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Plant microbial interaction

Pankaj Trivedi, Chanda Trivedi, Jasmine Grinyer, Ian C Anderson, Brajesh K Singh
Plant health and productivity is strongly influenced by their intimate interaction with deleterious and beneficial organisms, including microbes, and insects. Of the various plant diseases, insect-vectored diseases are of particular interest, including those caused by obligate parasites affecting plant phloem such as Candidatus (Ca.) Phytoplasma species and several species of Ca. Liberibacter. Recent studies on plant-microbe and plant-insect interactions of these pathogens have demonstrated that plant-microbe-insect interactions have far reaching consequences for the functioning and evolution of the organisms involved...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Martina I Gocke, Arnaud Huguet, Sylvie Derenne, Steffen Kolb, Michaela A Dippold, Guido L B Wiesenberg
Soils, paleosols and terrestrial sediments serve as archives for studying climate change, and represent important terrestrial carbon pools. Archive functioning relies on the chronological integrity of the respective units. Incorporation of younger organic matter (OM) e.g. by plant roots and associated microorganisms into deep subsoil and underlying soil parent material may reduce reliability of paleoenvironmental records and stability of buried OM. Long-term effects of sedimentary characteristics and deep rooting on deep subsoil microbial communities remain largely unknown...
October 13, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Hui-Ling Liao, Yuan Chen, Rytas Vilgalys
Ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) represent one of the major guilds of symbiotic fungi associated with roots of forest trees, where they function to improve plant nutrition and fitness in exchange for plant carbon. Many groups of EMF exhibit preference or specificity for different plant host genera; a good example is the genus Suillus, which grows in association with the conifer family Pinaceae. We investigated genetics of EMF host-specificity by cross-inoculating basidiospores of five species of Suillus onto ten species of Pinus, and screened them for their ability to form ectomycorrhizae...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
João Lúcio Azevedo, Welington Luiz Araújo, Paulo Teixeira Lacava
The bacterium Xylella fastidiosa is the causal agent of citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) and has been associated with important losses in commercial orchards of all sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.)] cultivars. The development of this disease depends on the environmental conditions, including the endophytic microbial community associated with the host plant. Previous studies have shown that X. fastidiosa interacts with the endophytic community in xylem vessels as well as in the insect vector, resulting in a lower bacterial population and reduced CVC symptoms...
October 10, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Biology
Joshua S Caplan, Daniel Giménez, Vandana Subroy, Richard J Heck, Stephen A Prior, G Brett Runion, H Allen Torbert
Soil pore structure has a strong influence on water retention, and is itself influenced by plant and microbial dynamics such as root proliferation and microbial exudation. Although increased nitrogen (N) availability and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations (eCO2 ) often have interacting effects on root and microbial dynamics, it is unclear whether these biotic effects can translate into altered soil pore structure and water retention. This study was based on a long-term experiment (7 yr at the time of sampling) in which a C4 pasture grass (Paspalum notatum) was grown on a sandy loam soil while provided factorial additions of N and CO2 ...
October 11, 2016: Global Change Biology
Vishal Kumar, Mehak Baweja, Puneet K Singh, Pratyoosh Shukla
Microorganisms play a crucial role in the sustainability of the various ecosystems. The characterization of various interactions between microorganisms and other biotic factors is a necessary footstep to understand the association and functions of microbial communities. Among the different microbial interactions in an ecosystem, plant-microbe interaction plays an important role to balance the ecosystem. The present review explores plant-microbe interactions using gene editing and system biology tools toward the comprehension in improvement of plant traits...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Jahangir Imam, Puneet K Singh, Pratyoosh Shukla
Deciphering plant-microbe interactions is a promising aspect to understand the benefits and the pathogenic effect of microbes and crop improvement. The advancement in sequencing technologies and various 'omics' tool has impressively accelerated the research in biological sciences in this area. The recent and ongoing developments provide a unique approach to describing these intricate interactions and test hypotheses. In the present review, we discuss the role of plant-pathogen interaction in crop improvement...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Didier Bouchon, Martin Zimmer, Jessica Dittmer
Bacterial symbionts represent essential drivers of arthropod ecology and evolution, influencing host traits such as nutrition, reproduction, immunity, and speciation. However, the majority of work on arthropod microbiota has been conducted in insects and more studies in non-model species across different ecological niches will be needed to complete our understanding of host-microbiota interactions. In this review, we present terrestrial isopod crustaceans as an emerging model organism to investigate symbiotic associations with potential relevance to ecosystem functioning...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
J F Gutiérrez-Corona, P Romo-Rodríguez, F Santos-Escobar, A E Espino-Saldaña, H Hernández-Escoto
Chromium (Cr) is a highly toxic metal for microorganisms as well as plants and animal cells. Due to its widespread industrial use, Cr has become a serious pollutant in diverse environmental settings. The hexavalent form of the metal, Cr(VI), is considered a more toxic species than the relatively innocuous and less mobile Cr(III) form. The study of the interactions between microorganisms and Cr has been helpful to unravel the mechanisms allowing organisms to survive in the presence of high concentrations of Cr(VI) and to detoxify and remove the oxyanion...
December 2016: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Lorenzo Vergani, Francesca Mapelli, Elisabetta Zanardini, Elisa Terzaghi, Antonio Di Guardo, Cristiana Morosini, Giuseppe Raspa, Sara Borin
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are toxic chemicals, recalcitrant to degradation, bioaccumulative and persistent in the environment, causing adverse effects on ecosystems and human health. For this reason, the remediation of PCB-contaminated soils is a primary issue to be addressed. Phytoremediation represents a promising tool for in situ soil remediation, since the available physico-chemical technologies have strong environmental and economic impacts. Plants can extract and metabolize several xenobiotics present in the soil, but their ability to uptake and mineralize PCBs is limited due to the recalcitrance and low bioavailability of these molecules that in turn impedes an efficient remediation of PCB-contaminated soils...
October 5, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Jiaojiao Niu, Zhongwen Rang, Chao Zhang, Wu Chen, Feng Tian, Huaqun Yin, Linjian Dai
BACKGROUND: The interaction mechanism between crop and soil microbial communities is a key issue in both agriculture and soil ecology. However, how soil microbial communities respond to crop planting and ultimately affect crop health still remain unclear. In this research, we explored how soil microbial communities shifted during tobacco cultivation under different rotation systems (control, maize rotation, lily rotation and turnip rotation). RESULTS: Our analyses showed that soil microbial communities had a general response pattern to tobacco planting, as the abundances of Proteobacteria and Planctomycetes increased while Acidobacteria and Verrucomicrobia decreased during tobacco cultivation, no matter which rotation system was adopted...
October 6, 2016: BMC Microbiology
Lizi Bensoussan, Sarah Moraïs, Bareket Dassa, Nir Friedman, Bernard Henrissat, Vincent Lombard, Edward A Bayer, Itzhak Mizrahi
The cellulosome is an extracellular multi-enzyme complex that is considered one of the most efficient plant cell wall-degrading strategies devised by nature. Its unique modular architecture, achieved by high affinity and specific interaction between protein modules (cohesins and dockerins) enables formation of various enzyme combinations. Extensive research has been dedicated to the mechanistic nature of the cellulosome complex. Nevertheless, little is known regarding its distribution and abundance among microbes in natural plant fiber-rich environments...
October 6, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
Manuel Alcalde-Rico, Sara Hernando-Amado, Paula Blanco, José L Martínez
Multidrug efflux pumps can be involved in bacterial resistance to antibiotics at different levels. Some efflux pumps are constitutively expressed at low levels and contribute to intrinsic resistance. In addition, their overexpression may allow higher levels of resistance. This overexpression can be transient, in the presence of an effector (phenotypic resistance), or constitutive when mutants in the regulatory elements of the expression of efflux pumps are selected (acquired resistance). Efflux pumps are present in all cells, from human to bacteria and are highly conserved, which indicates that they are ancient elements in the evolution of different organisms...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Linnea K Honeker, Robert A Root, Jon Chorover, Raina M Maier
Metal(loid)-contamination of the environment due to anthropogenic activities is a global problem. Understanding the fate of contaminants requires elucidation of biotic and abiotic factors that influence metal(loid) speciation from molecular to field scales. Improved methods are needed to assess micro-scale processes, such as those occurring at biogeochemical interfaces between plant tissues, microbial cells, and metal(loid)s. Here we present an advanced method that combines fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with synchrotron-based multiple-energy micro-focused X-ray fluorescence microprobe imaging (ME μXRF) to examine colocalization of bacteria and metal(loid)s on root surfaces of plants used to phytostabilize metalliferous mine tailings...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Antonino Malacrinò, Leonardo Schena, Orlando Campolo, Francesca Laudani, Saveria Mosca, Giulia Giunti, Cinzia Patricia Strano, Vincenzo Palmeri
The occurrence of interaction between insects and fungi is interesting from an ecological point of view, particularly when these interactions involve insect pests and plant pathogens within an agroecosystem. In this study, we aimed to perform an accurate analysis on the fungal microbiota associated to Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) through a metabarcoding approach based on 454 pyrosequencing. From this analysis, we retrieved 43,549 reads that clustered into 128 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), of which 29 resulted in the "core" associate fungi of B...
September 29, 2016: Microbial Ecology
Elise S Gornish, Noah Fierer, Albert Barberán
Understanding plant-microbe relationships can be important for developing management strategies for invasive plants, particularly when these relationships interact with underlying variables, such as habitat type and seedbank density, to mediate control efforts. In a field study located in California, USA, we investigated how soil microbial communities differ across the invasion front of Taeniatherum caput-medusae (medusahead), an annual grass that has rapidly invaded most of the western USA. Plots were installed in habitats where medusahead invasion is typically successful (open grassland) and typically not successful (oak woodland)...
2016: PloS One
Andika Gunadi, Raman Bansal, John J Finer, Andy Michel
BACKGROUND: Studies on plant-insect interactions of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines (Matsumura), can be influenced by environmental fluctuations, status of the host plant and variability in microbial populations. Maintenance of aphids on in vitro-grown plants minimizes environmental fluctuations, provides uniform host materials and permits the selective elimination of aphid-associated microbes for more standardized controls in aphid research. RESULTS: Aphids were reared on sterile, in vitro-grown soybean seedlings, germinated on plant tissue culture media amended with a mixture of antimicrobials...
September 28, 2016: Pest Management Science
Suzanne L Ishaq, Stephen P Johnson, Zach J Miller, Erik A Lehnhoff, Sarah Olivo, Carl J Yeoman, Fabian D Menalled
Farming practices affect the soil microbial community, which in turn impacts crop growth and crop-weed interactions. This study assessed the modification of soil bacterial community structure by organic or conventional cropping systems, weed species identity [Amaranthus retroflexus L. (redroot pigweed) or Avena fatua L. (wild oat)], and living or sterilized inoculum. Soil from eight paired USDA-certified organic and conventional farms in north-central Montana was used as living or autoclave-sterilized inoculant into steam-pasteurized potting soil, planted with Am...
September 27, 2016: Microbial Ecology
Kai Xue, Mengting M Yuan, Jianping Xie, Dejun Li, Yujia Qin, Lauren E Hale, Liyou Wu, Ye Deng, Zhili He, Joy D Van Nostrand, Yiqi Luo, James M Tiedje, Jizhong Zhou
: Clipping (i.e., harvesting aboveground plant biomass) is common in agriculture and for bioenergy production. However, microbial responses to clipping in the context of climate warming are poorly understood. We investigated the interactive effects of grassland warming and clipping on soil properties and plant and microbial communities, in particular, on microbial functional genes. Clipping alone did not change the plant biomass production, but warming and clipping combined increased the C4 peak biomass by 47% and belowground net primary production by 110%...
September 27, 2016: MBio
Ángela María Sánchez-López, Abdellatif Bahaji, Nuria De Diego, Marouane Baslam, Jun Li, Francisco José Muñoz, Goizeder Almagro, Pablo García-Gómez, Kinia Ameztoy Del Amo, Adriana Ricarte-Bermejo, Ondřej Novák, Jan F Humplík, Lukáš Spíchal, Karel Dolezal, Sergio Ciordia, María Del Carmen Mena, Rosana Navajas, Edurne Baroja-Fernández, Javier Pozueta-Romero
Volatile compounds (VCs) emitted by phylogenetically diverse microorganisms (including plant pathogens and microbes that do not normally interact mutualistically with plants) promote photosynthesis, growth and the accumulation of high levels of starch in leaves through cytokinin (CK) regulated processes. In the Arabidopsis plants not exposed to VCs, plastidic phosphoglucose isomerase (pPGI) acts as an important determinant of photosynthesis and growth, likely as a consequence of its involvement in the synthesis of plastidic CKs in roots...
September 23, 2016: Plant Physiology
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