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Soil microbes

Marjo Helander, Irma Saloniemi, Marina Omacini, Magdalena Druille, Juha-Pekka Salminen, Kari Saikkonen
Our aim was to study the effects of glyphosate, tilling practice and cultivation history on mycorrhizal colonization and growth of target (weeds) and non-target (crops) plants. Glyphosate, the world's most widely used pesticide, inhibits an enzyme found in plants but also in microbes. We examined the effects of glyphosate treatment applied in the preceding fall on growth of a perennial weed, Elymus repens (target plant) and a forage grass, Festuca pratensis (non-target plant) and their arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) root colonization in a field pot experiment...
June 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Aleksandr Milshteyn, Dominic A Colosimo, Sean F Brady
Natural products have long played a pivotal role in the development of therapeutics for a variety of diseases. Traditionally, soil and marine environments have provided a rich reservoir from which diverse chemical scaffolds could be discovered. Recently, the human microbiome has been recognized as a promising niche from which secondary metabolites with therapeutic potential have begun to be isolated. In this Review, we address how the expansive history of identifying bacterial natural products in other environments is informing the approaches being brought to bear on the study of the human microbiota...
June 13, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
Somayeh Ramezanian, Hien Xuan Ta, Balasingam Muhunthan, Nehal Abu-Lail
Biofilms in soil can offer solutions to many geotechnical problems. Controlling biofilm formation in soil requires a fundamental understanding of how bacterial cells interact with soil under relevant environmental conditions. Here, atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to quantify the adhesion forces acting between a model soil microbe, Pseudomonas putida, and a model of quartz sand under a range of ionic strengths (ISs; 0.02M-0.52M) that bracket common environmental conditions present in soil. AFM forces were decoupled into specific and nonspecific components following the established Poisson statistical analysis method...
June 13, 2018: Biointerphases
Rishikesh Bajagain, Yoonsu Park, Seung-Woo Jeong
This study evaluated surface foam spraying technology, which avoids disturbing the soil, to deliver chemical oxidant and oil-degrading microbes to unsaturated soil for 30 days. Hydrogen peroxide foam was sprayed once onto diesel contaminated soil for oxidation of soil total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH). Periodic bioaugmentation foam was sprayed every three days for biodegradation of soil TPH. Foam spraying employing oxidation-bioaugmentation serial application significantly reduced soil TPH concentrations to 550 mg·kg-1 from an initial 7470 mg·kg-1 ...
June 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Xiaoge Han, Weijun Shen, Jinbo Zhang, Christoph Müller
Atmospherically-deposited nitrogen (N) can stimulate complex soil N metabolisms and accumulations over time. Whether long-term (decadal) N deposition effects on soil N transformations and functional microbes differ from the short-term (annual) effects has rarely been assessed. Here we conducted a laboratory 15 N tracing study with soil samples from a short-term (one year) N addition site and a long-term (12 years) site in a subtropical forest. The effects of simulated N deposition on soil N2 O emissions, N transformation rates and microbial nitrifying and denitrifying genes were determined...
June 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Andrew Wagner, Stephen Norris, Payel Chatterjee, Paul F Morris, Hans Wildschutte
Seedling root rot of soybeans caused by the host-specific pathogen Phytophthora sojae , and a large number of Pythium species, is an economically important disease across the Midwest United States that negatively impacts soybean yields. Research on biocontrol strategies for crop pathogens has focused on compounds produced by microbes from soil, however, recent studies suggest that aquatic bacteria express distinct compounds that efficiently inhibit a wide range of pathogens. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that freshwater strains of pseudomonads might be producing novel antagonistic compounds that inhibit the growth of oomycetes...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Xiaoping Fan, Chang Yin, Guochao Yan, Peiyuan Cui, Qi Shen, Qun Wang, Hao Chen, Nan Zhang, Mujun Ye, Yuhua Zhao, Tingqiang Li, Yongchao Liang
The urease inhibitor, N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT), has been proposed to reduce synthetic fertilizer-N losses, including nitrous oxide (N2 O) emissions from agricultural soils. However, the response of N2 O emission to NBPT amendment is inconsistent across soils and associated microbial mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here we performed a meta-analysis of the effects of NBPT on N2 O emissions and found NBPT significantly reduced N2 O emissions in alkaline soils whereas no obvious effects exhibited in acid soils...
June 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Songlin Wu, Miroslav Vosátka, Katarina Vogel-Mikus, Anja Kavčič, Mitja Kelemen, Luka Šepec, Primož Pelicon, Roman Skála, Antonio Roberto Valero Powter, Manuel Teodoro, Zuzana Michálková, Michael Komárek
Nano zero-valent iron (nZVI) has great potential in the remediation of metal(loid)-contaminated soils, but its efficiency in metal(loid) stabilization in the plant-microbe continuum is unclear. This study investigated nZVI-mediated metal(loid) behavior in the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal-maize (Zea mays L.) plant association. Plants with AM fungal inoculation were grown in metal(loid)- (mainly Zn and Pb) contaminated soils (Litavka River, Czech Republic) amended with/without 0.5% (w/w) nZVI. The results showed that nZVI decreased plant metal(loid) uptake but inhibited AM development and its function in metal(loid) stabilization in the rhizosphere...
June 12, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Sascha M B Krause, Marion Meima-Franke, Annelies J Veraart, Gaidi Ren, Adrian Ho, Paul L E Bodelier
The increase of extreme drought and precipitation events due to climate change will alter microbial processes. Perturbation experiments demonstrated that microbes are sensitive to environmental alterations. However, only little is known on the legacy effects in microbial systems. Here, we designed a laboratory microcosm experiment using aerobic methane-consuming communities as a model system to test basic principles of microbial resilience and the role of changes in biomass and the presence of non-methanotrophic microbes in this process...
June 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sung Won Hong, Da-Ran Kim, Ji Su Kim, Gyeongjun Cho, Chang Wook Jeon, Youn-Sig Kwak
Strawberry Fusarium wilt disease, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. fragariae , is the most devastating disease in strawberry production. The pathogen produces chlamydospores which tolerate against harsh environment, fungicide and survive for decades in soil. Development of detection and quantification techniques are regarded significantly in many soilborne pathogens to prevent damage from diseases. In this study, we improved specific-quantitative primers for F. oxysporum f. sp. fragariae to reveal correlation between the pathogen density and the disease severity...
June 2018: Plant Pathology Journal
E Bourtsoukidis, T Behrendt, A M Yañez-Serrano, H Hellén, E Diamantopoulos, E Catão, K Ashworth, A Pozzer, C A Quesada, D L Martins, M Sá, A Araujo, J Brito, P Artaxo, J Kesselmeier, J Lelieveld, J Williams
The Amazon rainforest is the world's largest source of reactive volatile isoprenoids to the atmosphere. It is generally assumed that these emissions are products of photosynthetically driven secondary metabolism and released from the rainforest canopy from where they influence the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere. However, recent measurements indicate that further sources of volatiles are present. Here we show that soil microorganisms are a strong, unaccounted source of highly reactive and previously unreported sesquiterpenes (C15 H24 ; SQT)...
June 8, 2018: Nature Communications
Shangqi Xu, Jianfeng Zhang, Shasha Luo, Xue Zhou, Shaohua Shi, Chunjie Tian
Soil microbes play critical roles in global biogeochemical cycles, but their succession patterns across long temporal scales have rarely been studied. In this study, soil samples were collected from three volcanoes in Wudalianchi, northeastern China: Laoheishan (LH, approximately 240 years old), Dongjiaodebushan (DJ, 0.45-0.6 million years old), and Nangelaqiushan (NG, 0.8-1.3 million years old). For each volcano, both southern (S) and northern (N) slope aspects were sampled. Soil microbial communities were analyzed using phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA)...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Elise D Hinman, Jason D Fridley
Many non-native woody plants invade low-light forest understories but differ from native species in leaf phenology and seasonality of photosynthesis. It is unknown whether such differences in assimilation patterns are due to contrasting strategies of energy allocation. In a group of native and invasive species in Eastern North America, we hypothesized that invaders employ a grow-first strategy, prioritizing allocation to new structural biomass over carbon storage compared to native congeners. We also hypothesized that species producing a single spring leaf flush exhibit a more conservative carbon storage strategy than species with continuous leaf production...
June 7, 2018: Oecologia
Zhaohui Wu, Qingshu Liu, Zhenyu Li, Wei Cheng, Jimin Sun, Zhaohui Guo, Yongmei Li, Jianqun Zhou, Delong Meng, Hongbo Li, Ping Lei, Huaqun Yin
BACKGROUND: Exploiting soil microorganisms in the rhizosphere of plants can significantly improve agricultural productivity; however, the mechanism by which microorganisms specifically affect agricultural productivity is poorly understood. To clarify this uncertainly, the rhizospheric microbial communities of super rice plants at various growth stages were analysed using 16S rRNA high-throughput gene sequencing; microbial communities were then related to soil properties and rice productivity...
June 4, 2018: BMC Microbiology
K Mohanrasu, N Premnath, G Siva Prakash, Muniyasamy Sudhakar, T Boobalan, A Arun
There are copious of bacteria exist in marine environment and it is very important to screen the potential microbes that has the ability to produce biopolymer polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) as well as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) degradation and conventional plastic high density polyethylene (HDPE) biodegradation. Numerous studies have been investigated individually on either one of characteristic feature like PHB production, PAHs and high density polyethylene (HDPE) degradation, but not all together...
May 19, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Hanna Nishida, Takuya Suzaki
Root nodule symbiosis is one of the best-characterized mutualistic relationships between plants-microbes symbiosis, where mainly leguminous species can obtain nitrogen sources fixed by nitrogen-fixing rhizobia through the formation of symbiotic organs root nodules. In order to drive this symbiotic process, plants need to provide carbon sources that should be used for their growth. Therefore, a balance between the benefits of obtaining nitrogen sources and the costs of losing carbon sources needs to be maintained during root nodule symbiosis...
May 30, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Atsuko Ueki, Nobuo Kaku, Katsuji Ueki
Biological soil disinfestation (BSD) or reductive soil disinfestation (RSD) is an environmental biotechnology to eliminate soil-borne plant pathogens based on functions of indigenous microbes. BSD treatments using different types of organic materials have been reported to effectively control a wide range of plant pathogens. Various studies have shown that development of reducing or anoxic conditions in soil is the most important aspect for effective BSD treatments. Substances such as organic acids, FeS, or phenolic compounds generated in the treated soil have been suggested to contribute to inactivation of pathogens...
June 1, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Darshan Baral, Allison Speicher, Bruce Dvorak, David Admiraal, Xu Li
Investigating sources of microbial contamination in urban streams, especially when there are no contributions from combined sewer overflows or sewage effluent discharges, can be challenging. The objectives of this study were to identify the sources of microbes in an urban stream and quantify their relative contributions to the microbial community in the stream under dry and wet weather conditions. A microbial source tracking method relying on the 16S rRNA gene was used to investigate the microbial communities in water samples of an urban stream (i...
June 1, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Guillaume Lentendu, Frédéric Mahé, David Bass, Sonja Rueckert, Thorsten Stoeck, Micah Dunthorn
Tropical animals and plants are known to have high alpha diversity within forests, but low beta diversity between forests. By contrast, it is unknown if microbes inhabiting the same ecosystems exhibit similar biogeographic patterns. To evaluate the biogeographies of tropical protists, we used metabarcoding data of species sampled in the soils of three lowland Neotropical rainforests. Taxa-area and distance-decay relationships for three of the dominant protist taxa and their subtaxa were estimated at both the OTU- and phylogenetic-levels, with presence-absence and abundance based measures...
May 30, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Sarah M Short, Sarah van Tol, Hannah J MacLeod, George Dimopoulos
Mosquito larvae continuously encounter microbes in their aquatic environment, which serve as food and play a critical role in successful development. In previous work, we isolated a Chromobacterium sp. (C.sp_P) with larvicidal activity from the midgut of dengue vector Aedes mosquitoes in Panama. In this study, we found a positive correlation between initial concentrations of C.sp_P and larval mortality rates, and that C.sp_P is more efficient at inducing larval mortality in a high nutrient environment. Multiple Chromobacterium species induce larval mortality with similar efficacy to C...
May 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
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