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Environmental stress

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777524/mercury-involvement-in-neuronal-damage-and-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#1
REVIEW
Veronica Lanza Cariccio, Annalisa Samà, Placido Bramanti, Emanuela Mazzon
Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and multiple sclerosis are characterized by a chronic and selective process of neuronal cell death. Although the causes of neurodegenerative diseases remain still unknown, it is now a well-established idea that more factors, such as genetic, endogenous, and environmental, are involved. Among environmental causes, the accumulation of mercury, a heavy metal considered a toxic agent, was largely studied as a probable factor involved in neurodegenerative disease course...
May 18, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777484/identification-of-differentially-expressed-micrornas-in-sahiwal-bos-indicus-breed-of-cattle-during-thermal-stress
#2
Gyanendra Singh Sengar, Rajib Deb, Umesh Singh, Vivek Junghare, Saugata Hazra, T V Raja, Rani Alex, Ashish Kumar, R R Alyethodi, Rajiv Kant, Subhash Jakshara, C G Joshi
microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs that play key roles in post transcriptional gene regulation that influence various fundamental cellular processes, including the cellular responses during environmental stresses. However, perusal of literatures revealed few reports on the differential expression of miRNA during thermal stress in Indian native (Bos indicus) cattle breeds. The present investigation aimed to identify differentially expressed miRNAs during thermal stress in Sahiwal (Bos indicus) dairy cattle breed of India, adapted with tropical climate over a long period of time...
May 18, 2018: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775421/probability-of-heat-intolerance-standardized-interpretation-of-heat-tolerance-testing-results-versus-specialist-judgment
#3
Haggai Schermann, Erin Craig, Einat Yanovich, Itay Ketko, Gary Kalmanovich, Ran Yanovich
CONTEXT:   The heat-tolerance test (HTT) is a screening tool for secondary prevention of exertional heat illness by the Israel Defense Forces. To discern participant tolerance, recruits are exposed to intermediate environmental and exercise stresses, and their physiological responses, core temperature, and heart rate are monitored. When their physiological measures rise at a higher rate or exceed the upper levels of absolute values compared with other participants, heat intolerance (HI) is diagnosed...
April 2018: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774830/frequent-implication-of-multistress-tolerant-campylobacter-jejuni-in-human-infections
#4
Euna Oh, Linda Chui, Junghee Bae, Vincent Li, Angela Ma, Steven K Mutschall, Eduardo N Taboada, Lynn M McMullen, Byeonghwa Jeon
Campylobacter jejuni, a major cause of bacterial foodborne illnesses, is considered highly susceptible to environmental stresses. In this study, we extensively investigated the stress tolerance of 121 clinical strains of C. jejuni against 5 stress conditions (aerobic stress, disinfectant exposure, freeze-thaw, heat treatment, and osmotic stress) that this pathogenic bacterium might encounter during foodborne transmission to humans. In contrast to our current perception about high stress sensitivity of C. jejuni, a number of clinical strains of C...
June 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774805/men-s-preconception-health-a-primary-health-care-viewpoint
#5
Anthony Paul O'Brien, John Hurley, Paul Linsley, Karen Anne McNeil, Richard Fletcher, John Robert Aitken
The purpose of this article is to theoretically explore men's preconception health as a mechanism to enhance fertility, as well as the health and well-being of the subject and his descendants. Premorbid risk factors and behaviors associated with stress, environmental toxins, excessive alcohol consumption, smoking, lack of exercise/obesity, and the use of illicit drugs are all known to affect fecundity. While there are many health clinics available to women, where advice in areas such as postnatal care of the newborn, family planning, and couples fertility is provided, there are few, if any, equivalent health clinics available to men...
May 1, 2018: American Journal of Men's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774338/trace-metals-in-oysters-molecular-and-cellular-mechanisms-and-ecotoxicological-impacts
#6
REVIEW
Wen-Xiong Wang, Jie Meng, Nanyan Weng
Oysters are important benthic bivalves in coastal and estuarine environments. They are widely farmed due to their rapid growth and taste; they are also widely applied in environmental monitoring of coastal pollution due to their accumulation of contaminants. Most importantly, oysters are among the few marine organisms that are considered to be hyper-accumulators of many toxic metals, such as cadmium, copper and zinc. As such, there is a tremendous call to study the interactions between metals and oysters, especially due to the increasing metal pollution in many coastal and estuarine waters...
May 18, 2018: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774204/non-canonical-activities-of-hog1-control-sensitivity-of-candida-albicans-to-killer-toxins-from-debaryomyces-hansenii
#7
Ana Morales-Menchén, Federico Navarro-García, José P Guirao-Abad, Elvira Román, Daniel Prieto, Ioana V Coman, Jesús Pla, Rebeca Alonso-Monge
Certain yeasts secrete peptides known as killer toxins or mycocins with a deleterious effect on sensitive yeasts or filamentous fungi, a common phenomenon in environmental species. In a recent work, different Debaryomyces hansenii ( Dh ) strains isolated from a wide variety of cheeses were identified as producing killer toxins active against Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis . We have analyzed the killer activity of these toxins in C. albicans mutants defective in MAPK signaling pathways and found that the lack of the MAPK Hog1 (but not Cek1 or Mkc1) renders cells hypersensitive to Dh mycocins while mutants lacking other upstream elements of the pathway behave as the wild type strain...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773518/developmental-trajectories-of-brain-maturation-and-behavior-relevance-to-major-mental-illnesses
#8
REVIEW
Sedona Lockhart, Akira Sawa, Minae Niwa
Adverse events in childhood and adolescence, such as social neglect or drug abuse, are known to lead to behavioral changes in young adulthood. This is particularly true for the subset of people who are intrinsically more vulnerable to stressful conditions. Yet the underlying mechanisms for such developmental trajectory from early life insult to aberrant adult behavior remains elusive. Adolescence is a period of dynamic physiological, psychological, and behavioral changes, encompassing a distinct neurodevelopmental stage called the 'critical period'...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772877/report-back-for-geo-referenced-environmental-data-a-case-study-on-personal-monitoring-of-temperature-in-outdoor-workers
#9
Laura Thompson, Maggie Sugg, Jennifer Runkle
Few studies have evaluated the benefits of reporting back participatory environmental monitoring results, particularly regarding participant motivation toward behavioural modification concerning workplace heat exposure. This study evaluated the individual data report-back for geo-located environmental temperature and time activity patterns in grounds maintenance crews in three geographic regions across the South-eastern United States. Surveys collected information on worker interpretation of their results and intended action(s) to reduce heat exposure...
May 7, 2018: Geospatial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772307/family-environment-interacts-with-crhr1-rs17689918-to-predict-mental-health-and-behavioral-outcomes
#10
Arunima Roy, Kariina Laas, Triin Kurrikoff, Andreas Reif, Toomas Veidebaum, Klaus-Peter Lesch, Jaanus Harro
BACKGROUND: Corticotrophin-releasing hormone receptor-1 gene (CRHR1) variants have been implicated in mental health. However, little is known of the effects of CRHR1 on long-term mental health and behavior in presence of environmental stressors. We assess the effects of CRHR1 variant (rs17689918)-by-environment interactions on emotionality and behavioral traits, including anxiety, depression, aggression and antisocial behaviors. We also determine effects of rs17689918-by-environment-by-sex interactions on the above-mentioned outcomes...
May 14, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772208/influence-of-blood-flow-on-cardiac-development
#11
REVIEW
Katherine Courchaine, Graham Rykiel, Sandra Rugonyi
The role of hemodynamics in cardiovascular development is not well understood. Indeed, it would be remarkable if it were, given the dauntingly complex array of intricately synchronized genetic, molecular, mechanical, and environmental factors at play. However, with congenital heart defects affecting around 1 in 100 human births, and numerous studies pointing to hemodynamics as a factor in cardiovascular morphogenesis, this is not an area in which we can afford to remain in the dark. This review seeks to present the case for the importance of research into the biomechanics of the developing cardiovascular system...
May 14, 2018: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772088/predicting-genotypes-environmental-range-from-genome-environment-associations
#12
Stéphanie Manel, Marco Andrello, Karine Henry, Daphné Verdelet, Aude Darracq, Pierre-Edouard Guerin, Bruno Desprez, Pierre Devaux
Genome-environment association methods aim to detect genetic markers associated with environmental variables. The detected associations are usually analysed separately to identify the genomic regions involved in local adaptation. However, a recent study suggests that single-locus associations can be combined and used in a predictive way to estimate environmental variables for new individuals on the basis of their genotypes. Here, we introduce an original approach to predict the environmental range (values and upper and lower limits) of species genotypes from the genetic markers significantly associated with those environmental variables in an independent set of individuals...
May 17, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771908/elevated-temperature-increases-meiotic-crossover-frequency-via-the-interfering-type-i-pathway-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#13
Jennifer L Modliszewski, Hongkuan Wang, Ashley R Albright, Scott M Lewis, Alexander R Bennett, Jiyue Huang, Hong Ma, Yingxiang Wang, Gregory P Copenhaver
For most eukaryotes, sexual reproduction is a fundamental process that requires meiosis. In turn, meiosis typically depends on a reciprocal exchange of DNA between each pair of homologous chromosomes, known as a crossover (CO), to ensure proper chromosome segregation. The frequency and distribution of COs are regulated by intrinsic and extrinsic environmental factors, but much more is known about the molecular mechanisms governing the former compared to the latter. Here we show that elevated temperature induces meiotic hyper-recombination in Arabidopsis thaliana and we use genetic analysis with mutants in different recombination pathways to demonstrate that the extra COs are derived from the major Type I interference sensitive pathway...
May 17, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771524/comprehensive-investigation-on-the-antioxidant-and-pro-oxidant-effects-of-phenolic-compounds-a-double-edged-sword-in-the-context-of-oxidative-stress
#14
Romina Castañeda-Arriaga, Adriana Pérez-Gonzalez, Miguel Reina, Juan Raul Alvarez-Idaboy, Annia Galano
Oxidative stress (OS) is a health-threatening process that is involved, at least partially, in the development of several diseases. Although antioxidants can be used as a chemical defense against OS, they might also exhibit pro-oxidant effects, depending on environmental conditions. In this work, such a dual behavior was investigated for phenolic compounds (PhCs), within the framework of the density functional theory, and based on kinetic data. Multiple reaction mechanisms were considered in both cases. The presence of redox metals, the pH, and the possibility that PhCs might be transformed into benzoquinones were identified as key aspects in the antioxidant versus pro-oxidant effects of these compounds...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771372/tracking-aedes-aegypti-diptera-culicidae-larval-behavior-across-development-effects-of-temperature-and-nutrients-on-individuals-foraging-behavior
#15
Michael H Reiskind, M Shawn Janairo
Immature mosquitoes alter their foraging behavior in response to variation in nutrients, predators, and temperature, with consequences on the adult stage where pathogens are transmitted. These patterns of behavior have not been described with respect to both developmental stage and environmental variation, nor has behavior been examined within an individual across instars. We hypothesized that individual larvae have distinct behavioral syndromes, and predict that the rank of foraging activity in the third instar will be correlated with foraging activity in the fourth instar for an individual across all conditions...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770964/below-ground-biotic-interactions-moderated-the-postglacial-range-dynamics-of-trees
#16
Jason Pither, Brian J Pickles, Suzanne W Simard, Alejandro Ordonez, John W Williams
Tree range shifts during geohistorical global change events provide a useful real-world model for how future changes in forest biomes may proceed. In North America, during the last deglaciation, the distributions of tree taxa varied significantly as regards the rate and direction of their responses for reasons that remain unclear. Local-scale processes such as establishment, growth, and resilience to environmental stress ultimately influence range dynamics. Despite the fact that interactions between trees and soil biota are known to influence local-scale processes profoundly, evidence linking below-ground interactions to distribution dynamics remains scarce...
May 17, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770134/comparative-immune-and-stress-related-transcript-response-induced-by-air-exposure-and-vibrio-anguillarum-bacterin-in-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-and-gilthead-seabream-sparus-aurata-mucosal-surfaces
#17
Ali Reza Khansari, Joan Carles Balasch, Eva Vallejos-Vidal, David Parra, Felipe E Reyes-López, Lluís Tort
Fish have to face various environmental challenges that may compromise the efficacy of the immune response in mucosal surfaces. Since the effect of acute stress on mucosal barriers in fish has still not been fully elucidated, we aimed to compare the short-term mucosal stress and immune transcriptomic responses in a freshwater (rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss ) and a marine fish (gilthead seabream, Sparus aurata ) to bacterial immersion ( Vibrio anguillarum bacterin vaccine) and air exposure stress in skin, gills, and intestine...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768658/detrimental-effects-of-rhizobial-inoculum-early-in-the-life-of-partridge-pea-chamaecrista-fasciculata
#18
Rachel E Pain, Ruth G Shaw, Seema N Sheth
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Mutualistic relationships with microbes may aid plants in overcoming environmental stressors and increase the range of abiotic environments where plants can persist. Rhizobia, nitrogen-fixing bacteria associated with legumes, often confer fitness benefits to their host plants by increasing access to nitrogen in nitrogen-limited soils, but effects of rhizobia on host fitness under other stresses, such as drought, remain unclear. METHODS: In this greenhouse study, we varied the application of rhizobia (Bradyrhizobium sp...
May 16, 2018: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768484/herbivory-responsive-calmodulin-like-protein-cml9-does-not-guide-jasmonate-mediated-defenses-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#19
Monika Heyer, Sandra S Scholz, Dagmar Voigt, Michael Reichelt, Didier Aldon, Ralf Oelmüller, Wilhelm Boland, Axel Mithöfer
Calcium is an important second messenger in plants that is released into the cytosol early after recognition of various environmental stimuli. Decoding of such calcium signals by calcium sensors is the key for the plant to react appropriately to each stimulus. Several members of Calmodulin-like proteins (CMLs) act as calcium sensors and some are known to mediate both abiotic and biotic stress responses. Here, we study the role of the Arabidopsis thaliana CML9 in different stress responses. CML9 was reported earlier as defense regulator against Pseudomonas syringae...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767749/association-of-brca2-k3326-with-small-cell-lung-cancer-and-squamous-cell-cancer-of-the-skin
#20
Thorunn Rafnar, Gudbjorg R Sigurjonsdottir, Simon N Stacey, Gisli Halldorsson, Patrick Sulem, Luba M Pardo, Hannes Helgason, Stefan T Sigurdsson, Thorkell Gudjonsson, Laufey Tryggvadottir, Gudridur H Olafsdottir, Jon G Jonasson, Kristin Alexiusdottir, Asgeir Sigurdsson, Julius Gudmundsson, Jona Saemundsdottir, Jon K Sigurdsson, Hrefna Johannsdottir, Andre Uitterlinden, Sita H Vermeulen, Tessel E Galesloot, Dawn C Allain, Martin Lacko, Bardur Sigurgeirsson, Kristin Thorisdottir, Oskar T Johannsson, Fridbjorn Sigurdsson, Gunnar B Ragnarsson, Helgi Isaksson, Hronn Hardardottir, Tomas Gudbjartsson, Daniel F Gudbjartsson, Gisli Masson, Lambertus A M L Kiemeney, Amanda Ewart Toland, Tamar Nijsten, Wilbert H M Peters, Jon H Olafsson, Steinn Jonsson, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Gudmar Thorleifsson, Kari Stefansson
Background: Most pathogenic mutations in the BRCA2 gene carry a high risk of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC). However, a stop-gain mutation, K3326* (rs11571833), confers risk of lung cancer and cancers of the upper-aero-digestive tract but only a modest risk of breast or ovarian cancer. The Icelandic population provides an opportunity for comprehensive characterization of the cancer risk profiles of K3326* and HBOC mutations because a single mutation, BRCA2 999del5, is responsible for almost all BRCA2-related HBOC in the population...
May 14, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
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