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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087532/establishment-and-validation-of-rna-based-predictive-models-for-understanding-survival-of-vibrio-parahaemolyticus-in-oysters-stored-at-low-temperatures
#1
Chao Liao, Yong Zhao, Luxin Wang
: This study developed RNA-based predictive models describing the survival of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) during storage at 0, 4, and 10°C. Post-harvested oysters were inoculated with a cocktail of five V. parahaemolyticus strains and were then stored at 0, 4, and 10°C for 21 or 11 days. A real-time RT-PCR assay targeting expression of tlh gene was used to evaluate the number of surviving V. parahaemolyticus, which was then used to establish primary molecular models (MMs)...
January 13, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087492/multi-antibiotic-resistant-and-putative-virulence-gene-signatures-in-enterococcus-species-isolated-from-pig-farms-environment
#2
Abeni Beshiru, Isoken H Igbinosa, Faith I Omeje, Abraham G Ogofure, Martin M Eyong, Etinosa O Igbinosa
The continuous misuse of antimicrobials in food animals both orally and subcutaneously as therapeutic and prophylactic agents to bacterial infections could be detrimental and contribute to the dissemination of resistant clones in livestock production. The present study was carried out to determine the antibiogram and virulence gene characteristics of Enterococcus species from pig farms. A total of 300 faecal samples were obtained from two pig farms in Benin City between February and July, 2016. Standard culture-based and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay were adopted in the detection and characterization of the Enterococcus species...
January 10, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087451/in-depth-comparative-analysis-of-the-chicken-eggshell-membrane-proteome
#3
Tamer A E Ahmed, Henri-Pierre Suso, Maxwell T Hincke
: The avian eggshell membrane (ESM) is stabilized by extensive cross-linkages, making the identification of its protein constituents technically challenging. Herein, we applied various extraction/solubilization conditions followed by proteomic analysis to characterize the protein constituents of ESM derived from the unfertilized chicken eggs. The egg white and eggshell proteomes (including previous published work) were determined and compared to ESM to identify proteins that are relatively or highly specific to ESM...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086873/cecal-micrornaome-response-to-salmonella-enterica-serovar-enteritidis-infection-in-white-leghorn-layer
#4
Guixian Wu, Yukai Qi, Xiaoyi Liu, Ning Yang, Guiyun Xu, Liying Liu, Xianyao Li
BACKGROUND: Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) is a food-borne pathogen and of great threat to human health through consuming the contaminated poultry products. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in different biological activities and have been shown to regulate the innate immunity in the bacterial infection. The objective of this study is to identify miRNAs associated with SE infection in laying chicken cecum. RESULTS: Average number of reads of three libraries constructed from infected and non-infected chickens was 12,476,156 and 10,866,976, respectively...
January 13, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080997/tackling-emerging-fungal-threats-to-animal-health-food-security-and-ecosystem-resilience
#5
Matthew C Fisher, Neil A R Gow, Sarah J Gurr
Emerging infections caused by fungi have become a widely recognized global phenomenon. Their notoriety stems from their causing plagues and famines, driving species extinctions, and the difficulty in treating human mycoses alongside the increase of their resistance to antifungal drugs. This special issue comprises a collection of articles resulting from a Royal Society discussion meeting examining why pathogenic fungi are causing more disease now than they did in the past, and how we can tackle this rapidly emerging threat to the health of plants and animals worldwide...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080996/mitigating-amphibian-chytridiomycoses-in-nature
#6
REVIEW
Trenton W J Garner, Benedikt R Schmidt, An Martel, Frank Pasmans, Erin Muths, Andrew A Cunningham, Che Weldon, Matthew C Fisher, Jaime Bosch
Amphibians across the planet face the threat of population decline and extirpation caused by the disease chytridiomycosis. Despite consensus that the fungal pathogens responsible for the disease are conservation issues, strategies to mitigate their impacts in the natural world are, at best, nascent. Reducing risk associated with the movement of amphibians, non-amphibian vectors and other sources of infection remains the first line of defence and a primary objective when mitigating the threat of disease in wildlife...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080995/rapid-emergence-of-pathogens-in-agro-ecosystems-global-threats-to-agricultural-sustainability-and-food-security
#7
REVIEW
Bruce A McDonald, Eva H Stukenbrock
Agricultural ecosystems are composed of genetically depauperate populations of crop plants grown at a high density and over large spatial scales, with the regional composition of crop species changing little from year to year. These environments are highly conducive for the emergence and dissemination of pathogens. The uniform host populations facilitate the specialization of pathogens to particular crop cultivars and allow the build-up of large population sizes. Population genetic and genomic studies have shed light on the evolutionary mechanisms underlying speciation processes, adaptive evolution and long-distance dispersal of highly damaging pathogens in agro-ecosystems...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080994/global-food-and-fibre-security-threatened-by-current-inefficiencies-in-fungal-identification
#8
REVIEW
Pedro W Crous, Johannes Z Groenewald, Bernard Slippers, Michael J Wingfield
Fungal pathogens severely impact global food and fibre crop security. Fungal species that cause plant diseases have mostly been recognized based on their morphology. In general, morphological descriptions remain disconnected from crucially important knowledge such as mating types, host specificity, life cycle stages and population structures. The majority of current fungal species descriptions lack even the most basic genetic data that could address at least some of these issues. Such information is essential for accurate fungal identifications, to link critical metadata and to understand the real and potential impact of fungal pathogens on production and natural ecosystems...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080993/secondary-metabolite-arsenal-of-an-opportunistic-pathogenic-fungus
#9
Elaine Bignell, Timothy C Cairns, Kurt Throckmorton, William C Nierman, Nancy P Keller
Aspergillus fumigatus is a versatile fungus able to successfully exploit diverse environments from mammalian lungs to agricultural waste products. Among its many fitness attributes are dozens of genetic loci containing biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) producing bioactive small molecules (often referred to as secondary metabolites or natural products) that provide growth advantages to the fungus dependent on environment. Here we summarize the current knowledge of these BGCs-18 of which can be named to product-their expression profiles in vivo, and which BGCs may enhance virulence of this opportunistic human pathogen...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080992/microevolutionary-traits-and-comparative-population-genomics-of-the-emerging-pathogenic-fungus-cryptococcus-gattii
#10
Rhys A Farrer, Kerstin Voelz, Daniel A Henk, Simon A Johnston, Matthew C Fisher, Robin C May, Christina A Cuomo
Emerging fungal pathogens cause an expanding burden of disease across the animal kingdom, including a rise in morbidity and mortality in humans. Yet, we currently have only a limited repertoire of available therapeutic interventions. A greater understanding of the mechanisms of fungal virulence and of the emergence of hypervirulence within species is therefore needed for new treatments and mitigation efforts. For example, over the past decade, an unusual lineage of Cryptococcus gattii, which was first detected on Vancouver Island, has spread to the Canadian mainland and the Pacific Northwest infecting otherwise healthy individuals...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080990/food-system-consequences-of-a-fungal-disease-epidemic-in-a-major-crop
#11
H Charles J Godfray, Daniel Mason-D'Croz, Sherman Robinson
Fungal diseases are major threats to the most important crops upon which humanity depends. Were there to be a major epidemic that severely reduced yields, its effects would spread throughout the globalized food system. To explore these ramifications, we use a partial equilibrium economic model of the global food system (IMPACT) to study a hypothetical severe but short-lived epidemic that reduces rice yields in the countries affected by 80%. We modelled a succession of epidemic scenarios of increasing severity, starting with the disease in a single country in southeast Asia and ending with the pathogen present in most of eastern Asia...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080987/ploidy-dynamics-and-evolvability-in-fungi
#12
REVIEW
Noa Blutraich Wertheimer, Neil Stone, Judith Berman
Rapid responses to acute stresses are essential for stress survival and are critical to the ability of fungal pathogens to adapt to new environments or hosts. The rapid emergence of drug resistance is used as a model for how fungi adapt and survive stress conditions that inhibit the growth of progenitor cells. Aneuploidy and loss of heterozygosity (LOH), which are large-scale genome shifts involving whole chromosomes or chromosome arms, occur at higher frequency than point mutations and have the potential to mediate stress survival...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080986/clinical-implications-of-globally-emerging-azole-resistance-in-aspergillus-fumigatus
#13
REVIEW
Jacques F Meis, Anuradha Chowdhary, Johanna L Rhodes, Matthew C Fisher, Paul E Verweij
Aspergillus fungi are the cause of an array of diseases affecting humans, animals and plants. The triazole antifungal agents itraconazole, voriconazole, isavuconazole and posaconazole are treatment options against diseases caused by Aspergillus However, resistance to azoles has recently emerged as a new therapeutic challenge in six continents. Although de novo azole resistance occurs occasionally in patients during azole therapy, the main burden is the aquisition of resistance through the environment. In this setting, the evolution of resistance is attributed to the widespread use of azole-based fungicides...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080985/emerging-oomycete-threats-to-plants-and-animals
#14
REVIEW
Lida Derevnina, Benjamin Petre, Ronny Kellner, Yasin F Dagdas, Mohammad Nasif Sarowar, Artemis Giannakopoulou, Juan Carlos De la Concepcion, Angela Chaparro-Garcia, Helen G Pennington, Pieter van West, Sophien Kamoun
Oomycetes, or water moulds, are fungal-like organisms phylogenetically related to algae. They cause devastating diseases in both plants and animals. Here, we describe seven oomycete species that are emerging or re-emerging threats to agriculture, horticulture, aquaculture and natural ecosystems. They include the plant pathogens Phytophthora infestans, Phytophthora palmivora, Phytophthora ramorum, Plasmopara obducens, and the animal pathogens Aphanomyces invadans, Saprolegnia parasitica and Halioticida noduliformans For each species, we describe its pathology, importance and impact, discuss why it is an emerging threat and briefly review current research activities...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080984/modelling-coffee-leaf-rust-risk-in-colombia-with-climate-reanalysis-data
#15
Daniel P Bebber, Ángela Delgado Castillo, Sarah J Gurr
Many fungal plant diseases are strongly controlled by weather, and global climate change is thus likely to have affected fungal pathogen distributions and impacts. Modelling the response of plant diseases to climate change is hampered by the difficulty of estimating pathogen-relevant microclimatic variables from standard meteorological data. The availability of increasingly sophisticated high-resolution climate reanalyses may help overcome this challenge. We illustrate the use of climate reanalyses by testing the hypothesis that climate change increased the likelihood of the 2008-2011 outbreak of Coffee Leaf Rust (CLR, Hemileia vastatrix) in Colombia...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080982/drivers-of-variation-in-species-impacts-for-a-multi-host-fungal-disease-of-bats
#16
Kate E Langwig, Winifred F Frick, Joseph R Hoyt, Katy L Parise, Kevin P Drees, Thomas H Kunz, Jeffrey T Foster, A Marm Kilpatrick
Disease can play an important role in structuring species communities because the effects of disease vary among hosts; some species are driven towards extinction, while others suffer relatively little impact. Why disease impacts vary among host species remains poorly understood for most multi-host pathogens, and factors allowing less-susceptible species to persist could be useful in conserving highly affected species. White-nose syndrome (WNS), an emerging fungal disease of bats, has decimated some species while sympatric and closely related species have experienced little effect...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080981/phenotypic-interactions-between-tree-hosts-and-invasive-forest-pathogens-in-the-light-of-globalization-and-climate-change
#17
REVIEW
Jan Stenlid, Jonàs Oliva
Invasive pathogens can cause considerable damage to forest ecosystems. Lack of coevolution is generally thought to enable invasive pathogens to bypass the defence and/or recognition systems in the host. Although mostly true, this argument fails to predict intermittent outcomes in space and time, underlining the need to include the roles of the environment and the phenotype in host-pathogen interactions when predicting disease impacts. We emphasize the need to consider host-tree imbalances from a phenotypic perspective, considering the lack of coevolutionary and evolutionary history with the pathogen and the environment, respectively...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080980/climate-forcing-of-an-emerging-pathogenic-fungus-across-a-montane-multi-host-community
#18
Frances C Clare, Julia B Halder, Olivia Daniel, Jon Bielby, Mikhail A Semenov, Thibaut Jombart, Adeline Loyau, Dirk S Schmeller, Andrew A Cunningham, Marcus Rowcliffe, Trenton W J Garner, Jaime Bosch, Matthew C Fisher
Changes in the timings of seasonality as a result of anthropogenic climate change are predicted to occur over the coming decades. While this is expected to have widespread impacts on the dynamics of infectious disease through environmental forcing, empirical data are lacking. Here, we investigated whether seasonality, specifically the timing of spring ice-thaw, affected susceptibility to infection by the emerging pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) across a montane community of amphibians that are suffering declines and extirpations as a consequence of this infection...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077635/virion-structure-of-black-queen-cell-virus-a-common-honeybee-pathogen
#19
Radovan Spurny, Antonín Přidal, Lenka Pálkové, Hoa Khanh Tran Kiem, Joachim R de Miranda, Pavel Plevka
: Viral diseases are a major threat to honeybee (Apis mellifera) populations world-wide and therefore an important factor in reliable crop pollination and food security. Black queen cell virus (BQCV) is the etiological agent of a fatal disease of honeybee queen larvae and pupae. The virus belongs to the genus Triatovirus from the family Dicistroviridae that is part of the order Picornavirales Here we present a crystal structure of BQCV determined to a resolution of 3.4 Å. The virion is formed by sixty copies of each of the major capsid proteins VP1, VP2, and VP3, however there is no density corresponding to a 75-residue-long minor capsid protein VP4 encoded by the BQCV genome...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077608/-holiday-sickness-reported-exploratory-outcome-of-over-500-united-kingdom-holidaymakers-with-travellers-diarrhoea
#20
Prof Aali J Sheen, M Saad B Zahid, Andrew Fagbemi, Catherine Fullwood, Kathryn Whitehead
AIMS: To ascertain any predictors of potential food poisoning pathogens and development of post-infective irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in UK travellers. An analysis was undertaken on prospectively collected data on 527 patients reporting symptoms of suspected food poisoning between June 2012 and June 2015. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Positive stool sample indicative of food poisoning pathogens and diagnosis of post-infective IBS. RESULTS: Data on 527 patients were examined...
January 2017: Journal of Travel Medicine
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