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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319615/dual-light-control-of-nanomachines-that-integrate-motor-and-modulator-subunits
#1
Justin T Foy, Quan Li, Antoine Goujon, Jean-Rémy Colard-Itté, Gad Fuks, Emilie Moulin, Olivier Schiffmann, Damien Dattler, Daniel P Funeriu, Nicolas Giuseppone
A current challenge in the field of artificial molecular machines is the synthesis and implementation of systems that can produce useful work when fuelled with a constant source of external energy. The first experimental achievements of this kind consisted of machines with continuous unidirectional rotations and translations that make use of 'Brownian ratchets' to bias random motions. An intrinsic limitation of such designs is that an inversion of directionality requires heavy chemical modifications in the structure of the actuating motor part...
March 20, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319099/the-direct-role-of-selenocysteine-in-nifese-hydrogenase-maturation-and-catalysis
#2
Marta C Marques, Cristina Tapia, Oscar Gutiérrez-Sanz, Ana Raquel Ramos, Kimberly L Keller, Judy D Wall, Antonio L De Lacey, Pedro M Matias, Inês A C Pereira
Hydrogenases are highly active enzymes for hydrogen production and oxidation. [NiFeSe] hydrogenases, in which selenocysteine is a ligand to the active site Ni, have high catalytic activity and a bias for H2 production. In contrast to [NiFe] hydrogenases, they display reduced H2 inhibition and are rapidly reactivated after contact with oxygen. Here we report an expression system for production of recombinant [NiFeSe] hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough and study of a selenocysteine-to-cysteine variant (Sec489Cys) in which, for the first time, a [NiFeSe] hydrogenase was converted to a [NiFe] type...
March 20, 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303130/new-approaches-on-quantification-of-campylobacter-jejuni-in-poultry-samples-the-use-of-digital-pcr-and-real-time-pcr-against-the-iso-standard-plate-count-method
#3
Bojan Papić, Mateja Pate, Urška Henigman, Urška Zajc, Igor Gruntar, Majda Biasizzo, Matjaž Ocepek, Darja Kušar
Campylobacteriosis is the most frequently reported bacterial food-borne illness in the European Union and contaminated broiler meat is considered the most important source of infection in humans. The aim of the present study was to evaluate real-time PCR (qPCR) and digital PCR (dPCR) for quantification of Campylobacter jejuni in 75 broiler neck-skin samples collected from a poultry slaughterhouse, and to compare them with the ISO 10272-2 standard plate count method. For qPCR standard curve, C. jejuni-negative neck-skin samples were spiked with C...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300471/decoupling-of-dna-methylation-and-activity-of-intergenic-line-1-promoters-in-colorectal-cancer
#4
Natasha Vafadar-Isfahani, Christina Parr, Lara E McMillan, Juliane Sanner, Zhao Yeo, Stephen Saddington, Oliver Peacock, Hazel A Cruickshanks, Richard R Meehan, Jonathan N Lund, Cristina Tufarelli
Hypomethylation of LINE-1 repeats in cancer has been proposed as the main mechanism behind their activation; this assumption, however, was based on findings from early studies that were biased towards young and transpositionally active elements. Here, we investigate the relationship between methylation of two intergenic, transpositionally inactive LINE-1 elements and expression of the LINE-1 chimeric transcript (LCT) 13 and LCT14 driven by their antisense promoters (L1-ASP). Our data from DNA modification, expression, and 5'RACE analyses suggest that colorectal cancer methylation in the regions analyzed is not always associated with LCT repression...
March 16, 2017: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299526/interpretation-bias-training-in-depressed-adolescents-near-and-far-transfer-effects
#5
Joelle LeMoult, Natalie Colich, Jutta Joormann, Manpreet K Singh, Caitlin Eggleston, Ian H Gotlib
Depressed adolescents are characterized by negative interpretation biases. Although investigators have used cognitive bias modification for interpretation (CBM-I) to experimentally manipulate interpretation biases in depressed adults, the near- and far-transfer effects are not well understood in adolescents diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). In this study, we extend previous research by investigating the near- and far-transfer effects of 6 sessions of Positive versus Neutral CBM-I on independent measures of interpretation bias (near-transfer effects) and on attention biases and clinical symptoms (far-transfer effects) in a sample of adolescents with MDD (n = 46)...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298178/antibody-incubation-at-37%C3%A2-c-improves-fluorescent-immunolabeling-in-free-floating-thick-tissue-sections
#6
Xia Xiao, Ya-Ping Feng, Bin Du, Han-Ru Sun, You-Quan Ding, Jian-Guo Qi
Fluorescent immunolabeling and imaging in free-floating thick (50-60 μm) tissue sections is relatively simple in practice and enables design-based non-biased stereology, or 3-D reconstruction and analysis. This method is widely used for 3-D in situ quantitative biology in many areas of biological research. However, the labeling quality and efficiency of standard protocols for fluorescent immunolabeling of these tissue sections are not always satisfactory. Here, we systematically evaluate the effects of raising the conventional antibody incubation temperatures (4°C or 21°C) to mammalian body temperature (37°C) in these protocols...
March 1, 2017: BioTechniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296728/a-meta-analysis-comparing-the-outcomes-of-ligasure-small-jaw-versus-clamp-and-tie-technique-or-harmonic-focus-scalpel-in-thyroidectomy
#7
Lei Zhang, Namei Li, Xuemei Yang, Jie Chen
BACKGROUND: LigaSure (LS) Small Jaw is a surgical hemostasis equipment that is newly introduced in thyroid surgery. The objective of this study is to assess the short-term efficacy and safety outcomes of LS Small Jaw compared with clamp-and-tie technique or Harmonic Focus Scalpel in thyroidectomy. METHODS: A literature search was performed in the PubMed and Embase databases (until June 12, 2016) that reported the comparisons between LS Small Jaw and other techniques in thyroidectomy...
March 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295456/firth-s-logistic-regression-with-rare-events-accurate-effect-estimates-and-predictions
#8
Rainer Puhr, Georg Heinze, Mariana Nold, Lara Lusa, Angelika Geroldinger
Firth's logistic regression has become a standard approach for the analysis of binary outcomes with small samples. Whereas it reduces the bias in maximum likelihood estimates of coefficients, bias towards one-half is introduced in the predicted probabilities. The stronger the imbalance of the outcome, the more severe is the bias in the predicted probabilities. We propose two simple modifications of Firth's logistic regression resulting in unbiased predicted probabilities. The first corrects the predicted probabilities by a post hoc adjustment of the intercept...
March 12, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294389/deciphering-the-molecular-effects-of-mutations-on-atrx-cause-atrx-syndrome-a-molecular-dynamics-study
#9
P Chandrasekaran, R Rajasekaran
α-thalassemia mental retardation X-linked (ATRX) syndrome is caused by the dysfunction of ATRX protein. The present study explored the structural consequences influenced by two observed mutations V194I and C220R on ADD domain of ATRX protein by applying all atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. MD result showed that both the mutants exhibited wide variations in their backbone dynamics, as a result, mutant V210I showed complete distortion on α3 and the mutant C220R displayed a biased disruption on α2-3...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287798/a-randomized-clinical-trial-targeting-anxiety-sensitivity-for-patients-with-suicidal-ideation
#10
Norman B Schmidt, Aaron M Norr, Nicholas P Allan, Amanda M Raines, Daniel W Capron
OBJECTIVE: Anxiety sensitivity (AS) is a well-established transdiagnostic risk factor for anxiety and mood psychopathology including suicide. A variety of interventions using cognitive-behavioral skills as well as cognitive bias modification (CBM) suggest that AS can be quickly and effectively reduced in nonclinical and nontreatment seeking samples. However, it is unclear whether AS reduction protocols will have efficacy for more severe clinical samples. Moreover, the combination of cognitive-behavioral techniques with CBM focused on changing interpretation bias (CBM-I) related to AS has not been evaluated...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282871/factors%C3%A2-that%C3%A2-shape%C3%A2-eukaryotic%C3%A2-trnaomes-%C3%A2-processing-%C3%A2-modification%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-anticodon-codon%C3%A2-use
#11
REVIEW
Richard J Maraia, Aneeshkumar G Arimbasseri
Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) contain sequence diversity beyond their anticodons and the large variety of nucleotide modifications found in all kingdoms of life. Some modifications stabilize structure and fit in the ribosome whereas those to the anticodon loop modulate messenger RNA (mRNA) decoding activity more directly. The identities of tRNAs with some universal anticodon loop modifications vary among distant and parallel species, likely to accommodate fine tuning for their translation systems. This plasticity in positions 34 (wobble) and 37 is reflected in codon use bias...
March 8, 2017: Biomolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282580/examining-the-influence-of-link-function-misspecification-in-conventional-regression-models-for-developing-crash-modification-factors
#12
Lingtao Wu, Dominique Lord
This study further examined the use of regression models for developing crash modification factors (CMFs), specifically focusing on the misspecification in the link function. The primary objectives were to validate the accuracy of CMFs derived from the commonly used regression models (i.e., generalized linear models or GLMs with additive linear link functions) when some of the variables have nonlinear relationships and quantify the amount of bias as a function of the nonlinearity. Using the concept of artificial realistic data, various linear and nonlinear crash modification functions (CM-Functions) were assumed for three variables...
March 7, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277931/antibodies-specific-for-nucleic-acid-modifications
#13
Regina Feederle, Aloys Schepers
Nucleotide modifications constitute marks in RNA and DNA that contribute to gene regulation, development and other cellular processes. The understanding of their intricate molecular roles has been hampered by the high number of different modifications, the lack of effective methods and tools for their detection and quantification as well as by their complex structure-function relationship. The recent development of RNA and DNA immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (RIP- and DIP-seq) initiated detailed transcriptome- and genome-wide studies...
February 23, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263982/morphological-characterization-of-the-african-giant-rat-cricetomys-gambianus-waterhouse-brain-across-age-groups-gross-features-of-cortices
#14
M A Olude, O A Mustapha, J O Olopade
This experiment was designed to investigate the morphological characterization of the brain cortices of African giant rats, AGR (Cricetomys gambianus, Waterhouse) across age groups as related to function. A total of 15 male AGR were used for this study comprising of 5 neonates, 5 juveniles and 5 adults. Brains were described as having typical rodent features; the falx cerebri, the dura modification of interest, was partly inserted between the lobes of the olfactory bulb and extended towards the corpus callosum...
March 6, 2017: Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences: Official Publication of the Physiological Society of Nigeria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262849/morphological-characterization-of-the-african-giant-rat-cricetomys-gambianus-waterhouse-brain-across-age-groups-gross-features-of-cortices
#15
COMPARATIVE STUDY
M A Olude, O A Mustapha, J K Olopade
This experiment was designed to investigate the morphological characterization of the brain cortices of African giant rats, AGR (Cricetomys gambianus, Waterhouse) across age groups as related to function. A total of 15 male AGR were used for this study comprising of 5 neonates, 5 juveniles and 5 adults. Brains were described as having typical rodent features; the falx cerebri, the dura modification of interest, was partly inserted between the lobes of the olfactory bulb and extended towards the corpus callosum...
March 6, 2017: Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences: Official Publication of the Physiological Society of Nigeria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259174/analysis-of-cluster-randomised-stepped-wedge-trials-with-repeated-cross-sectional-samples
#16
Karla Hemming, Monica Taljaard, Andrew Forbes
BACKGROUND: The stepped wedge cluster randomised trial (SW-CRT) is increasingly being used to evaluate policy or service delivery interventions. However, there is a dearth of trials literature addressing analytical approaches to the SW-CRT. Perhaps as a result, a significant number of published trials have major methodological shortcomings, including failure to adjust for secular trends at the analysis stage. Furthermore, the commonly used analytical framework proposed by Hussey and Hughes makes several assumptions...
March 4, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257982/online-visual-search-attentional-bias-modification-for-adolescents-with-heightened-anxiety-and-depressive-symptoms-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
E L De Voogd, R W Wiers, E Salemink
Anxiety and depression, which are highly prevalent in adolescence, are both characterized by a negative attentional bias. As Attentional Bias Modification (ABM) can reduce such a bias, and might also affect emotional reactivity, it could be a promising early intervention. However, a growing number of studies also report comparable improvements in both active and placebo groups. The current study investigated the effects of eight online sessions of visual search (VS) ABM compared to both a VS placebo-training and a no-training control group in adolescents with heightened symptoms of anxiety and/or depression (n = 108)...
February 22, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257926/attention-bias-modification-training-under-working-memory-load-increases-the-magnitude-of-change-in-attentional-bias
#18
Patrick J F Clarke, Sonya Branson, Nigel T M Chen, Bram Van Bockstaele, Elske Salemink, Colin MacLeod, Lies Notebaert
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Attention bias modification (ABM) procedures have shown promise as a therapeutic intervention, however current ABM procedures have proven inconsistent in their ability to reliably achieve the requisite change in attentional bias needed to produce emotional benefits. This highlights the need to better understand the precise task conditions that facilitate the intended change in attention bias in order to realise the therapeutic potential of ABM procedures. Based on the observation that change in attentional bias occurs largely outside conscious awareness, the aim of the current study was to determine if an ABM procedure delivered under conditions likely to preclude explicit awareness of the experimental contingency, via the addition of a working memory load, would contribute to greater change in attentional bias...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253442/methods-matter-a-meta-regression-on-the-determinants-of-willingness-to-pay-studies-on-biofortified-foods
#19
Hans De Steur, Joshua Wesana, Dieter Blancquaert, Dominique Van Der Straeten, Xavier Gellynck
Following the growing evidence on biofortification as a cost-effective micronutrient strategy, various researchers have elicited consumers' willingness to pay (WTP) for biofortified crops in an effort to justify and determine their adoption. This review presents a meta-analysis of WTP studies on biofortified foods, either developed through conventional breeding or using genetic modification technology. On the basis of 122 estimates from 23 studies (9507 respondents), consumers are generally willing to pay 21...
February 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247053/cell-fate-maintenance-and-reprogramming-during-the-oocyte-to-embryo-transition
#20
Christina Fassnacht, Rafal Ciosk
This chapter reviews our current understanding of the mechanisms that regulate reprogramming during the oocyte-to-embryo transition (OET). There are two major events reshaping the transcriptome during OET. One is the clearance of maternal transcripts in the early embryo, extensively reviewed by others. The other event, which is the focus of this chapter, is the embryonic (or zygotic) genome activation (EGA). The mechanisms controlling EGA can be broadly divided into transcriptional and posttranscriptional. The former includes the regulation of the basal transcription machinery, the regulation by specific transcription factors and chromatin modifications...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
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