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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345581/potential-of-biosynthesized-silver-nanoparticles-using-stenotrophomonas-sp-bhu-s7-mtcc-5978-for-management-of-soil-borne-and-foliar-phytopathogens
#1
Sandhya Mishra, Braj Raj Singh, Alim H Naqvi, H B Singh
Stenotrophomonas sp. is emerging as a popular microbe of global concern with various potential ecological roles. Biosynthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using this bacterial strain has shown promising applications in life sciences. However, there is no report on efficient agricultural applications of biosynthesized AgNPs using Stenotrophomonas sp. In this regard, successful biosynthesis of AgNPs using Stenotrophomonas sp. BHU-S7 (MTCC 5978) was monitored by Uv-visible spectrum showing surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak at 440 nm...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336973/microbial-community-composition-is-related-to-soil-biological-and-chemical-properties-and-bacterial-wilt-outbreak
#2
Rui Wang, Hongchun Zhang, Liguang Sun, Gaofu Qi, Shu Chen, Xiuyun Zhao
Soil microbes play important roles in plant growth and health. Little is known about the differences of soil microbes between healthy and bacterial wilt infected soils with Ralstonia solanacearum. By Illumina-MiSeq sequencing of 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA gene amplicons, we found the soil microbial composition and diversity were distinct between healthy and bacterial wilt infected soils. Soil microbial community varied at different plant growth stages due to changes of root exudates composition and soil pH. Healthy soils exhibited higher microbial diversity than the bacterial wilt infected soils...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336094/distinct-succession-patterns-of-abundant-and-rare-bacteria-in-temporal-microcosms-with-pollutants
#3
Shuo Jiao, Yantao Luo, Mingmei Lu, Xiao Xiao, Yanbing Lin, Weimin Chen, Gehong Wei
Elucidating the driving forces behind the temporal dynamics of abundant and rare microbes is essential for understanding the assembly and succession of microbial communities. Here, we explored the successional trajectories and mechanisms of abundant and rare bacteria via soil-enrichment subcultures in response to various pollutants (phenanthrene, n-octadecane, and CdCl2) using time-series Illumina sequencing datasets. The results reveal different successional patterns of abundant and rare sub-communities in eighty pollutant-degrading consortia and two original soil samples...
March 21, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335309/separation-of-bacteria-protozoa-and-carbon-nanotubes-by-density-gradient-centrifugation
#4
Monika Mortimer, Elijah J Petersen, Bruce A Buchholz, Patricia A Holden
Sustainable production and use of carbon nanotube (CNT)-enabled materials require efficient assessment of CNT environmental hazards, including the potential for CNT bioaccumulation and biomagnification in environmental receptors. Microbes, as abundant organisms responsible for nutrient cycling in soil and water, are important ecological receptors for studying the effects of CNTs. Quantification of CNT association with microbial cells requires efficient separation of CNT-associated cells from individually dispersed CNTs and CNT agglomerates...
October 12, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334408/leaf-endophytic-fungus-interacts-with-precipitation-to-alter-belowground-microbial-communities-in-primary-successional-dunes
#5
Lukas Bell-Dereske, Cristina Takacs-Vesbach, Stephanie N Kivlin, Sarah M Emery, Jennifer A Rudgers
Understanding interactions between above- and belowground components of ecosystems is an important next step in community ecology. These interactions may be fundamental to predicting ecological responses to global change because indirect effects occurring through altered species interactions can outweigh or interact with the direct effects of environmental drivers. In a multi-year field experiment (2010-2015), we tested how experimental addition of a mutualistic leaf endophyte (Epichloë amarillans) associated with American beachgrass (Ammophila breviligulata) interacted with an altered precipitation regime (±30%) to affect the belowground microbial community...
March 15, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334191/tu-et-al-microbial-diversity-in-chinese-temperate-steppe-unveiling-the-most-influential-environmental-drivers
#6
Bo Tu, Xavier Domene, Minjie Yao, Chaonan Li, Shiheng Zhang, Yongping Kou, Yansu Wang, Xiangzhen Li
Temperate steppe is extremely sensitive to the current global changes. However, what are the main environmental variables driving microbial diversity in temperate steppe are still unclear, something that impairs doing predictions about the expected effects of global changes on microbe-mediated ecological functions. This is why, in this study, the relationship between soil microbial diversity and environmental variables in Chinese temperate steppe is investigated. In this study, significant correlations between soil bacterial α-diversity and mean annual precipitation (MAP) and the aridity index (AI) were observed at the whole region scale...
March 7, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333395/small-molecules-belowground-the-role-of-specialized-metabolites-in-the-rhizosphere
#7
Hassan Massalha, Elisa Korenblum, Dorothea Tholl, Asaph Aharoni
Soil communities are diverse taxonomically and functionally. This ecosystem experiences highly complex networks of interactions, but may also present functionally independent entities. Plant roots, a metabolically active hotspot in the soil, take an essential part in belowground interactions. While plants are known to release an extremely high portion of the fixated carbon to the soil, less is known about the composition and role of C-containing compounds in the rhizosphere, in particular those involved in chemical communication...
March 23, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331217/geographic-distribution-of-cadmium-and-its-interaction-with-the-microbial-community-in-the-longjiang-river-risk-evaluation-after-a-shocking-pollution-accident
#8
MingJiang Zhang, FuKe Huang, GuangYuan Wang, XingYu Liu, JianKang Wen, XiaoSheng Zhang, YaoSi Huang, Yu Xia
A shocking Longjiang River cadmium pollution accident occurred in 2012, the effects of which on microbial communities remain unclear. Alkaline precipitation technology was applied for remediation, but concerns rose about the stability of this technology. To understand the geographic distribution of cadmium and its correlation with microbes, in this study, 39 water samples and 39 sludge samples from this river and 2 soil samples from the nearby farmland were collected for chemical and microbial analyses. The Cd concentrations of all water samples were lower than 0...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330312/isolation-and-screening-of-l-asparaginase-free-of-glutaminase-and-urease-from-fungal-sp
#9
Kruthi Doriya, Devarai Santhosh Kumar
L-Asparaginase is a chemotherapeutic drug used in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), a malignant disorder in children. L-Asparaginase helps in removing acrylamide found in fried and baked foods that is carcinogenic in nature. L-Asparaginase is present in plants, animals and microbes. Various microorganisms such as bacteria, yeast and fungi are generally used for the production of L-asparaginase as it is difficult to obtain the same from plants and animals. L-Asparaginase from bacteria causes anaphylaxis and other abnormal sensitive reactions due to low specificity to asparagine...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330123/microbial-degradation-of-low-density-polyethylene-ldpe-by-aspergillus-clavatus-strain-jask1-isolated-from-landfill-soil
#10
Anudurga Gajendiran, Sharmila Krishnamoorthy, Jayanthi Abraham
Polythene and plastic waste are found to accumulate in the environment, posing a major ecological threat. They are found to be considered non-degradable, once it enters the environment it has been found to remain there indefinitely. However, significant attention has been placed on biodegradable polymer, identification of microbes with degradative potential on plastic material. The aim of the present investigation was to biodegrade low-density polyethylene (LDPE) using potential fungi isolated from landfill soil...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326062/compositional-stability-of-the-bacterial-community-in-a-climate-sensitive-sub-arctic-peatland
#11
James T Weedon, George A Kowalchuk, Rien Aerts, Stef Freriks, Wilfred F M Röling, Peter M van Bodegom
The climate sensitivity of microbe-mediated soil processes such as carbon and nitrogen cycling offers an interesting case for evaluating the corresponding sensitivity of microbial community composition to environmental change. Better understanding of the degree of linkage between functional and compositional stability would contribute to ongoing efforts to build mechanistic models aiming at predicting rates of microbe-mediated processes. We used an amplicon sequencing approach to test if previously observed large effects of experimental soil warming on C and N cycle fluxes (50-100% increases) in a sub-arctic Sphagnum peatland were reflected in changes in the composition of the soil bacterial community...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317257/top-down-control-of-carbon-sequestration-grazing-affects-microbial-structure-and-function-in-salt-marsh-soils
#12
Peter Mueller, Dirk Granse, Stefanie Nolte, Hai Thi Do, Magdalena Weingartner, Stefan Hoth, Kai Jensen
Tidal wetlands have been increasingly recognized as long-term carbon sinks in recent years. Work on carbon sequestration and decomposition processes in tidal wetlands focused so far mainly on effects of global-change factors such as sea-level rise and increasing temperatures. However, little is known about effects of land use, such as livestock grazing, on organic matter decomposition and ultimately carbon sequestration. The present work aims at understanding the mechanisms by which large herbivores can affect organic matter decomposition in tidal wetlands...
March 20, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316049/structure-and-function-of-the-bacterial-communities-during-rhizoremediation-of-hexachlorobenzene-in-constructed-wetlands
#13
Cuiping Zhang, Bei Wang, Xiaoyan Dai, Shuying Li, Guangqiu Lu, Yuanqing Zhou
Vertical flow constructed wetlands (VF CWs) are considered to be effective for treating organic pollutants. The rhizosphere of macrophytes such as Phragmites sp., Typha sp. serves as an active and dynamic zone for the microbial degradation of organic pollutants. However, it is still not clear how soil bacterial communities respond to macrophytes and pollutants during the process. For this purpose, the seedlings of Phragmites australis and Typha angustifolia were planted respectively in the VF CWs added with HCB at a dose of 2 mg/kg...
March 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297714/root-microbiota-drive-direct-integration-of-phosphate-stress-and-immunity
#14
Gabriel Castrillo, Paulo José Pereira Lima Teixeira, Sur Herrera Paredes, Theresa F Law, Laura de Lorenzo, Meghan E Feltcher, Omri M Finkel, Natalie W Breakfield, Piotr Mieczkowski, Corbin D Jones, Javier Paz-Ares, Jeffery L Dangl
Plants live in biogeochemically diverse soils with diverse microbiota. Plant organs associate intimately with a subset of these microbes, and the structure of the microbial community can be altered by soil nutrient content. Plant-associated microbes can compete with the plant and with each other for nutrients, but may also carry traits that increase the productivity of the plant. It is unknown how the plant immune system coordinates microbial recognition with nutritional cues during microbiome assembly. Here we establish that a genetic network controlling the phosphate stress response influences the structure of the root microbiome community, even under non-stress phosphate conditions...
March 23, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289572/human-listeriosis-presenting-as-breast-abscess-report-of-a-rare-case
#15
Venkataramana Kandi
An abscess is defined as a collection of pus in various tissues of the body including skin and other organs. Abscesses most commonly are formed on the skin under the armpits, groin areas, and rectal areas. Most abscesses involve microbial infections with few remaining sterile. The treatment of abscesses includes both medical and surgical intervention. In the era of multidrug resistance, isolation and identification of the causative microbe and testing for antimicrobial susceptible patterns assume greater significance for the better management of patients, thereby reducing the resultant morbidity and mortality...
February 1, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287527/examination-of-host-phenotypes-in-gambusia-affinis-following-antibiotic-treatment
#16
Jeanette M Carlson, Oscar Chavez, Sonali Aggarwal, Todd P Primm
The commonality of antibiotic usage in medicine means that understanding the resulting consequences to the host is vital. Antibiotics often decrease host microbiome community diversity and alter the microbial community composition. Many diseases such as antibiotic-associated enterocolitis, inflammatory bowel disease, and metabolic disorders have been linked to a disrupted microbiota. The complex interplay between host, microbiome, and antibiotics needs a tractable model for studying host-microbiome interactions...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283524/pirated-siderophores-promote-sporulation-in-bacillus-subtilis
#17
Gabrielle M Grandchamp, Lews Caro, Elizabeth A Shank
In microbial communities bacteria chemically and physically interact with one another. Some of these interactions are mediated by secreted specialized metabolites that act as either intra- or inter-species signals to alter gene expression and change cell physiology. Bacillus subtilis is a well-characterized soil microbe that can differentiate into multiple cell types including metabolically dormant endospores. We were interested in identifying microbial interactions that affected sporulation in B. subtilis...
March 10, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283029/legal-immigrants-invasion-of-alien-microbial-communities-during-winter-occurring-desert-dust-storms
#18
Tobias Weil, Carlotta De Filippo, Davide Albanese, Claudio Donati, Massimo Pindo, Lorenzo Pavarini, Federico Carotenuto, Massimiliano Pasqui, Luisa Poto, Jacopo Gabrieli, Carlo Barbante, Birgit Sattler, Duccio Cavalieri, Franco Miglietta
BACKGROUND: A critical aspect regarding the global dispersion of pathogenic microorganisms is associated with atmospheric movement of soil particles. Especially, desert dust storms can transport alien microorganisms over continental scales and can deposit them in sensitive sink habitats. In winter 2014, the largest ever recorded Saharan dust event in Italy was efficiently deposited on the Dolomite Alps and was sealed between dust-free snow. This provided us the unique opportunity to overcome difficulties in separating dust associated from "domestic" microbes and thus, to determine with high precision microorganisms transported exclusively by desert dust...
March 10, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276888/response-of-soil-microbial-communities-to-roxarsone-pollution-along-a-concentration-gradient
#19
Yaci Liu, Zhaoji Zhang, Yasong Li, Yi Wen, Yuhong Fei
The extensive use of roxarsone (3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid) as a feed additive in the broiler poultry industry can lead to environmental arsenic contamination. This study was conducted to reveal the response of soil microbial communities to roxarsone pollution along a concentration gradient. To explore the degradation process and degradation kinetics of roxarsone concentration gradients in soil, the concentration shift of roxarsone at initial concentrations of 0, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, as well as that of the arsenic derivatives, was detected...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275373/characterization-of-biosurfactant-produced-during-degradation-of-hydrocarbons-using-crude-oil-as-sole-source-of-carbon
#20
Kaustuvmani Patowary, Rupshikha Patowary, Mohan C Kalita, Suresh Deka
Production and spillage of petroleum hydrocarbons which is the most versatile energy resource causes disastrous environmental pollution. Elevated oil degrading performance from microorganisms is demanded for successful microbial remediation of those toxic pollutants. The employment of biosurfactant-producing and hydrocarbon-utilizing microbes enhances the effectiveness of bioremediation as biosurfactant plays a key role by making hydrocarbons bio-available for degradation. The present study aimed the isolation of a potent biosurfactant producing indigenous bacteria which can be employed for crude oil remediation, along with the characterization of the biosurfactant produced during crude oil biodegradation...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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