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Soil microbes

Luhua Yao, Dangjun Wang, Lin Kang, Dengke Wang, Yong Zhang, Xiangyang Hou, Yanjun Guo
Background: Fertilization as one of the measures in restoring degraded soil qualities has been introduced on arid steppes in recent decades. However, the fertilization use efficiency on arid steppes varies greatly between steppe types and years, enhancing uncertainties and risks in introducing fertilizations on such natural system to restore degraded steppes. Methods: The experiment was a completely randomized design with five fertilization treatments, 0 (Control), 60 kg P ha-1 (P), 100 kg N ha-1 (N), 100 kg N ha-1 plus 60 kg P ha-1 (NP), and 4,000 kg sheep manure ha-1 (M, equaling 16...
2018: PeerJ
Shalini Tiwari, Charu Lata
Several anthropogenic activities including mining, modern agricultural practices, and industrialization have long-term detrimental effect on our environment. All these factors lead to increase in heavy metal concentration in soil, water, and air. Soil contamination with heavy metals cause several environmental problems and imparts toxic effect on plant as well as animals. In response to these adverse conditions, plants evolve complex molecular and physiological mechanisms for better adaptability, tolerance, and survival...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Sina Saneiyan, Dimitrios Ntarlagiannis, D Dale Werkema, Andréa Ustra
Soil stabilization involves methods used to turn unconsolidated and unstable soil into a stiffer, consolidated medium that could support engineered structures, alter permeability, change subsurface flow, or immobilize contamination through mineral precipitation. Among the variety of available methods carbonate precipitation is a very promising one, especially when it is being induced through common soil borne microbes (MICP - microbial induced carbonate precipitation). Such microbial mediated precipitation has the added benefit of not harming the environment as other methods can be environmentally detrimental...
2018: Journal of Applied Geophysics
Bo-Kai Zhu, Yi-Meng Fang, Dong Zhu, Peter Christie, Xin Ke, Yong-Guan Zhu
Microplastics are emerging pollutants that have recently aroused considerable concern but most toxicological studies have focused on marine biota, with little investigation of the influence of microplastics on terrestrial ecosystems. Here, we fed the soil oligochaete Enchytraeus crypticus with oatmeal containing 0, 0.025, 0.5, and 10% (dry weight basis) nano-polystyrene (0.05-0.1 μm particle size) to elucidate the impact of microplastics on the growth and gut microbiome of Enchytraeus crypticus. We observed a significant reduction of weight in the animals fed 10% polystyrene and an increase in the reproduction of those fed 0...
April 18, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Abd El-Latif Hesham, Vijai Kumar Gupta, Bhim Pratap Singh
Candida species are opportunistic microbes that cause chronic infections for a human being. Therefore, the exact identification of Candida species is extremely important for improved therapeutic strategy against these species. Identification based on conventional methods cannot differentiate between some of yeasts species, hence PCR based molecular techniques and sequencing could be an alternative tool for the yeasts identification. A quick molecular method based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) was applied for distinguishing strains belonging to the Candida species...
April 18, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Young Cheol Kim, Anne J Anderson
Many root-colonizing microbes are multifaceted in traits that improve plant health. Although isolates designated as biological control agents directly reduce pathogen growth, many exert additional beneficial features that parallel changes induced in animal and other hosts by health-promoting microbes termed probiotics. Both animal and plant probiotics cause direct antagonism of pathogens and induce systemic immunity in the host to pathogens and other stresses. They also alter host development, and improve host nutrition...
April 20, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Zhiliang Ma, Wenqiang Zhao, Chunzhang Zhao, Dong Wang, Mei Liu, Dandan Li, Qing Liu
Information on how soil microbial communities respond to warming is still scarce for alpine scrub ecosystems. We conducted a field experiment with two plant treatments (plant removal or undisturbed) subjected to warmed or unwarmed conditions to examine the effects of warming and plant removal on soil microbial community structures during the growing season in a Sibiraea angustata scrubland of the eastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. The results indicate that experimental warming significantly influenced soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN), but the warming effects were dependent on the plant treatments and sampling seasons...
2018: PloS One
Yudong Guo, Nengfei Wang, Gaoyang Li, Gabriela Rosas, Jiaye Zang, Yue Ma, Jie Liu, Wenbing Han, Huansheng Cao
Expansion of penguin activity in maritime Antarctica, under ice thaw, increases the chances of penguin feces affecting soil microbiomes. The detail of such effects begins to be revealed. By comparing soil geochemistry and microbiome composition inside (one site) and outside (three sites) of the rookery, we found significant effects of penguin feces on both. First, penguin feces change soil geochemistry, causing increased moisture content (MC) of ornithogenic soils and nutrients C, N, P, and Si in the rookery compared to non-rookery sites, but not pH...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Qingyun Zhao, Wu Xiong, Yizhang Xing, Yan Sun, Xingjun Lin, Yunping Dong
Long-term monoculture severely inhibits coffee plant growth, decreases its yield and results in serious economic losses in China. Here, we selected four replanted coffee fields with 4, 18, 26 and 57 years of monoculture history in Hainan China to investigate the influence of continuous cropping on soil chemical properties and microbial communities. Results showed long-term monoculture decreased soil pH and organic matter content and increased soil EC. Soil bacterial and fungal richness decreased with continuous coffee cropping...
April 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jinjin Tao, Tongshuo Bai, Rui Xiao, Peng Wang, Fuwei Wang, Alexander M Duryee, Yi Wang, Yi Zhang, Shuijin Hu
Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) oxidize ammonia into nitrite, the first and rate-limiting step of microbial nitrification, and exert major controls over soil nitrogen transformations. The Loess Plateau in northwest China is characterized with deep soils that are often exposed to the surface and reactive nitrogen (N) inputs due to erosion and human removal of the surface soil. However, few have examined the distribution of AOA and AOB along the profile of Loess Plateau soils and their responses to N inputs...
April 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Wenqi Jiang, Jing Gao, Zheng Cheng, Peng Wang, Zhiqiang Zhou, Donghui Liu
Antibiotic contamination in agricultural lands through manure application causes changes in soil enzyme activity and the abundance of microbes, which may affect the fate of agrochemicals. A clear understanding of antibiotic-pesticide interactions is very limited. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of oxytetracycline (OTC) on the persistence of triazine and chloroacetanilide herbicides in soil under a combined application scenario. Soil enzyme activity and the abundance of soil microbes disturbed by OTC were measured...
April 10, 2018: Chemosphere
Om Parkash Dhankher, Christine H Foyer
Food security and the protection of the environment are urgent issues for global society, particularly with the uncertainties of climate change. Changing climate is predicted to have a wide range of negative impacts on plant physiology metabolism, soil fertility and carbon sequestration, microbial activity and diversity that will limit plant growth and productivity, and ultimately food production. Ensuring global food security and food safety will require an intensive research effort across the food chain, starting with crop production and the nutritional quality of the food products...
May 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Vikas K Patel, Ruchi Srivastava, Anjney Sharma, Anchal K Srivastava, Savita Singh, Alok K Srivastava, Prem L Kashyap, Hillol Chakdar, K Pandiyan, Alok Kalra, Anil K Saxena
Salinity stress is one of the serious factors, limiting production of major agricultural crops; especially, in sodic soils. A number of approaches are being applied to mitigate the salt-induced adverse effects in agricultural crops through implying different halotolerant microbes. In this aspect, a halotolerant, Exiguobacterium profundum PHM11 was evaluated under eight different salinity regimes; 100, 250, 500, 1000, 1500, 2000, 2500, and 3000 mM to know its inherent salt tolerance limits and salt-induced consequences affecting its natural metabolism...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Kyle M Meyer, Hervé Memiaghe, Lisa Korte, David Kenfack, Alfonso Alonso, Brendan J M Bohannan
Analysis of patterns in the distribution of taxa can provide important insights into ecological and evolutionary processes. Microbial biogeographic patterns almost always appear to be weaker than those reported for plant and animal taxa. It is as yet unclear why this is the case. Some argue that microbial diversity scales differently over space because microbial taxa are fundamentally different in their abundance, longevity and dispersal abilities. Others have argued that differences in scaling are an artifact of how we assess microbial biogeography, driven, for example, by differences in taxonomic resolution, spatial scale, sampling effort or community activity/dormancy...
April 16, 2018: ISME Journal
Hong Pan, Haiyang Liu, Yaowei Liu, Qichun Zhang, Yu Luo, Xingmei Liu, Yimeng Liu, Jianming Xu, Hongjie Di, Yong Li
Nitrifying microbes are of critical importance in regulating efficient nitrogen (N) cycling, which plays a crucial role in plant productivity and maintaining soil sustainability. Long-term different intensities of grazing can strongly influence the microbial communities, while our understanding of the complex nitrifying community in the grazed grassland soil environment is still limited. To investigate whether and how long-term grazing with different intensities influence soil nitrifying communities, high-throughput sequencing and quantitative PCR analyses were performed on soil samples from permanent grassland soils under four grazing intensities: 0 (G0), 1...
April 12, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Rhitu Kotoky, Jina Rajkumari, Piyush Pandey
Microbial communities are an essential part of plant rhizosphere and participate in the functioning of plants, including rhizoremediation of petroleum contaminants. Rhizoremediation is a promising technology for removal of polyaromatic hydrocarbons based on interactions between plants and microbiome in the rhizosphere. Root exudation in the rhizosphere provides better nutrient uptake for rhizosphere microbiome, and therefore it is considered to be one of the major factors of microbial community function in the rhizosphere that plays a key role in the enhanced PAH biodegradation...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Roberta M Santos, Saveetha Kandasamy, Everlon Cid Rigobelo
Mineral and organic fertilization can be optimized by using rhizobacteria which increases dry matter, yield, and nutrients in the soil and plant, among the other biological inputs. However, the discovery of single microbes or a consortium that can benefit plants has been a challenge. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus combined with mineral fertilization and sugar and alcohol industry by-products in presprouted and the initial growth phase of sugar cane seedlings...
April 13, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Lukas Wille, Monika M Messmer, Bruno Studer, Pierre Hohmann
Root and foot diseases severely impede grain legume cultivation worldwide. Breeding lines with resistance against individual pathogens exist, but these resistances are often overcome by the interaction of multiple pathogens in field situations. Novel tools allow to decipher plant-microbiome interactions in unprecedented detail and provide insights into resistance mechanisms that consider both simultaneous attacks of various pathogens and the interplay with beneficial microbes. Although it has become clear that plant-associated microbes play a key role in plant health, a systematic picture of how and to what extend plants can shape their own detrimental or beneficial microbiome remains to be drawn...
April 12, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Rahat Sharif, Muhammad Mujtaba, Mati Ur Rahman, Abdullah Shalmani, Husain Ahmad, Toheed Anwar, Deng Tianchan, Xiping Wang
Chitosan is a naturally occurring compound and is commercially produced from seafood shells. It has been utilized in the induction of the defense system in both pre and post-harvest fruits and vegetables against fungi, bacteria, viruses, and other abiotic stresses. In addition to that, chitosan effectively improves the physiological properties of plants and also enhances the shelf life of post-harvest produces. Moreover, chitosan treatment regulates several genes in plants, particularly the activation of plant defense signaling pathways...
April 10, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Guodi Zheng, Tieyu Wang, Mingjie Niu, Xijuan Chen, Changli Liu, Yuewei Wang, Tongbin Chen
The urbanization and industrialization of cities around the coastal region of the Bohai Sea have produced large amounts of sewage sludge from sewage treatment plants. Research on the biodegradation of nonylphenol (NP) and the influencing factors of such biodegradation during sewage sludge composting is important to control pollution caused by land application of sewage sludge. The present study investigated the effect of aeration on NP biodegradation and the microbe community during aerobic composting under two intermittent aeration treatments in a full-scale plant of sewage sludge, sawdust, and returned compost at a ratio of 6:3:1...
April 3, 2018: Environmental Pollution
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