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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334694/home-alone-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-on-the-effects-of-individual-housing-on-body-weight-food-intake-and-visceral-fat-mass-in-rodents
#1
REVIEW
L Schipper, L Harvey, E M van der Beek, G van Dijk
Rats and mice are widely used to study environmental effects on psychological and metabolic health. Study designs differ widely and are often characterized by varying (social) housing conditions. In itself, housing has a profound influence on physiology and behaviour of rodents, affecting energy balance and sustainable metabolic health. However, evidence for potential long-term consequences of individual versus social housing on body weight and metabolic phenotype is inconsistent. We conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analyses assessing effects of individual versus social housing of rats and mice, living under well-accepted laboratory conditions, on measures of metabolic health, including body weight, food intake and visceral adipose tissue mass...
January 15, 2018: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334650/environmentally-relevant-concentrations-of-glibenclamide-induce-oxidative-stress-in-common-carp-cyprinus-carpio
#2
Ericka María Guadalupe Martínez-Viveros, Hariz Islas-Flores, Octavio Dublán-García, Marcela Galar-Martínez, Nely SanJuan-Reyes, Sandra García-Medina, María Dolores Hernández-Navarro, Leobardo Manuel Gómez-Oliván
The hypoglycemic pharmaceutical glibenclamide (GLB) is widely used around the world. This medication is released into the environment by municipal, hospital and industrial wastewater discharges. Although there are reports of its environmental occurrence in the scientific literature, toxicity studies on aquatic species of commercial interest such as the common carp Cyprinus carpio are scarce. The present study aimed to evaluate the oxidative stress induced on C. carpio by environmentally relevant concentrations of GLB...
January 12, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332935/novel-treatment-strategies-for-chronic-kidney-disease-insights-from-the-animal-kingdom
#3
REVIEW
Peter Stenvinkel, Johanna Painer, Makoto Kuro-O, Miguel Lanaspa, Walter Arnold, Thomas Ruf, Paul G Shiels, Richard J Johnson
Many of the >2 million animal species that inhabit Earth have developed survival mechanisms that aid in the prevention of obesity, kidney disease, starvation, dehydration and vascular ageing; however, some animals remain susceptible to these complications. Domestic and captive wild felids, for example, show susceptibility to chronic kidney disease (CKD), potentially linked to the high protein intake of these animals. By contrast, naked mole rats are a model of longevity and are protected from extreme environmental conditions through mechanisms that provide resistance to oxidative stress...
January 15, 2018: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332281/programmed-cell-death-in-plants-an-overview
#4
Vittoria Locato, Laura De Gara
Programmed cell death (PCD) is a controlled mechanism that eliminates specific cells under developmental or environmental stimuli. All organisms-from bacteria to multicellular eukaryotes-have the ability to induce PCD in selected cells. Although this process was first identified in plants, the interest in deciphering the signaling pathways leading to PCD strongly increased when evidence came to light that PCD may be involved in several human diseases. In plants, PCD activation ensures the correct occurrence of growth and developmental processes, among which embryogenesis and differentiation of tracheary elements...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331918/dna-damage-in-marine-rock-oyster-saccostrea-cucullata-exposed-to-environmentally-available-pahs-and-heavy-metals-along-the-arabian-sea-coast
#5
Subhodeep Sarker, Deepti Vashistha, Munmun Saha Sarker, A Sarkar
Molecular biomarkers are used world wide for quick assessment of the immediate effect of environmental pollution on marine ecosystems. Recently, we evaluated oxidative stress responses of marine rock oyster, Saccostrea cucullata impacted due to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) accumulated in their tissues at a few sampling sites along the coast of Goa around the region of the Arabian sea coast, India (Sarkar et al., 2017). Using a combination of partial alkaline unwinding and comet assays, we now report a comprehensive study on the impairment of DNA integrity (DI) in S...
January 11, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331649/friend-or-foe-reactive-oxygen-species-production-scavenging-and-signaling-in-plant-response-to-environmental-stresses
#6
Weronika Czarnocka, Stanisław Karpiński
In the natural environment, plants are exposed to a variety of biotic and abiotic stress conditions that trigger rapid changes in the production and scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The production and scavenging of ROS is compartmentalized, which means that, depending on stimuli type, they can be generated and eliminated in different cellular compartments such as the apoplast, plasma membrane, chloroplasts, mitochondria, peroxisomes, and endoplasmic reticulum. Although the accumulation of ROS is generally harmful to cells, ROS play an important role in signaling pathways that regulate acclimatory and defense responses in plants, such as systemic acquired acclimation (SAA) and systemic acquired resistance (SAR)...
January 10, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331642/protein-adaptations-in-extremophiles-an-insight-into-extremophilic-connection-of-mycobacterial-proteome
#7
REVIEW
Ashutosh Kumar, Anwar Alam, Deeksha Tripathi, Mamta Rani, Hafeeza Khatoon, Saurabh Pandey, Nasreen Z Ehtesham, Seyed E Hasnain
The biological paradox about how extremophiles persist at extreme ecological conditions throws a fascinating picture of the enormous potential of a single cell to adapt to homeostatic conditions in order to propagate. Unicellular organisms face challenges from both environmental factors and the ecological niche provided by the host tissue. Although the existence of extremophiles and their physiological properties were known for a long time, availability of whole genome sequence has catapulted the study on mechanisms of adaptation and the underlying principles that have enabled these unique organisms to withstand evolutionary and environmental pressures...
January 10, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331610/pseudomonas-putida-modulates-the-expression-of-mirnas-and-their-target-genes-in-response-to-drought-and-salt-stresses-in-chickpea-cicer-arietinum-l
#8
Ram Jatan, Puneet Singh Chauhan, Charu Lata
MicroRNAs are small non-coding regulatory RNA molecules that play an important role in the modulation of gene expression during various environmental stresses. Pseudomonas putida RA, a plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) colonizes the root surface of plants improving their growth and development during abiotic stresses modulating the expression of stress-responsive genes; however, the impact of RA on stress responsive-miRNA remains elusive. The present study was an attempt to delineate the role of PGPR in modulating stress responsive-miRNAs in a tolerant desi chickpea genotype exposed to drought and salt stresses...
January 10, 2018: Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331499/hspb7-is-a-cardioprotective-chaperone-facilitating-sarcomeric-proteostasis
#9
Emily J Mercer, Yi-Fan Lin, Leona Cohen-Gould, Todd Evans
Small heat shock proteins are chaperones with variable mechanisms of action. The function of cardiac family member Hspb7 is unknown, despite being identified through GWAS as a potential cardiomyopathy risk gene. We discovered that zebrafish hspb7 mutants display mild focal cardiac fibrosis and sarcomeric abnormalities. Significant mortality was observed in adult hspb7 mutants subjected to exercise stress, demonstrating a genetic and environmental interaction that determines disease outcome. We identified large sarcomeric proteins FilaminC and Titin as Hspb7 binding partners in cardiac cells...
January 10, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331411/tailoring-cyanobacterial-cell-factory-for-improved-industrial-properties
#10
REVIEW
Guodong Luan, Xuefeng Lu
Photosynthetic biomanufacturing provides a promising solution for sustainable production of biofuels and biochemicals. Cyanobacteria are among the most promising microbial platforms for the construction of photosynthetic cell factories. Metabolic engineering of cyanobacteria has enabled effective photosynthetic synthesis of diverse natural or non-natural metabolites, while commercialization of photosynthetic biomanufacturing is usually restricted by process and economic feasibilities. In actual outdoor conditions, active cell growth and product synthesis is restricted to narrow light exposure windows of the day-night cycles and is threatened by diverse physical, chemical, and biological environmental stresses...
January 10, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331353/mechanisms-of-sex-differences-in-fear-and-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#11
REVIEW
Teniel Sonya Ramikie, Kerry James Ressler
Following sexual maturity, females disproportionately have higher rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and experience greater symptom severity and chronicity as compared with males. This observation has led many to examine sex differences in PTSD risk factors. Though relatively few, these studies reveal that the root causes of PTSD sex differences are complex, and partly represent interactions between sex-specific nonbiological and biological risk factors, which differentially shape PTSD vulnerability...
November 21, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331057/manifestations-and-mechanisms-of-myocardial-lipotoxicity-in-obesity
#12
Arthur C Sletten, Linda R Peterson, Jean E Schaffer
Environmental and socioeconomic changes over the past thirty years have contributed to a dramatic rise in the worldwide prevalence of obesity. Heart disease is among the most serious health risks of obesity, with increases in both atherosclerotic coronary heart disease and heart failure among obese individuals. In this review, we focus on primary myocardial alterations in obesity that include hypertrophic remodeling and diastolic dysfunction. Obesity-associated perturbations in myocardial and systemic lipid metabolism are important contributors to cardiovascular complications of obesity...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330179/influence-of-type-i-fimbriae-and-fluid-shear-stress-on-bacterial-behavior-and-multicellular-architecture-of-early-escherichia-coli-biofilms-at-single-cell-resolution
#13
Liyun Wang, Robert Keatch, Qi Zhao, John A Wright, Clare E Bryant, Anna L Redmann, Eugene M Terentjev
Biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces in food and medical industry can cause severe contamination and infection, yet how biological and physical factors determine cellular architecture of early biofilms and bacterial behavior of the constituent cells remains largely unknown. In this study we examine the specific role of type-I fimbriae in nascent stages of biofilm formation and the response of micro-colonies to environmental flow shear at single-cell resolution. The results show that type-I fimbriae are not required for reversible adhesion from plankton, but critical for irreversible adhesion of Escherichia coli (E...
January 12, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329860/ethyl-carbamate-an-emerging-food-and-environmental-toxicant
#14
REVIEW
Vemana Gowd, Hongming Su, Petr Karlovsky, Wei Chen
Ethyl carbamate (EC), a chemical substance widely present in fermented food products and alcoholic beverages, has been classified as a Group 2A carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). New evidence indicates that long-term exposure to EC may cause neurological disorders. Formation of EC in food and its metabolism have therefore been studied extensively and analytical methods for EC in various food matrices have been established. Due to the potential threat of EC to human health, mitigation strategies for EC in food products by physical, chemical, enzymatic, and genetic engineering methods have been developed...
May 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328935/evaluation-of-robustness-of-activated-sludge-using-calcium-induced-enhancement-of-respiration
#15
Zhi-Hua Li, Yuan-Mo Zhu, Jing Zhang, Cheng-Jian Yang, Tian-Yu Zhang, Han-Qing Yu
Robustness of an activated sludge system, describing uncertainty and operational risk, was evaluated using the absence or presence of calcium-induced enhancement of respiration (CaER) effect. Generally, the fast-growing system was susceptible to external environmental variations, of which the sludge exhibited significant CaER effect under normal operational conditions, while the slow growing system showed less significant CaER effect. However, sludge in both systems exhibited CaER effect under stressed conditions of decreasing temperature or ammonia shocking...
January 4, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327593/the-impact-of-age-and-gender-on-the-icf-based-assessment-of-chronic-low-back-pain
#16
Elisabeth Fehrmann, Simone Kotulla, Linda Fischer, Thomas Kienbacher, Kerstin Tuechler, Patrick Mair, Gerold Ebenbichler, Birgit Paul
PURPOSE: To evaluate the impact of age and gender on the international classification of functioning, disability and health (ICF)-based assessment for chronic low back pain. METHODS: Two hundred forty-four chronic low back pain patients (52% female) with a mean age of 49 years (SD =17.64) were interviewed with the comprehensive ICF core set for activities and participation, and environmental factors. After conducting explorative factor analysis, the impact of age and gender on the different factors was analyzed using analyzes of variances...
January 12, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327227/structural-characterization-of-a-novel-full-length-transcript-promoter-from-horseradish-latent-virus-hrlv-and-its-transcriptional-regulation-by-multiple-stress-responsive-transcription-factors
#17
Ahamed Khan, Ankita Shrestha, Kashyap Bhuyan, Indu B Maiti, Nrisingha Dey
The promoter fragment described in this study can be employed for strong transgene expression under both biotic and abiotic stress conditions. Plant-infecting Caulimoviruses have evolved multiple regulatory mechanisms to address various environmental stimuli during the course of evolution. One such mechanism involves the retention of discrete stress responsive cis-elements which are required for their survival and host-specificity. Here we describe the characterization of a novel Caulimoviral promoter isolated from Horseradish Latent Virus (HRLV) and its regulation by multiple stress responsive Transcription factors (TFs) namely DREB1, AREB1 and TGA1a...
January 11, 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325990/quantitative-proteomics-reveals-a-role-of-jaz7-in-plant-defense-response-to-pseudomonas-syringae-dc3000
#18
Tong Zhang, Li Meng, Wenwen Kong, Zepeng Yin, Yang Wang, Jacqueline D Schneider, Sixue Chen
Jasmonate ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins are key transcriptional repressors regulating various biological processes. Although many studies have studied JAZ proteins by genetic and biochemical analyses, little is known about JAZ7-associated global protein networks and how JAZ7 contributes to bacterial pathogen defense. In this study, we aim to fill this knowledge gap by conducting unbiased large-scale quantitative proteomics using tandem mass tags (TMT). We compared the proteomes of a JAZ7 knock-out line, a JAZ7 overexpression line, as well as the wild type Arabidopsis plants in the presence and absence of Pseudomonas syringae DC3000 infection...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325864/infections-genetic-and-environmental-factors-in-pathogenesis-of-autoimmune-thyroid-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Sanjeev Kumar Shukla, Govind Singh, Shahzad Ahmad, Prabhat Pant
In Autoimmune disease a combination of infection, genetic and environmental factors causes an autoimmune response to the thyroid gland (characterized by lymphocytic infiltrations), thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) and different thyroid antigens. Graves' and Hashimoto disease are autoimmune disorders with genetic predisposition. CD40 that stimulates the proliferation and differentiation of lymphocytes is an essential immunomodulatory component for follicular cells in the thyroid and the cell that present the antigen...
January 8, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325480/overweight-and-obesity-among-chinese-college-students-an-exploration-of-gender-as-related-to-external-environmental-influences
#20
Shuhan Jiang, Sihui Peng, Tingzhong Yang, Randall R Cottrell, Lu Li
While many studies have examined factors associated with overweight and obesity among college students, no study has yet compared gender differences influencing overweight and obesity using a multilevel framework. The present study examines different influences on overweight and obesity between men and women at both individual and environmental levels. Participants were 11,673 college students identified through a multistage survey sampling process conducted in 50 Chinese universities. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 9...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Men's Health
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