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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092752/optimising-uk-urban-road-verge-contributions-to-biodiversity-and-ecosystem-services-with-cost-effective-management
#1
REVIEW
Odhran S O'Sullivan, Alison R Holt, Philip H Warren, Karl L Evans
Urban road verges can contain significant biodiversity, contribute to structural connectivity between other urban greenspaces, and due to their proximity to road traffic are well placed to provide ecosystem services. Using the UK as a case study we review and critically evaluate a broad range of evidence to assess how this considerable potential can be enhanced despite financial, contractual and public opinion constraints. Reduced mowing frequency and other alterations would enhance biodiversity, aesthetics and pollination services, whilst delivering costs savings and potentially being publically acceptable...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091760/characteristics-of-green-blue-fluorescence-generated-from-the-adaxial-sides-of-leaves-of-tree-species
#2
Masayoshi Nakayama, Tsukasa Iwashina
We discovered that some tree species have leaves whose adaxial sides show bright green-blue fluorescence upon exposure to ultraviolet irradiation. In total, 141 native Japanese species belonging to 47 families were analyzed, and the brightness of the leaf fluorescence, represented by the L* values (Lab color space) of the pictures, was evaluated. The species possessing the brightest fluorescent leaves, with L* > 50, were Camellia japonica, Camellia sasanqua, and Cleyera japonica of Theaceae, Osmanthus heterophyllus and Ligustrum japonicum of Oleaceae, Aucuba japonica of Garryaceae, and Trochodendron aralioides of Trochodendraceae...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091574/an-inert-pesticide-adjuvant-synergizes-viral-pathogenicity-and-mortality-in-honey-bee-larvae
#3
Julia D Fine, Diana L Cox-Foster, Christopher A Mullin
Honey bees are highly valued for their pollination services in agricultural settings, and recent declines in managed populations have caused concern. Colony losses following a major pollination event in the United States, almond pollination, have been characterized by brood mortality with specific symptoms, followed by eventual colony loss weeks later. In this study, we demonstrate that these symptoms can be produced by chronically exposing brood to both an organosilicone surfactant adjuvant (OSS) commonly used on many agricultural crops including wine grapes, tree nuts and tree fruits and exogenous viral pathogens by simulating a horizontal transmission event...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089212/does-particulate-matter-along-roadsides-interfere-with-plant-reproduction-a-comparison-of-effects-of-different-road-types-on-cichorium-intybus-pollen-deposition-and-germination
#4
Susan Y Jaconis, Theresa M Culley, Alexandra M Meier
The roadside habitat can be challenging for plants, which must maintain normal biological processes despite an influx of airborne pollutants. While the effects of many gases on plants have been quantified, the impacts of particulate pollutants have been relatively less studied. This is especially true of field experiments where particle dispersion may be influenced by meteorology and roadway use. We examined chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) along roadsides in the Cincinnati, Ohio metropolitan area to assess particulate influence on plant pollination through stigmatic clogging...
January 11, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088343/first-confirmed-report-of-a-bacterial-brood-disease-in-stingless-bees
#5
Jenny Lee Shanks, Anthony Mark Haigh, Markus Riegler, Robert Neil Spooner-Hart
Susceptibility to brood pathogens in eusocial stingless bees (Meliponini), alternative pollinators to honey bees, is unknown. Brood losses in managed colonies of the Australian stingless bee, Tetragonula carbonaria, were studied over 20 months. We isolated a disease-causing bacterium, Lysinibacillus sphaericus (Firmicutes, Bacillaceae), from worker and queen larvae, brood cell provisions and honey stores. Pathogenicity experiments confirmed this bacterium as the causal organism. It took 22 days from infection to first appearance of brood disease symptoms...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086860/nicotiana-attenuata-data-hub-nadh-an-integrative-platform-for-exploring-genomic-transcriptomic-and-metabolomic-data-in-wild-tobacco
#6
Thomas Brockmöller, Zhihao Ling, Dapeng Li, Emmanuel Gaquerel, Ian T Baldwin, Shuqing Xu
BACKGROUND: Nicotiana attenuata (coyote tobacco) is an ecological model for studying plant-environment interactions and plant gene function under real-world conditions. During the last decade, large amounts of genomic, transcriptomic and metabolomic data have been generated with this plant which has provided new insights into how native plants interact with herbivores, pollinators and microbes. However, an integrative and open access platform that allows for the efficient mining of these -omics data remained unavailable until now...
January 13, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081140/bnlate-a-cys2-his2-type-zinc-finger-protein-enhances-silique-shattering-resistance-by-negatively-regulating-lignin-accumulation-in-the-silique-walls-of-brassica-napus
#7
Zhangsheng Tao, Yi Huang, Lida Zhang, Xinfa Wang, Guihua Liu, Hanzhong Wang
Silique shattering resistance is one of the most important agricultural traits in oil crop breeding. Seed shedding from siliques prior to and during harvest causes devastating losses in oilseed yield. Lignin biosynthesis in the silique walls is thought to affect silique-shattering resistance in oil crops. Here, we identified and characterized B. napus LATE FLOWERING (BnLATE), which encodes a Cys2/His2-type zinc-finger protein. Heterologous expression of BnLATE under the double enhanced CaMV 35S promoter (D35S) in wild-type Arabidopsis plants resulted in a marked decrease in lignification in the replum, valve layer (carpel) and dehiscence zone...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079940/reproductive-modification-in-forest-plantations-impacts-on-biodiversity-and-society
#8
REVIEW
Steven H Strauss, Kristin N Jones, Haiwei Lu, Joshua D Petit, Amy L Klocko, Matthew G Betts, Berry J Brosi, Robert J Fletcher, Mark D Needham
1000 I. 1000 II. 1001 III. 1014 IV. 1015 V. 1016 1016 References 1016 SUMMARY: Genetic engineering (GE) can be used to improve forest plantation productivity and tolerance of biotic and abiotic stresses. However, gene flow from GE forest plantations is a large source of ecological, social and legal controversy. The use of genetic technologies to mitigate or prevent gene flow has been discussed widely and should be technically feasible in a variety of plantation taxa. However, potential ecological effects of such modifications, and their social acceptability, are not well understood...
February 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079938/an-enigmatic-hawaiian-moth-is-a-missing-link-in-the-adaptive-radiation-of-schiedea
#9
Stephen G Weller, Ann K Sakai, Diane R Campbell, John M Powers, Sean R Peña, Matthew J Keir, Alexander K Loomis, Scott M Heintzman, Lauren Weisenberger
Shifts in pollination may drive adaptive diversification of reproductive systems within plant lineages. The monophyletic genus Schiedea is a Hawaiian lineage of 32 extant species, with spectacular diversity in reproductive systems. Biotic pollination is the presumed ancestral condition, but this key element of the life history and its role in shaping reproductive systems has remained undocumented. We observed floral visitors to two species of Schiedea and conducted field experiments to test pollinator effectiveness...
February 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077773/low-functional-diversity-promotes-niche-changes-in-natural-island-pollinator-communities
#10
Masayoshi K Hiraiwa, Atushi Ushimaru
Functional diversity loss among pollinators has rapidly progressed across the globe and is expected to influence plant-pollinator interactions in natural communities. Although recent findings suggest that the disappearance of a certain pollinator functional group may cause niche expansions and/or shifts in other groups, no study has examined this prediction in natural communities with high plant and pollinator diversities. By comparing coastal pollination networks on continental and oceanic islands, we examined how community-level flower visit patterns are influenced by the relative biomass of long-tongued pollinators (RBLP)...
January 11, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077635/virion-structure-of-black-queen-cell-virus-a-common-honeybee-pathogen
#11
Radovan Spurny, Antonín Přidal, Lenka Pálkové, Hoa Khanh Tran Kiem, Joachim R de Miranda, Pavel Plevka
: Viral diseases are a major threat to honeybee (Apis mellifera) populations world-wide and therefore an important factor in reliable crop pollination and food security. Black queen cell virus (BQCV) is the etiological agent of a fatal disease of honeybee queen larvae and pupae. The virus belongs to the genus Triatovirus from the family Dicistroviridae that is part of the order Picornavirales Here we present a crystal structure of BQCV determined to a resolution of 3.4 Å. The virion is formed by sixty copies of each of the major capsid proteins VP1, VP2, and VP3, however there is no density corresponding to a 75-residue-long minor capsid protein VP4 encoded by the BQCV genome...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076392/arthropod-pest-control-for-uk-oilseed-rape-comparing-insecticide-efficacies-side-effects-and-alternatives
#12
Han Zhang, Tom Breeze, Alison Bailey, David Garthwaite, Richard Harrington, Simon G Potts
Oilseed rape (Brassica napus) is an important combinable break crop in the UK, which is largely protected from arthropod pests by insecticidal chemicals. Despite ongoing debate regarding the use of neonicotinoids, the dominant seed treatment ingredients used for this crop, there is little publicly available data comparing the efficacy of insecticides in controlling key arthropod pests or comparing the impacts on non-target species and the wider environment. To provide an insight into these matters, a UK-wide expert survey targeting agronomists and entomologists was conducted from March to June 2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075480/costs-of-selfing-prevent-the-spread-of-a-self-compatibility-mutation-that-causes-reproductive-assurance
#13
Nathan C Layman, M Thilina R Fernando, Christopher R Herlihy, Jeremiah W Busch
In flowering plants, shifts from outcrossing to partial or complete self-fertilization have occurred independently thousands of times, yet the underlying adaptive processes are difficult to discern. Selfing's ability to provide reproductive assurance when pollination is uncertain is an oft-cited ecological explanation for its evolution, but this benefit may be outweighed by genetic costs diminishing its selective advantage over outcrossing. We directly studied the fitness effects of a self-compatibility (SC) mutation that was backcrossed into a self-incompatible (SI) population of Leavenworthia alabamica, illuminating the direction and magnitude of selection on the mating-system modifier...
January 11, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074845/local-coexistence-and-genetic-isolation-of-three-pollinator-species-on-the-same-fig-tree-species
#14
T L Sutton, J L DeGabriel, M Riegler, J M Cook
Molecular tools increasingly reveal cryptic lineages and species that were previously unnoticed by traditional taxonomy. The discovery of cryptic species in sympatry prompts the question of how they coexist in the apparent absence of ecological divergence. However, this assumes first that the molecular taxonomy used to identify cryptic lineages delimits species boundaries accurately. This issue is important, because many diversity studies rely heavily or solely on data from mitochondrial DNA sequences for species delimitation, and several factors may lead to poor identification of species boundaries...
January 11, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073069/horizontal-pollen-transmission-of-gentian-ovary-ring-spot-virus-is-initiated-during-penetration-of-the-stigma-and-style-by-infected-pollen-tubes
#15
Masamichi Isogai, Yukie Kamata, Syunpei Ando, Misaki Kamata, Asuka Shirakawa, Ken-Taro Sekine, Nobuyuki Yoshikawa
Gentian ovary ring-spot virus (GORV) infected gentian plants by pollination with GORV-infected gentian pollen grains, but the virus was not horizontally transmitted to gentian plants by transfer of pollen from GORV-infected Nicotiana benthamiana plants. However, N. benthamiana plants were infected with the virus by pollination with infected gentian pollen as well as by pollination with infected N. benthamiana pollen. When infected gentian pollen grains were placed on N. benthamiana stigmas, germinating pollen tubes penetrated into the stigmas and the styles (stigma-style)...
January 7, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072875/characterization-of-the-activity-spectrum-of-mon-88702-and-the-plant-incorporated-protectant-cry51aa2-834_16
#16
Pamela M Bachman, Aqeel Ahmad, Jeffrey E Ahrens, Waseem Akbar, James A Baum, Scott Brown, Thomas L Clark, Jennifer M Fridley, Anilkumar Gowda, John T Greenplate, Peter D Jensen, Geoffrey M Mueller, Matthew L Odegaard, Jianguo Tan, Joshua P Uffman, Steven L Levine
The spectrum of insecticidal activity of Cry51Aa2.834_16 protein targeting hemipteran and thysanopteran insect pests in cotton was characterized by selecting and screening multiple pest and non-pest species, based on representation of ecological functional groups, taxonomic relatedness (e.g. relationship to species where activity was observed), and availability for effective testing. Seven invertebrate orders, comprising 12 families and 17 representative species were screened for susceptibility to Cry51Aa2...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069631/pollination-reservoirs-in-lowbush-blueberry-ericales-ericaceae
#17
E M Venturini, F A Drummond, A K Hoshide, A C Dibble, L B Stack
Pollinator-dependent agriculture heavily relies upon a single pollinator-the honey bee. To diversify pollination strategies, growers are turning to alternatives. Densely planted reservoirs of pollen- and nectar-rich flowers (pollination reservoirs, hereafter "PRs") may improve pollination services provided by wild bees. Our focal agroecosystem, lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton), exists in a simple landscape uniquely positioned to benefit from PRs. First, we contrast bee visitation rates and use of three types of PR...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065928/unveiling-the-osmophores-of-philodendron-adamantinum-araceae-as-a-means-to-understanding-interactions-with-pollinators
#18
Patrícia Gonçalves-Souza, Clemens Schlindwein, Stefan Dötterl, Elder Antônio Sousa Paiva
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Araceae species pollinated by nocturnal Cyclocephalini beetles attract their pollinators by inflorescence scents. In Philodendron, despite the intense odour, the osmophores exhibit no definite morphological identity, making them difficult to locate. This may explain why structural studies of the scent-releasing tissue are not available so far. METHODS: Several approaches were employed for locating and understanding the osmophores of Philodendron adamantinum A sensory test allowed other analyses to be restricted to fertile and sterile stamens as odour production sites...
January 8, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064439/eugenol-specialty-chemical-production-in-transgenic-poplar-populus-tremula-%C3%A3-p-alba-field-trials
#19
Da Lu, Xianghe Yuan, Sung-Jin Kim, Joaquim V Marques, P Pawan Chakravarthy, Syed G A Moinuddin, Randi Luchterhand, Barri Herman, Laurence B Davin, Norman G Lewis
A foundational study assessed effects of biochemical pathway introduction into poplar to produce eugenol, chavicol, p-anol, isoeugenol, and their sequestered storage products, from potentially available substrates, coniferyl and p-coumaryl alcohols. At the onset, it was unknown whether significant carbon flux to monolignols vs other phenylpropanoid (acetate) pathway metabolites would be kinetically favored. Various transgenic poplar lines generated eugenol and chavicol glucosides in ca. 0.45% (~0.35 and ~0...
January 8, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064193/time-indices-of-multiphasic-development-in-genotypes-of-sweet-cherry-are-similar-from-dormancy-to-cessation-of-pit-growth
#20
David M Gibeaut, Matthew D Whiting, Todd Einhorn
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The archetypical double sigmoid-shaped growth curve of the sweet cherry drupe (Prunus avium) does not address critical development from eco-dormancy to anthesis and has not been correlated to reproductive bud development. Accurate representation of the growth and development of post-anthesis ovaries is confounded by anthesis timing, fruiting-density and the presence of unfertilized and defective ovaries whose growth differs from those that persist to maturation. These factors were addressed to assess pre-anthesis and full-season growth and development of three sweet cherry cultivars, 'Chelan', 'Bing' and 'Sweetheart', differing primarily in seasonal duration and fruit size...
January 7, 2017: Annals of Botany
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