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Bias modification

Matt Field, Andrew Jones, Inge Kersbergen, Eric Robinson
The paper by Leeman and colleagues (2018) makes an important contribution to the broader literature on cognitive bias modification (CBM) for alcohol use disorders. In a balanced discussion, the authors speculate on possible explanations for their null findings, including failure of CBM to change cognitive biases, participant characteristics, and the suitability and sensitivity of the alcohol self-administration paradigm that was the primary outcome measure. The former explanations have been the subject of recent discussion, often heated (see Cristea, Kok, & Cuijpers, 2015, 2017, 2018; Grafton et al...
April 15, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Doris Tove Kristoffersen, Jon Helgeland, Jocelyne Clench-Aas, Petter Laake, Marit B Veierød
INTRODUCTION: A common quality indicator for monitoring and comparing hospitals is based on death within 30 days of admission. An important use is to determine whether a hospital has higher or lower mortality than other hospitals. Thus, the ability to identify such outliers correctly is essential. Two approaches for detection are: 1) calculating the ratio of observed to expected number of deaths (OE) per hospital and 2) including all hospitals in a logistic regression (LR) comparing each hospital to a form of average over all hospitals...
2018: PloS One
Xiaoling Liu, Weiyi Lai, Ning Zhang, Hailin Wang
N6-methyladenine (6mA) is a re-discovered DNA modification in eukaryotic genomes. To explore the distribution and functions of 6mA, it is of paramount option to use immunoprecipitation to select 6mA-containing DNA fragments for genome-wide sequencing. Presumably, most of 6mA-free fragments is removed, and the co-pulling down of the residual is stochastic and sequence-independent and thus they should not be called as peaks by computation. Surprisingly, here we show the pre-dominance of 6mA-free fragments in the pulled-down fractions...
April 13, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Der-Yen Lee, Wei-Chieh Huang, Ting-Jia Gu, Geen-Dong Chang
Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S), previously known as a toxic gas, is now recognized as a gasotransmitter along with nitric oxide and carbon monoxide. However, only few methods are available for quantitative determination of H2 S in biological samples. 2-Iodoacetanilide (2-IAN), a thiol-reacting agent, has been used to tag the reduced cysteine residues of proteins for quantitative proteomics and for detection of cysteine oxidation modification. In this article, we proposed a new method for quantitative analyses of H2 S and thiol metabolites using the procedure of pre-column 2-IAN derivatization coupled with liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS)...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Virginia Rider, Nabih I Abdou, Bruce F Kimler, Nanyan Lu, Susan Brown, Brooke L Fridley
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic systemic autoimmune disease resulting from abnormal interactions between T and B cells. The acquisition of SLE is linked to genetic susceptibility, and diverse environmental agents can trigger disease onset in genetically susceptible individuals. However, the strongest risk factor for developing SLE is being female (9:1 female to male ratio). The female sex steroid, estradiol, working through its receptors, contributes to the gender bias in SLE although the mechanisms remain enigmatic...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Takafumi Araie, Kentaro Okuno, Hitomi Ono Minagi, Takayoshi Sakai
An oral appliance (OA) is an effective treatment option for patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), but dental and skeletal changes have been detected by many studies after long-term OA use. Better understanding of the long-term side effects may decrease discontinuation of OA use and assist clinicians to make informed decisions. Accordingly, a systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to evaluate the dental and skeletal changes associated with OAs designed to advance the mandible. The quality of the studies was determined by using the risk of bias assessment tool for non-randomized studies (RoBANS), and 12 studies were included in the meta-analysis...
March 1, 2018: Sleep Medicine Reviews
Loretta Lau, Paul Mick, Desmond A Nunez
BACKGROUND: This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in The Cochrane Library in Issue 4, 2008 and previously updated in 2011.Acute suppurative otitis media is one of the most common infectious diseases in childhood. Recurrent acute otitis media is defined for the purposes of this review as either three or more acute infections of the middle ear cleft in a six-month period, or at least four episodes in a year. Strategies for managing the condition include the assessment and modification of risk factors where possible, repeated courses of antibiotics for each new infection, antibiotic prophylaxis and the insertion of ventilation tubes (grommets)...
April 6, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Melvyn Weibin Zhang, Jiang Bo Ying, Guo Song, Daniel S S Fung, Helen E Smith
Research on attentional bias modification has increased since 2014. A recent meta-analysis demonstrates evidence for bias modification for substance disorders, including alcohol and tobacco use disorders. Several pharmacological trials have shown that pharmacological agents can attenuate and modify such attentional bias. The pharmacological trials that have appeared to date have produced mixed results, which has clinical implications. Developments in Internet and mobile technologies have transformed how attention bias modification is currently being achieved...
April 4, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Jay Jh Park, Kristian Thorlund, Edward J Mills
Adaptive clinical trials are an innovative trial design aimed at reducing resources, decreasing time to completion and number of patients exposed to inferior interventions, and improving the likelihood of detecting treatment effects. The last decade has seen an increasing use of adaptive designs, particularly in drug development. They frequently differ importantly from conventional clinical trials as they allow modifications to key trial design components during the trial, as data is being collected, using preplanned decision rules...
2018: Clinical Epidemiology
Heaseung Sophia Chung, Christopher I Murray, Jennifer E Van Eyk
S-nitrosylation (or S-nitrosation, SNO) is an oxidative posttranslational modification to the thiol group of a cysteine amino acid residue. There are several methods to detect SNO modifications, mostly based on the classic biotin-switch assay, where the labile SNO sites are replaced with a stable biotin moiety to facilitate enrichment of the modified proteins. As the technique has evolved, new and more advanced thiol-reactive reagents have been introduced in the protocol to improve the identification of modified peptides or to quantify the level of modification at individual cysteine residues...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Hannah Ferentzi, Hannah Scheibner, Reinout Wiers, Eni S Becker, Johannes Lindenmeyer, Sylvia Beisel, Mike Rinck
Obesity is a major health concern, characterized by an automatically activated tendency to (over)-eat. Recent research suggests that an effective way to counteract automatic approach tendencies in unhealthy consumption behavior might be approach bias modification. Therefore, we investigated an approach-avoidance training for unhealthy food cues in 189 patients with obesity of a psychosomatic inpatient clinic who were participating in a nutrition advice program. Patients in the active training group were trained to make avoidance movements (pushing a joystick) in response to unhealthy food pictures and approach movements (pulling the joystick) in response to positive pictures, while the control group received sham training (approaching and avoiding both picture types)...
March 26, 2018: Appetite
Tom Østergaard, Tobias Lundgren, Robert Zettle, Rune Jonassen, Catherine J Harmer, Tore C Stiles, Nils Inge Landrø, Vegard Øksendal Haaland
BACKGROUND: This project studies the effect of group-based Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) following Attention Bias Modification (ABM) on residual symptoms in recurrent depression. ACT is a cognitive-behavioral intervention combining acceptance and mindfulness processes with commitment and behavior-change processes. ACT enjoys modest empirical support in treating depression and has also shown promising results in secondary prevention of depression. The experimental cognitive bias modification (ABM) procedure has been shown to reduce surrogate markers of depression vulnerability in patients in remission from depression...
March 27, 2018: Trials
Naima Assuncao, Felipe Kenji Sudo, Claudia Drummond, Fernanda Guarino de Felice, Paulo Mattos
BACKGROUND: Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) refers to a cluster of metabolic disturbances which is associated with increased risk for vascular and degenerative conditions in general population. Although the relationship between vascular risk factors and dementia is undisputable, additional hazard for cognitive decline in older population with concurrent metabolic disorders still waits to be demonstrated. The present review aims to analyze data on MetS and risk for cognitive decline in elderly persons...
2018: PloS One
Saman Saeidi, Michael R McKain, Elizabeth A Kellogg
Herbaria are an invaluable source of plant material that can be used in a variety of biological studies. The use of herbarium specimens is associated with a number of challenges including sample preservation quality, degraded DNA, and destructive sampling of rare specimens. In order to more effectively use herbarium material in large sequencing projects, a dependable and scalable method of DNA isolation and library preparation is needed. This paper demonstrates a robust, beginning-to-end protocol for DNA isolation and high-throughput library construction from herbarium specimens that does not require modification for individual samples...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Divya Chennamadhavuni, Noemi Alejandra Saavedra-Avila, Leandro J Carreño, Matthew J Guberman-Pfeffer, Pooja Arora, Tang Yongqing, Hui-Fern Koay, Dale I Godfrey, Santosh Keshipeddy, Stewart K Richardson, Srinivasan Sundararaj, Jae Ho Lo, Xiangshu Wen, José A Gascón, Weiming Yuan, Jamie Rossjohn, Jérôme Le Nours, Steven A Porcelli, Amy R Howell
Glycosylceramides that activate CD1d-restricted invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells have potential therapeutic applications for augmenting immune responses against cancer and infections. Previous studies using mouse models identified sphinganine variants of α-galactosylceramide as promising iNKT cell activators that stimulate cytokine responses with a strongly proinflammatory bias. However, the activities of sphinganine variants in mice have generally not translated well to studies of human iNKT cell responses...
March 9, 2018: Cell Chemical Biology
Timo Brockmeyer, Alisa Anderle, Hagen Schmidt, Stephanie Febry, Wally Wünsch-Leiteritz, Andreas Leiteritz, Hans-Christoph Friederich
A distorted body image and pronounced body dissatisfaction are hallmarks of anorexia nervosa (AN) that typically result in dietary restraint and compensatory behaviours. Cognitive biases such as negative interpretation bias are considered key maintaining factors of these maladaptive cognitions and behaviours. However, little attention has been paid to empirical tests whether negative interpretation bias exists in AN and to what degree it is associated with symptom severity. Participants in the present study were 40 women with AN and 40 healthy women with no history of an eating disorder...
March 14, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Jong Wha Lee, Hyun Hee L Lee, Kimberly L Davidson, Matthew F Bush, Hugh I Kim
The investigation of ion structures based on a combination of ion mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS) experiments and theoretical collision cross section (CCS) calculations has become important to many fields of research. However, the accuracy of current CCS calculations for ions in nitrogen drift gas limits the information content of many experiments. In particular, few studies have evaluated and attempted to improve the theoretical tools for CCS calculation in nitrogen drift gas. In this study, based on high-quality experimental measurements and theoretical modeling, a comprehensive evaluation of various aspects of CCS calculations in nitrogen drift gas is performed...
March 21, 2018: Analyst
Helen Uusberg, Krista Peet, Andero Uusberg, Kirsti Akkermann
Appearance-related attention biases are thought to contribute to body image disturbances. We investigated how preoccupation with body image is associated with attention biases to body size, focusing on the role of social comparison processes and automaticity. Thirty-six women varying on self-reported preoccupation compared their actual body size to size-modified images of either themselves or a figure-matched peer. Amplification of earlier (N170, P2) and later (P3, LPP) ERP components recorded under low vs...
March 17, 2018: Biological Psychology
Anne-Will Kruijt, Per Carlbring
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Nicholas P Allan, Joseph W Boffa, Amanda M Raines, Norman B Schmidt
BACKGROUND: Interventions aimed at preventing suicidal thoughts target people at risk for suicide based on risk factor elevations. Based on the interpersonal psychological theory of suicide, elevated perceived burdensomeness (PB) and thwarted belongingness (TB) are potential targets for prevention of the occurrence of suicidal thoughts. PB is the belief that one is a burden to others. TB is the perceived lack of social connectedness. METHODS: This study was designed to examine the effects of a preventative intervention targeting PB and TB on the 6-month incidence of suicide ideation in a sample of 138 people (M = 38...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
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