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Environmental stress

Marco Armando, Corrado Sandini, Maelle Chambaz, Marie Schaer, Maude Schneider, Stephan Eliez
Converging evidence suggests that psychosis emerges from the complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors. Stressful life events (SLEs) play a prominent role in combination with coping strategies and with a dysfunctional hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA). It has been proposed that the framework of schizotypy might help disentangle the interaction between genetic and environmental factors in the pathogenesis of psychosis. Similarly, 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is considered as a genetic model of psychosis vulnerability...
March 14, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Samuel J Watson, Robert G Sowden, Paul Jarvis
The chloroplast houses photosynthesis in all green plants, and is therefore of fundamental importance to the viability and productivity of plants, ecosystems, and agriculture. Chloroplasts are, however, extremely vulnerable to environmental stress, on account of the inherent volatility of oxygenic photosynthesis. To counteract this sensitivity, sophisticated systems of chloroplast stress acclimation have evolved, and many of these involve broad proteome changes. Here, we provide an overview of the interlocking and mutually dependent mechanisms of abiotic stress-induced chloroplast proteome remodelling...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Annarita Falanga, Flavia A Mercurio, Antonietta Siciliano, Lucia Lombardi, Stefania Galdiero, Marco Guida, Giovanni Libralato, Marilisa Leone, Emilia Galdiero
This study evaluated the effect of QDs functionalized with the antimicrobial peptide indolicidin on oxidative stress and metabolomics profiles of Daphnia magna across three generations (F0, F1, and F2). Exposing D. magna to sub-lethal concentrations of the complex QDs-indolicidin, a normal survival of daphnids was observed from F0 to F2, but a delay of first brood, fewer broods per female, a decrease of length of about 50% compared to control. In addition, QDs-indolicidin induced a significantly higher production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) gradually in each generation and an impairment of enzymes response to oxidative stress such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione transferase (GST)...
March 8, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Cleverson Carlos Matiolli, Maeli Melotto
Yeast-two-hybrid (Y2H) cDNA library screening is a valuable tool to uncover protein-protein interactions and represents a widely used method to investigate protein function. However, cDNA libraries with low transcript representation limits the depth of the screening. We have developed a Y2H library with cDNA made from Arabidopsis leaves exposed to several stressors as well as untreated leaves. The library was built using pooled mRNA extracted from plants challenged with plant and human bacterial pathogens, the flg22 elicitor, the phytotoxin coronatine, and several hormones associated with environmental stress responses...
March 16, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Guirong Tang, Qiong Li, Shenghui Xing, Ningning Li, Zheng Tang, Liangliang Yu, Junhui Yan, Xuan Li, Li Luo
Agrobacterium tumefaciens infects and causes crown galls in dicot plants by transferring T-DNA from the Ti plasmid to the host plant via a type IV secretion system (T4SS). This process requires appropriate environmental conditions, certain plant secretions and bacterial regulators. In our previous work, a member of the LysR family of transcriptional regulators (LsrB) in Sinorhizobium meliloti was found to modulate its symbiotic interactions with the host plant alfalfa. However, the function of its homologue in A...
March 16, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Ekwu M Ameh, Sean Tyrrel, Jim Harris, Athanasios Ignatiou, Elena Orlova, Andreas Nocker
Disinfection aims at maximal inactivation of target organisms and the sustainable suppression of their regrowth. Whereas many disinfection efforts achieve efficient inactivation when the effect is measured directly after treatment, there are questions about the sustainability of this effect. One aspect is that the treated bacteria might recover and regain the ability to grow. In an environmental context, another question is how amenable surviving bacteria are to predation by omnipresent bacteriophages. Provisional data suggested that bacteria when subjected to sublethal heat stress might develop a phage-resistant phenotype...
March 15, 2018: Folia Microbiologica
Ariel Talavera, Jelle Hendrix, Wim Versées, Dukas Jurėnas, Katleen Van Nerom, Niels Vandenberk, Ranjan Kumar Singh, Albert Konijnenberg, Steven De Gieter, Daniel Castro-Roa, Anders Barth, Henri De Greve, Frank Sobott, Johan Hofkens, Nikolay Zenkin, Remy Loris, Abel Garcia-Pino
Bacterial protein synthesis is intricately connected to metabolic rate. One of the ways in which bacteria respond to environmental stress is through posttranslational modifications of translation factors. Translation elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) is methylated and phosphorylated in response to nutrient starvation upon entering stationary phase, and its phosphorylation is a crucial step in the pathway toward sporulation. We analyze how phosphorylation leads to inactivation of Escherichia coli EF-Tu. We provide structural and biophysical evidence that phosphorylation of EF-Tu at T382 acts as an efficient switch that turns off protein synthesis by decoupling nucleotide binding from the EF-Tu conformational cycle...
March 2018: Science Advances
Shumeng Kou, Gilles Vincent, Emmanuel Gonzalez, Frederic E Pitre, Michel Labrecque, Nicholas J B Brereton
Industrial and agricultural activities have caused extensive metal contamination of land throughout China and across the globe. The pervasive nature of metal pollution can be harmful to human health and can potentially cause substantial negative impact to the biosphere. To investigate the impact of anthropogenic metal pollution found in high concentrations in industrial, agricultural, and urban environments, 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicon sequencing was used to track change in the amplified microbial community after metal contamination in a large-scale field experiment in Shanghai...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Immacolata Castellano, Oriana Migliaccio, Giarita Ferraro, Elisa Maffioli, Daniela Marasco, Antonello Merlino, Adriana Zingone, Gabriella Tedeschi, Anna Palumbo
The major yolk protein toposome plays crucial roles during gametogenesis and development of sea urchins. We previously found that nitration of toposome increases in the gonads of a Paracentrotus lividus population living in a marine protected area affected by toxic blooms of Ostreospsis cf. ovata, compared to control populations. This modification is associated with ovatoxin accumulation, high levels of nitric oxide in the gonads, and a remarkable impairment of progeny development. However, nothing is known about the environmental-mediated-regulation of the structure and biological function of toposome...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Luba Sominsky, Christine L Jasoni, Hannah Twigg, Sarah J Spencer
The hypothalamus is a key centre for regulation of vital physiological functions, such as appetite, stress responsiveness and reproduction. Development of the different hypothalamic nuclei and its major neuronal populations begins prenatally in both altricial and precocial species, with the fine tuning of neuronal connectivity and attainment of adult function established postnatally, and maintained throughout adult life. The perinatal period is highly susceptible to environmental insults that, by disrupting critical developmental processes, can set the tone for the establishment of adult functionality...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
Jenny Q Ouyang, Scott Davies, Davide Dominoni
Alternation between day and night is a predictable environmental fluctuation that organisms use to time their activities. Since the invention of artificial lighting, this predictability has been disrupted and continues to change in a unidirectional fashion with increasing urbanization. As hormones mediate individual responses to changing environments, endocrine systems might be one of the first systems affected, as well as being the first line of defense to ameliorate any negative health impacts. In this Review, we first highlight how light can influence endocrine function in vertebrates...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Εvgenia Dandi, Aikaterini Kalamari, Olga Touloumi, Rosa Lagoudaki, Evangelia Nousiopoulou, Constantina Simeonidou, Evangelia Spandou, Despina Α Tata
Exposure to environmental enrichment can beneficially influence the behavior and enhance synaptic plasticity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the mediated effects of environmental enrichment on postnatal stress-associated impact with regard to behavior, stress reactivity as well as synaptic plasticity changes in the dorsal hippocampus. Wistar rat pups were submitted to a 3 h maternal separation (MS) protocol during postnatal days 1-21, while another group was left undisturbed. On postnatal day 23, a subgroup from each rearing condition (maternal separation, no-maternal separation) was housed in enriched environmental conditions until postnatal day 65 (6 weeks duration)...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Mohammad Golam Mostofa, Ajit Ghosh, Zhong-Guang Li, Md Nurealam Siddiqui, Masayuki Fujita, Lam-Son Phan Tran
Abiotic stresses are the most common harmful factors, adversely affecting all aspects of plants' life. Plants have to elicit appropriate responses against multifaceted effects of abiotic stresses by reprogramming various cellular processes. Signaling molecules play vital roles in sensing environmental stimuli to modulate gene expression, metabolism and physiological processes in plants to cope with the adverse effects. Methylglyoxal (MG), a dicarbonyl compound, is known to accumulate in cells as a byproduct of various metabolic pathways, including glycolysis...
March 12, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Nermeen M Abu-Elala, Huda O AbuBakr, Marwa S Khattab, Samah H Mohamed, Maha A El-Hady, Rehab A Ghandour, Rania E Morsi
Despite the potential antimicrobial and water purification benefits of chitosan-based nanocomposites, there are growing concerns regarding the hazards of leached nanoparticles (NPs) to the in-contact circumference. The antibacterial performance of the nanocomposites of chitosan with silver and copper NPs and carbon nanotubes was assessed with an emphasis on their impact on fish health. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of each preparation and the growth curves of Aeromonas hydrophila exposed to different nanocomposites were measured...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Mariola A Dietrich, Piotr Hliwa, Mikołaj Adamek, Dieter Steinhagen, Halina Karol, Andrzej Ciereszko
The environmental temperature affects plasma biochemical indicators, antioxidant status and hematological and immunological parameters in fish. So far, only single blood proteins have been identified in response to temperature changes. The aim of this study was to compare the proteome of carp blood plasma from males acclimated to warm (30 °C) and cold (10 °C) temperatures by two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis followed by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. A total of 47 spots were found to be differentially regulated by temperature (>1...
March 12, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Muraly Puttabyatappa, Vasantha Padmanabhan
The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the origin of several ovarian pathologies remain unclear. In addition to the genetic basis, developmental insults are gaining attention as a basis for the origin of these pathologies. Such early insults include maternal over or under nutrition, stress, and exposure to environmental chemicals. This chapter reviews the development and physiological function of the ovary, the known ovarian pathologies, the developmental check points of ovarian differentiation impacted by developmental insults, the role played by steroidal and metabolic factors as mediaries, the epigenetic mechanisms via which these mediaries induce their effects, and the knowledge gaps for targeting future studies to ultimately aid in the development of improved treatments...
2018: Vitamins and Hormones
Yanping Chen, Yingjun Chi, Qingchang Meng, Xiaolin Wang, Deyue Yu
In plants, various proteins are regulated by the ubiquitin-mediated system in response to different environmental stresses, such as drought, cold and heat. The Skp1-Cullin-F-box (SCF) complex, one of the multisubunit E3 ligases, has been shown to be involved in abiotic response pathways. In this study, Glycine max SKP1-like 1 (GmSK1), which had the typical characteristics of an SKP1 protein, with an alpha/beta structure, targeted to the cytoplasm and nucleus, was isolated from soybean [Glycine max (L.)]. GmSK1 was constitutively expressed in all the tested tissues, especially in the roots...
March 7, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Gibeom Kwon, Sungho Ghil
Warm temperature acclimation-associated 65-kDa protein (Wap65) is known to respond to elevated water temperatures and the corresponding gene from several fish species has been cloned. Expression of Wap65 gene is induced by various physiological stresses, such as increase in water temperature, immune response and heavy metal exposure. Two isolated Wap65 genes, Wap65-1 and Wap65-2, display distinct tissue distribution and physiological functions despite high sequence homology. In a previous study, we identified the Wap65-1 gene (kmWap65-1) from Kumgang fat minnow, Rhynchocypris kumgangensis, a small freshwater fish endemic to Korea...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
Anna-Lena Heins, Dirk Weuster-Botz
Population heterogeneity is omnipresent in all bioprocesses even in homogenous environments. Its origin, however, is only so well understood that potential strategies like bet-hedging, noise in gene expression and division of labour that lead to population heterogeneity can be derived from experimental studies simulating the dynamics in industrial scale bioprocesses. This review aims at summarizing the current state of the different parts of single cell studies in bioprocesses. This includes setups to visualize different phenotypes of single cells, computational approaches connecting single cell physiology with environmental influence and special cultivation setups like scale-down reactors that have been proven to be useful to simulate large-scale conditions...
March 14, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Tony L R Silveira, Gabriel B Martins, William B Domingues, Mariana H Remião, Bruna F Barreto, Ingrid M Lessa, Lucas Santos, Danillo Pinhal, Odir A Dellagostin, Fabiana K Seixas, Tiago Collares, Ricardo B Robaldo, Vinicius F Campos
Silversides are fish that inhabit marine coastal waters, coastal lagoons, and estuarine regions in southern South America. The freshwater (FW) silversides have the ability to tolerate salinity variations. Odontesthes humensis have similar habitats and biological characteristics of congeneric O. bonariensis , the most studied silverside species and with great economic importance. Studies revealed that O. bonariensis is not fully adapted to FW, despite inhabiting hyposmotic environments in nature. However, there is little information about stressful environments for cultivation of silverside O...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
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