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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920781/inoculation-of-schizolobium-parahyba-with-mycorrhizal-fungi-and-plant-growth-promoting-rhizobacteria-increases-wood-yield-under-field-conditions
#1
Martha V T Cely, Marco A Siviero, Janaina Emiliano, Flávia R Spago, Vanessa F Freitas, André R Barazetti, Erika T Goya, Gustavo de Souza Lamberti, Igor M O Dos Santos, Admilton G De Oliveira, Galdino Andrade
Schizolobium parahyba var. amazonicum (Huber ex Ducke) occurs naturally in the Brazilian Amazon. Currently, it is being planted extensively because of its fast growth and excellent use in forestry. Consequently, there is great interest in new strategies to increase wood production. The interaction between soil microorganisms and plants, specifically in the roots, provides essential nutrients for plant growth. These interactions can have growth-promoting effects. In this way, this study assessed the effect of the inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on growth of S...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919429/new-insights-into-plant-nutrient-signaling-and-adaptation-to-fluctuating-environments
#2
EDITORIAL
Xiangdong Fu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 20, 2016: Journal of Genetics and Genomics, Yi Chuan Xue Bao
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918073/dominant-mycorrhizal-association-of-trees-alters-carbon-and-nutrient-cycling-by-selecting-for-microbial-groups-with-distinct-enzyme-function
#3
Tanya E Cheeke, Richard P Phillips, Edward R Brzostek, Anna Rosling, James D Bever, Petra Fransson
While it is well established that plants associating with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi cycle carbon (C) and nutrients in distinct ways, we have a limited understanding of whether varying abundance of ECM and AM plants in a stand can provide integrative proxies for key biogeochemical processes. We explored linkages between the relative abundance of AM and ECM trees and microbial functioning in three hardwood forests in southern Indiana, USA. Across each site's 'mycorrhizal gradient', we measured fungal biomass, fungal : bacterial (F : B) ratios, extracellular enzyme activities, soil carbon : nitrogen ratio, and soil pH over a growing season...
December 5, 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917166/temporal-metagenomic-and-metabolomic-characterization-of-fresh-perennial-ryegrass-degradation-by-rumen-bacteria
#4
Olga L Mayorga, Alison H Kingston-Smith, Eun J Kim, Gordon G Allison, Toby J Wilkinson, Matthew J Hegarty, Michael K Theodorou, Charles J Newbold, Sharon A Huws
Understanding the relationship between ingested plant material and the attached microbiome is essential for developing methodologies to improve ruminant nutrient use efficiency. We have previously shown that perennial ryegrass (PRG) rumen bacterial colonization events follow a primary (up to 4 h) and secondary (after 4 h) pattern based on the differences in diversity of the attached bacteria. In this study, we investigated temporal niche specialization of primary and secondary populations of attached rumen microbiota using metagenomic shotgun sequencing as well as monitoring changes in the plant chemistry using mid-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR)...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917161/the-interaction-between-plants-and-bacteria-in-the-remediation-of-petroleum-hydrocarbons-an-environmental-perspective
#5
REVIEW
Panagiotis Gkorezis, Matteo Daghio, Andrea Franzetti, Jonathan D Van Hamme, Wouter Sillen, Jaco Vangronsveld
Widespread pollution of terrestrial ecosystems with petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) has generated a need for remediation and, given that many PHCs are biodegradable, bio- and phyto-remediation are often viable approaches for active and passive remediation. This review focuses on phytoremediation with particular interest on the interactions between and use of plant-associated bacteria to restore PHC polluted sites. Plant-associated bacteria include endophytic, phyllospheric, and rhizospheric bacteria, and cooperation between these bacteria and their host plants allows for greater plant survivability and treatment outcomes in contaminated sites...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917154/hydrogen-cyanide-in-the-rhizosphere-not-suppressing-plant-pathogens-but-rather-regulating-availability-of-phosphate
#6
Tomaž Rijavec, Aleš Lapanje
Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria produce chemical compounds with different benefits for the plant. Among them, HCN is recognized as a biocontrol agent, based on its ascribed toxicity against plant pathogens. Based on several past studies questioning the validity of this hypothesis, we have re-addressed the issue by designing a new set of in vitro experiments, to test if HCN-producing rhizobacteria could inhibit the growth of phytopathogens. The level of HCN produced by the rhizobacteria in vitro does not correlate with the observed biocontrol effects, thus disproving the biocontrol hypothesis...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916792/elevated-o%C3%A2-and-tylcv-infection-reduce-the-suitability-of-tomato-as-a-host-for-the-whitefly-bemisia-tabaci
#7
Hongying Cui, Yucheng Sun, Fajun Chen, Youjun Zhang, Feng Ge
The effects of elevated atmospheric ozone (O₃) levels on herbivorous insects have been well studied, but little is known about the combined effects of elevated O₃ and virus infection on herbivorous insect performance. Using open-top chambers in the field, we determined the effects of elevated O₃ and Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) infection on wild-type (Wt) tomato and 35S tomato (jasmonic acid (JA) defense-enhanced genotype) in association with whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Gennadius biotype B. Elevated O₃ and TYLCV infection, alone and in combination, significantly reduced the contents of soluble sugars and free amino acids, increased the contents of total phenolics and condensed tannins, and increased salicylic acid (SA) content and the expression of SA-related genes in leaves...
November 28, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915391/is-the-macrophyte-diversification-along-the-trophic-gradient-distinct-enough-for-river-monitoring
#8
Krzysztof Szoszkiewicz, Anna Budka, Karol Pietruczuk, Dariusz Kayzer, Daniel Gebler
The variation of a number of parameters characterizing aquatic plant assemblages in rivers across a wide trophic gradient was investigated to evaluate their usefulness for a Polish national river monitoring system. Analyses were conducted at 100 sites included in the national river monitoring system, representing a uniform river type, i.e., small- and medium-sized lowland rivers with a sandy substrate. Results of botanical surveys, which were supplemented with comprehensive monthly quality records, were obtained from the national monitoring database...
December 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914646/in-the-eye-of-the-beholder-assessing-the-water-quality-of-shoreline-parks-around-the-island-of-montreal-through-citizen-science
#9
D Lévesque, A Cattaneo, G Deschamps, C Hudon
As a part of the FreshWater Watch project aiming to promote volunteers' water monitoring in 25 cities around the world, St. Lawrence River water quality was characterized at 28 public shoreline parks around Montreal Island, Quebec, Canada. This involved training of 69 citizen scientists by researchers of the Université de Montréal in five one-day sessions. Shoreline sampling yielded 174 data points over three summers (May 2013 to November 2015). Water turbidity, nitrate and phosphate concentrations were measured in situ, together with the thickness and type of beach-cast vegetation, and the relative abundance of different types of beach litter...
November 30, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913282/proteomics-provides-insights-into-biological-pathways-altered-by-plant-growth-promoting-bacteria-and-arbuscular-mycorrhiza-in-sorghum-grown-in-marginal-soil
#10
Faten Dhawi, Rupali Datta, Wusirika Ramakrishna
Sorghum is an economically important crop, a model system for gene discovery and a biofuel source. Sorghum seedlings were subjected to three microbial treatments, plant growth promoting bacteria (B), arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi mix with two Glomus species (G. aggregatum and G. etunicatum), Funelliformis mosseae and Rhizophagus irregularis (My), and B and My combined (My+B). Proteomic analysis was conducted followed by integration with metabolite, plant biomass and nutrient data. Out of 366 differentially expressed proteins in sorghum roots, 44 upregulated proteins overlapping among three treatment groups showed positive correlation with sorghum biomass or element uptake or both...
November 29, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912109/characterization-and-fine-mapping-of-a-novel-premature-leaf-senescence-mutant-yellow-leaf-and-dwarf-1-in-rice
#11
Luchang Deng, Peng Qin, Zhi Liu, Geling Wang, Weilan Chen, Jianhua Tong, Langtao Xiao, Bin Tu, Yuantao Sun, Wei Yan, Hang He, Jun Tan, Xuewei Chen, Yuping Wang, Shigui Li, Bingtian Ma
Leaves are the main organs in which photosynthates are produced. Leaf senescence facilitates the translocation of photosynthates and nutrients from source to sink, which is important for plant development and especially for crop yield. However, the molecular mechanism of leaf senescence is unknown. Here, we identified a mutant, yellow leaf and dwarf 1 (yld1), which exhibited decreased plant height and premature leaf senescence. Nitroblue tetrazolium and diamiobenzidine staining analyses revealed that the concentrations of reactive oxygen species were higher in yld1 leaves than in wild type leaves...
November 22, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911999/joint-effects-of-nutrient-addition-and-enemy-exclusion-on-exotic-plant-success
#12
Robert W Heckman, Justin P Wright, Charles E Mitchell
Worldwide, ecosystems are increasingly dominated by exotic plant species, a shift hypothesized to result from numerous ecological factors. Two of these, increased resource availability and enemy release, may act in concert to increase exotic success in plant communities (Resource-Enemy Release Hypothesis, R-ERH). To test this, we manipulated the availability of soil nutrients and access of vertebrate herbivores, insect herbivores, and fungal pathogens to intact grassland communities containing both native and exotic species...
December 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911995/allometry-data-and-equations-for-coastal-marsh-plants
#13
Meng Lu, Joshua S Caplan, Jonathan D Bakker, J Adam Langley, Thomas J Mozdzer, Bert G Drake, J Patrick Megonigal
Coastal marshes are highly valued for ecosystem services such as protecting inland habitats from storms, sequestering carbon, removing nutrients and other pollutants from surface water, and providing habitat for fish, shellfish, and birds. Because plants largely determine the structure and function of coastal marshes, quantifying plant biomass is essential for evaluating these ecosystem services, understanding the biogeochemical processes that regulate ecosystem function, and forecasting tidal wetland responses to accelerated sea level rise...
December 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909993/impact-of-culture-conditions-on-the-chlorophyll-content-of-microalgae-for-biotechnological-applications
#14
REVIEW
Veronica da Silva Ferreira, Celso Sant'Anna
Chlorophyll is a commercially important natural green pigment responsible for the absorption of light energy and its conversion into chemical energy via photosynthesis in plants and algae. This bioactive compound is widely used in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. Chlorophyll has been consumed for health benefits as a nutraceutical agent with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, and antimicrobial properties. Microalgae are photosynthesizing microorganisms which can be extracted for several high-value bioproducts in the biotechnology industry...
January 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909913/plant-extracts-as-phytogenic-additives-considering-intake-digestibility-and-feeding-behavior-of-sheep
#15
Camila Sousa da Silva, Evaristo Jorge Oliveira de Souza, Gerfesson Felipe Cavalcanti Pereira, Edwilka Oliveira Cavalcante, Ewerton Ivo Martins de Lima, Thaysa Rodrigues Torres, José Ricardo Coelho da Silva, Daniel Cézar da Silva
The objective was to evaluate the intake, digestibility, and ingestive sheep behavior with feeding phytogenic additives derived from plant extracts. Five non-emasculated sheep without defined breed at 28 ± 1.81 kg initial body weight and 6 months age were used. Treatments consisted of administering four phytogenic additives from the garlic extracts, coriander seed, oregano, and pods of mesquite, plus a control treatment (without additive). The ration was composed of Tifton 85 hay grass, corn, soybean meal, and mineral salt...
December 1, 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909827/remediation-of-blowouts-by-clonal-plants-in-maqu-degraded-alpine-grasslands-of-northwest-china
#16
JianJun Kang, WenZhi Zhao, Ming Zhao
The sand-fixation of plants is considered to be the most effective and fundamental measure in desertification control in many arid and semi-arid regions. Carex brunnescens (Carex spp) and Leymus secalinus (Leymus), two perennial clonal herbs native to the Maqu degraded alpine areas of northwest China, are dominant and constructive species in active sand dunes that have excellent adaptability to fix sand dunes found to date. In order to study the ability and mechanism of sandland blowout remediation by two clone plants C...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908623/effects-of-growing-seasons-and-genotypes-on-the-accumulation-of-cadmium-and-mineral-nutrients-in-rice-grown-in-cadmium-contaminated-soil
#17
Yang Liu, Changbo Zhang, Yanling Zhao, Shoujun Sun, Zhongqi Liu
Heavy metals naturally occur in soil but their concentrations may be changed by seasonal rainfall under double-rice cropping system. The field trials at three sites, which represent low, medium and high cadmium (Cd) content in soil, revealed significant genotypic and environmental variations in grain Cd concentrations. Most cultivars in late rice at three sites produced grains with Cd content over the maximum permissible concentration (MPC) 0.20mgkg(-1). However, grain Cd content in early rice was over MPC only at high Cd site...
November 28, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907121/environmental-and-geographical-factors-structure-soil-microbial-diversity-in-new-caledonian-ultramafic-substrates-a-metagenomic-approach
#18
Véronique Gourmelon, Laurent Maggia, Jeff R Powell, Sarah Gigante, Sara Hortal, Claire Gueunier, Kelly Letellier, Fabian Carriconde
Soil microorganisms play key roles in ecosystem functioning and are known to be influenced by biotic and abiotic factors, such as plant cover or edaphic parameters. New Caledonia, a biodiversity hotspot located in the southwest Pacific, is one-third covered by ultramafic substrates. These types of soils are notably characterised by low nutrient content and high heavy metal concentrations. Ultramafic outcrops harbour diverse vegetation types and remarkable plant diversity. In this study, we aimed to assess soil bacterial and fungal diversity in New Caledonian ultramafic substrates and to determine whether floristic composition, edaphic parameters and geographical factors affect this microbial diversity...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907079/identification-of-pectin-degrading-enzymes-secreted-by-xanthomonas-oryzae-pv-oryzae-and-determination-of-their-role-in-virulence-on-rice
#19
Lavanya Tayi, Roshan V Maku, Hitendra Kumar Patel, Ramesh V Sonti
Xanthomonas oryzae pv.oryzae (Xoo) causes the serious bacterial blight disease of rice. Xoo secretes a repertoire of plant cell wall degrading enzymes (CWDEs) like cellulases, xylanases, esterases etc., which act on various components of the rice cell wall. The major cellulases and xylanases secreted by Xoo have been identified and their role in virulence has been determined. In this study, we have identified some of the pectin degrading enzymes of Xoo and assessed their role in virulence. Bioinformatics analysis indicated the presence of four pectin homogalacturonan (HG) degrading genes in the genome of Xoo...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904966/treeline-advances-and-associated-shifts-in-the-ground-vegetation-alter-fine-root-dynamics-and-mycelia-production-in-the-south-and-polar-urals
#20
Emily F Solly, Ika Djukic, Pavel A Moiseev, Nelly I Andreyashkina, Nadezhda M Devi, Hans Göransson, Valeriy S Mazepa, Stepan G Shiyatov, Marina R Trubina, Fritz H Schweingruber, Martin Wilmking, Frank Hagedorn
Climate warming is shifting the elevational boundary between forests and tundra upwards, but the related belowground responses are poorly understood. In the pristine South and Polar Urals with shifts of the treeline ecotone documented by historical photographs, we investigated fine root dynamics and production of extramatrical mycorrhizal mycelia (EMM) along four elevational transects reaching from the closed forest to the treeless tundra. In addition, we analysed elevational differences in climate and vegetation structure, and excavated trees to estimate related changes in the partitioning between below- and aboveground biomass...
November 30, 2016: Oecologia
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