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Food pathogen

Roberta E Rossi, Tara Whyand, Charles D Murray, Mark I Hamilton, Dario Conte, Martyn E Caplin
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic immune disorders of unclear aetiology. Dietary deficiencies may be a potential pathogenic factor in their development. Patients often take food supplements without knowledge of any evidence base. We have therefore assessed the evidence for food supplementation in the management of IBD. A PubMed search was performed for the terms Inflammatory bowel disease; nutritional deficiencies; dietary supplements; curcumin; green tea; vitamin D/other vitamins; folic acid; iron; zinc; probiotics; andrographis paniculata; and boswellia serrate...
December 2016: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Sonia M Hernandez, Catharine N Welch, Valerie E Peters, Erin K Lipp, Shannon Curry, Michael J Yabsley, Susan Sanchez, Andrea Presotto, Peter Gerner-Smidt, Kelley B Hise, Elizabeth Hammond, Whitney M Kistler, Marguerite Madden, April L Conway, Tiffany Kwan, John J Maurer
Worldwide, Salmonella spp. is a significant cause of disease for both humans and wildlife, with wild birds adapted to urban environments having different opportunities for pathogen exposure, infection, and transmission compared to their natural conspecifics. Food provisioning by people may influence these factors, especially when high-density mixed species flocks aggregate. White Ibises (Eudocimus albus), an iconic Everglades species in decline in Florida, are becoming increasingly common in urbanized areas of south Florida where most are hand-fed...
2016: PloS One
Yingying Hong, Kyle Schmidt, Danielle Marks, Samantha Hatter, Anne Marshall, Luiz Albino, Paul Ebner
Numerous studies have assessed the efficacy of phage-based methods to inhibit Salmonella contamination in food products. As with most antibacterials, bacteria can develop resistance to phage in vitro. Here, we applied a single broad-spectrum Salmonella phage, vB_SalS_SJ_2 (SJ2; 10(8) PFU; MOI = 10), to Salmonella-contaminated meat and eggs to quantify the development of resistance in actual food matrices. Treatment with a single phage significantly reduced Salmonella Typhimurium contamination in both ground pork and liquid egg at various time points...
October 21, 2016: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Delphine Ropers, Aline Métris
Qualitative modeling approaches allow to provide a coarse-grained description of the functioning of cellular networks when experimental data are scarce and heterogeneous. We translate the primary literature data on the response of Escherichia coli to hyperosmotic stress caused by NaCl addition into a piecewise linear (PL) model. We provide a data file of the qualitative model, which can be used for simulation of changes of protein concentrations and of DNA coiling during the physiological response of the bacterium to the stress...
December 2016: Data in Brief
Julia König, Jerry Wells, Patrice D Cani, Clara L García-Ródenas, Tom MacDonald, Annick Mercenier, Jacqueline Whyte, Freddy Troost, Robert-Jan Brummer
The gastrointestinal tract consists of an enormous surface area that is optimized to efficiently absorb nutrients, water, and electrolytes from food. At the same time, it needs to provide a tight barrier against the ingress of harmful substances, and protect against a reaction to omnipresent harmless compounds. A dysfunctional intestinal barrier is associated with various diseases and disorders. In this review, the role of intestinal permeability in common disorders such as infections with intestinal pathogens, inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, obesity, celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity, and food allergies will be discussed...
October 20, 2016: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
Xiaoye Liu, Shuangyang Ding, Peijie Shi, Richard Dietrich, Erwin Märtlbauer, Kui Zhu
Bacillus cereus is an opportunistic pathogen that often causes foodborne infectious diseases and food poisoning. Non-haemolytic enterotoxin (Nhe) is the major toxin found in almost all enteropathogenic B. cereus and B. thuringiensis isolates. However, little is known about the cellular response after Nhe triggered pore formation on cell membrane. Here we demonstrate that Nhe induced cell cycle arrest at G0 /G1 phase and provoked apoptosis in Vero cells, most likely associated with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and death receptor pathways...
October 20, 2016: Cellular Microbiology
Xingxing Dong, Xiaohong Wang, Xingchun Chen, Zhiyun Yan, Jing Cheng, Liangliang Gao, Yuan Liu, Jinquan Li
Staphylococcus aureus, a commensal and a pathogenic bacterium, causes a wide variety of diseases in humans and animals with a high impact on public health and the livestock industry. The risk of zoonotic transmission to humans highlights the need to understand the molecular ecology of S. aureus in foods. In this study, we obtained 25 S. aureus isolates from 39 crayfish samples in Hubei, China. PCR was applied for detection of presence of virulence and methicillin resistance genes in the pathogen genome. The result revealed that all of the 25 S...
October 19, 2016: Current Microbiology
Catherine Duport, Michel Jobin, Philippe Schmitt
Bacillus cereus is a food-borne pathogen that causes diarrheal disease in humans. After ingestion, B. cereus experiences in the human gastro-intestinal tract abiotic physical variables encountered in food, such as acidic pH in the stomach and changing oxygen conditions in the human intestine. B. cereus responds to environmental changing conditions (stress) by reversibly adjusting its physiology to maximize resource utilization while maintaining structural and genetic integrity by repairing and minimizing damage to cellular infrastructure...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Siddhartha Mandal, Keith M Godfrey, Daniel McDonald, Will V Treuren, Jørgen V Bjørnholt, Tore Midtvedt, Birgitte Moen, Knut Rudi, Rob Knight, Anne Lise Brantsæter, Shyamal D Peddada, Merete Eggesbø
BACKGROUND: Although diet is known to have a major modulatory influence on gut microbiota, knowledge of the specific roles of particular vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients is limited. Modulation of the composition of the microbiota in pregnant women is especially important as maternal microbes are transferred during delivery and initiate the colonization process in the infant. We studied the associations between intake of specific dietary nutrients during pregnancy and gut microbiota composition...
October 19, 2016: Microbiome
Brian Weselowski, Naeem Nathoo, Alexander William Eastman, Jacqueline MacDonald, Ze-Chun Yuan
BACKGROUND: Paenibacillus polymyxa is a plant-growth promoting rhizobacterium that could be exploited as an environmentally friendlier alternative to chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Various strains have been isolated that can benefit agriculture through antimicrobial activity, nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, plant hormone production, or lignocellulose degradation. However, no single strain has yet been identified in which all of these advantageous traits have been confirmed...
October 18, 2016: BMC Microbiology
C A Borges, L G Beraldo, R P Maluta, M V Cardozo, K B Barboza, E A L Guastalli, S Kariyawasam, C DebRoy, F A Ávila
Wild birds are carriers of Escherichia coli. However, little is known about their role as reservoirs for extra-intestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC). In this work we investigated E. coli strains carrying virulence genes related to human and animal ExPEC isolated from free-living wild birds treated in a veterinary hospital. Multidrug resistance was found in 47.4% of the strains, but none of them were extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producers. Not only the virulence genes, but also the serogroups (e.g. O1 and O2) detected in the isolates of E...
October 18, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Bharat Bhushan, S K Tomar, Arun Chauhan
An appropriate selection of Lactobacillus strain (probiotic/starter/functional) on the basis of its techno-functional characteristics is required before developing a novel fermented functional food. We compared vitamin B12 (B12, cobalamin) producing Lactobacillus plantarum isolates, BHM10 and BCF20, for functional (vitamin over-production, genomic insight to B12 structural genes, and probiotic attributes) and technological [milks (skim and soy) fermentation and B12 bio-fortification] characteristics. Addition of B12 precursors (5-amonolevulinate and dimethylbenzimidazole) to cobalamin-free fermentation medium increased vitamin production in BHM10, BCF20, and DSM20016 (a positive standard) by 3...
October 17, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
J M Diaz Carrasco, L M Redondo, E A Redondo, J E Dominguez, A P Chacana, M E Fernandez Miyakawa
Necrotic enteritis (NE) is an important concern in poultry industry since it causes economic losses, increased mortality, reduction of bird welfare, and contamination of chicken products for human consumption. For decades, the use of in-feed antimicrobial growth promoters (AGPs) has been the main strategy to control intestinal pathogens including Clostridium perfringens (CP), the causative agent of NE. However, the use of AGPs in animal diet has been linked to the emergence and transmission of antimicrobial resistance through food-borne microorganisms, which has led to the ban of AGPs in many countries...
2016: BioMed Research International
Amrita Saxena, Richa Raghuwanshi, Vijai Kumar Gupta, Harikesh B Singh
Indian cuisine is renowned and celebrated throughout the world for its spicy treat to the tongue. The flavor and aroma of the food generated due to the use of spices creates an indelible experience. Among the commonly utilized spices to stimulate the taste buds in Indian food, whole or powdered chilli constitutes an inevitable position. Besides being a vital ingredient of of Indian food, chilli occupy an important position as an economic commodity, a major share in Indian economy. Chilli also has uncountable benefits to human health...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
H Memona, F Manzoor, A A Anjum
This study focuses on isolation of pathogenic bacteria from external and internal surfaces of cockroaches collected from houses and hospitals in Lahore. In total, 240 adult cockroaches were collected from houses and hospitals by hand or using sticky traps and food-bait traps. Cockroach species were identified, and microbial screening was done for external surfaces and gut tracts of cockroaches. Jaccard's index of similarity, Bray-Curtis' index of dissimilarity, and Shannon-Wiener's diversity index were used to measure the bacterial community diversity (all species of bacteria) in each habitat...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
Yosra Ben-Fadhel, Sabrina Saltaji, Mohamed Ali Khlifi, Stephane Salmieri, Khanh Dang Vu, Monique Lacroix
The antimicrobial activity of essential oils (EOs), organic acid (OA) salts and natamycin, a natural antifungal produced during fermentation by the bacterium Streptomyces natalensis, was assessed against four pathogens (Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium and Aspergillus niger). The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of each antimicrobial (AM) was assessed to determine their efficiency on tested microbial species in order to select the most efficient. Then, the interactions between different antimicrobial compounds showing the lowest MIC were determined by the checkerboard method...
October 11, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
M X Rodrigues, S F Lima, C H Higgins, S G Canniatti-Brazaca, R C Bicalho
The bacterium Lactococcus lactis is widely used in food production and in medical applications, and is considered safe for human and animal use. However, studies have also linked Lactococcus bacteria to infection. For example, certain variants of Lactococcus species have been associated with bovine mastitis (e.g., Lactococcus lactis and Lactococcus garvieae). In this study, we investigated an outbreak of bovine mastitis thought to be associated with Lactococcus bacteria by using microbiological and molecular techniques...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Thomas V Vezeteu, Otilia Bobiş, Robin F A Moritz, Anja Buttstedt
Honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera) serve as attractive hosts for a variety of pathogens providing optimal temperatures, humidity, and an abundance of food. Thus, honeybees have to deal with pathogens throughout their lives and, even as larvae they are affected by severe brood diseases like the European Foulbrood caused by Melissococcus plutonius. Accordingly, it is highly adaptive that larval food jelly contains antibiotic compounds. However, although food jelly is primarily consumed by bee larvae, studies investigating the antibiotic effects of this jelly have largely concentrated on bacterial human diseases...
October 14, 2016: MicrobiologyOpen
Lauren D Wu, L Renee Ruhaak, Carlito B Lebrilla
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are a highly abundant constituent in human milk, and its protective and prebiotic properties have attracted considerable attention. HMOs have been shown to directly and indirectly benefit the overall health of the infant due to a number of functions including serving as a beneficial food for gut bacteria, block to pathogens, and aiding in brain development. Researchers are currently exploring whether these structures may act as possible disease and nutrition biomarkers. Because of this, rapid-throughput methods are desired to investigate biological activity in large patient sets...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Maurizio Koch
Microbes are mostly important for the digestion of food, the absorption of some micronutrients, and the production of vitamins. The microbiota stimulates lymphoid structures in the gastrointestinal mucosa and decrease pathogens by competing for nutrients and space. Bacterial translocation is defined as the escape of gut bacteria and their products through the intestinal mucosa to the outside of the intestine as portovenous or systemic circulation. This is induced by a leaky gut barrier. There is evidence for a role of intestinal permeability in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
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