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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350503/a-novel-enigmatic-basal-leafflower-moth-lineage-pollinating-a-derived-leafflower-host-illustrates-the-dynamics-of-host-shifts-partner-replacement-and-apparent-coadaptation-in-intimate-mutualisms
#1
Shi-Xiao Luo, Gang Yao, Ziwei Wang, Dianxiang Zhang, David H Hembry
Leafflower plant/leafflower moth brood pollination mutualisms are widespread in the Paleotropics. Leafflower moths pollinate leafflower plants, but their larvae consume a subset of the hosts' seeds. These interactions are highly phylogenetically constrained: six clades of leafflower plants are each associated with a unique clade of leafflower moths (Epicephala). Here, we report a previously unrecognized basal seventh pollinating Epicephala lineage-associated with the highly derived leafflower clade Glochidion-in Asia...
April 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346980/ecological-intensification-to-mitigate-impacts-of-conventional-intensive-land-use-on-pollinators-and-pollination
#2
REVIEW
Anikó Kovács-Hostyánszki, Anahí Espíndola, Adam J Vanbergen, Josef Settele, Claire Kremen, Lynn V Dicks
Worldwide, human appropriation of ecosystems is disrupting plant-pollinator communities and pollination function through habitat conversion and landscape homogenisation. Conversion to agriculture is destroying and degrading semi-natural ecosystems while conventional land-use intensification (e.g. industrial management of large-scale monocultures with high chemical inputs) homogenises landscape structure and quality. Together, these anthropogenic processes reduce the connectivity of populations and erode floral and nesting resources to undermine pollinator abundance and diversity, and ultimately pollination services...
March 27, 2017: Ecology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345653/temporally-dependent-pollinator-competition-and-facilitation-with-mass-flowering-crops-affects-yield-in-co-blooming-crops
#3
Heather Grab, Eleanor J Blitzer, Bryan Danforth, Greg Loeb, Katja Poveda
One of the greatest challenges in sustainable agricultural production is managing ecosystem services, such as pollination, in ways that maximize crop yields. Most efforts to increase services by wild pollinators focus on management of natural habitats surrounding farms or non-crop habitats within farms. However, mass flowering crops create resource pulses that may be important determinants of pollinator dynamics. Mass bloom attracts pollinators and it is unclear how this affects the pollination and yields of other co-blooming crops...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344378/the-long-and-the-short-of-it-a-global-analysis-of-hawkmoth-pollination-niches-and-interaction-networks
#4
Steven D Johnson, Marcela Moré, Felipe W Amorim, William A Haber, Gordon W Frankie, Dara A Stanley, Andrea A Coccuci, Robert A Raguso
1. Proboscis length has been proposed as a key dimension of plant pollination niches, but this niche space has not previously been explored at regional and global scales for any pollination system. Hawkmoths are ideal organisms for exploring pollinator niches as they are important pollinators in most of the biodiverse regions of the earth and vary greatly in proboscis length, with some species having the longest proboscides of all insects. 2. Using datasets for nine biogeographical regions spanning the Old and New World, we ask whether it is possible to identify distinct hawkmoth pollination niches based on the frequency distribution of proboscis length, and whether these niches are reflected in the depths of flowers that are pollinated by hawkmoths...
January 2017: Functional Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343967/evolutionary-history-of-the-hymenoptera
#5
Ralph S Peters, Lars Krogmann, Christoph Mayer, Alexander Donath, Simon Gunkel, Karen Meusemann, Alexey Kozlov, Lars Podsiadlowski, Malte Petersen, Robert Lanfear, Patricia A Diez, John Heraty, Karl M Kjer, Seraina Klopfstein, Rudolf Meier, Carlo Polidori, Thomas Schmitt, Shanlin Liu, Xin Zhou, Torsten Wappler, Jes Rust, Bernhard Misof, Oliver Niehuis
Hymenoptera (sawflies, wasps, ants, and bees) are one of four mega-diverse insect orders, comprising more than 153,000 described and possibly up to one million undescribed extant species [1, 2]. As parasitoids, predators, and pollinators, Hymenoptera play a fundamental role in virtually all terrestrial ecosystems and are of substantial economic importance [1, 3]. To understand the diversification and key evolutionary transitions of Hymenoptera, most notably from phytophagy to parasitoidism and predation (and vice versa) and from solitary to eusocial life, we inferred the phylogeny and divergence times of all major lineages of Hymenoptera by analyzing 3,256 protein-coding genes in 173 insect species...
March 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341696/a-low-frequency-inactivating-akt2-variant-enriched-in-the-finnish-population-is-associated-with-fasting-insulin-levels-and-type-2-diabetes-risk
#6
Alisa Manning, Heather M Highland, Jessica Gasser, Xueling Sim, Taru Tukiainen, Pierre Fontanillas, Niels Grarup, Manuel A Rivas, Anubha Mahajan, Adam E Locke, Pablo Cingolani, Tune H Pers, Ana Viñuela, Andrew A Brown, Ying Wu, Jason Flannick, Christian Fuchsberger, Eric R Gamazon, Kyle J Gaulton, Hae Kyung Im, Tanya M Teslovich, Thomas W Blackwell, Jette Bork-Jensen, Noël P Burtt, Yuhui Chen, Todd Green, Christopher Hartl, Hyun Min Kang, Ashish Kumar, Claes Ladenvall, Clement Ma, Loukas Moutsianas, Richard D Pearson, John R B Perry, N William Rayner, Neil R Robertson, Laura J Scott, Martijn van de Bunt, Johan G Eriksson, Antti Jula, Seppo Koskinen, Terho Lehtimäki, Aarno Palotie, Olli T Raitakari, Suzanne Br Jacobs, Jennifer Wessel, Audrey Y Chu, Robert A Scott, Mark O Goodarzi, Christine Blancher, Gemma Buck, David Buck, Peter S Chines, Stacey Gabriel, Anette P Gjesing, Christopher J Groves, Mette Hollensted, Jeroen R Huyghe, Anne U Jackson, Goo Jun, Johanne Marie Justesen, Massimo Mangino, Jacquelyn Murphy, Matt Neville, Robert Onofrio, Kerrin S Small, Heather M Stringham, Joseph Trakalo, Eric Banks, Jason Carey, Mauricio O Carneiro, Mark DePristo, Yossi Farjoun, Timothy Fennell, Jacqueline I Goldstein, George Grant, Martin Hrabé de Angelis, Jared Maguire, Benjamin M Neale, Ryan Poplin, Shaun Purcell, Thomas Schwarzmayr, Khalid Shakir, Joshua D Smith, Tim M Strom, Thomas Wieland, Jaana Lindstrom, Ivan Brandslund, Cramer Christensen, Gabriela L Surdulescu, Timo A Lakka, Alex S F Doney, Peter Nilsson, Nicholas J Wareham, Claudia Langenberg, Tibor V Varga, Paul W Franks, Olov Rolandsson, Anders H Rosengren, Vidya S Farook, Farook Thameem, Sobha Puppala, Satish Kumar, Donna M Lehman, Christopher P Jenkinson, Joanne E Curran, Daniel Esten Hale, Sharon P Fowler, Rector Arya, Ralph A DeFronzo, Hanna E Abboud, Ann-Christine Syvänen, Pamela J Hicks, Nicholette D Palmer, Maggie C Y Ng, Donald W Bowden, Barry I Freedman, Tõnu Esko, Reedik Mägi, Lili Milani, Evelin Mihailov, Andres Metspalu, Narisu Narisu, Leena Kinnunen, Lori L Bonnycastle, Amy Swift, Dorota Pasko, Andrew R Wood, João Fadista, Toni I Pollin, Nir Barzilai, Gil Atzmon, Benjamin Glaser, Barbara Thorand, Konstantin Strauch, Annette Peters, Michael Roden, Martina Müller-Nurasyid, Liming Liang, Jennifer Kriebel, Thomas Illig, Harald Grallert, Christian Gieger, Christa Meisinger, Lars Lannfelt, Solomon K Musani, Michael Griswold, Herman A Taylor, Gregory Wilson, Adolfo Correa, Heikki Oksa, William R Scott, Uzma Afzal, Sian-Tsung Tan, Marie Loh, John C Chambers, Jobanpreet Sehmi, Jaspal Singh Kooner, Benjamin Lehne, Yoon Shin Cho, Jong-Young Lee, Bok-Ghee Han, Annemari Käräjämäki, Qibin Qi, Lu Qi, Jinyan Huang, Frank B Hu, Olle Melander, Marju Orho-Melander, Jennifer E Below, David Aguilar, Tien Yin Wong, Jianjun Liu, Chiea-Chuen Khor, Kee Seng Chia, Wei Yen Lim, Ching-Yu Cheng, Edmund Chan, E Shyong Tai, Tin Aung, Allan Linneberg, Bo Isomaa, Thomas Meitinger, Tiinamaija Tuomi, Liisa Hakaste, Jasmina Kravic, Marit E Jørgensen, Torsten Lauritzen, Panos Deloukas, Kathleen E Stirrups, Katharine R Owen, Andrew J Farmer, Timothy M Frayling, Stephen P O'Rahilly, Mark Walker, Jonathan C Levy, Dylan Hodgkiss, Andrew T Hattersley, Teemu Kuulasmaa, Alena Stančáková, Inês Barroso, Dwaipayan Bharadwaj, Juliana Chan, Giriraj R Chandak, Mark J Daly, Peter J Donnelly, Shah B Ebrahim, Paul Elliott, Tasha Fingerlin, Philippe Froguel, Cheng Hu, Weiping Jia, Ronald C W Ma, Gilean McVean, Taesung Park, Dorairaj Prabhakaran, Manjinder Sandhu, James Scott, Rob Sladek, Nikhil Tandon, Yik Ying Teo, Eleftheria Zeggini, Richard M Watanabe, Heikki A Koistinen, Y Antero Kesaniemi, Matti Uusitupa, Timothy D Spector, Veikko Salomaa, Rainer Rauramaa, Colin N A Palmer, Inga Prokopenko, Andrew D Morris, Richard N Bergman, Francis S Collins, Lars Lind, Erik Ingelsson, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Fredrik Karpe, Leif Groop, Torben Jørgensen, Torben Hansen, Oluf Pedersen, Johanna Kuusisto, Gonçalo Abecasis, Graeme I Bell, John Blangero, Nancy J Cox, Ravindranath Duggirala, Mark Seielstad, James G Wilson, Josee Dupuis, Samuli Ripatti, Craig L Hanis, Jose C Florez, Karen L Mohlke, James B Meigs, Markku Laakso, Andrew P Morris, Michael Boehnke, David Altshuler, Mark I McCarthy, Anna L Gloyn, Cecilia M Lindgren
To identify novel coding association signals and facilitate characterization of mechanisms influencing glycemic traits and type 2 diabetes risk, we analyzed 109,215 variants derived from exome array genotyping together with an additional 390,225 variants from exome sequence in up to 39,339 normoglycemic individuals from five ancestry groups. We identified a novel association between the coding variant (p.Pro50Thr) in AKT2 and fasting insulin, a gene in which rare fully penetrant mutations are causal for monogenic glycemic disorders...
March 24, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338823/transporters-involved-in-ph-and-k-homeostasis-affect-pollen-wall-formation-male-fertility-and-embryo-development
#7
Senthilkumar Padmanaban, Daniel D Czerny, Kara A Levin, Alexander R Leydon, Robert T Su, Timothy K Maugel, Yanjiao Zou, Salil Chanroj, Alice Y Cheung, Mark A Johnson, Heven Sze
Flowering plant genomes encode multiple cation/H+ exchangers (CHXs) whose functions are largely unknown. AtCHX17, AtCHX18, and AtCHX19 are membrane transporters that modulate K+ and pH homeostasis and are localized in the dynamic endomembrane system. Loss of function reduced seed set, but the particular phase(s) of reproduction affected was not determined. Pollen tube growth and ovule targeting of chx17chx18chx19 mutant pollen appeared normal, but reciprocal cross experiments indicate a largely male defect...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338049/breeding-system-and-spatial-isolation-from-congeners-strongly-constrain-seed-set-in-an-insect-pollinated-apomictic-tree-sorbus-subcuneata-rosaceae
#8
Tracey J Hamston, Robert J Wilson, Natasha de Vere, Tim C G Rich, Jamie R Stevens, James E Cresswell
In plants, apomixis results in the production of clonal offspring via seed and can provide reproductive assurance for isolated individuals. However, many apomicts require pollination to develop functional endosperm for successful seed set (pseudogamy) and therefore risk pollination-limitation, particularly in self-incompatible species that require heterospecific pollen. We used microsatellite paternity analysis and hand pollinations to investigate pollen-limitation in Sorbus subcuneata, a threatened endemic tree that co-occurs with its congener, S...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337632/comparative-toxicity-of-imidacloprid-and-thiacloprid-to-different-species-of-soil-invertebrates
#9
Cláudia de Lima E Silva, Nicola Brennan, Jitske M Brouwer, Daniël Commandeur, Rudo A Verweij, Cornelis A M van Gestel
Neonicotinoid insecticides have come under increasing scrutiny for their impact on non-target organisms, especially pollinators. The current scientific literature is mainly focused on the impact of these insecticides on pollinators and some aquatic insects, leaving a knowledge gap concerning soil invertebrates. This study aimed at filling this gap, by determining the toxicity of imidacloprid and thiacloprid to five species of soil invertebrates: earthworms (Eisenia andrei), enchytraeids (Enchytraeus crypticus), Collembola (Folsomia candida), oribatid mites (Oppia nitens) and isopods (Porcellio scaber)...
March 23, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335712/exploring-the-evolutionary-origin-of-floral-organs-of-erycina-pusilla-an-emerging-orchid-model-system
#10
Anita Dirks-Mulder, Roland Butôt, Peter van Schaik, Jan Willem P M Wijnands, Roel van den Berg, Louie Krol, Sadhana Doebar, Kelly van Kooperen, Hugo de Boer, Elena M Kramer, Erik F Smets, Rutger A Vos, Alexander Vrijdaghs, Barbara Gravendeel
BACKGROUND: Thousands of flowering plant species attract pollinators without offering rewards, but the evolution of this deceit is poorly understood. Rewardless flowers of the orchid Erycina pusilla have an enlarged median sepal and incised median petal ('lip') to attract oil-collecting bees. These bees also forage on similar looking but rewarding Malpighiaceae flowers that have five unequally sized petals and gland-carrying sepals. The lip of E. pusilla has a 'callus' that, together with winged 'stelidia', mimics these glands...
March 23, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334485/pollinator-identity-and-spatial-isolation-influence-multiple-paternity-in-an-annual-plant
#11
Matthew K Rhodes, Jeremie B Fant, Krissa A Skogen
The occurrence and extent of multiple paternity is an important component of variation in plant mating dynamics. However, links between pollinator activity and multiple paternity are generally lacking, especially for plant species that attract functionally diverse floral visitors. In this study, we separated the influence of two functionally distinct floral visitors (hawkmoths and solitary bees) and characterized their impacts on multiple paternity in a self-incompatible, annual forb, Oenothera harringtonii (Onagraceae)...
March 23, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334292/the-synergistic-effects-of-almond-protection-fungicides-on-honey-bee-hymenoptera-apidae-forager-survival
#12
Adrian Fisher, Chet Coleman, Clint Hoffmann, Brad Fritz, Juliana Rangel
The honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) contributes ∼$17 billion annually to the United States economy, primarily by pollinating major agricultural crops including almond, which is completely dependent on honey bee pollination for nut set. Almond growers face constant challenges to crop productivity owing to pests and pathogens, which are often controlled with a multitude of agrochemicals. For example, fungicides are often applied in combination with other products to control fungal pathogens during almond bloom...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334177/genetic-and-environmental-integration-of-the-hawkmoth-pollination-syndrome-in-ruellia-humilis-acanthaceae
#13
John S Heywood, Joseph S Michalski, Braden K McCann, Amber D Russo, Kara J Andres, Allison R Hall, Tessa C Middleton
Background and Aims: The serial homology of floral structures has made it difficult to assess the relative contributions of selection and constraint to floral integration. The interpretation of floral integration may also be clouded by the tacit, but largely untested, assumption that genetic and environmental perturbations affect trait correlations in similar ways. In this study, estimates of both the genetic and environmental correlations between components of the hawkmoth pollination syndrome are presented for chasmogamous flowers of Ruellia humilis , including two levels of control for serial homology...
February 28, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334152/repeated-and-diverse-losses-of-corolla-bilateral-symmetry-in-the-lamiaceae
#14
Jinshun Zhong, Jill C Preston, Lena C Hileman, Elizabeth A Kellogg
Background and Aims: Independent evolution of derived complex characters provides a unique opportunity to assess whether and how similar genetic changes correlate with morphological convergence. Bilaterally symmetrical corollas have evolved multiple times independently from radially symmetrical ancestors and likely represent adaptations to attract specific pollinators. On the other hand, losses of bilateral corolla symmetry have occurred sporadically in various groups, due to either modification of bilaterally symmetrical corollas in late development or early establishment of radial symmetry...
March 1, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334127/managed-bumble-bees-bombus-impatiens-hymenoptera-apidae-caged-with-blueberry-bushes-at-high-density-did-not-increase-fruit-set-or-fruit-weight-compared-to-open-pollination
#15
J W Campbell, J O'Brien, J H Irvin, C B Kimmel, J C Daniels, J D Ellis
Highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) is an important crop grown throughout Florida. Currently, most blueberry growers use honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) to provide pollination services for highbush blueberries even though bumble bees (Bombus spp.) have been shown to be more efficient at pollinating blueberries on a per bee basis. In general, contribution of bumble bees to the pollination of commercial highbush blueberries in Florida is unknown. Herein, we determined if managed bumble bees could contribute to highbush blueberry pollination...
February 17, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334107/floral-strips-attract-beneficial-insects-but-do-not-enhance-yield-in-cucumber-fields
#16
N F Quinn, D C Brainard, Z Szendrei
Natural enemies and pollinators require nutritional and habitat resources that are often not found in conventional agricultural fields. The addition of flowering plants within agroecosystems may provide the resources necessary to support beneficial insects at the local scale. We hypothesized that insect pollinator and natural enemy abundance would increase in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plots containing flower strips and that the effect would be greatest in the crop rows closest to the flower strips. Three flower treatments were tested: 1) buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), 2) yellow mustard (Brassica hirta), 3) sweet alyssum (Lobularia maritima), and cucumbers as a control...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334064/insecticide-susceptibility-in-asian-honey-bees-apis-cerana-hymenoptera-apidae-and-implications-for-wild-honey-bees-in-asia
#17
Mika Yasuda, Yoshiko Sakamoto, Koichi Goka, Teruyoshi Nagamitsu, Hisatomo Taki
To conserve local biodiversity and ensure the provision of pollination services, it is essential to understand the impact of pesticides on wild honey bees. Most studies that have investigated the effects of pesticides on honey bees have focused on the European honey bee (Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae)), which is commonly domesticated worldwide. However, the Asian honey bee (Apis cerana) is widely distributed throughout Asia, and toxicity data are lacking for this species. This study aimed to fill this important knowledge gap...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332746/global-analysis-of-canola-genes-targeted-by-short-hypocotyl-under-blue-1-during-endosperm-and-embryo-development
#18
Huanan Zhang, Feng Cheng, Yu-Guo Xiao, Xiao-Jun Kang, Xiaowu Wang, Rui Kuang, Min Ni
Seed development in dicots undergoes an early endosperm proliferation, followed by the growth of embryo to replace the endosperm. Endosperm proliferation in dicots not only provides nutrient supplies for subsequent embryo development but also enforces a space limitation to influence the final seed size. Overexpression of Arabidopsis SHORT HYPOCOTYL UNDER BLUE1::GUS (SHB1:GUS) in canola produced large seeds. We performed global analysis of canola genes that were expressed and influenced by SHB1 during early endosperm proliferation at 8 days after pollination (DAP) and late embryo development at 13 DAP...
March 23, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332480/honey-bee-hairs-and-pollenkitt-are-essential-for-pollen-capture-and-removal
#19
Guillermo J Amador, Marguerite Matherne, D'Andre Waller, Megha Mathews, Stanislav N Gorb, David L Hu
While insect grooming has been observed and documented for over one hundred years, we present the first quantitative analysis of this highly dynamic process. Pollinating insects, like honey bees, purposely cover themselves with millions of pollen particles that, if left ungroomed, would make sensing and controlled flight difficult. How do they get clean? We show that the hairs on insect eyes are tuned to the pollen they collect; namely, the hairs are spaced so that they suspend pollen above the body for easy removal by the forelegs...
March 23, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331597/pollinator-population-size-and-pollination-ecosystem-service-responses-to-enhancing-floral-and-nesting-resources
#20
Johanna Häussler, Ullrika Sahlin, Charlotte Baey, Henrik G Smith, Yann Clough
Modeling pollination ecosystem services requires a spatially explicit, process-based approach because they depend on both the behavioral responses of pollinators to the amount and spatial arrangement of habitat and on the within- and between-season dynamics of pollinator populations in response to land use. We describe a novel pollinator model predicting flower visitation rates by wild central-place foragers (e.g., nesting bees) in spatially explicit landscapes. The model goes beyond existing approaches by: (1) integrating preferential use of more rewarding floral and nesting resources; (2) considering population growth over time; (3) allowing different dispersal distances for workers and reproductives; (4) providing visitation rates for use in crop pollination models...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
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