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Oxidant stress

Ryan Rosenberry, Susie Chung, Michael D Nelson
Exercise represents a major hemodynamic stress that demands a highly coordinated neurovascular response in order to match oxygen delivery to metabolic demand. Reactive hyperemia (in response to a brief period of tissue ischemia) is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events and provides important insight into vascular health and vasodilatory capacity. Skeletal muscle oxidative capacity is equally important in health and disease, as it determines the energy supply for myocellular processes. Here, we describe a simple, non-invasive approach using near-infrared spectroscopy to assess each of these major clinical endpoints (reactive hyperemia, neurovascular coupling, and muscle oxidative capacity) during a single clinic or laboratory visit...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Nahide Ekici Günay, Sabahattin Muhtaroğlu, Abdulkadir Bedirli
BACKGROUND: Free radical damage is known to occur during liver regeneration. The Ginkgo biloba extract EGb761 has antioxidant properties due to its ability to scavenge free radicals. FK506 has been widely used as an immunosuppressant that stimulates hepatocyte proliferation following partial hepatectomy. AIMS: To explore whether EGb761 enhances liver regeneration after hepatectomy in rats, we investigated the effects of EGb761 alone and in combination with FK506 on the liver regenerative process...
March 15, 2018: Balkan Medical Journal
Keiichi Torimoto, Yosuke Okada, Yoshiya Tanaka
Vascular endothelial function is important for maintaining the homeostasis of the living body. Especially, nitric oxide (NO) produced in vascular endothelial cells regulates blood vessel tone and has an antiatherosclerotic effect. Type 2 diabetes is a typical disease that causes impaired vascular endothelial function, resulting in various vascular complications and damage to organs. Cardiovascular disease associated with type 2 diabetes is a chronic inflammatory disease that starts with endothelial dysfunction (ED), and vascular ED is important as an initial change in arteriosclerotic lesions...
2018: Journal of UOEH
István Pócsi, Gábor Király, Gáspár Bánfalvi
Fungal toxins are secondary metabolites, in which many of them were mycotoxins, affecting eukaryotic cells with a broad range of structural and functional variety contributing to the multitude of their classification. This refers to the harmful genotoxic (mutagenic, teratogenic, and carcinogenic) effects of mycotoxins on the one hand, and their cytocidic and antineoplastic properties on the other hand. This "double edged sword" effect could be utilized against the spread of tumors in older patients when the survival is much more important than the mutagenic side effects...
March 19, 2018: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Jing Tian, Rong Lv, Wei Guo
Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is characterized by left ventricular hypertrophy, myocardial fibrosis and diastolic dysfunction, which are uncorrelated with underlying coronary artery disease or hypertension. As an important metabolic organelle, mitochondria directly involve the process of cell growth, proliferation, signal transduction, apoptosis and so on. Recent studies have demonstrated a close correlation between the mitochondrial dysfunction and the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy. The underlying effects of mitochondrial dysfunction in the progress of diabetic cardiomyopathy involve disturbed metabolism, oxidative stress, defective calcium handling, mitochondrial uncoupling, apoptosis, imbalance of mitochondrial quality control and regulation of MicroRNAs...
January 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Xuefeng Wu, Hongli Yao, Qing Liu, Zhi Zheng, Lili Cao, Dongdong Mu, Hualin Wang, Shaotong Jiang, Xingjiang Li
The acetic acid bacterium Acetobacter pasteurianus plays an important role in acetic acid fermentation, which involves oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid through the ethanol respiratory chain under specific conditions. In order to obtain more suitable bacteria for the acetic acid industry, A. pasteurianus JST-S screened in this laboratory was compared with A. pasteurianus CICC 20001, a current industrial strain in China, to determine optimal fermentation parameters under different environmental stresses. The maximum total acid content of A...
March 19, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Ritu S Sharma, David J Harrison, Dorothy Kisielewski, Diane M Cassidy, Alison D McNeilly, Jennifer R Gallagher, Shaun V Walsh, Tadashi Honda, Rory J McCrimmon, Albena T Dinkova-Kostova, Michael L J Ashford, John F Dillon, John D Hayes
Background & Aims: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is associated with oxidative stress. We surmised that pharmacologic activation of NF-E2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2) using the acetylenic tricyclic bis(cyano enone) TBE-31 would suppress NASH because Nrf2 is a transcriptional master regulator of intracellular redox homeostasis. Methods: Nrf2 +/+ and Nrf2 -/- C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat plus fructose (HFFr) or regular chow diet for 16 weeks or 30 weeks, and then treated for the final 6 weeks, while still being fed the same HFFr or regular chow diets, with either TBE-31 or dimethyl sulfoxide vehicle control...
March 2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Laura C D Pomatto, Sarah Wong, John Tower, Kelvin J A Davies
Adaptive homeostasis enables rapid cellular signaling, leading to transcriptional and translational modifications (Davies, 2016) [1]. The Proteasome is one of the main cellular proteolytic enzymes that plays an essential role in the rapid clearance of oxidatively damaged cellular proteins, and is highly responsive to oxidative stress. Upon exposure to even very low, signaling levels of oxidants, the predominant form of the Proteasome becomes the ATP-independent 20S proteasome that enables rapid clearance of damaged proteins...
April 2018: Data in Brief
Fernando Francisco Borges Resende, Simoneide Souza Titze-de-Almeida, Ricardo Titze-de-Almeida
Astrocytic tumors, including astrocytomas and glioblastomas, are the most common type of primary brain tumors. Treatment for glioblastomas includes radiotherapy, chemotherapy with temozolomide (TMZ) and surgical ablation. Despite certain therapeutic advances, the survival time of patients is no longer than 12-14 months. Cancer cells overexpress the neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). In the present study, it was examined whether the nNOS enzyme serves a role in the damage of astrocytoma (U251MG and U138MG) and glioblastoma (U87MG) cells caused by TMZ...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Yajing Huo, Xuqing Wu, Jing Ding, Yang Geng, Weiwei Qiao, Anyan Ge, Cen Guo, Jianing Lv, Haifeng Bao, Wei Fan
Hyperhomocysteinemia, a risk factor for vascular disease, is associated with metabolic syndrome. Our study was aimed at exploring the effect of long-term hyperhomocysteinemia with metabolic disturbances on vascular remodeling. We also studied oxidative stress and expression of PPAR γ in the coronary arteriole as a possible mechanism underlying vascular remodeling. Rats were treated with standard rodent chow (Control) or diet enriched in methionine (Met) for 48 weeks. Plasma homocysteine, blood glucose, serum lipids, malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and nitric oxide (NO) levels were measured...
2018: PPAR Research
Anca Toiu, Andrei Mocan, Laurian Vlase, Alina E Pârvu, Dan C Vodnar, Ana-Maria Gheldiu, Cadmiel Moldovan, Ilioara Oniga
In the Romanian folk medicine, aerial parts of Ajuga laxmannii ("nobleman's beard," Romanian - "barba boierului" or "avrămească" or "creştinească") are traditionally used as galactagogue and anti-inflammatory agents. The present study aimed to evaluate the chemical composition (polyphenols, iridoids, and phytosterols), antioxidant, antimicrobial and in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of different extracts of A. laxmannii aerial parts. The major identified bioactive compounds were rutin, 8- O -acetylharpagide and β-sitosterol...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Raju Bishwakarma, Wei Zhang, Yu-Li Lin, Yong-Fang Kuo, Victor J Cardenas, Gulshan Sharma
Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with persistent systemic inflammation. Anti-inflammatory therapies have been shown to decrease acute exacerbations of COPD. The antidiabetic medication metformin decreases oxidative stress and inflammation and may benefit patients with COPD. We aimed at investigating the effect of metformin on health care utilizations in patients with coexisting COPD and diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods: We studied 5% Medicare beneficiaries with coexisting COPD and DM prescribed metformin or other antidiabetics during the period 2007-2010...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Dinesh Kumar Verma, Sonam Gupta, Joyshree Biswas, Neeraj Joshi, Abhishek Singh, Parul Gupta, Shubhangini Tiwari, K Sivarama Raju, Swati Chaturvedi, M Wahajuddin, Sarika Singh
Piracetam, a nootropic drug that has been clinically used for decades but remains enigmatic due to no distinct understanding of its mechanism of action. The present study aimed to investigate the role of caspase independent pathway in piracetam mediated neuroprotection. LPS administration caused significant alterations in oxidative stress related parameters like glutathione, glutathione reductase and increased lipid peroxidation. LPS administration also caused augmented expression of inflammatory cytokines and astrocytes activation...
March 15, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Yoko Hirata, Chika Yamada, Yuki Ito, Shotaro Yamamoto, Haruna Nagase, Kentaro Oh-Hashi, Kazutoshi Kiuchi, Hiromi Suzuki, Makoto Sawada, Kyoji Furuta
The current medical and surgical therapies for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease offer symptomatic relief but do not provide a cure. Thus, small synthetic compounds that protect neuronal cells from degeneration are critically needed to prevent and treat these. Oxidative stress has been implicated in various pathophysiological conditions, including neurodegenerative diseases. In a search for neuroprotective agents against oxidative stress using the murine hippocampal HT22 cell line, we found a novel oxindole compound, GIF-0726-r, which prevented oxidative stress-induced cell death, including glutamate-induced oxytosis and erastin-induced ferroptosis...
March 15, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Yan He, Kun Jia, Lei Li, Qi Wang, Shuhui Zhang, Jiaming Du, Heng Du
Mitochondrial dysfunction is a featured pathology underlying synaptic injury and neuronal stress in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In recent years, the vicious cycle between mitochondrial deficits and intra-neuronal Redox state imbalance has received considerable attention. In this regard, it is of great interest to determine whether antioxidants could alleviate mitochondrial dysfunction in AD-related conditions. Salvianolic acid B (SalB), a bioactive component of alvia miltiorrhiza Bge, is a potent antioxidant...
March 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Varda Shoshan-Barmatz, Edna Nahon-Crystal, Anna Shteinfer-Kuzmine, Rajeev Gupta
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder. Although an accumulation of brain amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide and hyperphosphorylated tau protein have been implicated in the pathogenesis of AD, the etiology of the disease remains unclear. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been identified as an early event in AD pathogenesis and is reflected by reduced metabolism, disruption of Ca2+ homeostasis, and increased levels of reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, and apoptosis. The focus of this review is the involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction in AD, and specifically, the role of the voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1), which has been linked to AD pathogenesis...
March 15, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
John J McMurtrey, Mark O M Tso
Most patients suffering from retinitis pigmentosa (RP) inherit the disorder; however, the immune-pathologic features associated with this disease have yet to be extensively studied. Six reports correlate anti-retinal immune activity with vision deterioration in RP patients. Some of these patients have sporadic RP that occurs in excess of expected gene segregation during inheritance. The hypothesis that a primary immune-mediated disease process occurs in this sporadic group is supported by significant associations of RP with autoimmune endocrinopathies and other immune related conditions or factors; however, no immunologic difference regarding RP family history is reported in the peripheral blood studies of RP patients...
March 15, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
Meenakshi Ravichandran, Steffen Priebe, Giovanna Grigolon, Leonid Rozanov, Marco Groth, Beate Laube, Reinhard Guthke, Matthias Platzer, Kim Zarse, Michael Ristow
Whether and how regulation of genes and pathways contributes to physiological aging is topic of intense scientific debate. By performing an RNA expression-based screen for genes downregulated during aging of three different species, we identified glycine-C-acetyltransferase (GCAT, EC Impairing gcat expression promotes the lifespan of C. elegans by interfering with threonine catabolism to promote methylglyoxal (MGO; CAS 78-98-8) formation in an amine oxidase-dependent manner. MGO is a reactive dicarbonyl inducing diabetic complications in mammals by causing oxidative stress and damaging cellular components, including proteins...
March 3, 2018: Cell Metabolism
Gang Xiao, Lai N Chan, Lars Klemm, Daniel Braas, Zhengshan Chen, Huimin Geng, Qiuyi Chen Zhang, Ali Aghajanirefah, Kadriye Nehir Cosgun, Teresa Sadras, Jaewoong Lee, Tamara Mirzapoiazova, Ravi Salgia, Thomas Ernst, Andreas Hochhaus, Hassan Jumaa, Xiaoyan Jiang, David M Weinstock, Thomas G Graeber, Markus Müschen
B cell activation during normal immune responses and oncogenic transformation impose increased metabolic demands on B cells and their ability to retain redox homeostasis. While the serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) was identified as a tumor suppressor in multiple types of cancer, our genetic studies revealed an essential role of PP2A in B cell tumors. Thereby, PP2A redirects glucose carbon utilization from glycolysis to the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) to salvage oxidative stress. This unique vulnerability reflects constitutively low PPP activity in B cells and transcriptional repression of G6PD and other key PPP enzymes by the B cell transcription factors PAX5 and IKZF1...
March 6, 2018: Cell
Diana Fang, Eduardo N Maldonado
Cancer metabolism is emerging as a chemotherapeutic target. Enhanced glycolysis and suppression of mitochondrial metabolism characterize the Warburg phenotype in cancer cells. The flux of respiratory substrates, ADP, and Pi into mitochondria and the release of mitochondrial ATP to the cytosol occur through voltage-dependent anion channels (VDACs) located in the mitochondrial outer membrane. Catabolism of respiratory substrates in the Krebs cycle generates NADH and FADH2 that enter the electron transport chain (ETC) to generate a proton motive force that maintains mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ) and is utilized to generate ATP...
2018: Advances in Cancer Research
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