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Plant microbial interaction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324279/soil-organic-matter-as-sole-indicator-of-soil-degradation
#1
S E Obalum, G U Chibuike, S Peth, Y Ouyang
Soil organic matter (SOM) is known to play vital roles in the maintenance and improvement of many soil properties and processes. These roles, which largely influence soil functions, are a pool of specific contributions of different components of SOM. The soil functions, in turn, normally define the level of soil degradation, viewed as quantifiable temporal changes in a soil that impairs its quality. This paper aims at providing a generalized assessment of the current state of knowledge on the usefulness of SOM in monitoring soil degradation, based on its influence on the physical, chemical and biological properties and processes of soils...
April 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324179/interactions-of-phosphate-solubilising-microorganisms-with-natural-rare-earth-phosphate-minerals-a-study-utilizing-western-australian-monazite
#2
Melissa K Corbett, Jacques J Eksteen, Xi-Zhi Niu, Jean-Philippe Croue, Elizabeth L J Watkin
Many microbial species are capable of solubilising insoluble forms of phosphate and are used in agriculture to improve plant growth. In this study, we apply the use of known phosphate solubilising microbes (PSM) to the release of rare-earth elements (REE) from the rare-earth phosphate mineral, monazite. Two sources of monazite were used, a weathered monazite and mineral sand monazite, both from Western Australia. When incubated with PSM, the REE were preferentially released into the leachate. Penicillum sp...
March 21, 2017: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317257/top-down-control-of-carbon-sequestration-grazing-affects-microbial-structure-and-function-in-salt-marsh-soils
#3
Peter Mueller, Dirk Granse, Stefanie Nolte, Hai Thi Do, Magdalena Weingartner, Stefan Hoth, Kai Jensen
Tidal wetlands have been increasingly recognized as long-term carbon sinks in recent years. Work on carbon sequestration and decomposition processes in tidal wetlands focused so far mainly on effects of global-change factors such as sea-level rise and increasing temperatures. However, little is known about effects of land use, such as livestock grazing, on organic matter decomposition and ultimately carbon sequestration. The present work aims at understanding the mechanisms by which large herbivores can affect organic matter decomposition in tidal wetlands...
March 20, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303123/trichoderma-asperellum-t42-and-pseudomonas-fluorescens-okc-enhances-resistance-of-pea-against-erysiphe-pisi-through-enhanced-ros-generation-and-lignifications
#4
Jai S Patel, Ravindra N Kharwar, Harikesh B Singh, Ram S Upadhyay, Birinchi K Sarma
Plant signaling mechanisms are not completely understood in plant-fungal biotrophic pathogen interactions. Further how such interactions are influenced by compatible rhizosphere microbes are also not well-studied. Therefore, we explored the pea-Erysiphe pisi (obligate biotroph) system to understand the interaction and applied compatible rhizospheric bio-agents Trichoderma asperellum (T42) and Pseudomonas fluorescens (OKC) singly or in combination to assess their influence on the host while under the pathogen challenge...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302675/receptor-kinases-in-plant-pathogen-interactions-more-than-pattern-recognition
#5
Jian-Min Zhou, Dingzhong Tang, Guoxun Wang
Receptor-Like Kinases (RLKs) and Receptor-Like Proteins (RLPs) play crucial roles in plant immunity, growth and development. Plants deploy a large number of RLKs and RLPs as Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs) to detect microbe- and host-derived molecular patterns, as the first line of defense. Recent advances have uncovered new PRRs, their corresponding ligands, and mechanisms underlying PRR activation and signaling. In general, PRRs associate with other RLKs and function as part of multi-protein immune complexes at the cell surface...
March 16, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300784/the-molecular-basis-of-toxins-interactions-with-intracellular-signaling-via-discrete-portals
#6
REVIEW
Adi Lahiani, Ephraim Yavin, Philip Lazarovici
An understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which microbial, plant or animal-secreted toxins exert their action provides the most important element for assessment of human health risks and opens new insights into therapies addressing a plethora of pathologies, ranging from neurological disorders to cancer, using toxinomimetic agents. Recently, molecular and cellular biology dissecting tools have provided a wealth of information on the action of these diverse toxins, yet, an integrated framework to explain their selective toxicity is still lacking...
March 16, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298918/host-parasite-bacteria-triangle-the-microbiome-of-the-parasitic-weed-phelipanche-aegyptiaca-and-tomato-solanum-lycopersicum-mill-as-a-host
#7
Lilach Iasur Kruh, Tamar Lahav, Jacline Abu-Nassar, Guy Achdari, Raghda Salami, Shiri Freilich, Radi Aly
Broomrapes (Phelipanche/Orobanche spp.) are holoparasitic plants that subsist on the roots of a variety of agricultural crops, establishing direct connections with the host vascular system. This connection allows for the exchange of various substances and a possible exchange of endophytic microorganisms that inhabit the internal tissues of both plants. To shed some light on bacterial interactions occurring between the parasitic Phelipanche aegyptiaca and its host tomato, we characterized the endophytic composition in the parasite during the parasitization process and ascertained if these changes were accompanied by changes to endophytes in the host root...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298351/community-analysis-of-microbial-sharing-and-specialization-in-a-costa-rican-ant-plant-hemipteran-symbiosis
#8
Elizabeth G Pringle, Corrie S Moreau
Ants have long been renowned for their intimate mutualisms with trophobionts and plants and more recently appreciated for their widespread and diverse interactions with microbes. An open question in symbiosis research is the extent to which environmental influence, including the exchange of microbes between interacting macroorganisms, affects the composition and function of symbiotic microbial communities. Here we approached this question by investigating symbiosis within symbiosis. Ant-plant-hemipteran symbioses are hallmarks of tropical ecosystems that produce persistent close contact among the macroorganism partners, which then have substantial opportunity to exchange symbiotic microbes...
March 15, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293292/evaluation-of-environmental-bacterial-communities-as-a-factor-affecting-the-growth-of-duckweed-lemna-minor
#9
Hidehiro Ishizawa, Masashi Kuroda, Masaaki Morikawa, Michihiko Ike
BACKGROUND: Duckweed (family Lemnaceae) has recently been recognized as an ideal biomass feedstock for biofuel production due to its rapid growth and high starch content, which inspired interest in improving their productivity. Since microbes that co-exist with plants are known to have significant effects on their growth according to the previous studies for terrestrial plants, this study has attempted to understand the plant-microbial interactions of a duckweed, Lemna minor, focusing on the growth promotion/inhibition effects so as to assess the possibility of accelerated duckweed production by modifying co-existing bacterial community...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288422/effect-of-the-polarity-reversal-frequency-in-the-electrokinetic-biological-remediation-of-oxyfluorfen-polluted-soil
#10
Silvia Barba, José Villaseñor, Manuel A Rodrigo, Pablo Cañizares
This work studies the feasibility of the periodic polarity reversal strategy (PRS) in a combined electrokinetic-biological process for the remediation of clayey soil polluted with a herbicide. Five two-weeks duration electrobioremediation batch experiments were performed in a bench scale set-up using spiked clay soil polluted with oxyfluorfen (20 mg kg(-1)) under potentiostatic conditions applying an electric field between the electrodes of 1.0 V cm(-1) (20.0 V) and using PRS with five frequencies (f) ranging from 0 to 6 d(-1)...
March 3, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279534/winter-ecology-of-a-subalpine-grassland-effects-of-snow-removal-on-soil-respiration-microbial-structure-and-function
#11
Konstantin Gavazov, Johannes Ingrisch, Roland Hasibeder, Robert T E Mills, Alexandre Buttler, Gerd Gleixner, Jukka Pumpanen, Michael Bahn
Seasonal snow cover provides essential insulation for mountain ecosystems, but expected changes in precipitation patterns and snow cover duration due to global warming can influence the activity of soil microbial communities. In turn, these changes have the potential to create new dynamics of soil organic matter cycling. To assess the effects of experimental snow removal and advanced spring conditions on soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) dynamics, and on the biomass and structure of soil microbial communities, we performed an in situ study in a subalpine grassland in the Austrian Alps, in conjunction with soil incubations under controlled conditions...
March 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273572/assessing-the-dynamic-changes-of-rhizosphere-functionality-of-zea-mays-plants-grown-in-organochlorine-contaminated-soils
#12
Claire Blondel, Loïc Briset, Nicolas Legay, Cindy Arnoldi, Franck Poly, Jean-Christophe Clément, Muriel Raveton
The persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in soils are suspected to disturb soil biogeochemical cycles. This study addressed the dynamic changes in soil functionality under lindane and chlordecone exposures with or without maize plant. Decreases in soil ammonium concentration, potential nitrogen mineralization and microbial biomass were only OCP-influenced in bulk soils. OCPs appeared to inhibit the ammonification step. With plants, soil functionality under OCP stress was similar to controls demonstrating the plant influence to ensure the efficiency of C- and N-turnover in soils...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265994/modulating-the-levels-of-plant-hormone-cytokinins-at-the-host-pathogen-interface
#13
Muhammad Naseem, Shabana Shams, Thomas Roitsch
Cytokinins are adenine and non-adenine derived heterogeneous class of regulatory molecules that participate in almost every aspect of plant biology. They also affect plant defense responses as well as help microbial pathogens to establish pathogenesis. The functional approaches that ensure desired and subtle modulations in the levels of plant cytokinins are highly instrumental in assessing their functions in plant immunity. Here, we describe a detailed working protocol regarding the enhanced production of cytokinins from plants that harbor isopentenyltransferase (IPT) enzyme gene under the control of 4xJERE (jasmonic acid and elicitor-responsive element) pathogen-inducible promoter...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265987/microbial-manipulation-of-auxins-and-cytokinins-in-plants
#14
Anwar Hussain, Ihsan Ullah, Shahida Hasnain
Microbial associations with plants are crucial for the survival of both the partners. Beside other ways of establishing such associations, phytohormones enjoy a key role in plant-microbe interactions from initial dialog between the two to the establishment of a viable partnership. Cytokinins (CKs) and IAA are among the five classical groups of phytohormones implicated in plant immune response, early signaling, and deciding the fate of interactions between plant and microbes. Here we describe a method to study modulation of Cks and IAA in plant under the influence of a pathogenic bacterium, Pseudomonas syringae tomato DC3000...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263365/plasticity-in-n-uptake-among-sympatric-species-with-contrasting-nutrient-acquisition-strategies-in-a-tropical-forest
#15
Kelly M Andersen, Jordan R Mayor, Benjamin L Turner
Nitrogen (N) availability influences the productivity and distribution of plants in tropical montane forests. Strategies to acquire soil N, such as direct uptake of organic compounds or associations with root symbionts to enhance N acquisition in exchange for carbon (C), may facilitate plant species coexistence and ecosystem N retention. Alternatively, rapid microbial turnover of soil N forms in tropical soils might promote flexible plant N-uptake strategies and mediate species coexistence. We tested whether sympatric plant species with divergent root symbiont associations, and therefore potentially different nutrient acquisition strategies, partition chemical forms of N or show plasticity in N uptake in a tropical pre-montane forest in Panama...
March 6, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262092/novel-mechanism-of-metabolic-co-regulation-coordinates-the-biosynthesis-of-secondary-metabolites-in-pseudomonas-protegens
#16
Qing Yan, Benjamin Philmus, Jeff H Chang, Joyce E Loper
Metabolic co-regulation between biosynthetic pathways for secondary metabolites is common in microbes and can play an important role in microbial interactions. Here, we describe a novel mechanism of metabolic co-regulation in which an intermediate in one pathway is converted into signals that activate a second pathway. Our study focused on the co-regulation of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG) and pyoluteorin, two antimicrobial metabolites produced by the soil bacterium Pseudomonas protegens. We show that an intermediate in DAPG biosynthesis, phloroglucinol, is transformed by a halogenase encoded in the pyoluteorin gene cluster into mono- and di-chlorinated phloroglucinols...
March 6, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258426/how-interacting-fungal-species-and-mineral-nitrogen-inputs-affect-transfer-of-nitrogen-from-litter-via-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-mycelium
#17
Yuejun He, J Hans C Cornelissen, Zhangcheng Zhong, Ming Dong, Changhong Jiang
In the karst landscape, widespread in the world including southern China, soil nutrient supply is strongly constrained. In such environments, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi may facilitate plant nutrient uptake. However, the possible role of different AM fungal species, and their interactions, especially in transferring nitrogen (N) from litter to plant, is poorly understood. We conducted two microcosm experiments to investigate the role that two karst soil AM fungi, Glomus etunicatum and Glomus mosseae, play in the transfer of N from decomposing litter to the host plant and to determine how N availability influences these processes...
March 3, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245090/responses-of-belowground-communities-to-large-aboveground-herbivores-meta-analysis-reveals-biome-dependent-patterns-and-critical-research-gaps
#18
Walter S Andriuzzi, Diana H Wall
The importance of herbivore-plant and soil biota-plant interactions in terrestrial ecosystems is amply recognized, but the effects of aboveground herbivores on soil biota remain challenging to predict. To find global patterns in belowground responses to vertebrate herbivores, we performed a meta-analysis of studies that had measured abundance or activity of soil organisms inside and outside field exclosures (areas that excluded herbivores). Responses were often controlled by climate, ecosystem type, and dominant herbivore identity...
February 28, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243246/community-structure-species-variation-and-potential-functions-of-rhizosphere-associated-bacteria-of-different-winter-wheat-triticum-aestivum-cultivars
#19
Aaron K Mahoney, Chuntao Yin, Scot H Hulbert
Minimal tillage management of extensive crops like wheat can provide significant environmental services but can also lead to adverse interactions between soil borne microbes and the host. Little is known about the ability of the wheat cultivar to alter the microbial community from a long-term recruitment standpoint, and whether this recruitment is consistent across field sites. To address this, nine winter wheat cultivars were grown for two consecutive seasons on the same plots on two different farm sites and assessed for their ability to alter the rhizosphere bacterial communities in a minimal tillage system...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238104/microbial-carcinogenic-toxins-and-dietary-anti-cancer-protectants
#20
REVIEW
Trevor W Stone, L Gail Darlington
Several toxins are known which account for the ability of some bacteria to initiate or promote carcinogenesis. These ideas are summarised and evidence is discussed for more specific mechanisms involving chymotrypsin and the bacterial chymotryptic enzyme subtilisin. Subtilisin and Bacillus subtilis are present in the gut and environment and both are used commercially in agriculture, livestock rearing and meat processing. The enzymes deplete cells of tumour suppressors such as deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC) and neogenin, so their potential presence in the food chain might represent an important link between diet and cancer...
February 25, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
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