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Plant nutrient

Haseeb Khaliq, Zhong Juming, Peng Ke-Mei
Boron is an essential mineral that plays an important role in several biological processes. Boron is required for growth of plants, animals, and humans. There are increasing evidences of this nutrient showing a variety of pleiotropic effects, ranging from anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects to the modulation of different body systems. In the past few years, the trials showed disease-related polymorphisms of boron in different species, which has drawn attention of scientists to the significance of boron to health...
March 15, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Eloi Parladé, Andrea Hom-Diaz, Paqui Blánquez, Maira Martínez-Alonso, Teresa Vicent, Nuria Gaju
The use of microalgal consortia for urban wastewater treatment is an increasing trend, as it allows simultaneous nutrient removal and biomass production. Emerging contaminants proposed for the list of priority substances such as the hormone 17β-estradiol are commonly found in urban wastewater, and their removal using algal monocultures has been accomplished. Due to the inherent potential of algae-based systems, this study aimed to assess the capability of native photobioreactor biomass to remove 17β-estradiol under indoor and outdoor conditions...
March 3, 2018: Water Research
Mingzhu Dou, Yaohua Zhang, Suxin Yang, Xianzhong Feng
The endosperm occupies most of the available space within mature rice seeds, contains abundant nutrients, and directly influences both the quality and quantity of rice production. Initial reports noted that AtZHOUPI (AtZOU) coordinates endosperm breakdown and the concomitant separation of the embryo from this structure in Arabidopsis . The results of this study show that rice genomes contain two most closely related homologs of AtZOU , OsZOU-1 and OsZOU-2 ; of these, OsZOU-1 expression is limited to within the endosperm where it can be detected throughout this structure 5 days after pollination (DAP)...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Hong Li, Xiaonan Li, Yuanhu Xuan, Jing Jiang, Yangdou Wei, Zhongyun Piao
Plasmodiophora brassicae is a soil borne pathogen and the causal agent of clubroot, a devastating disease of Brassica crops. The pathogen lives inside roots, and hijacks nutrients from the host plants. It is suggested that clubroot galls created an additional nutrient sink in infected roots. However, the molecular mechanism underlying P. brassicae infection and sugar transport is unclear. Here, we analyzed sugar contents in leaves and roots before and after P. brassicae infection using a pair of Chinese cabbage near-isogenic lines (NILs), carrying either a clubroot resistant (CR) or susceptible (CS) allele at the CRb locus...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
José F Muñoz, Juan G McEwen, Oliver K Clay, Christina A Cuomo
Dimorphic fungal pathogens cause a significant human disease burden and unlike most fungal pathogens affect immunocompetent hosts. To examine the origin of virulence of these fungal pathogens, we compared genomes of classic systemic, opportunistic, and non-pathogenic species, including Emmonsia and two basal branching, non-pathogenic species in the Ajellomycetaceae, Helicocarpus griseus and Polytolypa hystricis. We found that gene families related to plant degradation, secondary metabolites synthesis, and amino acid and lipid metabolism are retained in H...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tonni Grube Andersen, Sadaf Naseer, Robertas Ursache, Brecht Wybouw, Wouter Smet, Bert De Rybel, Joop E M Vermeer, Niko Geldner
In vascular plants, the root endodermis surrounds the central vasculature as a protective sheath that is analogous to the polarized epithelium in animals, and contains ring-shaped Casparian strips that restrict diffusion. After an initial lag phase, individual endodermal cells suberize in an apparently random fashion to produce 'patchy' suberization that eventually generates a zone of continuous suberin deposition. Casparian strips and suberin lamellae affect paracellular and transcellular transport, respectively...
March 14, 2018: Nature
Richard S Marshall, Richard D Vierstra
Plants have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to recycle intracellular constituents, which are essential for developmental and metabolic transitions; for efficient nutrient reuse; and for the proper disposal of proteins, protein complexes, and even entire organelles that become obsolete or dysfunctional. One major route is autophagy, which employs specialized vesicles to encapsulate and deliver cytoplasmic material to the vacuole for breakdown. In the past decade, the mechanics of autophagy and the scores of components involved in autophagic vesicle assembly have been documented...
March 14, 2018: Annual Review of Plant Biology
Yue Cao, Dan Sun, Jun-Xiu Chen, Hanyi Mei, Hao Ai, Guohua Xu, Yanshan Chen, Lena Q Ma
Phosphorus is an important nutrient for plant growth and is acquired by plants mainly as phosphate (P). Phosphate transporters (Phts) are responsible for P and arsenate (AsV) uptake in plants including arsenic (As) hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata. It is efficient in AsV uptake and P utilization, but P uptake in P. vittata is largely unknown. In this study, a P. vittata Pht, PvPht1;2, was identified and cloned. After transforming it into tobacco (N. tabacum), three independent transgenic lines (Ox1, Ox10, and Ox21) were studied...
March 14, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Tessa Camenzind, Edith C Hammer, Johannes Lehmann, Dawit Solomon, Sebastian Horn, Matthias C Rillig, Stefan Hempel
The socio-economic values of fertile and carbon-rich Dark Earth soils are well described from the Amazon region. Very recently, Dark Earth soils were also identified in tropical West Africa, with comparable beneficial soil properties and plant growth-promoting effects. The impact of this management technique on soil microbial communities, however, is less well understood, especially with respect to the ecologically relevant group of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Thus, we tested the hypotheses that (1) improved soil quality in African Dark Earth (AfDE) will increase soil microbial biomass and shift community composition and (2) concurrently increased nutrient availability will negatively affect AM fungal communities...
April 1, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Meng-Meng Zhang, Ning Wang, Yan-Bo Hu, Guang-Yu Sun
A better understanding of tree-based intercropping effects on soil physicochemical properties and bacterial community has a potential contribution to improvement of agroforestry productivity and sustainability. In this study, we investigated the effects of mulberry/alfalfa intercropping on soil physicochemical properties and soil bacterial community by MiSeq sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene. The results showed a significant increase in the contents of available nitrogen, available phosphate, available potassium, and total carbon in the rhizosphere soil of the intercropped alfalfa...
March 13, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Aakash Chawade, Rita Armoniené, Gunilla Berg, Gintaras Brazauskas, Gunilla Frostgård, Mulatu Geleta, Andrii Gorash, Tina Henriksson, Kristiina Himanen, Anne Ingver, Eva Johansson, Lise Nistrup Jørgensen, Mati Koppel, Reine Koppel, Pirjo Makela, Rodomiro Ortiz, Wieslaw Podyma, Thomas Roitsch, Antanas Ronis, Jan T Svensson, Pernilla Vallenback, Martin Weih
Baltic Sea is one of the largest brackish water bodies in the world. Eutrophication is a major concern in the Baltic Sea due to the leakage of nutrients to the sea with agriculture being the primary source. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the most widely grown crop in the countries surrounding the Baltic Sea and thus promoting sustainable agriculture practices for wheat cultivation will have a major impact on reducing pollution in the Baltic Sea. This approach requires identifying and addressing key challenges for sustainable wheat production in the region...
March 14, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Pilar Mañas, Jorge de Las Heras
BACKGROUND: The objective of the study was to: firstly evaluate the response of nutrient uptake after applying 15 t ha-1 of sewage sludge, compost and a commercial fertiliser to soil in grain and straw of winter wheat (Triticum turgidum L. cv. Vitron); secondly investigate the composition of the same parameters in the original soil and compare them with soil after applying fertiliser treatments. A field-scale experiment established the agronomic performance of air-dried sewage sludge and composted sludge for winter wheat...
March 14, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Youssef Rouphael, Giampaolo Raimondi, Luigi Lucini, Petronia Carillo, Marios C Kyriacou, Giuseppe Colla, Valerio Cirillo, Antonio Pannico, Christophe El-Nakhel, Stefania De Pascale
Interest in the role of small bioactive molecules (< 500 Da) in plants is on the rise, compelled by plant scientists' attempt to unravel their mode of action implicated in stimulating growth and enhancing tolerance to environmental stressors. The current study aimed at elucidating the morphological, physiological and metabolomic changes occurring in greenhouse tomato (cv. Seny) treated with omeprazole (OMP), a benzimidazole inhibitor of animal proton pumps. The OMP was applied at three rates (0, 10, or 100 μM) as substrate drench for tomato plants grown under nonsaline (control) or saline conditions sustained by nutrient solutions of 1 or 75 mM NaCl, respectively...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Ralph J M Temmink, Sarah F Harpenslager, Alfons J P Smolders, Gijs van Dijk, Roy C J H Peters, Leon P M Lamers, Monique M L van Kempen
Azolla spp., a water fern often used for phytoremediation, is a strong phosphorus (P) accumulator due to its high growth rate and N2 fixing symbionts (diazotrophs). It is known that plant growth is stimulated by P, but the nature of the interactive response of both symbionts along a P gradient, and related changes in growth-limiting factors, are unclear. We determined growth, and N and P sequestration rates of Azolla filiculoides in N-free water at different P concentrations. The growth response appeared to be biphasic and highest at levels ≥10 P µmol l-1 ...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Masanori Izumi, Sakuya Nakamura
Most assimilated nutrients in the leaves of land plants are stored in chloroplasts as photosynthetic proteins, where they mediate CO₂ assimilation during growth. During senescence or under suboptimal conditions, chloroplast proteins are degraded, and the amino acids released during this process are used to produce young tissues, seeds, or respiratory energy. Protein degradation machineries contribute to the quality control of chloroplasts by removing damaged proteins caused by excess energy from sunlight...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Pei Luo, Feng Liu, Shunan Zhang, Hongfang Li, Ran Yao, Qianwen Jiang, Runlin Xiao, Jinshui Wu
A series of three-stage pilot-scale surface flow constructed wetlands (CWs) planted with Myriophyllum aquaticum were fed with three strengths of lagoon-pretreated swine wastewater to study nitrogen (N) removal and recovery under sustainable plant harvesting management. The CWs had mean removal efficiency of 87.7-97.9% for NH4 + -N and 85.4-96.1% for total N (TN). The recovered TN mass via multiple harvests of M. aquaticum was greatest (120-222 g N m-2  yr-1 ) when TN concentrations were 21.8-282 mg L-1 ...
March 6, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Paola Mattei, Alessandro Gnesini, Cristina Gonnelli, Chiara Marraccini, Grazia Masciandaro, Cristina Macci, Serena Doni, Renato Iannelli, Stefano Lucchetti, Francesco P Nicese, Giancarlo Renella
Sediments dredged by an industrial port, slightly contaminated by heavy metals and petroleoum hydrocarbons, were phytoremediated and used as peat-free growing media for the red robin photinia (Photinia x fraseri L.). Plants were grown on sediment only (S), sediment mixed with composted pruning residues (S + PR), sediment fertilized with controlled release fertilizers (S + F) and peat-based growing media as control (C). Plant elongation and dry weight, leaf contents of chlorophyll, malondialdehyde (MDA), macronutrients and heavy metals were determined at the end of one growing season...
February 27, 2018: Chemosphere
Katharine L Cary, Jarmila Pittermann
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The pygmy forest, a plant community of severely stunted conifers and ericaceous angiosperms, occurs on patches of highly acidic, nutrient-poor soils along the coast of Northern California, USA. This system is an excellent opportunity to study the effect of severe nutrient deficiency on leaf physiology in a naturally-occurring ecosystem. In this study, we seek to understand the physiological mechanisms stunting the plants' growth and their implications for whole plant function...
January 2018: American Journal of Botany
Mathieu Santonja, Laura Pellan, Christophe Piscart
Plant litter decomposition is an essential ecosystem function that contributes to carbon and nutrient cycling in streams. Aquatic shredders, mainly macroinvertebrates, can affect this process in various ways; they consume leaf litter, breaking it down into fragments and creating suitable habitats or resources for other organisms through the production of fine particulate organic matter (FPOM). However, measures of litter-feeding traits across a wide range of aquatic macroinvertebrates are still rare. Here, we assessed the contributions of 11 species of freshwater macroinvertebrates to litter decomposition, by measuring consumption rate, FPOM production, and assimilation rate of highly decomposable ( Alnus glutinosa ) or poorly decomposable ( Quercus robur ) leaf litter types...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Seunghyeon Kim, Michael F Fenech, Pan-Jun Kim
Diet design for vegetarian health is challenging due to the limited food repertoire of vegetarians. This challenge can be partially overcome by quantitative, data-driven approaches that utilise massive nutritional information collected for many different foods. Based on large-scale data of foods' nutrient compositions, the recent concept of nutritional fitness helps quantify a nutrient balance within each food with regard to satisfying daily nutritional requirements. Nutritional fitness offers prioritisation of recommended foods using the foods' occurrence in nutritionally adequate food combinations...
March 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
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