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Dna extraction grasses

Rohini Keshava, Nagesh Muniyappa, Rajalakshmi Gope, Ananthanarayana Saligrama Ramaswamaiah
Imperata cylindrica, a tall tufted grass which has multiple pharmacological applications is one of the key ingredients in various traditional medicinal formula used in India. Previous reports have shown that I. cylindrica plant extract inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in various cancer cell lines. To our knowledge, no studies have been published on the effect of I. cylindrica leaf extract on human oral cancers. The present study was undertaken in order to evaluate the anticancer properties of the leaf extract of I...
2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Si Hong Park, Sang In Lee, Steven C Ricke
Prebiotics are non-digestible carbohydrate dietary supplements that selectively stimulate the growth of one or more beneficial bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract of the host. These bacteria can inhibit colonization of pathogenic bacteria by producing antimicrobial substances such as short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and competing for niches with pathogens within the gut. Pasture flock chickens are generally raised outdoors with fresh grass, sunlight and air, which represents different environmental growth conditions compared to conventionally raised chickens...
2016: PloS One
Ilma Tapio, Kevin J Shingfield, Nest McKain, Aurélie Bonin, Daniel Fischer, Ali R Bayat, Johanna Vilkki, Pierre Taberlet, Timothy J Snelling, R John Wallace
Microbial community analysis was carried out on ruminal digesta obtained directly via rumen fistula and buccal fluid, regurgitated digesta (bolus) and faeces of dairy cattle to assess if non-invasive samples could be used as proxies for ruminal digesta. Samples were collected from five cows receiving grass silage based diets containing no additional lipid or four different lipid supplements in a 5 x 5 Latin square design. Extracted DNA was analysed by qPCR and by sequencing 16S and 18S rRNA genes or the fungal ITS1 amplicons...
2016: PloS One
Pei-Fa Yu, Qing-Li Niu, Zhi-Jie Liu, Ji-Fei Yang, Ze Chen, Gui-Quan Guan, Guang-Yuan Liu, Jian-Xun Luo, Hong Yin
An investigation was performed to detect eight pathogens in ticks collected from grass tips or animals in the southern, central and northeast regions of China. DNA samples extracted from ticks were collected from ten different locations in eight provinces of China and subjected to screening for tick-borne pathogens, including Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Ehrlichia spp., Rickettsia spp., Babesia/Theileria spp., Ehrlichia ruminantium, Coxiella burnetii, and Francisella tularensis, using nested PCR assays and sequencing analysis...
June 2016: Acta Tropica
Melanie B Lengowski, Karin H R Zuber, Maren Witzig, Jens Möhring, Jeannette Boguhn, Markus Rodehutscord
This study examined ruminal microbial community composition alterations during initial adaption to and following incubation in a rumen simulation system (Rusitec) using grass or corn silage as substrates. Samples were collected from fermenter liquids at 0, 2, 4, 12, 24, and 48 h and from feed residues at 0, 24, and 48 h after initiation of incubation (period 1) and on day 13 (period 2). Microbial DNA was extracted and real-time qPCR was used to quantify differences in the abundance of protozoa, methanogens, total bacteria, Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus albus, Ruminobacter amylophilus, Prevotella bryantii, Selenomonas ruminantium, and Clostridium aminophilum...
2016: PloS One
Amanda Dargay, Reena Roy
Body fluids detected on commonly found crime scene substrates require extraction, purification and quantitation of DNA prior to amplification and generation of short tandem repeat (STR) DNA profiles. In this research Y-STR profiles were generated via direct amplification of blood and saliva deposited on 12 different substrates. These included cigarette butts, straws, grass, leaves, woodchips and seven different types of fabric. After depositing either 0.1 μL of blood or 0.5 μL of saliva, each substrate containing the dry body fluid stain was punched using a Harris 1...
April 2016: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
F Wemheuer, B Wemheuer, D Kretzschmar, B Pfeiffer, S Herzog, R Daniel, S Vidal
UNLABELLED: Most plant species are colonized by endophytic bacteria. Despite their importance for plant health and growth, the response of these bacteria to grassland management regimes is still not understood. Hence, we investigated the bacterial community structure in three agricultural important grass species Dactylis glomerata L., Festuca rubra L. and Lolium perenne L. with regard to fertilizer application and different mowing frequencies. For this purpose, above-ground plant material was collected from the Grassland Management Experiment (GrassMan) in Germany in September 2010 and 2011...
April 2016: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Anthony J Rietl, Megan E Overlander, Andrew J Nyman, Colin R Jackson
Saltmarshes are typically dominated by perennial grasses with large underground rhizome systems that can change local sediment conditions and be important in shaping the sediment microbial community. Factors such as salinity that control plant zonation in saltmarshes are also likely to influence the microbial community, but little is known as to whether microbial communities share distribution patterns with plants in these systems. To determine the extent to which microbial assemblages are influenced by saltmarsh plant communities, as well as to examine patterns in microbial community structure at local and regional scales, we sampled sediments at three saltmarshes in Louisiana, USA...
February 2016: Microbial Ecology
Matthew Sean McCabe, Paul Cormican, Kate Keogh, Aaron O'Connor, Eoin O'Hara, Rafael Alejandro Palladino, David Anthony Kenny, Sinéad Mary Waters
Periodic feed restriction is used in cattle production to reduce feed costs. When normal feed levels are resumed, cattle catch up to a normal weight by an acceleration of normal growth rate, known as compensatory growth, which is not yet fully understood. Illumina Miseq Phylogenetic marker amplicon sequencing of DNA extracted from rumen contents of 55 bulls showed that restriction of feed (70% concentrate, 30% grass silage) for 125 days, to levels that caused a 60% reduction of growth rate, resulted in a large increase of relative abundance of Methanobrevibacter gottschalkii clade (designated as OTU-M7), and a large reduction of an uncharacterised Succinivibrionaceae species (designated as OTU-S3004)...
2015: PloS One
K G Savchenko, L M Carris, L A Castlebury, V P Heluta, S P Wasser, E Nevo
Stripe smut of grasses, Ustilago striiformis s.l., is a complex of smut fungi widely distributed over temperate and subtropical regions. The disease results in the shredding and death of leaf tissue following the rupture of elongated sori. Nearly 100 different grass species in more than 30 genera are infected by stripe smut. During the last two centuries more than 30 smut taxa have been described from members of this complex. The present study attempts to clarify the taxonomy and phylogeny of stripe smuts on grasses by analysing both morphological and molecular data...
December 2014: Persoonia
Madeleine S Bloch, Daniela Paunescu, Philipp R Stoessel, Carlos A Mora, Wendelin J Stark, Robert N Grass
The capability of tracing a food product along its production chain is important to ensure food safety and product authenticity. For this purpose and as an application example, recently developed Silica Particles with Encapsulated DNA (SPED) were added to milk at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 100 ppb (μg per kg milk). Thereby the milk, as well as the milk-derived products yoghurt and cheese, could be uniquely labeled with a DNA tag. Procedures for the extraction of the DNA tags from the food matrixes were elaborated and allowed identification and quantification of previously marked products by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) with detection limits below 1 ppb of added particles...
October 29, 2014: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Ken Kraaijeveld, Letty A de Weger, Marina Ventayol García, Henk Buermans, Jeroen Frank, Pieter S Hiemstra, Johan T den Dunnen
Pollen monitoring is an important and widely used tool in allergy research and creation of awareness in pollen-allergic patients. Current pollen monitoring methods are microscope-based, labour intensive and cannot identify pollen to the genus level in some relevant allergenic plant groups. Therefore, a more efficient, cost-effective and sensitive method is needed. Here, we present a method for identification and quantification of airborne pollen using DNA sequencing. Pollen is collected from ambient air using standard techniques...
January 2015: Molecular Ecology Resources
Chhavi Mahajan, B S Chadha, Lata Nain, Amarjeet Kaur
The aim of this work was to evaluate glycosyl hydrolases produced by diverse thermophilic fungal strains for saccharification of alkali and biologically (Trametes hirusita/Myrothecium roridum) treated Parthenium hysterophorus and rice straw. The compositional analysis of hydrolysates by HPLC showed distinct profiles of hexose, pentose and oligomeric sugars. Malbranchea cinnamomea was most efficient source of glycosyl hydrolases producing 283.8, 35.9, 129.6, 27,193, 4.66, 7.26(units/gds) of endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase, β-glucosidase, xylanase, α-αrabinofuranosidase and β xylosidase, respectively...
July 2014: Bioresource Technology
YingWu Shi, Xuebing Zhang, Kai Lou
Abstract Endophytic microorganisms reside within plant tissues and have often been found to promote plant growth. In this study, endophytic microorganisms were isolated from the roots, stems, leaves, and seeds of healthy drunken horse grass, Achnatherum inebrians (Hance) Keng (Poales: Poaceae), through the use of a grinding separation method and identified by a dual approach of morphological and physiological observation and 16S rRNA gene-based (for bacteria) and internal transcribed sequence-based (for fungi) molecular identification...
2013: Journal of Insect Science
Christophe Délye, Romain Causse, Véronique Gautier, Charles Poncet, Séverine Michel
BACKGROUND: Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies offer tremendous possibilities for accurate detection of mutations endowing pesticide resistance, yet their use for this purpose has not emerged in crop protection. This study aims at promoting NGS use for pesticide resistance diagnosis. It describes a simple procedure accessible to virtually any scientist and implementing freely accessible programs for the analysis of NGS data. RESULTS: Three PCR amplicons encompassing seven codons of the acetolactate-synthase gene crucial for herbicide resistance were sequenced using non-quantified pools of crude DNA extracts from 40 plants in each of 28 field populations of barnyard grass, a polyploid weed...
May 2015: Pest Management Science
C Almeida, H Ortega, S Higginbotham, C Spadafora, A E Arnold, P D Coley, T A Kursar, W H Gerwick, L Cubilla-Rios
UNLABELLED: In screening for natural products with antiparasitic activity, an endophytic fungus, strain F2611, isolated from above-ground tissue of the tropical grass Paspalum conjugatum (Poaceae) in Panama, was chosen for bioactive principle elucidation. Cultivation on malt extract agar (MEA) followed by bioassay-guided chromatographic fractionation of the extract led to the isolation of the new polyketide integrasone B (1) and two known mycotoxins, sterigmatocystin (2) and secosterigmatocystin (3)...
July 2014: Letters in Applied Microbiology
L A Omoniyi, K A Jewell, O A Isah, A P Neumann, C F I Onwuka, O M Onagbesan, G Suen
AIMS: To measure the impact of supplementing a forage diet with tree-based browse on the ruminal bacterial communities of Nigerian West African Dwarf (WAD) sheep. METHODS AND RESULTS: Fifteen WAD sheep were fed a control diet of forage (Panicum maximum), with 12 animals shifted in groups of three to one of four browse-supplemented diets (Albizia saman, Bridelia micrantha, Ficus sur, or Gmelina arborea). These browse plants were shown in a concurrent but separate study to be reasonably nutritious (based on chemical composition and fibre constituents) and nontoxic (based on tannin, phytate, saponin, alkaloid and oxalate levels)...
May 2014: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Varadharajan Subhadradevi, Kuppusamy Asokkumar, Muthuswamy Umamaheswari, Andichettiarthirumalasia Sivashanmugam, Rajakannu Sankaranand
Free radicals induce numerous diseases by lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. It has been reported that some of the extracts from plants possess antioxidant properties capable of scavenging free radicals in vivo. Vetiveria zizanioides belonging to the family Gramineae, is a densely tufted grass which is widely used as a traditional plant for aromatherapy, to relieve stress, anxiety, nervous tension and insomnia. In this regard, the roots of V zizanioides was extracted with ethanol and used for the evaluation of various in vitro antioxidant activities such as reducing power ability, superoxide anion radical scavenging activity, deoxyribose degradation assay, total antioxidant capacity, total phenolics and total flavonoid composition...
October 2010: Tanzania Journal of Health Research
Megan L Coghlan, Nicole E White, Dáithí C Murray, Jayne Houston, William Rutherford, Matthew I Bellgard, James Haile, Michael Bunce
BACKGROUND: Wildlife collisions with aircraft cost the airline industry billions of dollars per annum and represent a public safety risk. Clearly, adapting aerodrome habitats to become less attractive to hazardous wildlife will reduce the incidence of collisions. Formulating effective habitat management strategies relies on accurate species identification of high-risk species. This can be successfully achieved for all strikes either through morphology and/or DNA-based identifications...
2013: Investigative Genetics
Qinxue Ni, Guangzhi Xu, Qianxin Gao, Dongdong Yang, Youzuo Zhang
Reactive oxygen species scavenging effect of Pleioblastus kongosanensis f. aureostriatus leaf extract against O2(-), OH and H2O2 were investigated by chemiluminescence methods in vitro. Bamboo grass leaves were extracted with 70% ethanol solution and sequentially partitioned with solvents in an order of increasing polarity. Among fractions of different polarity, BuOH and EtOAc fractions showed powerful scavenging activities than others, and showed better scavenging ability on OH than that of O2(-)and H2O2, with IC50 of 0...
November 5, 2013: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
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