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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055134/geographic-patterns-and-pollination-ecotypes-in-claytonia-virginica
#1
Alison J Parker, Neal M Williams, James D Thomson
Geographical variation in pollinators visiting a plant can produce plant populations adapted to local pollinator environments. We documented two markedly different pollinator climates for the spring ephemeral wildflower Claytonia virginica: in more northern populations, the pollen-specialist bee Andrena erigeniae dominated, but in more southern populations, A. erigeniae visited rarely and the bee-fly Bombylius major dominated. Plants in the northern populations experience faster pollen depletion than plants in southern populations...
October 21, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054119/pollinator-independent-orchid-attracts-biotic-pollinators-due-the-production-of-lipoidal-substances
#2
E R Pansarin, P J Bergamo, M J Ferreira-Caliman
● Flowering plants often depend on the attraction of biotic pollinators for sexual reproduction. Consequently, the emergence and maintenance of selected floral attributes related to pollinator attraction and rewarding are driven by pollinators pressures. ● In this paper we explore the effect of pollinators, rainfall, and temperature and air humidity on the reproduction of a Brazilian terrestrial orchid, Cranichis candida based on data of phenology, flower resources, olfactory and visual attraction cues, pollinators and breeding system...
October 20, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053740/gene-flow-of-common-ash-fraxinus-excelsior-l-in-a-fragmented-landscape
#3
Devrim Semizer-Cuming, Erik Dahl Kjær, Reiner Finkeldey
Gene flow dynamics of common ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) is affected by several human activities in Central Europe, including habitat fragmentation, agroforestry expansion, controlled and uncontrolled transfer of reproductive material, and a recently introduced emerging infectious disease, ash dieback, caused by Hymenoscyphus fraxineus. Habitat fragmentation may alter genetic connectivity and effective population size, leading to loss of genetic diversity and increased inbreeding in ash populations. Gene flow from cultivated trees in landscapes close to their native counterparts may also influence the adaptability of future generations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053522/immediate-enhancement-of-nerve-function-using-a-novel-axonal-fusion-device-after-neurotmesis
#4
David Colton Riley, Richard B Boyer, Curt A Deister, Alonda C Pollins, Nancy L Cardwell, Nathaniel D Kelm, Mark D Does, Richard D Dortch, Ravinder Bamba, Robert Bruce Shack, Wesley P Thayer
BACKGROUND: The management of peripheral nerve injuries remains a large challenge for plastic surgeons. With the inability to fuse axonal endings, results after microsurgical nerve repair have been inconsistent. Our current nerve repair strategies rely upon the slow and lengthy process of axonal regeneration (~1 mm/d). Polyethylene glycol (PEG) has been investigated as a potential axonal fusion agent; however, the percentage of axonal fusion has been inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to identify a PEG delivery device to standardize outcomes after attempted axonal fusion with PEG...
October 19, 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048450/aerobiological-monitoring-and-mapping-of-ambrosia-plants-in-the-province-of-parma-northern-italy-southern-po-valley-a-useful-tool-for-targeted-preventive-measures
#5
R Albertini, M Ugolotti, L Ghillani, M Adorni, P Vitali, C Signorelli, C Pasquarella
BACKGROUND: Ambrosia is an annual anemophilous weed producing allergenic pollen affecting public health in European countries. In Italy, the most infested region is Lombardy where, in some areas, it is the major cause of hay fever. In the Parma district, until 2007, Ambrosia seemed to be very rare, despite an observed increase of Seasonal Pollen Index (SPI), of pollen peak value and of asthma among ragweed sensitized patients. The aims of this study were to calculate ragweed pollen season and trends from 1996 to 2015, to assess the relationships between pollen season characteristics and selected meteorological data, to map plants in the territory and to evaluate the presence of beetle Ophraella communa (Ophraella), known as an eater of Ambrosia leaves...
November 2017: Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunità
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047256/analysis-of-genes-with-alternatively-spliced-transcripts-in-the-leaf-root-panicle-and-seed-of-rice-using-a-long-oligomer-microarray-and-rna-seq
#6
Songhwa Chae, Joung Sug Kim, Kyong Mi Jun, Sang-Bok Lee, Myung Soon Kim, Baek Hie Nahm, Yeon-Ki Kim
Pre-mRNA splicing further increases protein diversity acquired through evolution. The underlying driving forces for this phenomenon are unknown, especially in terms of gene expression. A rice alternatively spliced transcript detection microarray (ASDM) and RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) were applied to differentiate the transcriptome of 4 representative organs of Oryza sativa L. cv. Ilmi: leaves, roots, 1-cm-stage panicles and young seeds at 21 days after pollination. Comparison of data obtained by microarray and RNA-Seq showed a bell-shaped distribution and a co-lineation for highly expressed genes...
October 17, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046553/pesticide-reduces-bumblebee-colony-initiation-and-increases-probability-of-population-extinction
#7
Gemma L Baron, Vincent A A Jansen, Mark J F Brown, Nigel E Raine
Pollinators are in global decline and agricultural pesticides are a potential driver of this. Recent studies have suggested that pesticides may significantly impact bumblebee colonies-an important and declining group of pollinators. Here, we show that colony-founding queens, a critical yet vulnerable stage of the bumblebee lifecycle, are less likely to initiate a colony after exposure to thiamethoxam, a neonicotinoid insecticide. Bombus terrestris queens were exposed to field-relevant levels of thiamethoxam and two natural stressors: the parasite Crithidia bombi and varying hibernation durations...
September 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046536/honeybee-spillover-reshuffles-pollinator-diets-and-affects-plant-reproductive-success
#8
Ainhoa Magrach, Juan P González-Varo, Mathieu Boiffier, Montserrat Vilà, Ignasi Bartomeus
During the past decades, managed honeybee stocks have increased globally. Managed honeybees are particularly used within mass-flowering crops and often spill over to adjacent natural habitats after crop blooming. Here, we uniquely show the simultaneous impact that honeybee spillover has on wild plant and animal communities in flower-rich woodlands via changes in plant-pollinator network structure that translate into a direct negative effect on the reproductive success of a dominant wild plant. Honeybee spillover leads to a re-assembly of plant-pollinator interactions through increased competition with other pollinator species...
September 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045531/phylogenetic-and-functional-signals-in-gymnosperm-ovular-secretions
#9
Massimo Nepi, Stefan Little, Massimo Guarnieri, Daniele Nocentini, Natalie Prior, Julia Gill, P Barry Tomlinson, Stefanie M Ickert-Bond, Cary Pirone, Ettore Pacini, Patrick von Aderkas
Background and Aims: Gymnosperms are either wind-pollinated (anemophilous) or both wind- and insect-pollinated (ambophilous). Regardless of pollination mode, ovular secretions play a key role in pollen capture, germination and growth; they are likely also involved in pollinator reward. Little is known about the broad-scale diversity of ovular secretions across gymnosperms, and how these may relate to various reproductive functions. This study analyses the sugar and amino acid profiles of ovular secretions across a range of ambophilous (cycads and Gnetales) and anemophilous gymnosperms (conifers) to place them in an evolutionary context of their possible functions during reproduction...
October 16, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045396/indirect-effects-drive-coevolution-in-mutualistic-networks
#10
Paulo R Guimarães, Mathias M Pires, Pedro Jordano, Jordi Bascompte, John N Thompson
Ecological interactions have been acknowledged to play a key role in shaping biodiversity. Yet a major challenge for evolutionary biology is to understand the role of ecological interactions in shaping trait evolution when progressing from pairs of interacting species to multispecies interaction networks. Here we introduce an approach that integrates coevolutionary dynamics and network structure. Our results show that non-interacting species can be as important as directly interacting species in shaping coevolution within mutualistic assemblages...
October 18, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045384/disorder-in-convergent-floral-nanostructures-enhances-signalling-to-bees
#11
Edwige Moyroud, Tobias Wenzel, Rox Middleton, Paula J Rudall, Hannah Banks, Alison Reed, Greg Mellers, Patrick Killoran, M Murphy Westwood, Ullrich Steiner, Silvia Vignolini, Beverley J Glover
Diverse forms of nanoscale architecture generate structural colour and perform signalling functions within and between species. Structural colour is the result of the interference of light from approximately regular periodic structures; some structural disorder is, however, inevitable in biological organisms. Is this disorder functional and subject to evolutionary selection, or is it simply an unavoidable outcome of biological developmental processes? Here we show that disordered nanostructures enable flowers to produce visual signals that are salient to bees...
October 18, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044571/sensitivity-of-sorghum-pollen-and-pistil-to-high-temperature-stress
#12
M Djanaguiraman, R Perumal, S V K Jagadish, I A Ciampitti, R Welti, P V V Prasad
High temperature (HT) decreases seed-set percentage in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]. The relative sensitivity of pollen and particularly pistil and the mechanistic response that induces tolerance or susceptibility to HT is not well known and hence is the major objective of this research. The male sterile (ATx399) and fertile (RTx430) lines were exposed to 30/20 °C (optimum temperature; OT), 36/26 °C (HT1 ) and 39/29 °C (HT2 ) from the start of booting to seed-set in a controlled environment. Similarly, in the field, HT stress was imposed using heat tents...
October 18, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044321/comparative-pollen-morphological-analysis-in-the-subgenera-passiflora-and-decaloba
#13
Taliane L Soares, Onildo N Jesus, Everton H Souza, Mônica L Rossi, Eder J Oliveira
The genus Passiflora is the most diversified of the Passifloraceae, and its palynology presents wide morphological variability. The objective of the study was to evaluate the pollen morphology of 18 Passiflora species in order to identify informative pollinic characteristics to contribute to the taxonomic classification of the genus. The morphology of the pollen grains and the exine structure were investigated using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Differences in the pollen morphology were found in the studied species, mainly in terms of shape, pollen aperture and ornamentation pattern of the exine...
October 16, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043498/sex-specific-strategies-of-resource-allocation-in-response-to-competition-for-light-in-a-dioecious-plant
#14
Jeanne Tonnabel, Patrice David, John R Pannell
The differential plasticity hypothesis suggests that sexual dimorphism in dioecious plants could evolve in response to sex-specific resource requirements for reproduction (i.e., high carbon requirements for ovules and high nitrogen demands for pollen). When resources become limiting during growth, males and females should, therefore, adjust their allocation to resource-harvesting organs differently. To investigate the potential for plants to respond to resource limitation late in life and to test the differential plasticity hypothesis, we grew male and female individuals of the annual wind-pollinated plant Mercurialis annua in a common garden...
October 17, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043057/flower-resource-and-land-management-drives-hoverfly-communities-and-bee-abundance-in-seminatural-and-agricultural-grasslands
#15
Andrew Lucas, James C Bull, Natasha de Vere, Penelope J Neyland, Dan W Forman
Pollination is a key ecosystem service, and appropriate management, particularly in agricultural systems, is essential to maintain a diversity of pollinator guilds. However, management recommendations frequently focus on maintaining plant communities, with the assumption that associated invertebrate populations will be sustained. We tested whether plant community, flower resources, and soil moisture would influence hoverfly (Syrphidae) abundance and species richness in floristically-rich seminatural and floristically impoverished agricultural grassland communities in Wales (U...
October 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043017/phenotypic-selection-on-flowering-phenology-and-pollination-efficiency-traits-between-primula-populations-with-different-pollinator-assemblages
#16
Yun Wu, Qing-Jun Li
Floral traits have largely been attributed to phenotypic selection in plant-pollinator interactions. However, the strength of this link has rarely been ascertained with real pollinators. We conducted pollinator observations and estimated selection through female fitness on flowering phenology and floral traits between two Primula secundiflora populations. We quantified pollinator-mediated selection by subtracting estimates of selection gradients of plants receiving supplemental hand pollination from those of plants receiving open pollination...
October 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040660/potential-of-three-trap-crops-in-managing-nezara-viridula-hemiptera-pentatomidae-on-tomatoes-in-florida
#17
T L Gordon, M Haseeb, L H B Kanga, J C Legaspi
The southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a serious insect pest of tomatoes in Florida. In this study, we examined the use of three species of trap crops to manage N. viridula in North Florida tomato crops in 2014 and 2015. We used striped sunflower (Helianthus annuus) (Asterales: Asteraceae) and wild game feed sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) (Poales: Poaceae) in both years, but different species of millet each year: browntop millet (Panicum ramosum) (Poales: Poaceae) in 2014 and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) (Poales: Poaceae) in 2015...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036428/exocyst-exosomes-and-autophagy-in-the-regulation-of-brassicaceae-pollen-stigma-interactions
#18
Daphne R Goring
Brassicaceae pollen-stigma interactions have been extensively studied in Brassica and Arabidopsis species to identify cellular events triggered in the stigmatic papillae by pollen contact. Compatible pollinations are linked to the activation of basal cellular responses in the stigmatic papillae, which include calcium gradients, actin networks, and polarized secretion. The occurrence of these cellular events in stigmatic papillae coincides with the stages of pollen hydration and pollen tube entry into the stigmatic papillar cell wall...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036172/a-question-of-data-quality-testing-pollination-syndromes-in-balsaminaceae
#19
Stefan Abrahamczyk, Sissi Lozada-Gobilard, Markus Ackermann, Eberhard Fischer, Vera Krieger, Almut Redling, Maximilian Weigend
Pollination syndromes and their predictive power regarding actual plant-animal interactions have been controversially discussed in the past. We investigate pollination syndromes in Balsaminaceae, utilizing quantitative respectively categorical data sets of flower morphometry, signal and reward traits for 86 species to test for the effect of different types of data on the test patterns retrieved. Cluster Analyses of the floral traits are used in combination with independent pollinator observations. Based on quantitative data we retrieve seven clusters, six of them corresponding to plausible pollination syndromes and one additional, well-supported cluster comprising highly divergent floral architectures...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032464/nutritional-composition-of-honey-bee-food-stores-vary-with-floral-composition
#20
Philip Donkersley, Glenn Rhodes, Roger W Pickup, Kevin C Jones, Eileen F Power, Geraldine A Wright, Kenneth Wilson
Sufficiently diverse and abundant resources are essential for generalist consumers, and form an important part of a suite of conservation strategies for pollinators. Honey bees are generalist foragers and are dependent on diverse forage to adequately meet their nutritional needs. Through analysis of stored pollen (bee bread) samples obtained from 26 honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) hives across NW-England, we quantified bee bread nutritional content and the plant species that produced these stores from pollen...
October 14, 2017: Oecologia
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