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Plant microbial interaction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917379/current-understanding-of-the-correlation-of-lignin-structure-with-biomass-recalcitrance
#1
REVIEW
Mi Li, Yunqiao Pu, Arthur J Ragauskas
Lignin, a complex aromatic polymer in terrestrial plants, contributes significantly to biomass recalcitrance to microbial and/or enzymatic deconstruction. To reduce biomass recalcitrance, substantial endeavors have been exerted on pretreatment and lignin engineering in the past few decades. Lignin removal and/or alteration of lignin structure have been shown to result in reduced biomass recalcitrance with improved cell wall digestibility. While high lignin content is usually a barrier to a cost-efficient application of bioresources to biofuels, the direct correlation of lignin structure and its concomitant properties with biomass remains unclear due to the complexity of cell wall and lignin structure...
2016: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917161/the-interaction-between-plants-and-bacteria-in-the-remediation-of-petroleum-hydrocarbons-an-environmental-perspective
#2
REVIEW
Panagiotis Gkorezis, Matteo Daghio, Andrea Franzetti, Jonathan D Van Hamme, Wouter Sillen, Jaco Vangronsveld
Widespread pollution of terrestrial ecosystems with petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) has generated a need for remediation and, given that many PHCs are biodegradable, bio- and phyto-remediation are often viable approaches for active and passive remediation. This review focuses on phytoremediation with particular interest on the interactions between and use of plant-associated bacteria to restore PHC polluted sites. Plant-associated bacteria include endophytic, phyllospheric, and rhizospheric bacteria, and cooperation between these bacteria and their host plants allows for greater plant survivability and treatment outcomes in contaminated sites...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917159/predominately-uncultured-microbes-as-sources-of-bioactive-agents
#3
REVIEW
David J Newman
In this short review, I am discussing the relatively recent awareness of the role of symbionts in plant, marine-invertebrates and fungal areas. It is now quite obvious that in marine-invertebrates, a majority of compounds found are from either as yet unculturable or poorly culturable microbes, and techniques involving "state of the art" genomic analyses and subsequent computerized analyses are required to investigate these interactions. In the plant kingdom evidence is amassing that endophytes (mainly fungal in nature) are heavily involved in secondary metabolite production and that mimicking the microbial interactions of fermentable microbes leads to involvement of previously unrecognized gene clusters (cryptic clusters is one name used), that when activated, produce previously unknown bioactive molecules...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913282/proteomics-provides-insights-into-biological-pathways-altered-by-plant-growth-promoting-bacteria-and-arbuscular-mycorrhiza-in-sorghum-grown-in-marginal-soil
#4
Faten Dhawi, Rupali Datta, Wusirika Ramakrishna
Sorghum is an economically important crop, a model system for gene discovery and a biofuel source. Sorghum seedlings were subjected to three microbial treatments, plant growth promoting bacteria (B), arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi mix with two Glomus species (G. aggregatum and G. etunicatum), Funelliformis mosseae and Rhizophagus irregularis (My), and B and My combined (My+B). Proteomic analysis was conducted followed by integration with metabolite, plant biomass and nutrient data. Out of 366 differentially expressed proteins in sorghum roots, 44 upregulated proteins overlapping among three treatment groups showed positive correlation with sorghum biomass or element uptake or both...
November 29, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912011/reduced-snow-cover-alters-root-microbe-interactions-and-decreases-nitrification-rates-in-a-northern-hardwood-forest
#5
Patrick O Sorensen, Pamela H Templer, Lynn Christenson, Jorge Duran, Timothy Fahey, Melany C Fisk, Peter M Groffman, Jennifer L Morse, Adrien C Finzi
Snow cover is projected to decline during the next century in many ecosystems that currently experience a seasonal snowpack. Because snow insulates soils from frigid winter air temperatures, soils are expected to become colder and experience more winter soil freeze-thaw cycles as snow cover continues to decline. Tree roots are adversely affected by snowpack reduction, but whether loss of snow will affect root-microbe interactions remains largely unknown. The objective of this study was to distinguish and attribute direct (e...
December 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907121/environmental-and-geographical-factors-structure-soil-microbial-diversity-in-new-caledonian-ultramafic-substrates-a-metagenomic-approach
#6
Véronique Gourmelon, Laurent Maggia, Jeff R Powell, Sarah Gigante, Sara Hortal, Claire Gueunier, Kelly Letellier, Fabian Carriconde
Soil microorganisms play key roles in ecosystem functioning and are known to be influenced by biotic and abiotic factors, such as plant cover or edaphic parameters. New Caledonia, a biodiversity hotspot located in the southwest Pacific, is one-third covered by ultramafic substrates. These types of soils are notably characterised by low nutrient content and high heavy metal concentrations. Ultramafic outcrops harbour diverse vegetation types and remarkable plant diversity. In this study, we aimed to assess soil bacterial and fungal diversity in New Caledonian ultramafic substrates and to determine whether floristic composition, edaphic parameters and geographical factors affect this microbial diversity...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896478/soil-microbial-communities-buffer-physiological-responses-to-drought-stress-in-three-hardwood-species
#7
Steven A Kannenberg, Richard P Phillips
Trees possess myriad adaptations for coping with drought stress, but the extent to which their drought responses are influenced by interactions with soil microbes is poorly understood. To explore the role of microbes in mediating tree responses to drought stress, we exposed saplings of three species (Acer saccharum, Liriodendron tulipifera, and Quercus alba) to a four week experimental drought in mesocosms. Half of the pots were inoculated with a live soil slurry (i.e., a microbial inoculum derived from soils beneath the canopies of mature A...
November 28, 2016: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888579/non-target-effects-of-fungicides-on-nectar-inhabiting-fungi-of-almond-flowers
#8
Robert N Schaeffer, Rachel L Vannette, Claire Brittain, Neal M Williams, Tadashi Fukami
Nectar mediates interactions between plants and pollinators in natural and agricultural systems. Specialized microorganisms are common nectar inhabitants, and potentially important mediators of plant-pollinator interactions. However, their diversity and role in mediating pollination services in agricultural systems are poorly characterized. Moreover, agrochemicals are commonly applied to minimize crop damage, but may present ecological consequences for non-target organisms. Assessment of ecological risk has tended to focus on beneficial macroorganisms such as pollinators, with less attention paid to microorganisms...
November 26, 2016: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884939/regulation-of-sugar-transporter-activity-for-antibacterial-defense-in-arabidopsis
#9
Kohji Yamada, Yusuke Saijo, Hirofumi Nakagami, Yoshitaka Takano
Microbial pathogens strategically acquire metabolites from their hosts during infection. Here we show that the host can intervene to prevent such metabolite loss to pathogens. Phosphorylation-dependent regulation of sugar transporter 13 (STP13) is required for antibacterial defense in the plant Arabidopsis thaliana STP13 physically associates with the flagellin receptor flagellin-sensitive 2 (FLS2) and its co-receptor BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 1-associated receptor kinase 1 (BAK1). BAK1 phosphorylates STP13 at threonine 485, which enhances its monosaccharide uptake activity to compete with bacteria for extracellular sugars...
November 24, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875969/microbial-interactions-in-plants-perspectives-and-applications-of-proteomics
#10
Jahangir Imam, Pratyoosh Shukla, Nimai Prasad Mandal, Mukund Variar
The structure and function of proteins involved in plant-microbe interactions is investigated through large-scale proteomics technology in a complex biological sample. Since the whole genome sequences are now available for several plant species and microbes, proteomics study has become easier, accurate and huge amount of data can be generated and analyzed during plant-microbe interactions. Proteomics approaches are highly important and relevant in many studies and showed that only genomics approaches are not sufficient enough as much significant information are lost as the proteins and not the genes coding them are final product that is responsible for the observed phenotype...
November 21, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871756/response-of-wastewater-biofilm-to-cuo-nanoparticle-exposure-in-terms-of-extracellular-polymeric-substances-and-microbial-community-structure
#11
Lingzhan Miao, Chao Wang, Jun Hou, Peifang Wang, Yanhui Ao, Yi Li, Yu Yao, Bowen Lv, Yangyang Yang, Guoxiang You, Yi Xu, Qihao Gu
The growing production and application of CuO nanoparticles increase the chance that these particles will be released into wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and interact with microorganisms. However, the toxicity response mechanism of biofilm to NP exposure may be different from that of activated sludge due to the denser and stronger microbial aggregate structure of biofilm. Thus, in this study, the response to CuO NPs of wastewater biofilm collected from a rotating biological contactor was investigated. Short-term exposure (24h) to CuO NPs led to a great loss in cell viability, and SEM-EDS images revealed that the nano-CuO aggregates were not transformed to Cu-S species in the biofilm samples...
November 18, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870044/foliar-bacteria-and-soil-fertility-mediate-seedling-performance-a-new-and-cryptic-dimension-of-niche-differentiation
#12
Eric A Griffin, M Brian Traw, Peter J Morin, Jonathan N Pruitt, S Joseph Wright, Walter P Carson
The phyllosphere (comprising the leaf surface and interior) is one of the world's largest microbial habitats and is host to an abundant and diverse array of bacteria. Nonetheless, the degree to which bacterial communities are benign, harmful, or beneficial to plants in situ is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that the net effect of reducing bacterial abundance and diversity would vary substantially among host species (from harmful to beneficial) and this would be strongly mediated by soil resource availability...
November 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859966/effects-of-three-global-change-drivers-on-terrestrial-c-n-p-stoichiometry-a-global-synthesis
#13
Kai Yue, Dario A Fornara, Wanqin Yang, Yan Peng, Zhijie Li, Fuzhong Wu, Changhui Peng
Over the last few decades there has been an increasing number of controlled-manipulative experiments to investigate how plants and soils might respond to global change. These experiments typically examined the effects of each of three global change drivers (i.e. nitrogen (N) deposition, warming, and elevated CO2 ) on primary productivity and on the biogeochemistry of carbon (C), N and phosphorus (P) across different terrestrial ecosystems. Here we capitalize on this large amount of information by performing a comprehensive meta-analysis (>2000 case studies worldwide) to address how C:N:P stoichiometry of plants, soils and soil microbial biomass might respond to individual vs...
November 17, 2016: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859072/a-broadleaf-species-enhances-an-autotoxic-conifers-growth-through-belowground-chemical-interactions
#14
Zhi-Chao Xia, Chui-Hua Kong, Long-Chi Chen, Peng Wang, Si-Long Wang
Plants may affect the performance of neighboring plants either positively or negatively through interspecific and intraspecific interactions. Productivity of mixed-species systems is ultimately the net result of positive and negative interactions among the component species. Despite increasing knowledge of positive interactions occurring in mixed-species tree systems, relatively little is known about the mechanisms underlying such interactions. Based on data from 25-year-old experimental stands in situ and a series of controlled experiments, we test the hypothesis that a broadleaf, non-N fixing species, Michelia macclurei, facilitates the performance of an autotoxic conifer Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) through belowground chemical interactions...
September 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859034/ecological-functions-provided-by-dung-beetles-are-interlinked-across-space-and-time-evidence-from-15-n-isotope-tracing
#15
Beatrice Nervo, Enrico Caprio, Luisella Celi, Michele Lonati, Giampiero Lombardi, Gloria Falsone, Gabriele Iussig, Claudia Palestrini, Daniel Said-Pullicino, Antonio Rolando
Maintaining multiple ecological functions ('multifunctionality') is crucial to sustain viable ecosystems. To date most studies on biodiversity-ecosystem functioning (BEF) have focused on single or few ecological functions and services. However, there is a critical need to evaluate how species and species assemblages affect multiple processes at the same time, and how these functions are interconnected. Dung beetles represent excellent model organisms because they are key contributors to several ecosystem functions...
November 14, 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848154/jasmonic-acid-and-ethylene-signaling-pathways-regulate-glucosinolate-levels-in-plants-during-rhizobacteria-induced-systemic-resistance-against-a-leaf-chewing-herbivore
#16
Nurmi Pangesti, Michael Reichelt, Judith E van de Mortel, Eleni Kapsomenou, Jonathan Gershenzon, Joop J A van Loon, Marcel Dicke, Ana Pineda
Beneficial soil microbes can promote plant growth and induce systemic resistance (ISR) in aboveground tissues against pathogens and herbivorous insects. Despite the increasing interest in microbial-ISR against herbivores, the underlying molecular and chemical mechanisms of this phenomenon remain elusive. Using Arabidopsis thaliana and the rhizobacterium Pseudomonas simiae WCS417r (formerly known as P. fluorescens WCS417r), we here evaluate the role of the JA-regulated MYC2-branch and the JA/ET-regulated ORA59-branch in modulating rhizobacteria-ISR to Mamestra brassicae by combining gene transcriptional, phytochemical, and herbivore performance assays...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842961/contrasting-effects-of-biochar-on-n2o-emission-and-n-uptake-at-different-n-fertilizer-levels-on-a-temperate-sandy-loam
#17
Zhencai Sun, Anja Sänger, Philip Rebensburg, Peter Lentzsch, Stephan Wirth, Martin Kaupenjohann, Andreas Meyer-Aurich
Biochar has been frequently suggested as an amendment to improve soil quality and mitigate climate change. To investigate the optimal management of nitrogen (N) fertilization, we examined the combined effect of biochar and N fertilizer on plant N uptake and N2O emissions in a cereal rotation system in a randomized two-factorial field experiment on a sandy loam soil in Brandenburg, Germany. The biochar treatment received 10Mgha(-1) wood-derived biochar in September 2012. Four levels of N fertilizer, corresponding to 0, 50%, 100%, 130% of the recommended fertilizer level, were applied in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L...
November 11, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842800/anti-candida-albicans-natural-products-sources-of-new-antifungal-drugs-a-review
#18
REVIEW
A Zida, S Bamba, A Yacouba, R Ouedraogo-Traore, R T Guiguemdé
INTRODUCTION: Candida albicans is the most prevalent fungal pathogen in humans. Due to the development of drug resistance, there is today a need for new antifungal agents for the efficient management of C. albicans infections. Therefore, we reviewed antifungal activity, mechanisms of action, possible synergism with antifungal drugs of all natural substances experimented to be efficient against C. albicans for future. METHODS: An extensive and systematic review of the literature was undertaken and all relevant abstracts and full-text articles analyzed and included in the review...
November 11, 2016: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833656/metagenomic-and-metaproteomic-analyses-of-a-corn-stover-adapted-microbial-consortium-emsd5-reveal-its-taxonomic-and-enzymatic-basis-for-degrading-lignocellulose
#19
Ning Zhu, Jinshui Yang, Lei Ji, Jiawen Liu, Yi Yang, Hongli Yuan
BACKGROUND: Microbial consortia represent promising candidates for aiding in the development of plant biomass conversion strategies for biofuel production. However, the interaction between different community members and the dynamics of enzyme complements during the lignocellulose deconstruction process remain poorly understood. We present here a comprehensive study on the community structure and enzyme systems of a lignocellulolytic microbial consortium EMSD5 during growth on corn stover, using metagenome sequencing in combination with quantitative metaproteomics...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832305/constructed-wetlands-revisited-microbial-diversity-in-the-omics-era
#20
REVIEW
Olga Sánchez
Constructed wetlands (CWs) constitute an interesting alternative option to conventional systems for wastewater treatment. This technology is based on the utilization of the concerted activity of microorganisms for the removal of contaminants. Consequently, knowledge on the microbial assemblages dwelling CWs and the different environmental factors which can alter their activities is crucial for understanding their performance. In the last decades, the use of molecular techniques to characterize these communities and more recently, application of -omics tools, have broaden our view of microbial diversity and function in wastewater microbiology...
November 10, 2016: Microbial Ecology
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