xin Qiao, Musana Rwalinda Fabrice, Juyou Wu, Shaoling Zhang
BACKGROUND: Cysteine-rich peptides (CRPs) are gaining recognition as regulators of cell-cell communication in plants. RESULTS: We identified 9556 CRPs in 12 plant species and analysed their evolutionary patterns. In most angiosperm plants, whole genome duplication and segmental duplication are the major factors driving the expansion of CRP family member genes, especially signal peptides. About 30% of the CRP genes were found clustered on the chromosomes, except in maize (Zea mays)...
August 14, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806605/phytochemistry-of-european-primula-species
#20
REVIEW
Paola S Colombo, Guido Flamini, Graziella Rodondi, Claudia Giuliani, Laura Santagostini, Gelsomina Fico
The genus Primula is the largest among the Primulaceae and is widespread mainly in the cold and temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Since the beginning of the Twentieth century, several studies on the phytochemical composition of different species of Primula have been carried out. The main constituents examined were tissue and epicuticular flavonoids and saponins, which are of therapeutic significance. Only in recent years studies of the volatiles emitted by leaves and flowers have been carried out as well, but they are restricted to a small number of species...
August 11, 2017: Phytochemistry
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