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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342876/improvement-of-verticillium-wilt-resistance-by-applying-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-to-a-cotton-variety-with-high-symbiotic-efficiency-under-field-conditions
#1
Qiang Zhang, Xinpeng Gao, Yanyun Ren, Xinhua Ding, Jiajia Qiu, Ning Li, Fanchang Zeng, Zhaohui Chu
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) play an important role in nutrient cycling processes and plant stress resistance. To evaluate the effect of Rhizophagus irregularis CD1 on plant growth promotion (PGP) and Verticillium wilt disease, the symbiotic efficiency of AMF (SEA) was first investigated over a range of 3% to 94% in 17 cotton varieties. The high-SEA subgroup had significant PGP effects in a greenhouse. From these results, the highest-SEA variety of Lumian 1 was selected for a two-year field assay. Consistent with the performance from the greenhouse, the AMF-mediated PGP of Lumian 1 also produced significant results, including an increased plant height, stem diameter, number of petioles, and phosphorus content...
January 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341931/bioinspired-capsules-based-on-nanocellulose-xyloglucan-and-pectin-the-influence-of-capsule-wall-composition-on-permeability-properties
#2
T Paulraj, A V Riazanova, A J Svagan
Materials based on renewable biopolymers, selective permeability and stimuli-responsive release/loading properties play an important role in biomedical applications. Here, in order to mimic the plant primary cell-wall, microcapsules have been fabricated using cell wall polysaccharides, namely pectin, xyloglucan and cellulose nanofibers. For the first time, a large amount of xyloglucan was successfully included in such capsules. These capsules demonstrated stimuli-responsive (ON/OFF) permeability and biocompatibility...
January 13, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341449/digging-deeper-a-holistic-perspective-of-factors-affecting-soil-organic-carbon-sequestration-in-agroecosystems
#3
Rattan Lal
The global magnitude (Pg) of soil organic carbon (SOC) is 677 to 0.3-m, 993 to 0.5-m, and 1505 to 1-m depth. Thus, ~55% of SOC to 1-m lies below 0.3-m depth. Soils of agroecosystems are depleted of their SOC stock and have a low use efficiency of inputs of agronomic yield. This review is a collation and synthesis of articles published in peer-reviewed journals. The rates of SOC sequestration are scaled up to the global level by linear extrapolation. Soil C sink capacity depends on depth, clay content and mineralogy, plant available water holding capacity, nutrient reserves, landscape position, and the antecedent SOC stock...
January 17, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341143/loss-of-alkaline-ceramidase-inhibits-autophagy-in-arabidopsis-and-plays-an-important-role-during-environmental-stress-response
#4
Ping Zheng, Jian-Xin Wu, Sunil Kumar Sahu, Hong-Yun Zeng, Li-Qun Huang, Zhe Liu, Shi Xiao, Nan Yao
Sphingolipids, a class of bioactive lipids found in cell membranes, can modulate the biophysical properties of the membranes and play a critical role in signal transduction. Sphingolipids are involved in autophagy in humans and yeast, but their role in autophagy in plants is not well understood. In this study, we reported that the AtACER, an alkaline ceramidase that hydrolyzes ceramide to LCB, functions in autophagy process in Arabidopsis. Our empirical data showed that the loss of AtACER inhibited autophagy, while its overexpression promoted autophagy under nutrient, salinity, and oxidative stresses...
January 17, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340860/trace-element-phytoextraction-from-contaminated-soil-a-case-study-under-mediterranean-climate
#5
Werther Guidi Nissim, Emily Palm, Stefano Mancuso, Elisa Azzarello
The current field study aims to assess the suitability of four different plant species (i.e. poplar, willow, hemp and alfalfa) to be used for trace element (TE) (i.e. Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) phytoextraction under hot-arid Mediterranean climate conditions. Plants were grown for two consecutive years on a moderate TE contaminated soil, supplied with water and mineral nutrients. The growth and physiological parameters were assessed throughout the trial to compare the response of plants to the environmental pollution, and TE uptake rates were measured for aboveground plant tissues...
January 16, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340613/biomass-increase-under-zinc-deficiency-caused-by-delay-of-early-flowering-in-arabidopsis
#6
Xiaochao Chen, Uwe Ludewig
Plants generally produce more biomass when all nutrients are available in sufficient amounts. In addition to environmental constraints, genetic and developmental factors, such as the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth, restrict maximal yield. Here we report the peculiar observation that a subset of Arabidopsis thaliana accessions produced larger shoot rosette diameters when grown in zinc (Zn)-deficient conditions, compared with Zn-sufficient conditions. This was associated with early flowering that restricted the leaf length under Zn sufficiency...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339599/full-scale-performance-of-selected-starch-based-biodegradable-polymers-in-sludge-dewatering-and-recommendation-for-applications
#7
Kuangxin Zhou, Johan Stüber, Rabea-Luisa Schubert, Christian Kabbe, Matthias Barjenbruch
Agricultural reuse of dewatered sludge is a valid route for sludge valorization for small and mid-size wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) due to the direct utilization of nutrients. A more stringent of German fertilizer ordinance requires the degradation of 20% of the synthetic additives like polymeric substance within two years, which came into force on 1 January 2017. This study assessed the use of starch-based polymers for full-scale dewatering of municipal sewage sludge. The laboratory-scale and pilot-scale trials paved the way for full-scale trials at three WWTPs in Germany...
January 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337262/longitudinal-patterns-and-response-lengths-of-algae-in-riverine-ecosystems-a-model-analysis-emphasising-benthic-pelagic-interactions
#8
Christoph G Jäger, Dietrich Borchardt
In riverine ecosystems primary production is principally possible in two habitats: in the benthic layer by sessile algae and in the surface water by planktonic algae being transported downstream. The relevance of these two habitats generally changes along the rivers' continuum. However, analyses of the interaction of algae in these two habitats and their controlling factors in riverine ecosystems are, so far, very rare. We use a simplified advection-diffusion model system combined with ecological process kinetics to analyse the interaction of benthic and planktonic algae and nutrients along idealised streams and rivers at regional to large scales...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336976/venus-flytrap-how-an-excitable-carnivorous-plant-works
#9
REVIEW
Rainer Hedrich, Erwin Neher
The carnivorous plant Dionaea possesses very sensitive mechanoreceptors. Upon contact with prey an action potential is triggered which, via an electrical network - comparable to the nervous system of vertebrates - rapidly closes its bivalved trap. The 'hunting cycle' comprises a constitutively activated mechanism for the rapid capture of prey, followed by a well-orchestrated sequence of activation of genes responsible for tight trap closure, digestion of the prey, and uptake of nutrients. Decisions on the step-by-step activation are based on 'counting' the number of stimulations of sensory organs...
January 11, 2018: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336672/internal-cs-inhibits-root-elongation-in-rice
#10
Sonia Mohamed, Hervé Sentenac, Emmanuel Guiderdoni, Anne-Aliénor Véry, Manuel Nieves-Cordones
The root system anchors the plant to the soil and contributes to plant autotrophy by taking up nutrients and water. In relation with this nutritional function, root development is largely impacted by availability of nutrients and water. Due to human activity, plants, in particular crops, can also be exposed to pollutants which can be absorbed and incorporated into the food chain. Cesium in soils is present at non-toxic concentrations for the plant (micromolar or less), even in soils highly polluted with radioactive cesium due to nuclear accidents...
January 16, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334718/-diet-and-nutrition-interventions-prevent-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#11
Z Y Yang
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is one of the most common complications during pregnancy, with rising trend over the years. Dietary nutrient intake (protein, fat and fatty acids, carbohydrate, vitamin D, vitamin E, iron, zinc, selenium and inositol et al.), dietary pattern and probiotics may be related to GDM occurrence. Dietary factors are modifiable factors for preventing GDM. The study reviewed the roles of these dietary factors in preventing GDM. Results showed that plant-based dietary pattern may lower the risk of GDM and dietary pattern characterized with high animal protein, high fat and low carbohydrate may increase the risk of GDM...
January 6, 2018: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334648/using-mass-struvite-precipitation-to-remove-recalcitrant-nutrients-and-micropollutants-from-anaerobic-digestion-dewatering-centrate
#12
M Abel-Denee, T Abbott, C Eskicioglu
The primary objective of this research was to remove recalcitrant nutrients from anaerobically digested sludge dewatering centrate. A struvite precipitation methodology is proposed where salt crystals are encouraged to ballast colloidal particles through heterogeneous nucleation and subsequent crystal growth. The secondary objective was to assess presence of micropollutants in precipitates. Four biologically unique dewatering centrates were used to test the precipitation methodology on the variety of anaerobic digester configurations that can be expected from municipal wastewater treatment plant...
January 5, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333264/how-anthropogenic-shifts-in-plant-community-composition-alter-soil-food-webs
#13
REVIEW
Paul Kardol, Jonathan R De Long
There are great concerns about the impacts of soil biodiversity loss on ecosystem functions and services such as nutrient cycling, food production, and carbon storage. A diverse community of soil organisms that together comprise a complex food web mediates such ecosystem functions and services. Recent advances have shed light on the key drivers of soil food web structure, but a conceptual integration is lacking. Here, we explore how human-induced changes in plant community composition influence soil food webs...
2018: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332147/phosphorus-allocation-and-phosphatase-activity-in-grasses-with-different-growth-rates
#14
Leandro Bittencourt de Oliveira, Anderson Cesar Ramos Marques, Fernando Luiz Ferreira de Quadros, Júlia Gomes Farias, Rogério Piccin, Gustavo Brunetto, Fernando Teixeira Nicoloso
Different growth rates of grasses from South American natural grasslands are adaptations to soils of low fertility. Grasses with fast growth rate are species with an accumulation of nutrients in soluble forms, with a high metabolic rate. This work aimed to study whether grasses with different growth rates have different phosphorus (P) uptake and efficiency of P use with high and low P availability in soil, as well as whether phosphatase activity is related to the species growth rate and variations in P biochemical forms in the tissues...
January 13, 2018: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331912/elucidating-the-impacts-of-initial-supersaturation-and-seed-crystal-loading-on-struvite-precipitation-kinetics-fines-production-and-crystal-growth
#15
Shantanu Agrawal, Jeremy S Guest, Roland D Cusick
To reduce intra-plant nutrient cycling, and recover phosphorus (P) fertilizers from nutrient-rich sidestreams, wastewater utilities increasingly elect to employ struvite precipitation processes without a clear understanding of the inherent tradeoffs associated with specific design and operating decisions. Specifically, the impact of reactor conditions on struvite crystallization rate, and distribution between formation of fines particles and secondary growth onto large diameter seed crystals represent critical knowledge gaps limiting the predictive capabilities of existing process models...
January 4, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330582/nano-silicon-alters-antioxidant-activities-of-soybean-seedlings-under-salt-toxicity
#16
Salar Farhangi-Abriz, Shahram Torabian
Materials with a particle size less than 100 nm are classified as nano-materials. The physical and chemical properties of nano-materials can vary considerably from those of bulk materials of the same composition. Silicon (Si) still fails to get recognized as an essential nutrient for plant growth and development, however the beneficial effects in terms of growth, biotic and abiotic stress resistance have been indicated in a variety of plant species for their growth. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different nano-silicon rates on the growth and antioxidant activities of soybean (Glycine max L...
January 12, 2018: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330375/intra-specific-latitudinal-clines-in-leaf-carbon-nitrogen-and-phosphorus-and-their-underlying-abiotic-correlates-in-ruellia-nudiflora
#17
Luis Abdala-Roberts, Felisa Covelo, Víctor Parra-Tabla, Jorge C Berny Mier Y Terán, Kailen A Mooney, Xoaquín Moreira
While plant intra-specific variation in the stoichiometry of nutrients and carbon is well documented, clines for such traits have been less studied, despite their potential to reveal the mechanisms underlying such variation. Here we analyze latitudinal variation in the concentration of leaf nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), carbon (C) and their ratios across 30 populations of the perennial herb Ruellia nudiflora. In addition, we further determined whether climatic and soil variables underlie any such latitudinal clines in leaf traits...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327437/intra-species-variation-in-a-widely-distributed-tree-species-regulates-the-responses-of-soil-microbiome-to-different-temperature-regimes
#18
Cui-Jing Zhang, Manuel Delgado-Baquerizo, John E Drake, Peter B Reich, Mark G Tjoelker, David T Tissue, Jun-Tao Wang, Ji-Zheng He, Brajesh K Singh
Plant characteristics in different provenances within a single species may vary in response to climate change, which might alter soil microbial communities and ecosystem functions. We conducted a glasshouse experiment and grew seedlings of three provenances (temperate, subtropical and tropical origins) of a tree species (i.e. Eucalyptus tereticornis) at different growth temperatures (18, 21.5, 25, 28.5, 32 and 35.5°C) for 54 days. At the end of the experiment, bacterial and fungal community composition, diversity and abundance were characterized...
January 12, 2018: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327196/biochar-amendment-with-fertilizers-increases-peanut-n-uptake-alleviates-soil-n2o-emissions-without-affecting-nh3-volatilization-in-field-experiments
#19
Guangcai Tan, Hongyuan Wang, Nan Xu, Hongbin Liu, Limei Zhai
Biochar application to soil is currently widely advocated for a variety of reasons related to sustainability. However, the synergistic effects of biochar combined with mineral or organic fertilizer on soil N2O emissions, NH3 volatilization, and plant N uptake are poorly documented. Field plot experiments planted with peanut were conducted under the application of biochar (derived from rice husk and cottonseed husk, 50 t ha-1) with organic or mineral fertilizer. It was found that biochar increased soil nutrient availability and decreased surface soil bulk density, demonstrating that biochar could improve the soil quality especially in the 0-20-cm profile...
January 12, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327163/manipulating-the-phytic-acid-content-of-rice-grain-toward-improving-micronutrient-bioavailability
#20
REVIEW
Ishara Perera, Saman Seneweera, Naoki Hirotsu
Myo-inositol hexaphosphate, also known as phytic acid (PA), is the most abundant storage form of phosphorus in seeds. PA acts as a strong chelator of metal cations to form phytate and is considered an anti-nutrient as it reduces the bioavailability of important micronutrients. Although the major nutrient source for more than one-half of the global population, rice is a poor source of essential micronutrients. Therefore, biofortification and reducing the PA content of rice have arisen as new strategies for increasing micronutrient bioavailability in rice...
January 11, 2018: Rice
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