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Soil microbes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226964/quantifying-the-contribution-of-mass-flow-to-nitrogen-acquisition-by-an-individual-plant-root
#1
Ross E McMurtrie, Torgny Näsholm
The classic model of nitrogen (N) flux into roots is as a Michaelis-Menten (MM) function of soil-N concentration at root surfaces. Furthermore, soil-N transport processes that determine soil-N concentration at root surfaces are seen as a bottleneck for plant nutrition. Yet, neither the MM relationship nor soil-N transport mechanisms are represented in current terrestrial biosphere models. Processes governing N supply to roots - diffusion, mass flow, N immobilization by soil microbes - are incorporated in a model of root-N uptake...
December 11, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221871/investigation-on-paper-cup-waste-degradation-by-bacterial-consortium-and-eudrillus-eugeinea-through-vermicomposting
#2
Karthika Arumugam, Seenivasagan Renganathan, Babalola Olubukola Oluranti, Vasanthy Muthunarayanan
Disposable Paper cups are a threat to the environment and are composed of 90% high strength paper with 5% thin coating of polyethylene. This polyethylene prevents the paper cup from undergoing degradation in the soil. Hence, in the present study two different approaches towards the management of paper cup waste through vermicomposting technology has been presented. The experimental setup includes 2 plastic reactors namely Vermicompost (VC) (Cow dung + Paper cup waste + Earthworm (Eudrillus eugeinea)) and Vermicompost with bacterial consortium (VCB) (Cow dung + Paper cup waste + Eudrillus eugeinea + Microbial consortia such as Bacillus anthracis, B...
December 5, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218539/carbon-storage-potential-increases-with-increasing-ratio-of-c4-to-c3-grass-cover-and-soil-productivity-in-restored-tallgrass-prairies
#3
Brian J Spiesman, Herika Kummel, Randall D Jackson
Long-term soil carbon (C) storage is essential for reducing CO2 in the atmosphere. Converting unproductive and environmentally sensitive agricultural lands to grasslands for bioenergy production may enhance C storage. However, a better understanding of the interacting effects of grass functional composition (i.e., relative abundance of C4 and C3 grass cover) and soil productivity on C storage will help guide sustainable grassland management. Our objective was to examine the relationship between grass functional composition and potential C storage and how it varies with potential soil productivity...
December 7, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218059/warming-alters-the-energetic-structure-and-function-but-not-resilience-of-soil-food-webs
#4
Benjamin Schwarz, Andrew D Barnes, Madhav P Thakur, Ulrich Brose, Marcel Ciobanu, Peter B Reich, Roy L Rich, Benjamin Rosenbaum, Artur Stefanski, Nico Eisenhauer
Climate warming is predicted to alter the structure, stability, and functioning of food webs1-5. Yet, despite the importance of soil food webs for energy and nutrient turnover in terrestrial ecosystems, warming effects on these food webs-particularly in combination with other global change drivers-are largely unknown. Here, we present results from two complementary field experiments testing the interactive effects of warming with forest canopy disturbance and drought on energy fluxes in boreal-temperate ecotonal forest soil food webs...
December 2017: Nature Climate Change
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216732/vitamin-b12-sources-and-microbial-interaction
#5
Fumio Watanabe, Tomohiro Bito
Vitamin B12 is synthesized only by certain bacteria and archaeon, but not by plants. The synthesized vitamin B12 is transferred and accumulates in animal tissues, which can occur in certain plant and mushroom species through microbial interaction. In particular, the meat and milk of herbivorous ruminant animals (e.g. cattle and sheep) are good sources of vitamin B12 for humans. Ruminants acquire vitamin B12, which is considered an essential nutrient, through a symbiotic relationship with the bacteria present in their stomachs...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207531/microbial-and-plant-assisted-bioremediation-of-heavy-metal-polluted-environments-a-review
#6
REVIEW
Omena Bernard Ojuederie, Olubukola Oluranti Babalola
Environmental pollution from hazardous waste materials, organic pollutants and heavy metals, has adversely affected the natural ecosystem to the detriment of man. These pollutants arise from anthropogenic sources as well as natural disasters such as hurricanes and volcanic eruptions. Toxic metals could accumulate in agricultural soils and get into the food chain, thereby becoming a major threat to food security. Conventional and physical methods are expensive and not effective in areas with low metal toxicity...
December 4, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201493/analysis-of-microbial-diversity-in-soil-under-ginger-cultivation
#7
Yiqing Liu, Lin Wu, Xingwen Wu, Honghai Li, Qinhong Liao, Xiaojing Zhang, Zhiqiang Sun, Wenhua Li
Ginger is a perennial monocotyledonous herb, which can be used as both a vegetable and a medicinal plant. However, it is susceptible to various plant pathogens. Microbial diversity in soil is related closely to the health and productivity of plant crops including ginger. In the current study, we compared microbial diversity from soil samples under ginger cultivation (disease incidence of >50% [relatively unhealthy sample] versus disease incidence of <10% [relatively healthy sample]). The bacterial and fungal taxa were analyzed by Illumina-based sequencing, with 16S and ITS identification, respectively...
2017: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188775/isolation-and-characterization-of-antibiotic-producing-bacterial-strains-from-red-soil-of-himalayan-region-of-pakistan
#8
Bushra Uzair, Neelam Firdous, Barkat Ali Khan, Samiullah Khan, Sammer Fatima, Rehana Kausar, Asma Bano
The emergence of multi drug resistant microbial pathogens has become a global health challenge and set a dire requirement of searching new effective antimicrobials. Soil is an ultimate reservoir of biologically active micro flora, which harbors trillions of microbial strains producing compounds of commercial interest. Hence aim of the present study was an attempt to isolate and identify the antibiotic producing microbial strains from the red soil of Himalayan an unexplored region of Pakistan. In this study from 10 different soil samples only one bacterial strain was isolated capable of antimicrobial activity...
November 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187970/land-use-not-litter-quality-is-a-stronger-driver-of-decomposition-in-hyperdiverse-tropical-forest
#9
Sabine Both, Dafydd M O Elias, Ully H Kritzler, Nick J Ostle, David Johnson
In hyperdiverse tropical forests, the key drivers of litter decomposition are poorly understood despite its crucial role in facilitating nutrient availability for plants and microbes. Selective logging is a pressing land use with potential for considerable impacts on plant-soil interactions, litter decomposition, and nutrient cycling. Here, in Borneo's tropical rainforests, we test the hypothesis that decomposition is driven by litter quality and that there is a significant "home-field advantage," that is positive interaction between local litter quality and land use...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183697/the-potential-impact-on-the-biodegradation-of-organic-pollutants-from-composting-technology-for-soil-remediation
#10
REVIEW
Xiaoya Ren, Guangming Zeng, Lin Tang, Jingjing Wang, Jia Wan, Jiajia Wang, Yaocheng Deng, Yani Liu, Bo Peng
Large numbers of organic pollutants (OPs), such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides and petroleum, are discharged into soil, posing a huge threat to natural environment. Traditional chemical and physical remediation technologies are either incompetent or expensive, and may cause secondary pollution. The technology of soil composting or use of compost as soil amendment can utilize quantities of active microbes to degrade OPs with the help of available nutrients in the compost matrix. It is highly cost-effective for soil remediation...
November 25, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183696/isolation-of-5-hydroxymethylfurfural-biotransforming-bacteria-to-produce-2-5-furan-dicarboxylic-acid-in-algal-acid-hydrolysate
#11
Chu-Fang Yang, Ci-Ruei Huang
In dealing with lignocellulosic and algal biomass, thermal acid hydrolysis is an economical and efficient method. In this process, 5-hydroxy-methylfurfural (5-HMF) is formed unavoidably, which inhibits downstream reducing sugar fermentation. Fortunately, 5-HMF can be biotransformed into 2,5-furan-dicarboxylic acid (FDCA), the top 14 biomass platform molecules. Base on the connection between 5-HMF removal and FDCA production, microbes capable of biotransforming 5-HMF into FDCA are beneficial to raise biofuel yield and potential molecule production...
November 25, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167801/breaking-the-bad-bacillus-blocks-fungal-virulence-factors
#12
COMMENT
François L Mayer, James W Kronstad
Fungal pathogens rely on the production of specific virulence factors during infection. Inhibiting such factors generally results in reduced fungal pathogenicity. Most studies in the past have focused on understanding the molecular mechanisms of fungal virulence factor expression during mono-culture, or during interaction with the host. However, a potentially important, second type of interaction has been less well studied thus far - the interplay of fungal pathogens of humans with other microbes found in their natural habitat...
October 30, 2017: Microbial Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163572/root-and-rhizosphere-bacterial-phosphatase-activity-varies-with-tree-species-and-soil-phosphorus-availability-in-puerto-rico-tropical-forest
#13
Kristine G Cabugao, Collin M Timm, Alyssa A Carrell, Joanne Childs, Tse-Yuan S Lu, Dale A Pelletier, David J Weston, Richard J Norby
Tropical forests generally occur on highly weathered soils that, in combination with the immobility of phosphorus (P), often result in soils lacking orthophosphate, the form of P most easily metabolized by plants and microbes. In these soils, mineralization of organic P can be the major source for orthophosphate. Both plants and microbes encode for phosphatases capable of mineralizing a range of organic P compounds. However, the activity of these enzymes depends on several edaphic factors including P availability, tree species, and microbial communities...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155157/synthesis-characterization-and-the-antifungal-activity-of-chitosan-derivatives-containing-urea-groups
#14
Jingjing Zhang, Wenqiang Tan, Zhenpeng Zhang, Yinping Song, Qing Li, Fang Dong, Zhanyong Guo
As an abundant and renewable polysaccharide, chitosan has been drawing broad attention due to its natural properties. For the further utilization of chitosan, chemical modification can be applied in improving its water solubility and the bioactivities. In this study, four chitosan derivatives were synthesized by the reaction of chloracetyl chitosan derivative with quaternary ammonium salt (CTCS) and urea groups bearing 4-amino-pyridine, including BCTCS, 2CBCTCS, 3CBCTCS, and 4CBCTCS. The structure characteristics of synthesized products were established based on FT-IR spectroscopy, (1)H NMR, and elemental analysis...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153474/impacts-of-environmental-factors-on-the-whole-microbial-communities-in-the-rhizosphere-of-a-metal-tolerant-plant-elsholtzia-haichowensis-sun
#15
Songqiang Deng, Tan Ke, Longtai Li, Shenwen Cai, Yuyue Zhou, Yue Liu, Limin Guo, Lanzhou Chen, Dayi Zhang
Rhizospheric microbes play important roles in plant growth and heavy metals (HMs) transformation, possessing great potential for the successful phytoremediation of environmental pollutants. In the present study, the rhizosphere of Elsholtzia haichowensis Sun was comprehensively studied to uncover the influence of environmental factors (EFs) on the whole microbial communities including bacteria, fungi and archaea, via quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and high-throughput sequencing. By analyzing molecular ecological network and multivariate regression trees (MRT), we evaluated the distinct impacts of 37 EFs on soil microbial community...
November 15, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152171/plant-facilitated-effects-of-exotic-earthworm-pontoscolex-corethrurus-on-the-soil-carbon-and-nitrogen-dynamics-and-soil-microbial-community-in-a-subtropical-field-ecosystem
#16
Jianping Wu, Weixin Zhang, Yuanhu Shao, Shenglei Fu
Earthworms and plants greatly affect belowground properties; however, their combined effects are more attractive based on the ecosystem scale in the field condition. To address this point, we manipulated earthworms (exotic endogeic species Pontoscolex corethrurus) and plants (living plants [native tree species Evodia lepta] and artificial plants) to investigate their combined effects on soil microorganisms, soil nutrients, and soil respiration in a subtropical forest. The manipulation of artificial plants aimed to simulate the physical effects of plants (e...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150507/divalent-metal-cations-potentiate-the-predatory-capacity-of-amoeba-for-cryptococcus-neoformans
#17
Man Shun Fu, Arturo Casadevall
Among the best studied interaction between soil phagocytic predators and a human pathogenic fungus is that of Acanthamoeba castellanii and Cryptococcus neoformans The experimental conditions used in amoeba-fungal confrontation assays can have major effects on whether the fungus or the protozoan is ascendant in the interaction. In the presence of Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) in PBS, C. neoformans was consistently killed when incubated with A. castellanii. A. castellanii survived better in the presence of Mg(2+) and Ca(2+), even when incubated with C...
November 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146962/microbial-communities-in-the-native-habitats-of-agaricus-sinodeliciosus-from-xinjiang-province-revealed-by-amplicon-sequencing
#18
Jiemin Zhou, Xuming Bai, Ruilin Zhao
Agaricus sinodeliciosus is an edible species described from China and has been successfully cultivated. However, no studies have yet reported the influence factors implicated in the process of fructification. To better know abiotic and biotic factors, physiochemical characteristics and microbial communities were investigated in five different soil samples collected in the native habitats of specimens from northern Xinjiang, southern Xinjiang, and Zhejiang Province, respectively. There are major differences in texture and morphology among different specimens of A...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146250/revitalization-of-plant-growth-promoting-rhizobacteria-for-sustainable-development-in-agriculture
#19
REVIEW
Sushanto Gouda, Rout George Kerry, Gitishree Das, Spiros Paramithiotis, Han-Seung Shin, Jayanta Kumar Patra
The progression of life in all forms is not only dependent on agricultural and food security but also on the soil characteristics. The dynamic nature of soil is a direct manifestation of soil microbes, bio-mineralization, and synergistic co-evolution with plants. With the increase in world's population the demand for agriculture yield has increased tremendously and thereby leading to large scale production of chemical fertilizers. Since the use of fertilizers and pesticides in the agricultural fields have caused degradation of soil quality and fertility, thus the expansion of agricultural land with fertile soil is near impossible, hence researchers and scientists have sifted their attention for a safer and productive means of agricultural practices...
January 2018: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145592/soil-bacterial-community-response-to-altered-precipitation-and-temperature-regimes-in-an-old-field-grassland-are-mediated-by-plants
#20
Akihiro Koyama, J Megan Steinweg, Michelle L Haddix, Jeffrey S Dukes, Matthew D Wallenstein
The structure and function of soil microbiomes often change in response to experimental climate manipulations, suggesting an important role in ecosystem feedbacks. However, it is difficult to know if microbes are responding directly to environmental changes or are more strongly impacted by plant responses. We investigated soil microbial responses to precipitation and temperature manipulations at the Boston-Area Climate Experiment in Massachusetts, USA in both vegetated and bare plots to parse direct vs plant-mediated response to multi-factor climate change...
November 14, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
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