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Elongation initiation factor 3 m

J P De Vries, R Azadi, M R Harwood
Saccade latencies are known to increase for targets presented close to fixation. Recently, it was shown that not only target eccentricity, but the size of a proximal saccade target also plays a crucial role: latencies increase rapidly with increasing target size. Interestingly, these latency increases are greater than those typically found for other supra-threshold manipulations of target properties. Here we evaluate to what extent this phenomenon is distinct from known delays in saccade initiation and whether the phenomenon is truly related to the size of a proximal target...
September 21, 2016: Vision Research
M Mitrović, Ž Tomanović, M Jakovljević, D Radović, J Havelka, P Stary
Populations of Liparus glabrirostris (Curculionidae: Molytinae), a weevil inhabiting higher altitudes of Central Europe, were sampled from 24 localities in the Alps and Carpathian Mountains, and the geographical structuring of genetic variation was analyzed. Comparison of the concatenated mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I and subunit II sequences revealed consistent genetic divergence between the populations of L. glabrirostris from different mountain ranges. In phylogenetic analysis using maximum parsimony and median-joining networks, concatenated mitochondrial haplotypes from the Alps and Carpathians clustered as separate lineages, with high bootstrap support...
October 2016: Bulletin of Entomological Research
Thiemo Sprink, David J F Ramrath, Hiroshi Yamamoto, Kaori Yamamoto, Justus Loerke, Jochen Ismer, Peter W Hildebrand, Patrick Scheerer, Jörg Bürger, Thorsten Mielke, Christian M T Spahn
Throughout the four phases of protein biosynthesis-initiation, elongation, termination, and recycling-the ribosome is controlled and regulated by at least one specified translational guanosine triphosphatase (trGTPase). Although the structural basis for trGTPase interaction with the ribosome has been solved for the last three steps of translation, the high-resolution structure for the key initiation trGTPase, initiation factor 2 (IF2), complexed with the ribosome, remains elusive. We determine the structure of IF2 complexed with a nonhydrolyzable guanosine triphosphate analog and initiator fMet-tRNAi (Met) in the context of the Escherichia coli ribosome to 3...
March 2016: Science Advances
Dong Liu, Zhen Liu, Huaxiang Liu, Hao Li, Xinliang Pan, Zhenzhong Li
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is critical for sensory neuron survival and is necessary for vesicular glutamate transporter 3 (VGLUT3) expression. Whether the transcription factors Etv4 and Etv5 are involved in these BDNF-induced effects remains unclear. In the present study, primary cultured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons were used to test the link between BDNF and transcription factors Etv4 and Etv5 on VGLUT3 expression and neurite outgrowth. BDNF promoted the mRNA and protein expression of Etv4 and Etv5 in DRG neurons...
March 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
Lorena M C Cursino, Nerilson M Lima, Renato Murillo, Cecilia V Nunez, Irmgard Merfort, Matjaz Humar
Preparations of Deguelia duckeana, known in Brazil as timbó, are used by indigenous people to kill fish. Reinvestigation of its extracts resulted in the isolation and identification of 11 known flavonoids identified as 3,5,4'-trimethoxy-4-prenylstilbene (1), 4-methoxyderricidine (2), lonchocarpine (3), 4-hydroxylonchocarpine (4), 4-methoxylonchocarpine (5), 5-hydroxy-4',7-dimethoxy-6-prenylflavanone (6), 4'-hydroxyisolonchocarpine (7), 4'-methoxyisolonchocarpine (8), 3',4',7-trimethoxyflavone (9), 3',4'-methylenedioxy-7-methoxyflavone (10), and 2,2-dimethyl-chromone-5,4'-hydroxy-5'-methoxyflavone (11)...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Carrie Bernecky, Franz Herzog, Wolfgang Baumeister, Jürgen M Plitzko, Patrick Cramer
RNA polymerase (Pol) II produces messenger RNA during transcription of protein-coding genes in all eukaryotic cells. The Pol II structure is known at high resolution from X-ray crystallography for two yeast species. Structural studies of mammalian Pol II, however, remain limited to low-resolution electron microscopy analysis of human Pol II and its complexes with various proteins. Here we report the 3.4 Å resolution cryo-electron microscopy structure of mammalian Pol II in the form of a transcribing complex comprising DNA template and RNA transcript...
January 28, 2016: Nature
Huifang M Zhang, Fengping Wang, Ye Qiu, Xin Ye, Paul Hanson, Hongxing Shen, Decheng Yang
CVB3 (coxsackievirus 3) is a primary causal agent of viral myocarditis. Emodin is a natural compound isolated from certain plant roots. In the present study, we found that emodin inhibited CVB3 replication in vitro and in mice, and now we report an unrecognized mechanism by which emodin inhibits CVB3 replication through suppression of viral protein translation via multiple pathways. On one hand, emodin treatment inhibited Akt/mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) signalling and activated 4EBP1 (eukaryotic initiation factor 4R-binding protein 1), leading to suppression of translation initiation of ribosomal protein L32 encoded by a 5'-TOP (terminal oligopyrimidine) mRNA...
February 15, 2016: Biochemical Journal
Marisa D Ruehle, Haibo Zhang, Ryan M Sheridan, Somdeb Mitra, Yuanwei Chen, Ruben L Gonzalez, Barry S Cooperman, Jeffrey S Kieft
Internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs) are powerful model systems to understand how the translation machinery can be manipulated by structured RNAs and for exploring inherent features of ribosome function. The intergenic region (IGR) IRESs from the Dicistroviridae family of viruses are structured RNAs that bind directly to the ribosome and initiate translation by co-opting the translation elongation cycle. These IRESs require an RNA pseudoknot that mimics a codon-anticodon interaction and contains a conformationally dynamic loop...
2015: ELife
G P Moraes, L C Benitez, M N do Amaral, I L Vighi, P A Auler, L C da Maia, V J Bianchi, E J B Braga
To obtain accurate and reliable results for the expression of genes of interest using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) techniques, it is necessary to normalize the data by comparing them to constitutive genes that exhibit uniform expression levels under experimental conditions. In this study, the stability of expression was evaluated for the following ten candidate reference genes in rice leaves (Oryza sativa L.) from the BRS Bojuru and BRS Ligeirinho genotypes that were subjected to salt stress (150 mM): actin 11 (ACT11), beta-tubulin (β-TUB), eukaryote elongation factor 1-α (Eef-1), eukaryotic initiation factor 4-α (eIF-4-α), E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (UBC-E2), ubiquitin 5 (UBQ5), ubiquitin 10 (UBQ10), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), TIP41-like, and cyclophilin...
2015: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Tatsuo Yanagisawa, Ryohei Ishii, Yasushi Hikida, Ryuya Fukunaga, Toru Sengoku, Shun-ichi Sekine, Shigeyuki Yokoyama
The putative translation elongation factor Mbar_A0971 from the methanogenic archaeon Methanosarcina barkeri was proposed to be the pyrrolysine-specific paralogue of EF-Tu ("EF-Pyl"). In the present study, the crystal structures of its homologue from Methanosarcina mazei (MM1309) were determined in the GMPPNP-bound, GDP-bound, and apo forms, by the single-wavelength anomalous dispersion phasing method. The three MM1309 structures are quite similar (r.m.s.d. < 0.1 Å). The three domains, corresponding to domains 1, 2, and 3 of EF-Tu/SelB/aIF2γ, are packed against one another to form a closed architecture...
March 2015: Journal of Structural and Functional Genomics
Nicole H Romano, Kyle J Lampe, Hui Xu, Meghaan M Ferreira, Sarah C Heilshorn
The density of integrin-binding ligands in an extracellular matrix (ECM) is known to regulate cell migration speed by imposing a balance of traction forces between the leading and trailing edges of the cell, but the effect of cell-adhesive ligands on neurite chemoattraction is not well understood. A platform is presented here that combines gradient-generating microfluidic devices with 3D protein-engineered hydrogels to study the effect of RGD ligand density on neurite pathfinding from chick dorsal root ganglia-derived spheroids...
February 11, 2015: Small
Rogério Biaggioni Lopes, Marcos Faria, Daniela Aguiar Souza, Carlos Bloch, Luciano P Silva, Richard A Humber
Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has proven to be a powerful tool for taxonomic resolution of microorganisms. In this proof-of-concept study, we assessed the effectiveness of this technique to track the current gene sequence-based phylogenetic classification of species in the Metarhizium anisopliae complex. Initially the phylogenetic analysis of 5' strains by sequencing of the 59' end of the TEF-1α gene region revealed seven species within M. anisopliae sensu lato and two varieties outside this complex...
July 2014: Mycologia
Katsuhiko Ono, Adrien Clavairoly, Tadashi Nomura, Hitoshi Gotoh, Aoi Uno, Olivier Armant, Hirohide Takebayashi, Qi Zhang, Kenji Shimamura, Shigeyoshi Itohara, Carlos M Parras, Kazuhiro Ikenaka
Thalamocortical axons (TCAs) pass through the prethalamus in the first step of their neural circuit formation. Although it has been supposed that the prethalamus is an intermediate target for thalamocortical projection formation, much less is known about the molecular mechanisms of this targeting. Here, we demonstrated the functional implications of the prethalamus in the formation of this neural circuit. We show that Olig2 transcription factor, which is expressed in the ventricular zone (VZ) of prosomere 3, regulates prethalamus formation, and loss of Olig2 results in reduced prethalamus size in early development, which is accompanied by expansion of the thalamic eminence (TE)...
May 2014: Development
R D Macleod
Roots of Vicia faba were treated with colchicine (0.025%), or IAA (4.7×10(-6) M), or both, for 3 hours and fixed at various intervals over the following 11 days. The axis of spindle orientation and the distribution of mitotic figures, lateral root primordia and xylem vessel elements was examined in the apical 10 mm of median longitudinal sections of these roots.No effect of IAA was found on the orientation of the spindle. However, evidence was obtained indicating that the systems controlling the polarity of cell division and cell expansion differ in some way...
September 1966: Planta
Filsy Samuel, Jairus Reddy, Radhika Kaimal, Vianey Segovia, Huanbiao Mo, DiAnna L Hynds
Inhibitors of the mevalonate pathway, including the highly prescribed statins, reduce the production of cholesterol and isoprenoids such as geranylgeranyl pyrophosphates. The Rho family of small guanine triphosphatases (GTPases) requires isoprenylation, specifically geranylgeranylation, for activation. Because Rho GTPases are primary regulators of actin filament rearrangements required for process extension, neurite arborization, and synaptic plasticity, statins may affect cognition or recovery from nervous system injury...
August 2014: Molecular Neurobiology
Michelle W M Li, C Yan Cheng, Dolores D Mruk
Two important events that occur during mammalian spermatogenesis are the release of elongated spermatids at late stage VIII of the seminiferous epithelial cycle and the restructuring of the blood-testis barrier (BTB) during stages VIII-XI. Still, it is not completely understood how these cellular events are accomplished within the seminiferous epithelium. In the present study, we investigate how sertolin, a protein that was initially identified, cloned, and partially characterized by our laboratory, functions in these critical events...
April 2014: Endocrinology
Melania S Strycharska, Ernesto Arias-Palomo, Artem Y Lyubimov, Jan P Erzberger, Valerie L O'Shea, Carlos J Bustamante, James M Berger
Cellular replication forks are powered by ring-shaped, hexameric helicases that encircle and unwind DNA. To better understand the molecular mechanisms and control of these enzymes, we used multiple methods to investigate the bacterial replicative helicase, DnaB. A 3.3 Å crystal structure of Aquifex aeolicus DnaB, complexed with nucleotide, reveals a newly discovered conformational state for this motor protein. Electron microscopy and small angle X-ray scattering studies confirm the state seen crystallographically, showing that the DnaB ATPase domains and an associated N-terminal collar transition between two physical states in a nucleotide-dependent manner...
December 26, 2013: Molecular Cell
María E Bernis, Mariana Oksdath, Sebastián Dupraz, Alvaro Nieto Guil, Marisa M Fernández, Emilio L Malchiodi, Silvana B Rosso, Santiago Quiroga
Initial axonal elongation is essential for neuronal polarization and requires polarized activation of IGF-1 receptors (IGF-1r) and the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3k) pathway. Wingless-type family growth factors (Wnts) have also been implied in the regulation of axonal development. It is not known, however, if Wnts have any participation in the regulation of initial axonal outgrowth and the establishment of neuronal polarity. We used cultured hippocampal neurons and growth cone particles (GCPs) isolated from fetal rat brain to show that stimulation with the wingless family factor 3A (Wnt3a) was sufficient to promote neuronal polarization in the absence of IGF-1 or high insulin...
2013: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Scott M Wheatley, Samer W El-Kadi, Agus Suryawan, Claire Boutry, Renán A Orellana, Hanh V Nguyen, Steven R Davis, Teresa A Davis
Many low-birth-weight infants experience failure to thrive. The amino acid leucine stimulates protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of the neonate, but less is known about the effects of the leucine metabolite β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB). To determine the effects of HMB on protein synthesis and the regulation of translation initiation and degradation pathways, overnight-fasted neonatal pigs were infused with HMB at 0, 20, 100, or 400 μmol·kg body wt(-1)·h(-1) for 1 h (HMB 0, HMB 20, HMB 100, or HMB 400)...
January 1, 2014: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
J A D R N Appuhamy, W A Nayananjalie, E M England, D E Gerrard, R M Akers, M D Hanigan
Regulation of mammary protein synthesis potentially changes the relationships between AA supply and milk protein output represented in current nutrient requirement models. Glucose and AA regulate muscle protein synthesis via cellular signaling pathways involving mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of essential AA (EAA) and acetate or glucose on mTOR and AMPK signaling pathways and milk protein synthesis rates...
2014: Journal of Dairy Science
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