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Attention bias modification

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325682/5-httlpr-moderates-the-association-between-attention-away-from-angry-faces-and-prospective-depression-among-youth
#1
Jessica L Jenness, Jami F Young, Benjamin L Hankin
Attention bias to emotion has been studied as a risk factor associated with depression. No study has examined whether attention bias within the context of measured genetic risk leads to increased risk for clinical depressive episodes over time. The current study investigated whether genetic risk, as indexed by the serotonin-transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR), moderated the relationship between attention bias to emotional faces and clinical depression onset prospectively across 18-months in a community sample of youth (n = 428; mean age = 11...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299526/interpretation-bias-training-in-depressed-adolescents-near-and-far-transfer-effects
#2
Joelle LeMoult, Natalie Colich, Jutta Joormann, Manpreet K Singh, Caitlin Eggleston, Ian H Gotlib
Depressed adolescents are characterized by negative interpretation biases. Although investigators have used cognitive bias modification for interpretation (CBM-I) to experimentally manipulate interpretation biases in depressed adults, the near- and far-transfer effects are not well understood in adolescents diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). In this study, we extend previous research by investigating the near- and far-transfer effects of 6 sessions of Positive versus Neutral CBM-I on independent measures of interpretation bias (near-transfer effects) and on attention biases and clinical symptoms (far-transfer effects) in a sample of adolescents with MDD (n = 46)...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257982/online-visual-search-attentional-bias-modification-for-adolescents-with-heightened-anxiety-and-depressive-symptoms-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
E L De Voogd, R W Wiers, E Salemink
Anxiety and depression, which are highly prevalent in adolescence, are both characterized by a negative attentional bias. As Attentional Bias Modification (ABM) can reduce such a bias, and might also affect emotional reactivity, it could be a promising early intervention. However, a growing number of studies also report comparable improvements in both active and placebo groups. The current study investigated the effects of eight online sessions of visual search (VS) ABM compared to both a VS placebo-training and a no-training control group in adolescents with heightened symptoms of anxiety and/or depression (n = 108)...
February 22, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257926/attention-bias-modification-training-under-working-memory-load-increases-the-magnitude-of-change-in-attentional-bias
#4
Patrick J F Clarke, Sonya Branson, Nigel T M Chen, Bram Van Bockstaele, Elske Salemink, Colin MacLeod, Lies Notebaert
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Attention bias modification (ABM) procedures have shown promise as a therapeutic intervention, however current ABM procedures have proven inconsistent in their ability to reliably achieve the requisite change in attentional bias needed to produce emotional benefits. This highlights the need to better understand the precise task conditions that facilitate the intended change in attention bias in order to realise the therapeutic potential of ABM procedures. Based on the observation that change in attentional bias occurs largely outside conscious awareness, the aim of the current study was to determine if an ABM procedure delivered under conditions likely to preclude explicit awareness of the experimental contingency, via the addition of a working memory load, would contribute to greater change in attentional bias...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242729/abandoning-and-modifying-one-action-plan-for-alternatives
#5
REVIEW
Joo-Hyun Song
Visual scenes are often complex and crowded with many different objects. To interact effectively, we must choose one object at a time as a goal for action. Certain external cues can act as a stop signal, quickly cancelling an ongoing action. Less recognized are internal signals. These can come from recent experience, anticipated action outcomes, cognitive states, and when attention is captured by a salient object. These signals elevate one action plan over alternatives and can quickly modify an initial choice...
April 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167328/attentional-biases-in-body-dysmorphic-disorder-bdd-eye-tracking-using-the-emotional-stroop-task
#6
Wei Lin Toh, David J Castle, Susan L Rossell
OBJECTIVE: Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is characterised by repetitive behaviours and/or mental acts occurring in response to preoccupations with perceived defects or flaws in physical appearance. This study aimed to examine attentional biases in BDD via the emotional Stroop task with two modifications: i) incorporating an eye-tracking paradigm, and ii) employing an obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) control group. METHOD: Twenty-one BDD, 19 OCD and 21 HC participants, who were age-, sex-, and IQ-matched, were included...
January 23, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111770/the-n2pc-component-reliably-captures-attentional-bias-in-social-anxiety
#7
Mario Reutter, Johannes Hewig, Matthias J Wieser, Roman Osinsky
We systematically compared different measures of attentional bias (i.e., reaction times, the N2pc component in the EEG, and explicit stimulus ratings) on their ability to reveal attentional engagement to threatening versus neutral facial stimuli in a Dot Probe Task and tested their relation to trait measures of general and social anxiety. We found that the N2pc component reflects a bias toward angry faces with excellent internal consistency. Similar results were obtained for explicit ratings. Reaction time (RT) differences, however, were not indicative of attentional biases and showed zero odd-even reliability...
January 22, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095313/prefrontal-mediation-of-emotion-regulation-in-social-anxiety-disorder-during-laughter-perception
#8
Benjamin Kreifelts, Carolin Brück, Thomas Ethofer, Jan Ritter, Lena Weigel, Michael Erb, Dirk Wildgruber
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by negatively biased perception of social cues and deficits in emotion regulation. While negatively biased perception is thought to maintain social anxiety, emotion regulation represents an ability necessary to overcome both biased perception and social anxiety. Here, we used laughter as a social threat in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study to identify cerebral mediators linking SAD with attention and interpretation biases and their modification through cognitive emotion regulation in the form of reappraisal...
February 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055119/a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial-of-cognitive-bias-modification-to-reduce-fear-of-breast-cancer-recurrence
#9
Wendy G Lichtenthal, Geoffrey W Corner, Elizabeth T Slivjak, Kailey E Roberts, Yuelin Li, William Breitbart, Stephanie Lacey, Malwina Tuman, Katherine N DuHamel, Victoria S Blinder, Courtney Beard
BACKGROUND: The most common, persistent concern among survivors of breast cancer is the fear that their disease will return, yet to the authors' knowledge, few interventions targeting fear of cancer recurrence (FCR) have been developed to date. The current pilot study examined the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of a home-delivered cognitive bias modification intervention to reduce FCR. The intervention, called Attention and Interpretation Modification for Fear of Breast Cancer Recurrence (AIM-FBCR), targeted 2 types of cognitive biases (ie, attention and interpretation biases)...
January 5, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931196/attentional-bias-modification-in-depression-through-gaze-contingencies-and-regulatory-control-using-a-new-eye-tracking-intervention-paradigm-study-protocol-for-a-placebo-controlled-trial
#10
Carmelo Vazquez, Ivan Blanco, Alvaro Sanchez, Richard J McNally
BACKGROUND: Attentional biases, namely difficulties both to disengage attention from negative information and to maintain it on positive information, play an important role in the onset and maintenance of the disorder. Recently, researchers have developed specific attentional bias modification (ABM) techniques aimed to modify these maladaptive attentional patterns. However, the application of current ABM procedures has yielded, so far, scarce results in depression due, in part, to some methodological shortcomings...
December 8, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923780/attentional-bias-modification-with-serious-game-elements-evaluating-the-shots-game
#11
Wouter J Boendermaker, Soraya Sanchez Maceiras, Marilisa Boffo, Reinout W Wiers
BACKGROUND: Young adults often experiment with heavy use of alcohol, which poses severe health risks and increases the chance of developing addiction problems. In clinical patients, cognitive retraining of automatic appetitive processes, such as selective attention toward alcohol (known as "cognitive bias modification of attention," or CBM-A), has been shown to be a promising add-on to treatment, helping to prevent relapse. OBJECTIVE: To prevent escalation of regular use into problematic use in youth, motivation appears to play a pivotal role...
December 6, 2016: JMIR Serious Games
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835784/from-development-to-aging-holistic-face-perception-in-children-younger-and-older-adults
#12
Bozana Meinhardt-Injac, Isabelle Boutet, Malte Persike, Günter Meinhardt, Margarete Imhof
Few published reports examine the development of holistic face processing across the lifespan such that face-specific processes are adequately differentiated from general developmental effects. To address this gap in the literature, we used the complete design of the composite paradigm (Richler & Gauthier, 2014) with faces and non-face control objects (watches) to investigate holistic processing in children (8-10years), young adults (20-32years) and older adults (65-78years). Several modifications to past research designs were introduced to improve the ability to draw conclusions about the development of holistic processing in terms of face-specificity, response bias, and age-related differences in attention...
November 8, 2016: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822518/improved-bacterial-16s-rrna-gene-v4-and-v4-5-and-fungal-internal-transcribed-spacer-marker-gene-primers-for-microbial-community-surveys
#13
William Walters, Embriette R Hyde, Donna Berg-Lyons, Gail Ackermann, Greg Humphrey, Alma Parada, Jack A Gilbert, Janet K Jansson, J Gregory Caporaso, Jed A Fuhrman, Amy Apprill, Rob Knight
Designing primers for PCR-based taxonomic surveys that amplify a broad range of phylotypes in varied community samples is a difficult challenge, and the comparability of data sets amplified with varied primers requires attention. Here, we examined the performance of modified 16S rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) primers for archaea/bacteria and fungi, respectively, with nonaquatic samples. We moved primer bar codes to the 5' end, allowing for a range of different 3' primer pairings, such as the 515f/926r primer pair, which amplifies variable regions 4 and 5 of the 16S rRNA gene...
January 2016: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809880/investigating-the-cost-effectiveness-of-attention-bias-modification-abm-for-outpatients-with-major-depressive-disorder-mdd-a-randomized-controlled-trial-protocol
#14
Gina R A Ferrari, Eni S Becker, Filip Smit, Mike Rinck, Jan Spijker
BACKGROUND: Despite the range of available, evidence-based treatment options for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), the rather low response and remission rates suggest that treatment is not optimal, yet. Computerized attention bias modification (ABM) trainings may have the potential to be provided as cost-effective intervention as adjunct to usual care (UC), by speeding up recovery and bringing more patients into remission. Research suggests, that a selective attention for negative information contributes to development and maintenance of depression and that reducing this negative bias might be of therapeutic value...
November 3, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795598/a-pilot-study-of-an-adaptive-idiographic-and-multi-component-attention-bias-modification-program-for-social-anxiety-disorder
#15
Nader Amir, Jennie M Kuckertz, Marlene V Strege
An attentional bias toward threat may be one mechanism underlying clinical anxiety. Attention bias modification (ABM) aims to reduce symptoms of anxiety disorders by directly modifying this deficit. However, existing ABM training programs have not consistently modified attentional bias and may not reflect optimal learning needs of participants (i.e., lack of explicit instruction, training goal unclear to participants, lack of feedback, non-adaptive, inability to differentiate or target different components of attentional bias)...
October 2016: Cognitive Therapy and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693664/pooled-patient-level-meta-analysis-of-children-and-adults-completing-a-computer-based-anxiety-intervention-targeting-attentional-bias
#16
REVIEW
Rebecca B Price, Meredith Wallace, Jennie M Kuckertz, Nader Amir, Simona Graur, Logan Cummings, Paul Popa, Per Carlbring, Yair Bar-Haim
Computer-based approaches, such as Attention Bias Modification (ABM), could help improve access to care for anxiety. Study-level meta-analyses of ABM have produced conflicting findings and leave critical questions unresolved regarding ABM's mechanisms of action and clinical potential. We pooled patient-level datasets from randomized controlled trials of children and adults with high-anxiety. Attentional bias (AB) towards threat, the target mechanism of ABM, was tested as an outcome and a mechanistic mediator and moderator of anxiety reduction...
December 2016: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688520/can-t-look-away-an-eye-tracking-based-attentional-disengagement-training-for-depression
#17
Gina R A Ferrari, Martin Möbius, Amras van Opdorp, Eni S Becker, Mike Rinck
To address shortcomings of purely reaction-time based attentional bias modification (ABM) paradigms, we developed an ABM task that is controlled by eye-tracking. This task allows to assess and train both disengagement from negative pictures and maintained attention to positive pictures. As a proof-of-principle study with an unselected student sample, this positive training (PT; N = 44) was compared to a negative training (NT; N = 42), which reinforced the opposite attentional pattern. Importantly, training trials were completed only if participants performed the correct gaze patterns...
2016: Cognitive Therapy and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684541/online-attention-modification-for-social-anxiety-disorder-replication-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
R Nicholas Carleton, Michelle J N Teale Sapach, Chris Oriet, Daniel M LeBouthillier
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) models posit vigilance for external social threat cues and exacerbated self-focused attention as key in disorder development and maintenance. Evidence indicates a modified dot-probe protocol may reduce symptoms of SAD; however, the efficacy when compared to a standard protocol and long-term maintenance of treatment gains remains unclear. Furthermore, the efficacy of such protocols on SAD-related constructs remains relatively unknown. The current investigation clarified these associations using a randomized control trial replicating and extending previous research...
August 15, 2016: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670138/the-abba-study-approach-bias-modification-in-bulimia-nervosa-and-binge-eating-disorder-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#19
Timo Brockmeyer, Ulrike Schmidt, Hans-Christoph Friederich
BACKGROUND: The core symptoms of bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) are recurrent episodes of binge eating. Despite negative psychological and physical consequences, BN/BED patients show uncontrollable approach tendencies towards food. This cognitive bias occurs at an early stage of information processing. Cognitive bias modification (CBM) directly targets such biases and has been shown to be effective in treating several mental disorders. In alcohol addiction, automatic action tendencies towards alcohol cues and relapse rates were successfully reduced by a specific form of CBM, termed approach bias modification...
September 26, 2016: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659260/maximizing-potential-impact-of-experimental-research-into-cognitive-processes-in-health-psychology-a-systematic-approach-to-material-development
#20
Alicia M Hughes, Rola Gordon, Trudie Chalder, Colette R Hirsch, Rona Moss-Morris
BACKGROUND: There is an abundance of research into cognitive processing biases in clinical psychology including the potential for applying cognitive bias modification techniques to assess the causal role of biases in maintaining anxiety and depression. Within the health psychology field, there is burgeoning interest in applying these experimental methods to assess potential cognitive biases in relation to physical health conditions and health-related behaviours. Experimental research in these areas could inform theoretical development by enabling measurement of implicit cognitive processes that may underlie unhelpful illness beliefs and help drive health-related behaviours...
November 2016: British Journal of Health Psychology
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