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Soil microbes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230202/ecosystem-composition-controls-the-fate-of-rare-earth-elements-during-incipient-soil-genesis
#1
Dragos G Zaharescu, Carmen I Burghelea, Katerina Dontsova, Jennifer K Presler, Raina M Maier, Travis Huxman, Kenneth J Domanik, Edward A Hunt, Mary K Amistadi, Emily E Gaddis, Maria A Palacios-Menendez, Maria O Vaquera-Ibarra, Jon Chorover
The rare earth elements (REE) are increasingly important in a variety of science and economic fields, including (bio)geosciences, paleoecology, astrobiology, and mining. However, REE distribution in early rock-microbe-plant systems has remained elusive. We tested the hypothesis that REE mass-partitioning during incipient weathering of basalt, rhyolite, granite and schist depends on the activity of microbes, vascular plants (Buffalo grass), and arbuscular mycorrhiza. Pore-water element abundances revealed a rapid transition from abiotic to biotic signatures of weathering, the latter associated with smaller aqueous loss and larger plant uptake...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221373/ecological-restoration-soil-microbes-call-the-shots
#2
Robert H Marrs
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2, 2016: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213706/plant-microbial-association-in-petroleum-and-gas-exploration-sites-in-the-state-of-assam-north-east-india-significance-for-bioremediation
#3
Hemen Sarma, N F Islam, M N V Prasad
The state of Assam in north-east India gained popularity in Asia because of discovery of oil. Pollution due to petroleum and gas exploration is a serious problem in Assam. Oil and gas exploration by various agencies in Assam resulted in soil pollution due to hydrocarbons (HCs) and heavy metals (HMs). Bioremediation gained considerable significance in addressing petroleum hydrocarbon polluted sites in various parts of the world. In this investigation, we have observed 15 species of plants belonging to grass growing on the contaminated soils...
February 17, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199330/comparison-of-bacterial-communities-from-lava-cave-microbial-mats-to-overlying-surface-soils-from-lava-beds-national-monument-usa
#4
Kathleen H Lavoie, Ara S Winter, Kaitlyn J H Read, Evan M Hughes, Michael N Spilde, Diana E Northup
Subsurface habitats harbor novel diversity that has received little attention until recently. Accessible subsurface habitats include lava caves around the world that often support extensive microbial mats on ceilings and walls in a range of colors. Little is known about lava cave microbial diversity and how these subsurface mats differ from microbial communities in overlying surface soils. To investigate these differences, we analyzed bacterial 16S rDNA from 454 pyrosequencing from three colors of microbial mats (tan, white, and yellow) from seven lava caves in Lava Beds National Monument, CA, USA, and compared them with surface soil overlying each cave...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196978/ivermectin-enigmatic-multifaceted-wonder-drug-continues-to-surprise-and-exceed-expectations
#5
REVIEW
Andy Crump
Over the past decade, the global scientific community have begun to recognize the unmatched value of an extraordinary drug, ivermectin, that originates from a single microbe unearthed from soil in Japan. Work on ivermectin has seen its discoverer, Satoshi Ōmura, of Tokyo's prestigious Kitasato Institute, receive the 2014 Gairdner Global Health Award and the 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, which he shared with a collaborating partner in the discovery and development of the drug, William Campbell of Merck & Co...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196686/starch-enhanced-degradation-of-hmw-pahs-by-fusarium-sp-in-an-aged-polluted-soil-from-a-coal-mining-area
#6
Ou-Ya Zhao, Xue-Na Zhang, Sheng-Dong Feng, Li-Xiu Zhang, Wei Shi, Zhi-Xin Yang, Miao-Miao Chena, Xue-Dan Fanga
The present study used strain ZH-H2 (Fusarium sp.) isolated by our group as the PAH-degrading strain and 5-6-rings PAHs as degradation objects. The soil incubation experiment was carried out to investigate the starch-enhanced degradation effects of HMW PAHs by Fusarium sp. in an Aged Polluted Soil from a Coal Mining Area. The results showed that the removal rates of BaP, InP and BghiP increased with increasing inoculation rate of ZH-H2 in the unsterile aged polluted soil of coal mining area, with the exception of BbF degradation which increased in the H2 treatment and then decreased...
May 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196087/the-potential-of-indigenous-paenibacillus-ehimensis-bs1-for-recovering-heavy-crude-oil-by-biotransformation-to-light-fractions
#7
Biji Shibulal, Saif N Al-Bahry, Yahya M Al-Wahaibi, Abdulkadir E Elshafie, Ali S Al-Bemani, Sanket J Joshi
Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) is a potential technology for residual heavy oil recovery. Many heavy oil fields in Oman and elsewhere have difficulty in crude oil recovery because it is expensive due to its high viscosity. Indigenous microbes are capable of improving the fluidity of heavy oil, by changing its high viscosity and producing lighter oil fractions. Many spore-forming bacteria were isolated from soil samples collected from oil fields in Oman. Among the isolates, an autochthonous spore-forming bacterium was found to enhance heavy oil recovery, which was identified by 16S rDNA sequencing as Paenibacillus ehimensis BS1...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191585/soil-microbial-communities-alter-leaf-chemistry-and-influence-allelopathic-potential-among-coexisting-plant-species
#8
Scott J Meiners, Kelsey K Phipps, Thomas H Pendergast, Thomas Canam, Walter P Carson
While both plant-soil feedbacks and allelochemical interactions are key drivers of plant community dynamics, the potential for these two drivers to interact with each other remains largely unexplored. If soil microbes influence allelochemical production, this would represent a novel dimension of heterogeneity in plant-soil feedbacks. To explore the linkage between soil microbial communities and plant chemistry, we experimentally generated soil microbial communities and evaluated their impact on leaf chemical composition and allelopathic potential...
February 13, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185400/microdiversity-shapes-the-traits-niche-space-and-biogeography-of-microbial-taxa
#9
REVIEW
Alyse A Larkin, Adam C Martiny
With rapidly improving sequencing technologies, scientists have recently gained the ability to examine diverse microbial communities at high genomic resolution, revealing that both free-living and host-associated microbes partition their environment at fine phylogenetic scales. This "microdiversity," or closely related (>97% similar 16S rRNA gene) but ecologically and physiologically distinct sub-taxonomic groups, appears to be an intrinsic property of microorganisms. However, the functional implications of microdiversity as well as its effects on microbial biogeography are poorly understood...
February 10, 2017: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177786/response-of-microbial-communities-to-roxarsone-under-different-culture-conditions
#10
Yaci Liu, Zhaoji Zhang, Yasong Li, Yuhong Fei
Roxarsone is a feed additive widely used in broiler and swine industry that has the potential to contaminate environment, mainly via the use of poultry manure as fertilizer, which results in release of inorganic arsenic to the soil and water. This study was conducted to investigate the roxarsone degradation and the response of microbial community under different culture conditions using high-throughput sequencing technology. Poultry litter was incubated for 288 h in the presence of roxarsone under light aerobic, dark aerobic, or dark anaerobic conditions, showing that roxarsone was completely degraded after 48 h of dark anaerobic incubation, while 79...
January 20, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177413/selenium-biofortification-and-phytoremediation-phytotechnologies-a-review
#11
Michela Schiavon, Elizabeth A H Pilon-Smits
The element selenium (Se) is both essential and toxic for most life forms, with a narrow margin between deficiency and toxicity. Phytotechnologies using plants and their associated microbes can address both of these problems. To prevent Se toxicity due to excess environmental Se, plants may be used to phytoremediate Se from soil or water. To alleviate Se deficiency in humans or livestock, crops may be biofortified with Se. These two technologies may also be combined: Se-enriched plant material from phytoremediation could be used as green fertilizer or as fortified food...
January 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165761/bio-and-phytoremediation-of-total-petroleum-hydrocarbons-tph-under-various-conditions
#12
Patrick McIntosh, Cristian P Schulthess, Yulia A Kuzovkina, Karl Guillard
Remediation of contaminated soils is often studied using fine textured soils rather than low-fertility sandy soils, and few studies focus on recontamination events. This study compared aerobic and anaerobic treatments for remediation of freshly introduced used motor oil on a sandy soil previously phytoremediated and bioacclimated (microorganisms already adapted in the soil environment) with some residual total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) contamination. Vegetated and unvegetated conditions to remediate anthropogenic fill containing residual TPH that was spiked with non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) were evaluated in a 90-day greenhouse pot study...
February 6, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165031/sediment-biomarker-bacterial-community-characterization-of-high-arsenic-aquifers-in-jianghan-plain-china
#13
Hengpeng Ye, Zeyu Yang, Xiang Wu, Jingwen Wang, Dongyun Du, Jian Cai, Kangle Lv, Huiyun Chen, Jingkun Mei, Mengqi Chen, Hong Du
Representative biomarkers (e.g., n-alkanes), diversity and microbial community in the aquifers contaminated by high concentration of arsenic (As) in different sediment depth (0-30 m) in Jianghan Plain, Hubei, China, were analyzed to investigate the potential mechanism of As enrichment in groundwater. The concentration of As was abundant in top soil and sand, but not in clay. The analysis of the distribution of n-alkanes, CPI values, and wax to total n-alkane ratio (Wax(n)%) indicated that the organic matter (OM) from fresh terrestrial plants were abundant in the shallow sediment...
February 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159616/influence-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-stage-and-plant-age-on-the-performance-of-a-generalist-aphid
#14
Viktoria V Tomczak, Caroline Müller
Host plant quality for herbivores is modulated by different factors including symbiosis with soil organisms, such as arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM), as well as plant age. However, the role of the developmental stage of the AM in such plant-microbe-herbivore interactions has been neglected. To investigate the effects of AM stage and plant age on aphid performance, individuals of the generalist Myzus persicae were reared on leaves of non-mycorrhized (NM) or mycorrhized (AM) Plantago lanceolata plants at two time points, on young plants (with a minor established AM) and on older plants (with a well-established AM), respectively...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153415/arsenic-tolerant-trichoderma-sp-reduces-arsenic-induced-stress-in-chickpea-cicer-arietinum
#15
Pratibha Tripathi, Poonam C Singh, Aradhana Mishra, Suchi Srivastava, Reshu Chauhan, Surabhi Awasthi, Seema Mishra, Sanjay Dwivedi, Preeti Tripathi, Alok Kalra, Rudra D Tripathi, Chandra S Nautiyal
Toxic metalloids including arsenic (As) can neither be eliminated nor destroyed from environment; however, they can be converted from toxic to less/non-toxic forms. The form of As species and their concentration determines its toxicity in plants. Therefore, the microbe mediated biotransformation of As is crucial for its plant uptake and toxicity. In the present study the role of As tolerant Trichoderma in modulating As toxicity in chickpea plants was explored. Chickpea plants grown in arsenate spiked soil under green house conditions were inoculated with two plant growth promoting Trichoderma strains, M-35 (As tolerant) and PPLF-28 (As sensitive)...
April 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151654/extracellular-saccharide-mediated-reduction-of-au3-to-gold-nanoparticles-new-insights-for-heavy-metals-biomineralization-on-microbial-surfaces
#16
Fuxing Kang, Xiaolei Qu, Pedro J J Alvarez, Dongqiang Zhu
Biomineralization is a critical process controlling the biogeochemical cycling, fate, and potential environmental impacts of heavy metals. Despite the indispensability of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) to microbial life and their ubiquity in soil and aquatic environments, the role played by EPS in the transformation and biomineralization of heavy metals is not well understood. Here, we used gold ion (Au3+) as a model heavy metal ion to quantitatively assess the role of EPS in biomineralization and discern the responsible functional groups...
February 2, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149176/reclamation-of-coalmine-overburden-dump-through-environmental-friendly-method
#17
Anfal Arshi
Coal mine spoils (-the previous overburden of coal seams, inevitable by-product in the mining process) which are usually unfavorable for plant growth have different properties according to dumping years. The reclamation of overburden dumps (OBDs) through plantation by using efficient microbes with suitable bio-inoculants is an environmental friendly microbial technique for significant improvement in fertility status and biological activities of the OBD soil. A systematic greenhouse pot experiment program followed by field trial was conducted to investigate the influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and NFB on the performance of plant growth which have resulted in the development of environmental friendly bio-inoculant package for soil reclamation of abandoned mine land by revegetation...
February 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142114/the-response-of-earthworms-eisenia-fetida-and-soil-microbes-to-the-crumb-rubber-material-used-in-artificial-turf-fields
#18
Sharon T Pochron, Andrew Fiorenza, Cassandra Sperl, Brianne Ledda, Charles Lawrence Patterson, Clara C Tucker, Wade Tucker, Yuwan Lisa Ho, Nicholas Panico
Municipalities have been replacing grass fields with artificial turf, which uses crumb rubber infill made from recycled tires. Crumb rubber contains hydrocarbons, organic compounds, and heavy metals. Water runoff from crumb rubber fields contains heavy metals. These components can damage the environment. We contaminated topsoil with new crumb rubber and measured its impact on earthworms and soil microbes. Specifically, we compared soil microbe activity and earthworm health, survivorship, and longevity in heat and light stress under two soil regimes: clean topsoil and clean topsoil contaminated with crumb rubber...
January 21, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140393/archaea-and-bacteria-mediate-the-effects-of-native-species-root-loss-on-fungi-during-plant-invasion
#19
Steven D Mamet, Eric G Lamb, Candace L Piper, Tristrom Winsley, Steven D Siciliano
Although invasive plants can drive ecosystem change, little is known about the directional nature of belowground interactions between invasive plants, native roots, bacteria, archaea and fungi. We used detailed bioinformatics and a recently developed root assay on soils collected in fescue grassland along a gradient of smooth brome (Bromus inermis Leyss) invasion to examine the links between smooth brome shoot litter and root, archaea, bacteria and fungal communities. We examined (1) aboveground versus belowground influences of smooth brome on soil microbial communities, (2) the importance of direct versus microbe-mediated impacts of plants on soil fungal communities, and (3) the web of roots, shoots, archaea, bacteria and fungi interactions across the A and B soil horizons in invaded and non-invaded sites...
January 31, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139080/two-cultivated-legume-plants-reveal-the-enrichment-process-of-the-microbiome-in-the-rhizocompartments
#20
Xiao Xiao, Weimin Chen, Le Zong, Jun Yang, Shuo Jiao, Yanbing Lin, Entao Wang, Gehong Wei
The microbiomes of rhizocompartments (nodule endophytes, root endophytes, rhizosphere and root zone) in soya bean and alfalfa were analysed using high-throughput sequencing to investigate the interactions among legume species, microorganisms and soil types. A clear hierarchical filtration of microbiota by plants was observed in the four rhizocompartments - the nodule endosphere, root endosphere, rhizosphere and root zone - as demonstrated by significant variations in the composition of the microbial community in the different compartments...
January 31, 2017: Molecular Ecology
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