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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793180/insulin-is-a-potential-antioxidant-for-diabetes-associated-cognitive-decline-via-regulating-nrf2-dependent-antioxidant-enzymes
#1
Ying Song, Wei Ding, Yun Bei, Yan Xiao, Hai-Da Tong, Li-Bo Wang, Li-Yao Ai
PURPOSE: To investigate the neuroprotective effects of insulin on diabetic encephalopathy and its mechanism. EXPERIMENTAL AND APPROACH: The diabetic model was established by injection of streptozotocin. Behavior examinations were conducted by the Morris water maze. Histopathological alterations were detected by HE staining. ROS, CAT levels and SOD activity were measured using a microplate reader. In vitro, the viability of wild type and knock-down PC12 cells was detected by MTT assay, the morphology of cells was monitored under a microscope...
May 21, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793165/inhibition-of-acetaminophen-induced-hepatotoxicity-in-mice-by-exogenous-thymosin%C3%AE-4-treatment
#2
Lei Wang, Xiankui Li, Cai Chen
OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of exogenous thymosinβ4 (Tβ4) treatment in acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity. METHODS: Liver injury was induced in mice by a single intraperitoneal injection of APAP (500 mg/kg). Exogenous Tβ4 was intraperitoneally administrated at 0 h, 2 h and 4 h after APAP injection. Chloroquine (CQ) (60 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally injected 2 h before APAP administration to inhibit autophagy. Six hours after APAP injection liver injury was evaluated by histological examinations, biochemical measurements and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISAs)...
May 21, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793152/identification-of-seven-polyamine-oxidase-genes-in-tomato-solanum-lycopersicum-l-and-their-expression-profiles-under-physiological-and-various-stress-conditions
#3
Yanwei Hao, Binbin Huang, Dongyu Jia, Taylor Mann, Xinyi Jiang, Yuxing Qiu, Masaru Niitsu, Thomas Berberich, Tomonobu Kusano, Taibo Liu
Polyamines (PAs) are implicated in developmental processes and stress responses of plants. Polyamine oxidases (PAOs), flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent enzymes that function in PA catabolism, play a critical role. Even though PAO gene families of Arabidopsis and rice have been intensely characterized and their expression in response to developmental and environmental changes has been investigated, little is known about PAOs in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). We found seven PAO genes in S. lycopersicum and named them SlPAO1∼7...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793105/copd-rat-model-is-more-susceptible-to-cold-stress-and-pm-2-5-exposure-and-the-underlying-mechanism
#4
Kai Zhang, Lei Guo, Qiaozhen Wei, Quanquan Song, Jiangtao Liu, Jingping Niu, Li Zhang, Ye Ruan, Bin Luo
The purpose of this study is to verify the hypothesis that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) model rat is more susceptible to cold stress and fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) exposure than the healthy rat, and explore the related mechanism. COPD rat model, established with cigarette smoke and lipopolysaccharide intratracheal instillation, were exposed to cold stress (0 °C) and PM2.5 (0, 3.2, 12.8 mg/ml). After that, the levels of superoxide dismutase, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) and angiotensin Ⅱ (Ang-Ⅱ) in lung were measured, as well as the expression levels of lung 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)...
May 21, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793040/quinones-and-nitroaromatic-compounds-as-subversive-substrates-of-staphylococcus-aureus-flavohemoglobin
#5
Myriam Moussaoui, Lina Misevičienė, Žilvinas Anusevičius, Audronė Marozienė, Florence Lederer, Laura Baciou, Narimantas Čėnas
In microorganisms, flavohemoglobins (FHbs) containing FAD and heme (Fe3+ , metHb) convert NO. into nitrate at the expense of NADH and O2 . FHbs contribute to bacterial resistance to nitrosative stress. Therefore, inhibition of FHbs functions may decrease the pathogen virulence. We report here a kinetic study of the reduction of quinones and nitroaromatic compounds by S. aureus FHb. We show that this enzyme rapidly reduces quinones and nitroaromatic compounds in a mixed single- and two-electron pathway. The reactivity of nitroaromatics increased upon an increase in their single-electron reduction potential (E1 7 ), whereas the reactivity of quinones poorly depended on their E1 7 with a strong preference for a 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone structure...
May 21, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792955/fisetin-alleviates-oxidative-stress-after-traumatic-brain-injury-via-the-nrf2-are-pathway
#6
Li Zhang, Handong Wang, Yali Zhou, Yihao Zhu, Maoxin Fei
Fisetin, a natural flavonoid, has neuroprotection properties in many brain injury models. However, its role in traumatic brain injury (TBI) has not been fully explained. In the present study, we aimed to explore the neuroprotective effects of fisetin in a mouse model of TBI. We found that fisetin improved neurological function, reduced cerebral edema, attenuated brain lesion and ameliorated blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption after TBI. Moreover, the up-regulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were reversed by fisetin treatment...
May 21, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792932/cystine-glutamate-transporter-system-x-c-is-involved-in-nitric-oxide-production-in-mouse-peritoneal-macrophages
#7
Sho Kobayashi, Shinji Hamashima, Takujiro Homma, Mami Sato, Ryosuke Kusumi, Shiro Bannai, Junich Fujii, Hideyo Sato
The amino acid transport system xc - is important for maintaining intracellular glutathione levels and extracellular redox balance. The main component of system xc - , xCT, is strongly induced by various stimuli, including oxidative stress and bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in macrophages. In the present study, we investigated the production of nitric oxide by LPS-stimulated mouse peritoneal macrophages isolated from both xCT-deficient and wild-type mice. After culturing macrophages in the presence of LPS for 24-48 h, nitrite levels in the medium of xCT-deficient macrophages were significantly decreased compared to that of wild-type cells...
May 21, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792927/bacillus-subtilis-as-probiotic-candidate-for-red-sea-bream-growth-performance-oxidative-status-and-immune-response-traits
#8
Amr I Zaineldin, Sayed Hegazi, Shunsuke Koshio, Manabu Ishikawa, Abdulnasser Bakr, Abeer M S El-Keredy, Mahmoud A O Dawood, Serge Dossou, Weilong Wang, Zhang Yukun
The effects of dietary administration of Bacillus subtilis on the growth, digestive enzyme activity, blood chemistry, oxidative status and immune response of red sea bream (Pagrus major) were evaluated in the current study. Fish fed five different levels of B. subtilis at 0 (BS0), 1 × 104 (BS1), 1 × 106 (BS2), 1 × 108 (BS3) and 1 × 1010 (BS4) CFU kg-1 diet for 60 days. The obtained results showed that B. subtilis supplementation significantly improved growth performance (FBW, WG and SGR), feed utilization (FI, FCE, PER and PG) and whole-body protein content when compared to the control group (P < 0...
May 21, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792889/ros-triggered-degradable-iron-chelating-nanogels-safely-improving-iron-elimination-in-vivo
#9
Zhi Liu, Jing Qiao, Tamas Nagy, May P Xiong
Iron-mediated generation of highly toxic Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) plays a major role in the process leading to iron overload-related diseases. The long-term subcutaneous administration of Deferoxamine (DFO) is currently clinically-approved to improve patient symptoms and survival. However, non-specific toxicity and short circulation times of the drug in humans often leads to poor patient compliance. Herein, thioketal-based ROS-responsive polymeric nanogels containing DFO moieties (rNG-DFO) were designed to chelate iron and to degrade under oxidative stimuli into fragments <10 nm to enhance excretion of iron-bound chelates...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792861/nlgn3-protects-retinal-cells-from-h-2-o-2-via-activating-nrf2-signaling
#10
Xiu-Miao Li, Dan Huang, Qing Yu, Jin Yao, Jian Yang
Intensified oxidative stress can cause severe damage to human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). The potential effect of neuroligin-3 (NLGN3) against the process is studied here. Our results show that NLGN3 efficiently inhibited hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 )-induced death and apoptosis in human RPE cells and RGCs. H2 O2 -induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, lipid peroxidation and DNA damage in retinal cells were alleviated by NLGN3. NLGN3 activated nuclear-factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling, enabling Nrf2 protein stabilization, nuclear translocation and expression of key anti-oxidant enzymes (HO1, NOQ1 and GCLC) in RPE cells and RGCs...
May 21, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792860/diphenyleneiodonium-enhances-oxidative-stress-and-inhibits-japanese-encephalitis-virus-induced-autophagy-and-er-stress-pathways
#11
Manish Sharma, Kiran Bala Sharma, Shailendra Chauhan, Sankar Bhattacharyya, Sudhanshu Vrati, Manjula Kalia
Diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), two widely used anti-oxidants, were employed to evaluate the role of oxidative stress in Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) induced autophagy, stress responses and replication. DPI and NAC exerted opposite effects on ROS levels in JEV infected mouse neuronal cells (Neuro2a), mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and human epithelial cells (HeLa). While NAC effectively quenched ROS, DPI enhanced ROS levels, suggesting that DPI induces oxidative stress in JEV infected cells...
May 21, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792821/exhaustive-exercise-induced-oxidative-stress-alteration-of-erythrocyte-oxygen-release-capacity
#12
Yanlian Xiong, Yanlei Xiong, Yueming Wang, Yajin Zhao, Yaojin Li, Yang Ren, Ruofeng Wang, Mingzi Zhao, Yitong Hao, Haibei Liu, Xiang Wang
The aim of the present study is to explore the effect of exhaustive running exercise (ERE) in the oxygen release capacity of rat erythrocytes. Rats were divided into sedentary control (C), moderate running exercise (MRE) and exhaustive running exercise groups. The thermodynamics and kinetics properties of the erythrocyte oxygen release process of different groups were tested. We also determined the degree of band-3 oxidative and phosphorylation, anion transport activity and carbonic anhydrase isoform II(CAII) activity...
May 24, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792731/apr3-modulates-oxidative-stress-and-mitochondrial-function-in-arpe-19-cells
#13
Yuan Li, Xuan Zou, Jing Gao, Ke Cao, Zhihui Feng, Jiankang Liu
Impairment of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells is considered a key contributor to the development of age-related macular degeneration. Apoptosis-related protein 3 (APR3) was recently discovered after treatment with all- trans retinoic acid, a pivotal molecule in RPE cells. However, the function of APR3 remains poorly understood. In the present study, we found that APR3 could interact with nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2, which is a regulator of phase II enzymes, and that knockdown of APR3 promoted nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 nuclear translocation and activated expression of phase II enzymes, which was accompanied by improved redox status and mitochondrial activity...
May 24, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792672/biosynthesis-of-lincosamide-antibiotics-reactions-associated-with-degradation-and-detoxification-pathways-play-a-constructive-role
#14
Daozhong Zhang, Zhijun Tang, Wen Liu
Natural products typically are small molecules produced by living organisms. These products possess a wide variety of biological activities and thus have historically played a critical role in medicinal chemistry and chemical biology either as chemotherapeutic agents or as useful tools. Natural products are not synthesized for use by human beings; rather, living organisms produce them in response to various biochemical processes and environmental concerns, both internal and external. These processes/concerns are often dynamic and thus motivate the diversification, optimization, and selection of small molecules in line with changes in biological function...
May 24, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792199/nanoparticle-delivery-of-grape-seed-derived-proanthocyanidins-to-airway-epithelial-cells-dampens-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation
#15
S Castellani, A Trapani, A Spagnoletta, L di Toma, T Magrone, S Di Gioia, D Mandracchia, G Trapani, E Jirillo, M Conese
BACKGROUND: Chronic respiratory diseases, whose one of the hallmarks is oxidative stress, are still incurable and need novel therapeutic tools and pharmaceutical agents. The phenolic compounds contained in grape are endowed with well-recognized anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-aging activities. Considering that natural anti-oxidants, such as proanthocyanidins, have poor water solubility and oral bioavailability, we have developed a drug delivery system based on solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN), apt to encapsulate grape seed extract (GSE), containing proanthocyanidins...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792152/sorbinil-an-aldolase-reductase-inhibitor-in-fighting-against-diabetic-complications
#16
Qi Huang, Qiong Liu, Dongsheng Ouyang
BACKGROUND: Aldose reductase (AR) is involved in pathogenesis of diabetes, which is one of the major threats to global public health. OBJECTIVE: In this review article, we have discussed the role of sorbinil, an AR inhibitor (ARI), in preventing diabetic complications. RESULTS: AR contributes in diabetes by generating excess intracellular superoxide and other mediators of oxidative stress through polyol pathway. Inhibition of AR activity thus might be potential approach for the management of diabetic complications...
May 23, 2018: Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792147/crystal-structure-of-mistletoe-lectin-i-ml-i-from-viscum-album-in-complex-with-4-n-furfurylcytosine-at-2-85-%C3%A3-resolution
#17
Malik Shoaib Ahmad, Saima Rasheed, Sven Falke, Binish Khaliq, Markus Perbandt, M Iqbal Choudhary, Wojciech T Markiewicz, Jan Barciszewski, Christian Betzel
BACKGROUND: Viscum album (the European mistletoe) is a semi-parasitic plant, which is of high medical interest. It is widely found in Europe, Asia and North America. It contains at least three distinct lectins (i.e. ML-I, II, and III), varying in molecular mass and specificity. Among them ML-I is in focus of medical research for various activities, including anti-cancer activities. To understand the molecular basis for such medical applications a few studies have already addressed the structural and functional analysis of ML-I in complex with ligands...
May 23, 2018: Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792055/the-effect-of-the-modes-of-delivery-on-the-maternal-and-neonatal-dynamic-thiol-disulfide-homeostasis
#18
Dilek Ulubas Isik, Yıldız Akdaş Reis, Ahmet Yagmur Bas, Sezin Unal, Beyza Ozcan, Leyla Mollamahmutoğlu, Salim Neselioglu, Ozcan Erel, Nihal Demirel
BACKGROUND: Thiols are organic compounds containing sulfhydryl groups which exert antioxidant effects via dynamic thiol-disulfide homeostasis. The shift towards disulfide indicates the presence of oxidative environment. The thiol-disulfide homeostasis has not been studied in different mode of delivery before. AIMS: To investigate the effects of mode of parturition on the thiol-disulfide homeostasis in mothers and term infants. STUDY DESIGN: The participants were grouped according to the mode of their delivery: vaginal delivery group (vaginal delivery (VD), n = 40) and cesarean group (C/S, n = 40)...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791760/neopterin-7-8-dihydroneopterin-is-elevated-in-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-patients-and-protects-mdx-skeletal-muscle-function
#19
Angus Lindsay, Alexandra Schmiechen, Christopher M Chamberlain, James M Ervasti, Dawn A Lowe
Macrophage infiltration is a hallmark of dystrophin-deficient muscle. We tested the hypothesis that Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients would have elevated levels of the macrophage synthesized pterins, neopterin and 7,8-dihydroneopterin compared to unaffected age-matched controls. Urinary neopterin/creatinine and 7,8-dihydroneopterin/creatinine were elevated in DMD patients and 7,8-dihydroneopterin/creatinine was associated with patient age and ambulation. 7,8-dihydroneopterin correction with specific gravity was also elevated in DMD patients...
May 23, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791650/metabolic-syndrome-components-are-associated-with-oxidative-stress-in-overweight-and-obese-patients
#20
Nayara Rampazzo Morelli, Bruna Miglioranza Scavuzzi, Lucia Helena da Silva Miglioranza, Marcell Alysson Batisti Lozovoy, Andréa Name Colado Simão, Isaias Dichi
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of the body mass index (BMI) and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) parameters on oxidative and nitrosative stress in overweight and obese subjects. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Individuals were divided into three groups: the control group (G1, n = 131) with a BMI between 20 and 24.9 kg/m2, the overweight group (G2, n = 120) with a BMI between 25 and 29.9 kg/m2 and the obese group (G3, n = 79) with a BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2...
May 17, 2018: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
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