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Bias modification

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29932455/mobile-phone-based-interventions-for-improving-adherence-to-medication-prescribed-for-the-primary-prevention-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-adults
#1
REVIEW
Melissa J Palmer, Sharmani Barnard, Pablo Perel, Caroline Free
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of disability and mortality globally. Premature fatal and non-fatal CVD is considered to be largely preventable through the control of risk factors via lifestyle modifications and preventive medication. Lipid-lowering and antihypertensive drug therapies for primary prevention are cost-effective in reducing CVD morbidity and mortality among high-risk people and are recommended by international guidelines. However, adherence to medication prescribed for the prevention of CVD can be poor...
June 22, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929157/attentional-bias-modification-alters-intrinsic-functional-network-of-attentional-control-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#2
Yuko Hakamata, Shinya Mizukami, Shotaro Komi, Eisuke Sato, Yoshiya Moriguchi, Yuki Motomura, Kazushi Maruo, Shuhei Izawa, Yoshiharu Kim, Takashi Hanakawa, Yusuke Inoue, Hirokuni Tagaya
INTRODUCTION: Attentional bias modification (ABM) alleviates anxiety by moderating biased attentional processing toward threat; however, its neural mechanisms remain unclear. We examined how ABM changes functional connectivity (FC) and functional network measures, leading to anxiety reduction. METHODS: Fifty-four healthy anxious individuals received either ABM or sham training for 1 month in a double-blind randomized controlled trial. Anxious traits, attentional control, and attentional bias were assessed...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908472/cognitive-bias-modification-as-an-add-on-treatment-in-clinical-depression-results-from-a-placebo-controlled-single-blinded-randomized-control-trial
#3
Janna N Vrijsen, Verena S Fischer, Bernhard W Müller, Norbert Scherbaum, Eni S Becker, Mike Rinck, Indira Tendolkar
BACKGROUND: Only 60% of depressed patients respond sufficiently to treatment, so there is a dire need for novel approaches to improve treatment effects. Cognitive Bias Modification (CBM) may be an effective and easily implemented computerized add-on to treatment-as-usual. Therefore, we investigated the effects of a positivity-attention training and a positivity-approach training compared to control trainings. METHODS: In a blinded randomized-controlled design, 139 depressed inpatients received either the CBM Attention Dot-Probe Training (DPT) or the CBM Approach-Avoidance Training (AAT), next to treatment as usual...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907738/epigenetic-regulation-of-the-oxytocin-receptor-is-associated-with-neural-response-during-selective-social-attention
#4
Meghan H Puglia, Jessica J Connelly, James P Morris
Aberrant attentional biases to social stimuli have been implicated in a number of disorders including autism and social anxiety disorder. Oxytocin, a naturally-occurring mammalian hormone and neuromodulator involved in regulating social behavior, has been proposed to impact basic biological systems that facilitate the detection of and orientation to social information. Here, we investigate a role for naturally-occurring variability in the endogenous oxytocinergic system in regulating neural response during attention to social information...
June 15, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907088/development-and-application-of-an-integrated-allele-specific-pipeline-for-methylomic-and-epigenomic-analysis-mea
#5
Julien Richard Albert, Tasuku Koike, Hamid Younesy, Richard Thompson, Aaron B Bogutz, Mohammad M Karimi, Matthew C Lorincz
BACKGROUND: Allele-specific transcriptional regulation, including of imprinted genes, is essential for normal mammalian development. While the regulatory regions controlling imprinted genes are associated with DNA methylation (DNAme) and specific histone modifications, the interplay between transcription and these epigenetic marks at allelic resolution is typically not investigated genome-wide due to a lack of bioinformatic packages that can process and integrate multiple epigenomic datasets with allelic resolution...
June 15, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906426/importance-of-early-insertion-of-inferior-vena-cava-filters-in-unstable-patients-with-acute-pulmonary-embolism
#6
Paul D Stein, Fadi Matta, Frank R Lawrence, Mary J Hughes
BACKGROUND: Immortal time bias is a possible confounding factor in cohort studies. In this investigation, we assessed mortality with inferior vena cava (IVC) filters in unstable patients with pulmonary embolism using a design that eliminated immortal time bias. METHODS: Data are from Premier Healthcare Database, 2010-2014. International Classification of Disease-9th Clinical Modification codes were used. Unstable patients with pulmonary embolism and an admitting diagnosis of pulmonary embolism as well as a primary diagnosis of pulmonary embolism were included...
June 12, 2018: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906092/nanoscale-control-of-oxygen-defects-and-metal-insulator-transition-in-epitaxial-vanadium-dioxides
#7
Yogesh Sharma, Janakiraman Balachandran, Changhee Sohn, Jaron T Krogel, Panchapakesan Ganesh, Liam Collins, Anton V Ievlev, Qian Li, Xiang Gao, Nina Balke, Olga S Ovchinnikova, Sergei V Kalinin, Olle Heinonen, Ho Nyung Lee
Strongly correlated vanadium dioxide (VO2) is one of the most promising materials to exhibit temperature-driven, metal-insulator transition (MIT) near room temperature. The ability to manipulate the MIT at nanoscale offers both an insight to understand the energetics of phase transition and a promising potential for nanoelectronic devices. In this work, we study nanoscale electrical modifications of the MIT in epitaxial VO2 thin films using a combined approach with scanning probe microscopy (SPM) and theoretical calculations...
June 15, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904343/acute-stress-induced-epigenetic-modulations-and-their-potential-protective-role-toward-depression
#8
Francesco Rusconi, Elena Battaglioli
Psychiatric disorders entail maladaptive processes impairing individuals' ability to appropriately interface with environment. Among them, depression is characterized by diverse debilitating symptoms including hopelessness and anhedonia, dramatically impacting the propensity to live a social and active life and seriously affecting working capability. Relevantly, besides genetic predisposition, foremost risk factors are stress-related, such as experiencing chronic psychosocial stress-including bullying, mobbing and abuse-, and undergoing economic crisis or chronic illnesses...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903724/parent-of-origin-dependent-nucleosome-organization-correlates-with-genomic-imprinting-in-maize
#9
Xiaomei Dong, Jian Chen, Tong Li, En Li, Xiangbo Zhang, Mei Zhang, Weibin Song, Haiming Zhao, Jinsheng Lai
Genomic imprinting refers to allele-specific expression of genes depending on their parental origin. Nucleosomes, the fundamental units of chromatin, play a critical role in gene transcriptional regulation. However, it remains unknown whether differential nucleosome organization is related to the allele-specific expression of imprinted genes. Here, we generated a genome-wide map of allele-specific nucleosome occupancy in maize endosperm and presented an integrated analysis of its relationship with parent-of-origin-dependent gene expression and DNA methylation...
June 14, 2018: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902563/fclip-seq-for-transcriptomic-footprinting-of-dsrna-binding-proteins-lessons-from-drosha
#10
Baekgyu Kim, V Narry Kim
CLIP-seq (crosslinking immunoprecipitation and sequencing) is widely used to map the binding sites of a protein of interest on the transcriptome, and generally employs UV to induce the covalent bonds between protein and RNA, which allows stringent washing. However, dsRNA is inefficiently crosslinked by UV, making it difficult to study the interactions between dsRNA binding proteins and their substrates. A dsRNA endoribonuclease DROSHA initiates the maturation of microRNA (miRNA) by cleaving primary miRNA (pri-miRNA)...
June 11, 2018: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901763/animal-hen1-2-o-methyltransferases-as-tools-for-3-terminal-functionalization-and-labelling-of-single-stranded-rnas
#11
Milda Mickute, Milda Nainyte, Lina Vasiliauskaite, Alexandra Plotnikova, Viktoras Masevicius, Saulius Klimašauskas, Giedrius Vilkaitis
S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent 2'-O-methylati-on of the 3'-terminal nucleotide plays important roles in biogenesis of eukaryotic small non-coding RNAs, such as siRNAs, miRNAs and Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs). Here we demonstrate that, in contrast to Mg2+/Mn2+-dependent plant and bacterial homologues, the Drosophila DmHen1 and human HsHEN1 piRNA methyltransferases require cobalt cations for their enzymatic activity in vitro. We also show for the first time the capacity of the animal Hen1 to catalyse the transfer of a variety of extended chemical groups from synthetic analogues of the AdoMet cofactor onto a wide range (22-80 nt) of single-stranded RNAs permitting their 3'-terminal functionalization and labelling...
June 13, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895513/mobile-phone-cognitive-bias-modification-research-platform-for-substance-use-disorders-protocol-for-a-feasibility-study
#12
Melvyn Zhang, JiangBo Ying, Guo Song, Daniel Ss Fung, Helen Smith
BACKGROUND: Cognitive biases refer to automatic attentional and interpretational tendencies, which could be retained by cognitive bias modification interventions. Cristea et al and Jones et al have published reviews (in 2016 and 2017 respectively) on the effectiveness of such interventions. The advancement of technologies such as electronic health (eHealth) and mobile health (mHealth) has led to them being harnessed for the delivery of cognitive bias modification. To date, at least eight studies have demonstrated the feasibility of mobile technologies for the delivery of cognitive bias modification...
June 12, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29890099/evaluaci%C3%A3-n-de-ecuaciones-que-utilizan-cistatina-c-para-estimar-filtrado-glomerular-en-adultos-sanos-candidatos-a-donantes-renales
#13
Gisel Ivana Medina Arnaudo
Resumen: La valoración del Índice de Filtrado Glomerular (IFG) es fundamental para la selección de potenciales donantes renales. Para su medición existen métodos poco prácticos y complejos, por lo cual se han desarrollado ecuaciones de estimación del IFG. Objetivo: Evaluar el rendimiento diagnóstico de ecuaciones de estimación del IFG a partir de Creatinina y Cistatina C en una población de adultos sanos candidatos a donantes renales. Materiales y métodos: Se llevó a cabo un estudio transversal en 72 pacientes de ambos sexos de entre 18 y 75 años de edad, candidatos a donantes renales...
September 8, 2017: Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Médicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29885141/what-s-in-a-trial-the-authors-respond-persistent-mixing-of-apples-and-oranges-or-carefully-synthesizing-and-designing-the-next-steps-in-research-on-cognitive-bias-modification-in-addiction
#14
Reinout W Wiers, Marilisa Boffo, Matt Field
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29885140/it-s-not-for-everyone-advancing-research-on-cognitive-bias-modification-a-commentary-on-wiers-et-al-2018
#15
Mitchell P Karno
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29885139/persistent-double-standards-in-evaluating-the-effectiveness-of-cognitive-bias-modification-a-commentary-on-wiers-et-al-2018
#16
Ioana A Cristea, Robin N Kok, Pim Cuijpers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29885138/what-s-in-a-trial-on-the-importance-of-distinguishing-between-experimental-lab-studies-and-randomized-controlled-trials-the-case-of-cognitive-bias-modification-and-alcohol-use-disorders
#17
Reinout W Wiers, Marilisa Boffo, Matt Field
OBJECTIVE: Recently, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) redefined clinical trials to include any study involving behavioral or biomedical interventions. In line with a general framework from experimental medicine, we argue that it is crucial to distinguish between experimental laboratory studies aimed at revealing psychological mechanisms underlying behavior and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in clinical samples aimed at testing the efficacy of an intervention. METHOD: As an illustration, we reviewed the current state of the evidence on the efficacy of cognitive bias modification (CBM) interventions in alcohol use disorders...
May 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29883776/persecutory-delusions-effects-of-cognitive-bias-modification-for-interpretation-and-the-maudsley-review-training-programme-on-social-anxiety-jumping-to-conclusions-belief-inflexibility-and-paranoia
#18
James Hurley, Jo Hodgekins, Sian Coker, David Fowler
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The Threat Anticipation Model (Freeman, 2007) implicates social anxiety, jumping to conclusions (JTC) and belief inflexibility in persecutory delusions. We investigated whether Cognitive Bias Modification for Interpretation (CBM-I; Turner et al., 2011) improves social anxiety by targeting negative interpretation bias of ambiguous social information. We determined whether the Maudsley Review Training Programme (MRTP; Waller et al., 2011) improves JTC, belief inflexibility and paranoia...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29883677/spatiotemporal-brain-dynamics-underlying-attentional-bias-modifications
#19
Etienne Sallard, Lea Hartmann, Radek Ptak, Lucas Spierer
Exaggerated attentional biases toward specific elements of the environment contribute to the maintenance of several psychiatric conditions, such as biases to threatening faces in social anxiety. Although recent literature indicates that attentional bias modification may constitute an effective approach for psychiatric remediation, the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms remain unclear. We addressed this question by recording EEG in 24 healthy participants performing a modified dot-probe task in which pairs of neutral cues (colored shapes) were replaced by probe stimuli requiring a discrimination judgment...
June 5, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29882616/evaluation-of-an-approach-avoidance-training-intervention-for-children-and-adolescents-with-obesity-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-prospective-trial
#20
Petra Warschburger, Michaela Gmeiner, Marisa Morawietz, Mike Rinck
This study evaluated the efficacy of approach-avoidance training as an additional treatment for children and adolescents with obesity seeking inpatient treatment. Two hundred thirty-two participants (8-16 years, 53.9% girls) were randomly assigned either to multisession approach-avoidance (IG) or to placebo training (CG). As outcomes, cognitive biases post intervention, body mass index, eating behaviour, food intake, self-regulation, and weight-related quality of life were assessed, also at 6- and 12-month follow-up...
June 8, 2018: European Eating Disorders Review: the Journal of the Eating Disorders Association
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