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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724104/fate-characterization-of-benzene-kresoxim-methyl-a-strobilurin-fungicide-in-different-aerobic-soils
#1
Jinhao Zhao, Likun Wang, Jingli Cheng, Wei Wang, Qingfu Ye
Benzene kresoxim-methyl (BKM) is a promising broad-spectrum strobilurin fungicide widely used to control fungal pathogens in crops. However, information on its environmental fate is limited. To broaden our understanding of this fungicide's kinetic fate in aerobic soils, we labeled BKM with C on its benzoate ring and used ultralow-level liquid scintillation counting coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Results show that degradation, mineralization, and bound residue (BR) formation of BKM was controlled by soil type and microbial community composition...
May 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720730/drought-stress-results-in-a-compartment-specific-restructuring-of-the-rice-root-associated-microbiomes
#2
Christian Santos-Medellín, Joseph Edwards, Zachary Liechty, Bao Nguyen, Venkatesan Sundaresan
Plant roots support complex microbial communities that can influence plant growth, nutrition, and health. While extensive characterizations of the composition and spatial compartmentalization of these communities have been performed in different plant species, there is relatively little known about the impact of abiotic stresses on the root microbiota. Here, we have used rice as a model to explore the responses of root microbiomes to drought stress. Using four distinct genotypes, grown in soils from three different fields, we tracked the drought-induced changes in microbial composition in the rhizosphere (the soil immediately surrounding the root), the endosphere (the root interior), and unplanted soils...
July 18, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712045/dynamics-of-soil-bacterial-communities-over-a-vegetation-season-relate-to-both-soil-nutrient-status-and-plant-growth-phenology
#3
Davide Francioli, Elke Schulz, François Buscot, Thomas Reitz
Soil microorganisms regulate element cycling and plant nutrition, mediate co-existence of neighbors, and stabilize plant communities. Many of these effects are dependent upon environmental conditions and, in particular, on nutrient quality and availability in soils. In this context, we set up a pot experiment in order to examine the combined effects of soil nutrient availability and microbial communities on plant-soil interactions and to investigate assemblage rules for soil bacterial communities under changed nutrient conditions...
July 15, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711820/integrated-metagenomics-and-molecular-ecological-network-analysis-of-bacterial-community-composition-during-the-phytoremediation-of-cadmium-contaminated-soils-by-bioenergy-crops
#4
Zhaojin Chen, Yuan Zheng, Chuanyu Ding, Xuemin Ren, Jian Yuan, Feng Sun, Yuying Li
Two energy crops (maize and soybean) were used in the remediation of cadmium-contaminated soils. These crops were used because they are fast growing, have a large biomass and are good sources for bioenergy production. The total accumulation of cadmium in maize and soybean plants was 393.01 and 263.24μg pot(-1), respectively. The rhizosphere bacterial community composition was studied by MiSeq sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using 16S rRNA gene sequences. The rhizosphere bacteria were divided into 33 major phylogenetic groups according to phyla...
July 13, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707368/isolation-and-characterization-of-metaldehyde-degrading-bacteria-from-domestic-soils
#5
John C Thomas, Thorunn Helgason, Chris J Sinclair, James W B Moir
Metaldehyde is a common molluscicide, used to control slugs in agriculture and horticulture. It is resistant to breakdown by current water treatment processes, and its accumulation in drinking water sources leads to regular regulatory failures in drinking water quality. To address this problem, we isolated metaldehyde-degrading microbes from domestic soils. Two distinct bacterial isolates were cultured, that were able to grow prototrophically using metaldehyde as sole carbon and energy source. One isolate belonged to the genus Acinetobacter (strain designation E1) and the other isolate belonged to the genus Variovorax (strain designation E3)...
July 13, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702794/soil-anammox-community-structure-in-different-land-use-soils-treatment-with-13-c-urea-as-determined-by-analysis-of-phospholipid-fatty-acids
#6
Huifang Zhou, Qichun Zhang, Chao Gu, Salma Jabeen, Jiangye Li, Hongjie Di
The anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process is globally an important nitrogen-cycling process mediated by specialized microbes. However, still little information is documented about anammox microbial community structure under agricultural soils. The anaerobic incubation experiment was conducted to study the impacts of different land use soils fertilized by (13)C-urea on the activity and diversity of anammox bacteria using stable isotope to probe the phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA-SIP). The (13)C was preferentially incorporated in ratios PLFAs 16:1ω7c, 16:1ω5c, and 16:0...
July 12, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699783/phytoremediation-of-organochlorine-pesticides-concept-method-and-recent-developments
#7
Tanvi Singh, Dileep K Singh
Rapid increase in industrialization of world economy in the past century has resulted in significantly high emission of anthropogenic chemicals in the ecosystem. The organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are a great risk to the global environment and endanger the human health due to their affinity for dispersion, transportation over long distances, and bioaccumulation in the food chain. Phytoremediation is a promising technology that aims to make use of plants and associated bacteria for the treatment of groundwater and soil polluted by these contaminants...
September 2, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699781/application-of-bacillus-megaterium-mcr-8-improved-phytoextraction-and-stress-alleviation-of-nickel-in-vinca-rosea
#8
Waheed Ullah Khan, Sajid Rashid Ahmad, Nasim Ahmad Yasin, Aamir Ali, Aqeel Ahmad, Waheed Akram
The current research was performed to evaluate the effect of Bacillus megaterium MCR-8 on mitigation of nickel (Ni) stress in Vinca rosea grown on Ni-contaminated soil (50, 100, and 200 mg Ni kg(-1) soil). The treated plants exhibited reduced growth, biomass, gas exchange capacity, and chlorophyll (Chl) content under Ni stress. The inoculated plants growing in Ni-contaminated media exhibited relatively higher growth, total soluble protein, and proline contents. Similarly, bacterial inoculation improved the activity of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) under Ni stress...
September 2, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699496/up-scaling-strategies-to-improve-the-industrial-production-of-bacitracin-at-largescale
#9
Chandra Kant Sharma, Monika Sharma
Bacitracin was discovered and named after a 7 year old American girl, Margaret Tracey in 1943 as Bacillus was isolated from her wounds. Bacillus licheniformis is usually present in soil and bird feathers. This bacterium is most commonly present around back plumage and chest of birds. There are different types of bacitracin but the one most potent is Bacitracin A. Bacitracin induced proteins are localized in bacterial membrane. Production of antibiotic initially stopped, resumed by induction of bacitracin induced protein but after few mitotic divisions microbes reverted to their vulnerable state...
July 11, 2017: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692333/boron-and-the-evolutionary-development-of-roots
#10
Ulrich Kutschera, Karl J Niklas
Experimental work has shown that Boron (i.e., Boric acid, B) is an essential and multifunctional microelement for vascular plant development. In addition to its other functions, which include xylem development and lignin biosynthesis, we now know that B is involved in phytohormone-signaling and influences the mechanical properties of intercellular pectins. From these data, we conclude that B played an important role during the evolutionary development of lignified tissues, and that it may have been involved in the evolution of vascular plant roots, as hypothesized by D...
July 10, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688926/microbes-from-mined-sites-harnessing-their-potential-for-reclamation-of-derelict-mine-sites
#11
REVIEW
Palanisami Thavamani, R Amos Samkumar, Viswanathan Satheesh, Suresh R Subashchandrabose, Kavitha Ramadass, Ravi Naidu, Kadiyala Venkateswarlu, Mallavarapu Megharaj
Derelict mines pose potential risks to environmental health. Several factors such as soil structure, organic matter, and nutrient content are the greatly affected qualities in mined soils. Soil microbial communities are an important element for successful reclamation because of their major role in nutrient cycling, plant establishment, geochemical transformations, and soil formation. Yet, microorganisms generally remain an undervalued asset in mined sites. The microbial diversity in derelict mine sites consists of diverse species belonging to four key phyla: Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes...
July 6, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688360/microbial-functional-diversity-responses-to-2-years-since-biochar-application-in-silt-loam-soils-on-the-loess-plateau
#12
Li-Xia Zhu, Qian Xiao, Yu-Fang Shen, Shi-Qing Li
The structure and function of soil microbial communities have been widely used as indicators of soil quality and fertility. The effect of biochar application on carbon sequestration has been studied, but the effect on soil microbial functional diversity has received little attention. We evaluated effects of biochar application on the functional diversities of microbes in a loam soil. The effects of biochar on microbial activities and related processes in the 0-10 and 10-20cm soil layers were determined in a two-year experiment in maize field on the Loess Plateau in China...
July 5, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688255/natural-degradation-of-roxarsone-in-contrasting-soils-degradation-kinetics-and-transformation-products
#13
Qing-Long Fu, Lee Blaney, Dong-Mei Zhou
Roxarsone (ROX) is transformed to more toxic arsenicals after land application of ROX-containing poultry litter to agricultural soils. To date, no reports have compared ROX degradation in soils with contrasting properties. In this study, the impact of different incubation conditions on ROX degradation was investigated in red (C-Soil) and yellow-brown (H-Soil) soils. The degradation half-lives of extractable ROX in C-Soil and H-Soil were found to be 130-394d and 4-94d, respectively, indicating that the extractable ROX degraded faster in H-Soil...
July 5, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684789/soil-bacterial-quantification-approaches-coupling-with-relative-abundances-reflecting-the-changes-of-taxa
#14
Zhaojing Zhang, Yuanyuan Qu, Shuzhen Li, Kai Feng, Shang Wang, Weiwei Cai, Yuting Liang, Hui Li, Meiying Xu, Huaqun Yin, Ye Deng
Understanding the abundance change of certain bacterial taxa is quite important for the study of soil microbiology. However, the observed differences of relative abundances by high-throughput techniques may not accurately reflect those of the actual taxon abundances. This study investigated whether soil microbial abundances coupling with microbial quantities can be more informative in describing the microbial population distribution under different locations. We analyzed relative abundances of the major species in soil microbial communities from Beijing and Tibet grasslands by using 16 S rRNA high-throughput sequencing technique, and quantified the absolute bacterial cell numbers directly or indirectly by multiple culture-independent measurements, including adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP), flow cytometry (FCM), quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) and microbial biomass Carbon (MBC)...
July 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681951/natural-succession-on-abandoned-cropland-effectively-decreases-the-soil-erodibility-and-improves-the-fungal-diversity
#15
Chao Zhang, Guobin Liu, Zilin Song, Dong Qu, Linchuan Fang, Lei Deng
Changes in plants and soils during natural succession have been evaluated, but little is known about the effects of succession on the activities of soil microbes and their interactions with soil erodibility. We conducted a field study on the Chinese Loess Plateau, typical of this semiarid area, to determine the effect of secondary succession on the stability of soil structure against erosion and on the composition of soil fungal communities. Characteristics of plant, soil, and fungal communities were assessed across a 30-year chronosequence of grassland developed from abandoned cropland...
July 6, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666631/biochar-from-green-waste-for-phosphate-removal-with-subsequent-disposal
#16
Dhanuskodi Krishna Veni, Pandian Kannan, Thomas Nesakumar Jebakumar Immanuel Edison, Annamalai Senthilkumar
Biochar prepared from cotton stalk solid waste provides a new material for contaminant removal. In the present study, experiments were conducted to investigate the removal of phosphate from aqueous solution by cotton stalk biochar (CSB). The characterization of CSB & phosphate adsorbed biochar (PCSB) were done to substantiate the adsorption of phosphate on CSB surface. FT-IR studies disclosed the functional groups present in CSB and supported adsorption phenomena. Scanning electron microscope showed the porous nature of CSB and EDS measurements justified the phosphate adsorption process...
June 27, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665016/biogeography-and-ecological-diversity-patterns-of-rare-and-abundant-bacteria-in-oil-contaminated-soils
#17
Shuo Jiao, Weimin Chen, Gehong Wei
Revealing the biogeographies and ecologies of rare and abundant microorganisms is crucial to understand ecosystem diversity and function. In this study, we investigated the biogeographic assemblies and ecological diversity patterns of rare and abundant bacteria in long-term oil-contaminated soils at intervals of 46-360 km by performing high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. The results clearly revealed distinct distribution patterns for rare and abundant bacteria in soil samples. Rare taxa were unevenly distributed; however, abundant taxa were ubiquitous across all samples...
June 30, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663753/dominant-groups-of-potentially-active-bacteria-shared-by-barley-seeds-become-less-abundant-in-root-associated-microbiome
#18
Luhua Yang, Jasmin Danzberger, Anne Schöler, Peter Schröder, Michael Schloter, Viviane Radl
Endophytes are microorganisms colonizing plant internal tissues. They are ubiquitously associated with plants and play an important role in plant growth and health. In this work, we grew five modern cultivars of barley in axenic systems using sterile sand mixture as well as in greenhouse with natural soil. We characterized the potentially active microbial communities associated with seeds and roots using rRNA based amplicon sequencing. The seeds of the different cultivars share a great part of their microbiome, as we observed a predominance of a few bacterial OTUs assigned to Phyllobacterium, Paenibacillus, and Trabusiella...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657887/lessons-from-the-environmental-antibiotic-resistome
#19
Matthew Surette, Gerard D Wright
Antibiotic resistance is a global public health issue of growing proportions. All antibiotics are susceptible to resistance. The evidence is now clear that the environment is the single largest source and reservoir of resistance. Soil, aquatic, atmospheric, animal- associated, and built ecosystems are home to microbes that harbor antibiotic resistance elements and the means to mobilize them. The diversity and abundance of resistance in the environment is consistent with the ancient origins of antibiotics and a variety of studies support a long natural history of associated resistance...
June 28, 2017: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655216/phenotypic-and-genomic-survey-on-organic-acid-utilization-profile-of-pseudomonas-mendocina-strain-s5-2-a-vineyard-soil-isolate
#20
Teik Min Chong, Jian-Woon Chen, Wah-Seng See-Too, Choo-Yee Yu, Geik-Yong Ang, Yan Lue Lim, Wai-Fong Yin, Catherine Grandclément, Denis Faure, Yves Dessaux, Kok-Gan Chan
Root exudates are chemical compounds that are released from living plant roots and provide significant energy, carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus sources for microbes inhabiting the rhizosphere. The exudates shape the microflora associated with the plant, as well as influences the plant health and productivity. Therefore, a better understanding of the trophic link that is established between the plant and the associated bacteria is necessary. In this study, a comprehensive survey on the utilization of grapevine and rootstock related organic acids were conducted on a vineyard soil isolate which is Pseudomonas mendocina strain S5...
December 2017: AMB Express
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