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Qing Yang, Dong Meng, Zhaoyu Gu, Wei Li, Qiuju Chen, Yang Li, Hui Yuan, Jie Yu, Chunsheng Liu, Tianzhong Li
In S-RNase-mediated self-incompatibility (SI), S-RNase secreted from the style destroys the actin cytoskeleton of the self-pollen tubes, eventually halting its growth, but the mechanism remains unclear. In vitro biochemical assays revealed that S-RNase does not bind or sever filamentous actin (F-actin). In apple (Malus×domestica), we identified an actin-binding protein containing myosin, villin and GRAM, MdMVG, that physically interacts with S-RNase and directly binds and severs F-actin. Immunofluorescence assays and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) indicated that S-RNase inhibits the F-actin-severing activity of MdMVG in vitro...
April 18, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Qianyi Tao, Huanhuan Niu, Zhongyuan Wang, Wenhui Zhang, Hu Wang, Shenhao Wang, Xian Zhang, Zheng Li
In plants, unisexual flowers derived from developmental sex determination form separate stamens and pistils that facilitate cross pollination. In cucumber and melon, ethylene plays a key role in sex determination. Six sex determination-related genes have been identified involving in ethylene biosynthesis in these Cucumis species. The interactions among these genes are thought to involve ethylene signaling; however, the detailed regulatory mechanism remains unknown. In this study, hormone treatment and qPCR assays were used to confirm expression of these sex determination-related genes in cucumber and melon is ethylene sensitive...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Andrew Lucas, Owen Bodger, Berry J Brosi, Col R Ford, Dan W Forman, Carolyn Greig, Matthew Hegarty, Penelope J Neyland, Natasha de Vere
Pollination by insects is a key ecosystem service and important to wider ecosystem function. Most species-level pollination networks studied have a generalised structure, with plants having several potential pollinators, and pollinators in turn visiting a number of different plant species. This is in apparent contrast to a plant's need for efficient conspecific pollen transfer. The aim of this study was to investigate the structure of pollen transport networks at three levels of biological hierarchy: community, species and individual...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
Chuan-Jie Zhang, Min-Jung Yook, Hae-Rim Park, Soo-Hyun Lim, Jin-Won Kim, Jong-Seok Song, Gyoungju Nah, Hae-Ryong Song, Beom-Ho Jo, Kyung Hee Roh, Suhyoung Park, Young-Seok Jang, Ill-Sup Noua, Do-Soon Kim
Pollen-mediated gene flow (PMGF) from genetically modified (GM) Brassica napus to its wild relatives by wind and insects is a major ecological concern in agricultural ecosystems. This study conducted is to estimate maximum potential gene flow and differentiate between wind- and bee-mediated gene flows from herbicide resistant (HR) B. napus to its closely-related male sterile (MS) relatives, B. napus, B. juncea and Raphanus sativus. Various markers, including pods formation in MS plants, herbicide resistance, and SSR markers, were used to identify the hybrids...
April 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Marcelo R Malakooti
Generating innovation in the healthcare setting faces a number of challenges when compared with industry counterparts. More than ever, innovation occupies a critical element for healthcare organizations aspiring toward clinical, research and strategic excellence, although it may not exist as a priority due to a number of barriers. There are several strategies in other industries from which healthcare organizations can borrow, such as using nontraditional methods of problem solving, group ideation, and cross-pollination...
April 12, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Benjamin B Phillips, Rosalind F Shaw, Matthew J Holland, Ellen L Fry, Richard D Bardgett, James M Bullock, Juliet L Osborne
Climate change is predicted to result in increased occurrence and intensity of drought in many regions worldwide. By increasing plant physiological stress, drought is likely to affect the floral resources (flowers, nectar and pollen) that are available to pollinators. However, little is known about impacts of drought at the community level, nor whether plant community functional composition influences these impacts. To address these knowledge gaps, we investigated the impacts of drought on floral resources in calcareous grassland...
April 13, 2018: Global Change Biology
Eduardo P Cappa, Yousry A El-Kassaby, Facundo Muñoz, Martín N Garcia, Pamela V Villalba, Jaroslav Klápště, Susana N Marcucci Poltri
We investigated the impact of combining the pedigree- and genomic-based relationship matrices in a multiple-trait individual-tree mixed model (a.k.a., multiple-trait combined approach) on the estimates of heritability and on the genomic correlations between growth and stem straightness in an open-pollinated Eucalyptus grandis population. Additionally, the added advantage of incorporating genomic information on the theoretical accuracies of parents and offspring breeding values was evaluated. Our results suggested that the use of the combined approach for estimating heritabilities and additive genetic correlations in multiple-trait evaluations is advantageous and including genomic information increases the expected accuracy of breeding values...
June 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Jingxue Wang, Xiaoming Wang, Siyu Geng, Sanjay K Singh, Yaohui Wang, Sitakanta Pattanaik, Ling Yuan
Genome-wide identification, expression analysis, and functional characterization of previously uncharacterized hexokinase family of oil crop, Brassica napus, underscore the importance of this gene family in plant growth and development. In plants, the multi-gene family of dual-function hexokinases (HXKs) plays important roles in sugar metabolism and sensing that affect growth and development. Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is an important oil crop; however, little is known about the B. napus HXK gene family...
April 11, 2018: Planta
Vineet Kumar Singh, Chandan Barman, Divya Mohanty, Rajesh Tandon
Reproductive success of a plant species can be affected by the distribution pattern of its conspecifics in a small population. Besides the low mate availability, the dynamics of breeding system and pollination mechanism may also contribute to low fruit-set in such populations. We examined the relative contribution of these reproductive attributes on fruit-set across the contrasting distribution pattern (denser vs. sparser plots) in two isolated natural populations of a near-threatened tree species, Anogeissus sericea var...
April 2018: AoB Plants
Callum D Martin, Michelle T Fountain, Mark J F Brown
Parasites can induce behavioural changes in their host organisms. Several parasite species are known to infect bumblebees, an important group of pollinators. Task allocation within bumblebee colonies can also cause differences in behaviour. Thus, task allocation may lead to context-dependent impacts of parasites on host behaviour. This study uses Bombus terrestris and its gut trypanosome Crithidia bombi, to investigate the effects of parasitism, task allocation (foraging or nest-work) and their interactions, on olfactory learning...
April 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Carolina Mengoni Goñalons, Walter M Farina
Neonicotinoids are the most widespread insecticides in agriculture, preferred for their low toxicity to mammals and their systemic nature. Nevertheless, there have been increasing concerns regarding their impact on non-target organisms. Glyphosate is also widely used in crops and, therefore, traces of this pesticide are likely to be found together with neonicotinoids. Although glyphosate is considered a herbicide, adverse effects have been found on animal species, including honey bees. Apis mellifera is one of the most important pollinators in agroecosystems and is exposed to both these pesticides...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Anne-Kathrin Sieg, Rudolf Teibtner, Daniel Dreesmann
Many insects are threatened with extinction, which in the case of pollinating insects could lead to declining pollination services and reduced ecosystem biodiversity. This necessitates rethinking how we deal with nature in general. Schools are ideal places in which to instill a willingness to behave in an environmentally-friendly way. Whereas scientific studies and school textbooks stress the importance of honeybees as pollinators, the role of bumblebees is either underestimated or neglected. The aim of this study was to provide information concerning student knowledge and attitudes, which are important factors of an individual's environmental awareness...
April 10, 2018: Insects
Kelsey D Galimba, Jesús Martínez-Gómez, Verónica S Di Stilio
The floral organ identity gene APETALA3 ( AP3 ) is a MADS-box transcription factor involved in stamen and petal identity that belongs to the B-class of the ABC model of flower development. Thalictrum (Ranunculaceae), an emerging model in the non-core eudicots, has AP3 homologs derived from both ancient and recent gene duplications. Prior work has shown that petals have been lost repeatedly and independently in Ranunculaceae in correlation with the loss of a specific AP3 paralog, and Thalictrum represents one of these instances...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Veronica C Soto, Cristian A Caselles, Maria F Silva, Claudio R Galmarini
Onion (Allium cepa L.) is one of the main vegetable crops. Pollinators are required for onion seed production, being honeybees the most used. Around the world, two types of onion varieties are grown: open pollinated (OP) and hybrids. Hybrids offer numerous advantages to growers, but usually have lower seed yields than OP cultivars, which in many cases compromise the success of new hybrids. As pollination is critical for seed set, understanding the role of floral rewards and attractants to pollinator species is the key to improve crop seed yield...
March 31, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Chian Jones Ritten, Dannele Peck, Mariah Ehmke, M A Buddhika Patalee
While the demand for pollination services have been increasing, continued declines in honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), colonies have put the cropping sector and the broader health of agro-ecosystems at risk. Economic factors may play a role in dwindling honey bee colony supply in the United States, but have not been extensively studied. Using data envelopment analysis (DEA), we measure technical efficiency, returns to scale, and factors influencing the efficiency of those apiaries in the northern Rocky Mountain region participating in the pollination services market...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
D C Gilley, T J Courtright, C Thom
Departure of swarms from honey bee (Apis mellifera Linnaeus (Hymenoptera: Apidae)) nests is an important reproductive event for wild honey bee colonies and economically costly in managed bee colonies. The seasonal timing of swarm departure varies regionally and annually, creating challenges for honey bee management and emphasizing the potential for swarming behavior to be affected by plant-pollinator phenological mismatch. In this study, we first document variability in the timing of swarm departure across the large and heterogeneous geographical area of New Jersey over 4 years using 689 swarm-cluster observations...
March 31, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Noa Safra, Mary M Christopher, Holly B Ernest, Ruta Bandivadekar, Lisa A Tell
  Hummingbirds are specialized nectarivores and important ecological pollinators that are the focus of conservation efforts as well as scientific investigations of metabolism and flight dynamics. Despite their importance, basic information is lacking about hummingbird blood cells. We aimed to establish reference intervals for total and differential leukocyte counts from healthy free-ranging hummingbirds in northern California. Hummingbirds were captured in five counties in spring and summer of 2012. A drop of blood was used to prepare smears for total white blood cell estimate and 200-cell differential leukocyte counts...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Bin Zhu, Yang Xiang, Pan Zeng, Bowei Cai, Xiaolong Huang, Xianhong Ge, Qingbei Weng, Zaiyun Li
Alien chromosome substitution (CS) lines are treated as vital germplasms for breeding and genetic mapping. Previously, a whole set of nine Brassica rapa-oleracea monosonic alien addition lines (MAALs, C1-C9) was established in the background of natural B. napus genotype "Oro," after the restituted B. rapa (RBR) for Oro was realized. Herein, a monosomic substitution line with one alien C1 chromosome (Cs1) in the RBR complement was selected in the progenies of MAAL C1 and RBR, by the PCR amplification of specific gene markers and fluorescence in situ hybridization...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Sean P Leonard, Jiri Perutka, J Elijah Powell, Peng Geng, Darby Richhart, Michelle Byrom, Shaunak Kar, Bryan W Davies, Andrew D Ellington, Nancy Moran, Jeffrey E Barrick
Engineering the bacteria present in animal microbiomes promises to lead to breakthroughs in medicine and agriculture, but progress is hampered by a dearth of tools for genetically modifying the diverse species that comprise these communities. Here we present a toolkit of genetic parts for the modular construction of broad-host-range plasmids built around the RSF1010 replicon. Golden Gate assembly of parts in this toolkit can be used to rapidly test various antibiotic resistance markers, promoters, fluorescent reporters and other coding sequences in newly isolated bacteria...
April 2, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
Voon-Ching Lim, Rosli Ramli, Subha Bhassu, John-James Wilson
Background: Intense landscaping often alters the plant composition in urban areas. Knowing which plant species that pollinators are visiting in urban areas is necessary for understanding how landscaping impacts biodiversity and associated ecosystem services. The cave nectar bat, Eonycteris spelaea , is an important pollinator for many plants and is often recorded in human-dominated habitats. Previous studies of the diet of E. spelaea relied on morphological identification of pollen grains found in faeces and on the body of bats and by necessity disregarded other forms of digested plant material present in the faeces (i...
2018: PeerJ
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