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Food pathogen

Ralf R Tönjes
BACKGROUND: For xenotransplantation, strategies to prevent transmission of microorganisms from the source animal to the human recipient must be closely coordinated since tissues and organs are classified as non-sterile. Strategies for international cooperation and coordination of xenogeneic infection / disease surveillance and response are available. METHODS: The regulatory frameworks and criteria on microbial safety as published by World Health Organization (WHO), European Pharmacopoeia (Ph...
May 2018: Xenotransplantation
Augustin T Twabela, Georges M Tshilenge, Yoshiro Sakoda, Masatoshi Okamatsu, Ezekiel Bushu, Philippe Kone, Lidewij Wiersma, Gianpiero Zamperin, Alessandra Drago, Bianca Zecchin, Isabella Monne
In 2017, highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) virus was detected in poultry in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Whole-genome phylogeny showed the virus clustered with H5N8 clade strains from birds in central and southern Asia. Emergence of this virus in central Africa represents a threat for animal health and food security.
July 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Olivier Escaffre, Terence Hill, Tetsuro Ikegami, Terry L Juelich, Jennifer K Smith, Lihong Zhang, David E Perez, Colm Atkins, Arnold Park, William S Lawrence, Satheesh K Sivasubramani, Jennifer E Peel, Johnny W Peterson, Benhur Lee, Alexander N Freiberg
Background: Nipah virus (NiV) is a paramyxovirus (genus henipavirus) that can cause severe respiratory illness and encephalitis in humans. Transmission occurs through consumption of NiV-contaminated foods, and contact with NiV-infected animals or human body fluids. However, it is unclear whether aerosols derived from aforesaid sources or others also contribute to transmission, and current knowledge on NiV-induced pathogenicity after small particle aerosol exposure is still limited. Methods: infectivity, pathogenicity and real-time dissemination of aerosolized NiV in Syrian hamsters was evaluated using NiV-Malaysia (NiV-M) and/or its recombinant expressing firefly luciferase (rNiV-Fluc NP)...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Noordiana Nordin, Nor Azah Yusof, Son Radu, Roozbeh Hushiarian
Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V. parahaemolyticus) is a common foodborne pathogen that contributes to a large proportion of public health problems globally, significantly affecting the rate of human mortality and morbidity. Conventional methods for the detection of V. parahaemolyticus such as culture-based methods, immunological assays, and molecular-based methods require complicated sample handling and are time-consuming, tedious, and costly. Recently, biosensors have proven to be a promising and comprehensive detection method with the advantages of fast detection, cost-effectiveness, and practicality...
June 3, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Eric R Ocheretyaner, Tae Eun Park
The resistance to current antimicrobial agents, including fluoroquinolones, has continued to grow among various pathogens indicating a need for new antimicrobials to combat multi-drug resistant (MDR) organisms. In June 2017, delafloxacin received approval by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs) in adults caused by designated susceptible bacteria. Areas covered: This review describes the pharmacology, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, product information, efficacy, and safety of delafloxacin...
June 18, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Soosan Abdollahi, Mohammad Hossein Ghahremani, Neda Setayesh, Nasrin Samadi
The Lactococcus lactis is known as a probiotic bacterium and also as a producer of nisin. Nisin has been approved by related legal agencies to be used as an antimicrobial peptide in food preservation. In fact, the L. lactis is present in different food products along with other micro-organisms especially pathogenic bacteria. So, it is important to predict the behavior of nisin-producer strain in contact with other pathogens. In this regard, nisin gene expression and the level of secreted biologically active form of nisin by L...
June 13, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Dasel Wambua Mulwa Kaindi, Wambui Kogi-Makau, Godfrey Nsereko Lule, Bernd Kreikemeyer, Pierre Renault, Bassirou Bonfoh, Nize Otaru, Thomas Schmid, Leo Meile, Jan Hattendorf, Christoph Jans
Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius (Sii), a member of the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC), predominates as dairy-adapted and non-adapted variants in fermented dairy products (FDP) in East and West Africa. Epidemiologic data suggest an association with colorectal cancer for most SBSEC members, including Sii from Kenyan patients. Phylogenetic relationships of East African human (EAH) isolates to those of dairy and pathogenic origin were analysed to better estimate potential health implications via FDP consumption...
June 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Young-Ji Kim, Hong-Seok Kim, Jung-Whan Chon, Dong-Hyeon Kim, Ji-Yeon Hyeon, Kun-Ho Seo
Campylobacter is the most common cause of infectious intestinal disease, with nearly all cases caused by two species: C. jejuni and C. coli. We recently reported a gold nanoparticle-based two-stage aptasensing platform, which was improved in the present study for the rapid and on-site detection of both C. jejuni and C. coli in food samples. Compared to the previous platform, the improved platform yielded a more obvious colour change from red to purple due to the aggregation of gold nanoparticles, and does not require additional time or a pH optimization step for the aptamers to be adsorbed onto the gold nanoparticles...
October 31, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Ruth E Timme, Hugh Rand, Maria Sanchez Leon, Maria Hoffmann, Errol Strain, Marc Allard, Dwayne Roberson, Joseph D Baugher
Pathogen monitoring is becoming more precise as sequencing technologies become more affordable and accessible worldwide. This transition is especially apparent in the field of food safety, which has demonstrated how whole-genome sequencing (WGS) can be used on a global scale to protect public health. GenomeTrakr coordinates the WGS performed by public-health agencies and other partners by providing a public database with real-time cluster analysis for foodborne pathogen surveillance. Because WGS is being used to support enforcement decisions, it is essential to have confidence in the quality of the data being used and the downstream data analyses that guide these decisions...
June 15, 2018: Microbial Genomics
George Kwabena Afari, Yen-Con Hung
The use of electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water to inactivate microorganisms on foods has been extensively studied and shown to be effective. However, the prospect of the formation of "viable but nonculturable" (VBNC) cells in pathogens after low free chlorine concentration (FCC) treatments under high organic loads presents safety concerns. This study investigated the effect of EO water FCC on inducing Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes into the VBNC state and studied possible resuscitation triggering procedures of the VBNC cells...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Food Science
Yoo Min Park, Sun Young Lim, Soon Woo Jeong, Younseong Song, Nam Ho Bae, Seok Bok Hong, Bong Gill Choi, Seok Jae Lee, Kyoung G Lee
Flexible and highly ordered nanopillar arrayed electrodes have brought great interest for many electrochemical applications, especially to the biosensors, because of its unique mechanical and topological properties. Herein, we report an advanced method to fabricate highly ordered nanopillar electrodes produced by soft-/photo-lithography and metal evaporation. The highly ordered nanopillar array exhibited the superior electrochemical and mechanical properties in regard with the wide space to response with electrolytes, enabling the sensitive analysis...
2018: Nano Convergence
Soraya Omardien, Alexander Ter Beek, Norbert Vischer, Roy Montijn, Frank Schuren, Stanley Brul
An empirical approach was taken to screen a novel synthetic compound library designed to be active against Gram-positive bacteria. We obtained five compounds that were active against spores from the model organism Bacillus subtilis and the food-borne pathogen Bacillus cereus during our population based experiments. Using single cell live imaging we were able to observe effects of the compounds on spore germination and outgrowth. Difference in sensitivity to the compounds could be observed between B. subtilis and B...
June 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Maike Krause, Holger Barth, Herbert Schmidt
Studies on Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) typically examine and classify the virulence gene profiles based on genomic analyses. Among the screened strains, a subgroup of STEC which lacks the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) has frequently been identified. This raises the question about the level of pathogenicity of such strains. This review focuses on the advantages and disadvantages of the standard screening procedures in virulence profiling and summarizes the current knowledge concerning the function and regulation of toxins encoded by LEE-negative STEC...
June 14, 2018: Toxins
Gabriel Chia, Hanley J Ho, Ching-Ging Ng, Freddy Jun-Xian Neo, Mar-Kyaw Win, Lin Cui, Yee-Sin Leo, Angela Chow
BACKGROUND: An outbreak of gastroenteritis (GE) occurred in community-dwelling adults in the Central Region of urban Singapore, in May 2016. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the cause of the outbreak. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a case-cohort study on GE patients linked to the outbreak who presented to the emergency department of a tertiary-care hospital near the outbreak area, from 18 May to 11 June 2016. Stools were tested for gastrointestinal pathogens including rotavirus antigen and positive rotavirus samples were subject to genotyping...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Amy J Pickering, Ayse Ercumen, Benjamin F Arnold, Laura H Kwong, Sarker Masud Parvez, Mahfuja Alam, Debashis Sen, Sharmin Islam, Craig Kullmann, Claire Chase, Rokeya Ahmed, Leanne Unicomb, John M Colford, Stephen P Luby
Enteric pathogens can be transmitted through multiple environmental pathways, yet little is known about the relative contribution of each pathway to diarrhea risk among children. We aimed to identify fecal transmission pathways in the household environment associated with prospectively measured child diarrhea in rural Bangladesh. We measured the presence and levels of E. coli in tubewells, stored drinking water, pond water, child hand rinses, courtyard soil, flies, and food in 1843 households. Gastrointestinal symptoms among children ages 0-60 months were recorded concurrently at the time of environmental sample collection and again a median of 6 days later...
June 14, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Qianru Yang, Kelly J Domesle, Beilei Ge
Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) has become a powerful alternative to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for pathogen detection in clinical specimens and food matrices. Nontyphoidal Salmonella is a zoonotic pathogen of significant food and feed safety concern worldwide. The first study employing LAMP for the rapid detection of Salmonella was reported in 2005, 5 years after the invention of the LAMP technology in Japan. This review provides an overview of international efforts in the past decade on the development and application of Salmonella LAMP assays in a wide array of food and feed matrices...
June 2018: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Jian Ju, Yunfei Xie, Yahui Guo, Yuliang Cheng, He Qian, Weirong Yao
In recent years, with the continuous improvement of people's living standard, the importance of healthy lifestyles is becoming more and more recognized. Therefore, food safety has attracted much attention. This has prompted people to study new technologies that can guarantee food safety without the use of preservatives. Compared with other types of food preservatives, essential oils (EOs) are gotten more attention, because they meet the current development trend of food additives about "green", "safety" and "health"...
June 14, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Shaohui Wang, Denghui Yang, Xiaojun Wu, Yang Wang, Dong Wang, Mingxing Tian, Tao Li, Jingjing Qi, Xiaolan Wang, Chan Ding, Shengqing Yu
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is an important food-borne zoonotic pathogen that causes increased morbidity and mortality worldwide. The autotransporter (AT) proteins are a large and diverse family of extracellular proteins, many of which contribute to the pathogenicity of Gram-negative bacteria. The S. Typhimurium AT protein MisL mediates intestinal colonization in mice. Bioinformatics analyses indicated that MisL clusters with ATs involved in bacterial biofilm formation, aggregation and adherence...
June 12, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Alejandra Soledad Oriani, FermIn Sierra, Mónica Diana Baldini
Background: : There is evidence that drinking water could be a source of infections with pathogenic nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) potentially risky to human health. The aim was to investigate the resistance of two NTM isolated from drinking water, Mycobacterium gordonae and Mycobacterium chubuense, at different concentrations of chlorine (as sodium hypochlorite), used in drinking water sanitation. Methods: : The NTM were grown in suspension and in biofilms and were challenged with biocide for 10 and 60 min...
April 2018: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Huanli Liu, Chris A Whitehouse, Baoguang Li
Salmonella ranks high among the pathogens causing foodborne disease outbreaks. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Salmonella contributed to about 53.4% of all foodborne disease outbreaks from 2006 to 2017, and approximately 32.7% of these foodborne Salmonella outbreaks were associated with consumption of produce. Trace-back investigations have suggested that irrigation water may be a source of Salmonella contamination of produce and a vehicle for transmission. Presence and persistence of Salmonella have been reported in surface waters such as rivers, lakes, and ponds, while ground water in general offers better microbial quality for irrigation...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
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