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Soil microbes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034978/arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-promote-coexistence-and-niche-divergence-of-sympatric-palm-species-on-a-remote-oceanic-island
#1
Owen G Osborne, Rishi De-Kayne, Martin I Bidartondo, Ian Hutton, William J Baker, Colin G N Turnbull, Vincent Savolainen
Microbes can have profound effects on their hosts, driving natural selection, promoting speciation and determining species distributions. However, soil-dwelling microbes are rarely investigated as drivers of evolutionary change in plants. We used metabarcoding and experimental manipulation of soil microbiomes to investigate the impact of soil and root microbes in a well-known case of sympatric speciation, the Howea palms of Lord Howe Island (Australia). Whereas H. forsteriana can grow on both calcareous and volcanic soils, H...
October 16, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033177/arsenic-phosphorus-interactions-in-the-soil-plant-microbe-system-dynamics-of-uptake-suppression-and-toxicity-to-plants
#2
Hossain M Anawar, Zed Rengel, Paul Damon, Mark Tibbett
High arsenic (As) concentrations in the soil, water and plant systems can pose a direct health risk to humans and ecosystems. Phosphate (Pi) ions strongly influence As availability in soil, its uptake and toxicity to plants. Better understanding of As(V)-Pi interactions in soils and plants will facilitate a potential remediation strategy for As contaminated soils, reducing As uptake by crop plants and toxicity to human populations via manipulation of soil Pi content. However, the As(V)-Pi interactions in soil-plant systems are complex, leading to contradictory findings among different studies...
October 12, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032430/the-impacts-of-soil-fertility-and-salinity-on-soil-nitrogen-dynamics-mediated-by-the-soil-microbial-community-beneath-the-halophytic-shrub-tamarisk
#3
Chikae Iwaoka, Shogo Imada, Takeshi Taniguchi, Sheng Du, Norikazu Yamanaka, Ryunosuke Tateno
Nitrogen (N) is one of the most common limiting nutrients for primary production in terrestrial ecosystems. Soil microbes transform organic N into inorganic N, which is available to plants, but soil microbe activity in drylands is sometimes critically suppressed by environmental factors, such as low soil substrate availability or high salinity. Tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) is a halophytic shrub species that is widely distributed in the drylands of China; it produces litter enriched in nutrients and salts that are thought to increase soil fertility and salinity under its crown...
October 14, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028494/surfactants-selectively-reallocated-the-bacterial-distribution-in-soil-bioelectrochemical-remediation-of-petroleum-hydrocarbons
#4
Xiaojing Li, Qian Zhao, Xin Wang, Yongtao Li, Qixing Zhou
Soil contaminated by aged petroleum hydrocarbons is faced with scarcity of electron acceptors, low activity of functional microbes and inefficient electron transfer, which hinder the bioremediation application. The soil microbial fuel cell (MFC) simultaneously solves these problems with bioelectricity production. In this study, five types of surfactants were introduced to enhance the bioavailability of aged petroleum hydrocarbon in soils. The ampholytic surfactant (lecithos) was optimal due to the highest bioelectricity generation (0...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028001/soil-protist-communities-form-a-dynamic-hub-in-the-soil-microbiome
#5
Wu Xiong, Alexandre Jousset, Sai Guo, Ida Karlsson, Qingyun Zhao, Huasong Wu, George A Kowalchuk, Qirong Shen, Rong Li, Stefan Geisen
Soil microbes are essential for soil fertility. However, most studies focus on bacterial and/or fungal communities, while the top-down drivers of this microbiome composition, protists, remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated how soil amendments affect protist communities and inferred potential interactions with bacteria and fungi. Specific fertilization treatments impacted both the structure and function of protist communities. Organic fertilizer amendment strongly reduced the relative abundance of plant pathogenic protists and increased bacterivorous and omnivorous protists...
October 13, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027092/toxic-effects-of-oxytetracycline-and-copper-separately-or-combined-on-soil-microbial-biomasses
#6
Lanjun Wang, Jinhua Wang, Lusheng Zhu, Jun Wang
The production of commercial livestock and poultry often involves using with antibiotics and feed additives, such as oxytetracycline (OTC) and copper (Cu). These are often excreted into the soil by animal feces; hence, combined pollutants may contaminate the soil. To evaluate single and combined toxic effects of OTC and Cu on the soil ecology, changes in quantities of bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes in the soil were studied over a 28-d incubation period by a plate count method, microbes numbers counted on days 7, 14, 21, and 28...
October 12, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022247/persistent-norovirus-contamination-of-groundwater-supplies-in-two-waterborne-outbreaks
#7
Ari Kauppinen, Tarja Pitkänen, Ilkka T Miettinen
Microbiological contamination of groundwater supplies causes waterborne outbreaks worldwide. In this study, two waterborne outbreaks related to microbiological contamination of groundwater supplies are described. Analyses of pathogenic human enteric viruses (noroviruses and adenoviruses), fecal bacteria (Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp.), and indicator microbes (E. coli, coliform bacteria, intestinal enterococci, Clostridium perfringens, heterotrophic plate count, somatic and F-specific coliphages) were conducted in order to reveal the cause of the outbreaks and to examine the effectiveness of the implemented management measures...
October 11, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993764/legacy-effects-on-the-recovery-of-soil-bacterial-communities-from-extreme-temperature-perturbation
#8
Stephanie D Jurburg, Inês Nunes, Asker Brejnrod, Samuel Jacquiod, Anders Priemé, Søren J Sørensen, Jan Dirk Van Elsas, Joana F Salles
The type and frequency of disturbances experienced by soil microbiomes is expected to increase given predicted global climate change scenarios and intensified anthropogenic pressures on ecosystems. While the direct effect of multiple disturbances to soil microbes has been explored in terms of function, their effect on the recovery of microbial community composition remains unclear. Here, we used soil microcosm experiments and multiple model disturbances to explore their short-term effect on the recovery of soil microbiota after identical or novel stresses...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988087/irrigation-and-weed-control-alter-soil-microbiology-and-nutrient-availability-in-north-carolina-sandhill-peach-orchards
#9
Yi Zhang, Liangju Wang, Yongge Yuan, Jing Xu, Cong Tu, Connie Fisk, Weijian Zhang, Xin Chen, David Ritchie, Shuijin Hu
Orchard management practices such as weed control and irrigation are primarily aimed at maximizing fruit yields and economic profits. However, the impact of these practices on soil fertility and soil microbiology is often overlooked. We conducted a two-factor experimental manipulation of weed control by herbicide and trickle irrigation in a nutrient-poor peach (Prunus persica L. cv. Contender) orchard near Jackson Springs, North Carolina. After three and eight years of treatments, an array of soil fertility parameters were examined, including soil pH, soil N, P and cation nutrients, microbial biomass and respiration, N mineralization, and presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF)...
October 4, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988053/biochar-accelerates-pahs-biodegradation-in-petroleum-polluted-soil-by-biostimulation-strategy
#10
Lulu Kong, Yuanyuan Gao, Qixing Zhou, Xuyang Zhao, Zhongwei Sun
Sawdust and wheat straw biochars prepared at 300°C and 500°C were applied to petroleum-polluted soil for an 84-day incubation to estimate their effectiveness on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) removal. Biochars alone were most effective at reducing PAHs contents. However, adding biochar to soils in company with NaN3 solution resulted in a decreasing trend in terms of PAHs removal, which was even lower than treatment CK without biochar. Moreover, it was discovered by PCR-DGGE files and sequencing analysis that the predominant bacterial diversity slightly decreased but the abundance of some specific taxa, including PAHs degraders, was promoted with biochar input...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986676/mechanisms-of-action-of-plant-growth-promoting-bacteria
#11
REVIEW
Oluwaseyi Samuel Olanrewaju, Bernard R Glick, Olubukola Oluranti Babalola
The idea of eliminating the use of fertilizers which are sometimes environmentally unsafe is slowly becoming a reality because of the emergence of microorganisms that can serve the same purpose or even do better. Depletion of soil nutrients through leaching into the waterways and causing contamination are some of the negative effects of these chemical fertilizers that prompted the need for suitable alternatives. This brings us to the idea of using microbes that can be developed for use as biological fertilizers (biofertilizers)...
October 6, 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978203/silver-engineered-nanomaterials-and-ions-elicit-species-specific-o2-consumption-responses-in-plant-growth-promoting-rhizobacteria
#12
Ricky W Lewis, Jason Unrine, Paul M Bertsch, David H McNear
Metal containing engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are now commonly used in various industrial and commercial applications. Many of these materials can be transformed during waste water treatment and ultimately enter terrestrial ecosystems via agriculturally applied biosolids. It is unclear how agriculturally important soil microbes will be affected by exposure to environmentally relevant, sublethal concentrations of ENMs and their transformation products (i.e., ions, aggregates, etc.). A method was developed, which puts O2 consumption responses in terms of viability, and tested by examining the toxic effects of Ag(+), Zn(2+), and Ni(2+) ions on the plant growth promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) Bacillus amyloliquefaciens GB03...
October 4, 2017: Biointerphases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974956/the-role-of-soil-microorganisms-in-plant-mineral-nutrition-current-knowledge-and-future-directions
#13
REVIEW
Richard Jacoby, Manuela Peukert, Antonella Succurro, Anna Koprivova, Stanislav Kopriva
In their natural environment, plants are part of a rich ecosystem including numerous and diverse microorganisms in the soil. It has been long recognized that some of these microbes, such as mycorrhizal fungi or nitrogen fixing symbiotic bacteria, play important roles in plant performance by improving mineral nutrition. However, the full range of microbes associated with plants and their potential to replace synthetic agricultural inputs has only recently started to be uncovered. In the last few years, a great progress has been made in the knowledge on composition of rhizospheric microbiomes and their dynamics...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974947/fungal-lactamases-their-occurrence-and-function
#14
REVIEW
Minglu Gao, Anthony E Glenn, Alex A Blacutt, Scott E Gold
Fungi are absorptive feeders and thus must colonize and ramify through their substrate to survive. In so doing they are in competition, particularly in the soil, with myriad microbes. These microbes use xenobiotic compounds as offensive weapons to compete for nutrition, and fungi must be sufficiently resistant to these xenobiotics. One prominent mechanism of xenobiotic resistance is through production of corresponding degrading enzymes. As typical examples, bacterial β-lactamases are well known for their ability to degrade and consequently confer resistance to β-lactam antibiotics, a serious emerging problem in health care...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974688/photochemical-alteration-of-organic-carbon-draining-permafrost-soils-shifts-microbial-metabolic-pathways-and-stimulates-respiration
#15
Collin P Ward, Sarah G Nalven, Byron C Crump, George W Kling, Rose M Cory
In sunlit waters, photochemical alteration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) impacts the microbial respiration of DOC to CO2. This coupled photochemical and biological degradation of DOC is especially critical for carbon budgets in the Arctic, where thawing permafrost soils increase opportunities for DOC oxidation to CO2 in surface waters, thereby reinforcing global warming. Here we show how and why sunlight exposure impacts microbial respiration of DOC draining permafrost soils. Sunlight significantly increases or decreases microbial respiration of DOC depending on whether photo-alteration produces or removes molecules that native microbial communities used prior to light exposure...
October 3, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968584/sorption-desorption-and-degradation-of-neonicotinoids-in-four-agricultural-soils-and-their-effects-on-soil-microorganisms
#16
Peng Zhang, Chao Ren, Hongwen Sun, Lujuan Min
In this study, the sorption, desorption and degradation of three neonicotinoids, imidacloprid (IMI), clothianidin (CLO) and thiacloprid (THI), and their effects on microorganisms in four different agricultural soils were systematically evaluated. The sorption of neonicotinoids on the soils was generally low with distribution coefficients (Kd) up to 16.2L/kg at Ce of 0.05mg/L following the order THI>IMI≈CLO, and the sorption were mainly influenced by the soil organic carbon content. The percentage degradation rates of the pesticides in different soils ranged from 25...
September 29, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966030/speciation-mobilization-and-bioaccessibility-of-arsenic-in-geogenic-soil-profile-from-hong-kong
#17
Jin-Li Cui, Yan-Ping Zhao, Jiang-Shan Li, Jing-Zi Beiyuan, Daniel C W Tsang, Chi-Sun Poon, Ting-Shan Chan, Wen-Xiong Wang, Xiang-Dong Li
The behaviour of arsenic (As) from geogenic soil exposed to aerobic conditions is critical to predict the impact of As on the environment, which processes remain unresolved. The current study examined the depth profile of As in geologically derived subsoil cores from Hong Kong and investigated the mobilization, plant availability, and bioaccessibility of As in As-contaminated soil at different depths (0-45.8 m). Results indicated significant heterogeneity, with high levels of As in three layers of soil reaching up to 505 mg/kg at a depth of 5 m, 404 mg/kg at a depth of 15 m, and 1510 mg/kg at a depth of 27-32 m...
September 28, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960969/dissipation-of-the-herbicide-benzobicyclon-hydrolysate-in-a-model-california-rice-field-soil
#18
Katryn L Williams, Joshua J Gladfelder, Lindsay L Quigley, David B Ball, Ronald S Tjeerdema
The herbicide benzobicyclon (BZB; 3-(2-chloro-4-(methylsulfonyl)benzoyl)-2-phenylthiobicyclo[3.2.1]oct-2-en-4-one) has recently been approved for use on California rice fields by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA). Hydrolysis of BZB rapidly forms the active compound, benzobicyclon hydrolysate (BH), whose fate is currently not well understood. A model California rice soil was used to determine BH soil dissipation. The pKa and aqueous solubility were also determined, as experimental values are not currently available...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956398/-discovery-and-analysis-of-staphylococcus-aureus-biofilm-inhibitors-using-functional-metagenomics-approach
#19
Ying Zhu, Shumao Chai, Mingming Cao, Shaochen Wang, Zhiyang Feng
Although most microbes are not readily cultured in the lab, microbial DNA can be extracted directly from an environmental sample and be functionally expressed in a suitable host for natural products discovery, and this approach has been termed "metagenomics". An E'mei Mountain soil metagenomic library was constructed using an Escherichia coli-Streptomyces shuttle vector for functional based screening of anti-bacterial clones in Streptomyces albus host. Two active clones were obtained and their fermentation broths were studied for the inhibitory effect on Staphylococcus aureus biofilm...
September 25, 2017: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953600/adhesion-of-stenotrophomonas-maltophilia-delftia-acidovorans-and-achromobacter-xylosoxidans-to-contact-lenses
#20
Ajay Kumar Vijay, Mark D P Willcox
PURPOSE: Contact lens cases become contaminated with microbes during use. We wished to compare the adhesion of uncommon bacterial contaminants isolated from lens cases to contact lenses with and without organic soil. METHODS: Strains of Delftia acidovorans (001), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (002 and 006), and Achromobacter xylosoxidans (001) isolated from contact lens cases (test strains) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Paer1) isolated from eyes at the time of infiltrative response (control strain) were used...
September 26, 2017: Eye & Contact Lens
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