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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549287/unconventional-energy-resources-in-a-crowded-subsurface-reducing-uncertainty-and-developing-a-separation-zone-concept-for-resource-estimation-and-deep-3d-subsurface-planning-using-legacy-mining-data
#1
Alison A Monaghan
Over significant areas of the UK and western Europe, anthropogenic alteration of the subsurface by mining of coal has occurred beneath highly populated areas which are now considering a multiplicity of 'low carbon' unconventional energy resources including shale gas and oil, coal bed methane, geothermal energy and energy storage. To enable decision making on the 3D planning, licensing and extraction of these resources requires reduced uncertainty around complex geology and hydrogeological and geomechanical processes...
May 23, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549272/acute-toxicity-of-emerging-atmospheric-pollutants-from-wood-lignin-due-to-biomass-burning
#2
Maryline Pflieger, Ana Kroflič
Guaiacol (2-methoxyphenol) is an important atmospheric pollutant. It is the major component of wood lignin and is essentially emitted to the atmosphere during biomass burning. Its aging in the tropospheric aqueous phase leads to the generation of the following ring-retaining transformation products, also during nighttime: 4-nitroguaiacol, 6-nitroguaiacol, and dinitroguaiacol. This study presents the first toxicological data of guaiacol and its nitro derivatives and reveals their harmful potential for the ecosystem...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549206/assessment-of-allelic-diversity-among-drought-resistant-cotton-genotypes-using-microsatellite-markers
#3
A Javaid, F S Awan, F M Azhar, I A Khan
Drought, in conjunction with high temperature, is an important environmental constraint to cotton production. Development of cotton varieties with increased tolerance against adverse environmental conditions has been proposed as effective strategy for ensuring reliable yields. In the present study, 30 simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers were used to estimate genetic divergence among 22 cotton genotypes for drought stress tolerance. Genetic diversity is a prerequisite for developing drought resistant cotton genotypes...
May 25, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548660/transcriptomic-and-micrornaomic-profiling-reveals-multi-faceted-mechanisms-to-cope-with-phosphate-stress-in-a-dinoflagellate
#4
Xinguo Shi, Xin Lin, Ling Li, Meizhen Li, Brian Palenik, Senjie Lin
Although gene regulation can occur at both transcriptional and epigenetic (microRNA) levels, combined transcriptomic and microRNAomic responses to environmental stress are still largely unexplored for marine plankton. Here, we conducted transcriptome and microRNAome sequencing for Prorocentrum donghaiense to understand the molecular mechanisms by which this dinoflagellate copes with phosphorus (P) deficiency. Under P-depleted conditions, G1/S specific cyclin gene was markedly downregulated, consistent with growth inhibition, and genes related to dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) hydrolysis, carbon fixation, nitrate assimilation, glycolysis, and cellular motility were upregulated...
May 26, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548656/nlr-locus-mediated-trade-off-between-abiotic-and-biotic-stress-adaptation-in-arabidopsis
#5
Hirotaka Ariga, Taku Katori, Takashi Tsuchimatsu, Taishi Hirase, Yuri Tajima, Jane E Parker, Rubén Alcázar, Maarten Koornneef, Owen Hoekenga, Alexander E Lipka, Michael A Gore, Hitoshi Sakakibara, Mikiko Kojima, Yuriko Kobayashi, Satoshi Iuchi, Masatomo Kobayashi, Kazuo Shinozaki, Yoichi Sakata, Takahisa Hayashi, Yusuke Saijo, Teruaki Taji
Osmotic stress caused by drought, salt or cold decreases plant fitness. Acquired stress tolerance defines the ability of plants to withstand stress following an initial exposure(1). We found previously that acquired osmotolerance after salt stress is widespread among Arabidopsis thaliana accessions(2). Here, we identify ACQOS as the locus responsible for ACQUIRED OSMOTOLERANCE. Of its five haplotypes, only plants carrying group 1 ACQOS are impaired in acquired osmotolerance. ACQOS is identical to VICTR, encoding a nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) protein(3)...
May 26, 2017: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547779/the-effects-of-environmental-and-visitor-variables-on-the-behavior-of-free-ranging-ring-tailed-lemurs-lemur-catta-in-captivity
#6
Courtney Collins, Ilse Corkery, Amy Haigh, Sean McKeown, Thomas Quirke, Ruth O'Riordan
The effect of the zoo environment on captive animals is an increasingly studied area of zoo research, with visitor effects and exhibit design recognized as two of the factors that can contribute to animal welfare in captivity. It is known that in some situations, visitors may be stressful to zoo-housed primates, and this may be compounded by environmental factors such as the weather, the time of day, and zoo husbandry routines. Exhibit design and proximity of the public are also known to influence behavioral response of primates to visitors; however, there is minimal research on free-ranging zoo animals, even though they are potentially subjected to intense interactions with visitors...
May 26, 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547292/physiological-implications-of-ocean-acidification-for-marine-fish-emerging-patterns-and-new-insights
#7
REVIEW
Andrew J Esbaugh
Ocean acidification (OA) is an impending environmental stress facing all marine life, and as such has been a topic of intense research interest in recent years. Numerous detrimental effects have been documented in marine fish, ranging from reduced mortality to neurosensory impairment, and the prevailing opinions state that these effects are largely the downstream consequences of altered blood carbon dioxide chemistry caused by respiratory acid-base disturbances. While the respiratory acid-base disturbances are consistent responses to OA across tested fish species, it is becoming increasingly clear that there is wide variability in the degree of downstream impairments between species...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546117/analysis-on-pathogenic-and-virulent-characteristics-of-the-cronobacter-sakazakii-strain-baa-894-by-whole-genome-sequencing
#8
Xuerui Bao, Ling Yang, Lequn Chen, Bing Li, Lin Li, Yanyan Li, Zhenbo Xu
Cronobacter sakazakii is an opportunistic pathogen responsible for necrotizing enterocolitis, meningitis and septicaemia especially to infant and neonate, with high lethality ranging in 40%-80%. This strain is able to survive in infant milk formula and possesses capability of pathogenicity and virulence, biofilm formation, and high resistance to elevated osmotic, low pH, heat, oxidation, and desiccasion. This study is aims to investigate the molecular characteristics of Cronobacter sakazakii BAA 894, including mechanisms of its invasion and adherence, biofilm formation, unusual resistance to environmental stress employing whole genome sequencing and comparative genomics...
May 22, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545854/transcriptome-wide-identification-of-host-genes-targeted-by-tomato-spotted-wilt-virus-derived-small-interfering-rnas
#9
Shunmugiah V Ramesh, Sarah Williams, Madhu Kappagantu, Neena Mitter, Hanu R Pappu
RNA silencing mechanism functions as a major defense against invading viruses. The caveat in the RNA silencing mechanism is that the effector small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) act on any RNA transcripts with sequence complementarity irrespective of target's origin. A subset of highly expressed viral small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs) derived from the tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV; Tospovirus: Bunyaviridae) genome was analyzed for their propensity to downregulate the tomato transcriptome. A total of 11898 putative target sites on tomato transcripts were found to exhibit a propensity for down regulation by TSWV-derived vsiRNAs...
May 22, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545210/response-of-microcystis-aeruginosa-bccusp-232-to-barley-hordeum-vulgare-l-straw-degradation-extract-and-fractions
#10
Gustavo Franciscatti Mecina, Anne Lígia Dokkedal, Luiz Leonardo Saldanha, Mathias Ahii Chia, Micheline Kézia Cordeiro-Araújo, Maria do Carmo Bittencourt-Oliveira, Regildo Márcio Gonçalves da Silva
The eutrophication of aquatic ecosystems is a serious environmental problem that leads to increased frequency of cyanobacterial blooms and concentrations of cyanotoxins. These changes in aquatic chemistry can negatively affect animal and human health. Environment-friendly methods are needed to control bloom forming cyanobacteria. We investigated the effect of Hordeum vulgare L. (barley) straw degradation extract and its fractions on the growth, oxidative stress, antioxidant enzyme activities, and microcystins content of Microcystis aeruginosa (Kützing) Kützing BCCUSP232...
May 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544577/hatching-asynchrony-impacts-cognition-in-male-zebra-finches
#11
Simone A Campbell, Michelle L Beck, Kendra B Sewall
Conditions experienced early in life can shape brain development and later cognition. Altricial songbirds are particularly vulnerable to early environmental perturbations. Research on "Developmental Stress" in songbirds has addressed how early-life conditions may impair song learning and has been extended to consider other components of adult phenotype. Early-life challenges ranging from ectoparasites to competition with siblings have been shown to compromise song learning and other measures of cognition, as well as behavioral strategy...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544390/phenotypic-plasticity-and-remodeling-in-the-stress-induced-caenorhabditis-elegans-dauer
#12
REVIEW
Rebecca J Androwski, Kristen M Flatt, Nathan E Schroeder
Organisms are often capable of modifying their development to better suit their environment. Under adverse conditions, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans develops into a stress-resistant alternative larval stage called dauer. The dauer stage is the primary survival stage for C. elegans in nature. Large-scale tissue remodeling during dauer conveys resistance to harsh environments. The environmental and genetic regulation of the decision to enter dauer has been extensively studied. However, less is known about the mechanisms regulating tissue remodeling...
May 24, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544158/molecular-and-physiological-manifestations-and-measurement-of-aging-in-humans
#13
REVIEW
Sadiya S Khan, Benjamin D Singer, Douglas E Vaughan
Biological aging is associated with a reduction in the reparative and regenerative potential in tissues and organs. This reduction manifests as a decreased physiological reserve in response to stress (termed homeostenosis) and a time-dependent failure of complex molecular mechanisms that cumulatively create disorder. Aging inevitably occurs with time in all organisms and emerges on a molecular, cellular, organ, and organismal level with genetic, epigenetic, and environmental modulators. Individuals with the same chronological age exhibit differential trajectories of age-related decline, and it follows that we should assess biological age distinctly from chronological age...
May 23, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543036/self-assembly-of-two-hydrophobins-from-marine-fungi-affected-by-interaction-with-surfaces
#14
Paola Cicatiello, Principia Dardano, Marinella Pirozzi, Alfredo Maria Gravagnuolo, Luca De Stefano, Paola Giardina
Hydrophobins are amphiphilic fungal proteins endowed with peculiar characteristics, such as a high surface activity and an interface triggered self-assembly. Several applications of these proteins have been proposed in the food, cosmetics and biomedical fields. Moreover, their use as proteinaceous coatings can be effective for materials and nanomaterials applications. The discovery of novel hydrophobins with diverse properties may be advantageous from both the scientific and industrial points of view. Stressful environmental conditions of fungal growth may induce the production of proteins with peculiar features...
May 22, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542733/the-pathogenesis-of-dermatomyositis
#15
REVIEW
C Thompson, V Piguet, E Choy
This review looks at the many different factors thought to play a role in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM), concentrating mainly on the dermatomyositis (DM) subtype. Subject areas addressed include looking at the different clinical features of IIM, paying particular attention to the skin manifestations. There is a discussion around investigations needed with their perceived value, followed by a description of the immunohistochemical findings of DM. This review goes on to address other attributing factors such as genetic associations with the different subtypes of IIM, and environmental factors including infections, ultraviolet radiation and vitamin D deficiency and drugs...
May 24, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542567/effects-of-age-and-weaning-conditions-on-blood-indicators-of-oxidative-status-in-pigs
#16
Arnaud Buchet, Catherine Belloc, Mily Leblanc-Maridor, Elodie Merlot
Weaning is a source of social, nutritional and environmental disorders that challenge piglet health. This study assesses the relevance of using plasma indicators of oxidative status as biomarkers of health around weaning in pigs. Blood antioxidant potential (BAP), hydroperoxides (HPO), oxidative stress index (OSI, e.g. HPO/BAP), vitamin A and E concentrations were investigated in two different trials. Trial A was carried out in an experimental unit to investigate the effects of age (from 12 to 147 days of age), weaning (at 21 or 28 days of age) and management at weaning (in optimal (OC) or deteriorated (DC) conditions) on those parameters...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542382/uv-b-induced-fibrillization-of-crystallin-protein-mixtures
#17
Sibel Cetinel, Valentyna Semenchenko, Jae-Young Cho, Mehdi Ghaffari Sharaf, Karim F Damji, Larry D Unsworth, Carlo Montemagno
Environmental factors, mainly oxidative stress and exposure to sunlight, induce the oxidation, cross-linking, cleavage, and deamination of crystallin proteins, resulting in their aggregation and, ultimately, cataract formation. Various denaturants have been used to initiate the aggregation of crystallin proteins in vitro. All of these regimens, however, are obviously far from replicating conditions that exist in vivo that lead to cataract formation. In fact, it is our supposition that only UV-B radiation may mimic the observed in vivo cause of crystallin alteration leading to cataract formation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542352/preconditioning-of-adipose-tissue-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-with-deferoxamine-increases-the-production-of-pro-angiogenic-neuroprotective-and-anti-inflammatory-factors-potential-application-in-the-treatment-of-diabetic-neuropathy
#18
Carolina Oses, Belén Olivares, Marcelo Ezquer, Cristian Acosta, Paul Bosch, Macarena Donoso, Patricio Léniz, Fernando Ezquer
Diabetic neuropathy (DN) is one of the most frequent and troublesome complications of diabetes mellitus. Evidence from diabetic animal models and diabetic patients suggests that reduced availability of neuroprotective and pro-angiogenic factors in the nerves in combination with a chronic pro-inflammatory microenvironment and high level of oxidative stress, contribute to the pathogenesis of DN. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are of great interest as therapeutic agents for regenerative purposes, since they can secrete a broad range of cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory factors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542282/expression-patterns-of-members-of-the-ethylene-signaling-related-gene-families-in-response-to-dehydration-stresses-in-cassava
#19
Meng Yun Ren, Ren Jun Feng, Hou Rui Shi, Li Fang Lu, Tian Yan Yun, Ming Peng, Xiao Guan, Heng Zhang, Jing Yi Wang, Xi Yan Zhang, Cheng Liang Li, Yan Jun Chen, Peng He, Yin Dong Zhang, Jiang Hui Xie
Drought is the one of the most important environment stresses that restricts crop yield worldwide. Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important food and energy crop that has many desirable traits such as drought, heat and low nutrients tolerance. However, the mechanisms underlying drought tolerance in cassava are unclear. Ethylene signaling pathway, from the upstream receptors to the downstream transcription factors, plays important roles in environmental stress responses during plant growth and development...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541504/e3-ubiquitin-ligases-ubiquitous-actors-in-plant-development-and-abiotic-stress-responses
#20
Kai Shu, Wenyu Yang
Understanding the precise regulatory mechanisms of plant development and stress responses at the post-translational level is currently a topic of intensive research. Protein ubiquitination, including the sequential performances of ubiquitin-activating (E1), ubiquitin-conjugating (E2) and ubiquitin ligase (E3) enzymes, is a refined post-translational modification ubiquitous in all eukaryotes. Plants are an integral part of our ecosystem and, as sessile organisms, the ability to perceive internal and external signals and to adapt well to various environmental challenges is crucial for their survival...
May 25, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
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