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Bias modification

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910095/a-comparison-of-methods-for-estimating-the-incidence-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-in-repeat-blood-donors
#1
Donald J Brambilla, Michael P Busch, Roger Y Dodd, Simone A Glynn, Steven H Kleinman
BACKGROUND: The incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in repeat blood donors has been estimated using seven methods. Although incidence is always calculated as cases per person-time, approaches to selecting cases and calculating person-time vary. Incidence estimates have not been compared among methods. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: The seven methods were compared in a simulation study. Because three methods used information from donations made before an estimation interval, 8 years of donation and infection history were simulated, and Years 7 and 8 were treated as the estimation interval for all methods...
December 1, 2016: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903241/abundant-rna-editing-sites-of-chloroplast-protein-coding-genes-in-ginkgo-biloba-and-an-evolutionary-pattern-analysis
#2
Peng He, Sheng Huang, Guanghui Xiao, Yuzhou Zhang, Jianing Yu
BACKGROUND: RNA editing is a posttranscriptional modification process that alters the RNA sequence so that it deviates from the genomic DNA sequence. RNA editing mainly occurs in chloroplasts and mitochondrial genomes, and the number of editing sites varies in terrestrial plants. Why and how RNA editing systems evolved remains a mystery. Ginkgo biloba is one of the oldest seed plants and has an important evolutionary position. Determining the patterns and distribution of RNA editing in the ancient plant provides insights into the evolutionary trend of RNA editing, and helping us to further understand their biological significance...
December 1, 2016: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900387/a-modification-specific-peptide-based-immunization-approach-using-crm197-carrier-protein-development-of-a-selective-vaccine-against-pyroglutamate-a%C3%AE-peptides
#3
Valérie Vingtdeux, Haitian Zhao, Pallavi Chandakkar, Christopher M Acker, Peter Davies, Philippe Marambaud
Strategies aimed at reducing cerebral accumulation of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides have therapeutic potential in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aβ immunization has proven to be effective at promoting Aβ clearance in animal models but adverse effects have hampered its clinical evaluation. The first anti-Aβ immunization clinical trial, which assessed a full-length Aβ1-42 vaccine, increased the risk of encephalitis most likely because of autoimmune pro-inflammatory T helper 1 (Th1) response against all forms of Aβ...
November 28, 2016: Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890838/preoperative-evaluation-of-the-renal-function-before-the-treatment-of-abdominal-aortic-aneurysms
#4
Raphael Coscas, Sandra Wagner, Eve Vilaine, Albane Sartorius, Isabelle Javerliat, Olivier Goeau-Brissonniere, Marc Coggia, Ziad Massy
OBJECTIVES: Chronic impaired renal function (IRC) constitutes a major risk factor of morbi-mortality during the treatment of an abdominal aortic aneurism (AAA). The inflammatory state due to the AAA could result in a reduction in the muscular mass and an over-estimation of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) with the usual formulas. The objective of this study was to determine if the formulae used to evaluate the estimated GFR were adapted in patients with AAA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between August 2013 and November 2014, we conducted an exploratory study to evaluate the renal function before surgery for AAA in 28 patients...
November 24, 2016: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886870/interventions-for-the-treatment-of-pain-in-nursing-home-residents-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
REVIEW
Jennifer A Knopp-Sihota, Pooja Patel, Carole A Estabrooks
BACKGROUND: More than one-half of nursing home residents experience a complex mix of pain. Despite this, assessment and treatment of pain remain inadequate. METHODS: Using techniques of the Cochrane Collaboration and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, we assessed efficacy of interventions aimed at reducing chronic pain in nursing home residents >65 years of age. We searched for controlled trials comparing and measuring pain interventions using standardized pain scales...
December 1, 2016: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881506/development-and-evolution-of-a-hierarchical-clinical-composite-end-point-for-the-evaluation-of-drugs-and-devices-for-acute-and-chronic-heart-failure-a-20-year-perspective
#6
Milton Packer
Traditional approaches to the assessment of new treatments for heart failure have generally evaluated individual components of the syndrome at fixed points in time or have relied on surrogate physiological measures that are poorly correlated with the clinical status of patients. Conventional time-to-event trials that focus on morbidity and mortality represent an important methodological advance, but they generally assign undue weight to clinical events of less importance and are insensitive to difference in functional capacity among individuals who do not experience a clinical event during follow-up...
November 22, 2016: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873478/methods-and-processes-of-developing-the-strengthening-the-reporting-of-observational-studies-in-epidemiology-veterinary-strobe-vet-statement
#7
J M Sargeant, A M O'Connor, I R Dohoo, H N Erb, M Cevallos, M Egger, A K Ersbøll, S W Martin, L R Nielsen, D L Pearl, D U Pfeiffer, J Sanchez, M E Torrence, H Vigre, C Waldner, M P Ward
The reporting of observational studies in veterinary research presents many challenges that often are not adequately addressed in published reporting guidelines. A consensus meeting of experts was organized to develop an extension of the STROBE statement to address observational studies in veterinary medicine with respect to animal health, animal production, animal welfare and food safety outcomes. The consensus meeting was held 11-13 May 2014 in Mississauga, Ontario, Canada. Seventeen experts from North America, Europe and Australia attended the meeting...
November 22, 2016: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871669/induction-and-blockade-of-adolescent-cocaine-induced-habits
#8
Lauren M DePoy, Kelsey S Zimmermann, Paul J Marvar, Shannon L Gourley
BACKGROUND: Cocaine use during adolescence increases vulnerability to drug dependence and decreases the likelihood that individuals will seek treatment as adults. Understanding how early-life cocaine exposure influences decision-making processes in adulthood is thus critically important. METHODS: Adolescent or adult mice were exposed to subchronic cocaine, then behavioral sensitivity to changes in the predictive relationship between actions and their consequences was tested...
October 6, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870589/results-of-a-prospective-study-evaluating-a-non-invasive-method-of-hemoglobin-adjustment-for-determining-the-diffusing-capacity-of-the-lung
#9
Karla E Foster, Rashmi D Sahay, Nanhua Zhang, William D Hardie
RATIONALE: Measurement of the lung diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) is significantly influenced by the pulmonary capillary blood volume. Consequently, measurements require adjustment for blood hemoglobin concentration (DLCOADJ) to allow meaningful clinical interpretation. Noninvasive point-of-care devices that measure hemoglobin transcutaneously provide immediate values for hemoglobin that may be useful in pulmonary function laboratories for determining DLCOADJ. OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that DLCOADJ determinations obtained using a commerciallyavailable device for noninvasive, point-of-care measurement of blood hemoglobin concentrations are not importantly different from determinations obtained using hemoglobin concentrations measured conventionally on venous blood samples...
November 21, 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869644/hydrogen-gas-sensors-from-polysilicon-nanobelt-devices-selectively-modified-with-sensing-materials
#10
Nhan Ai Tran, Fu-Ming Pan, Jeng-Tzong Sheu
Double-junction n(+)/n(-)/n(+) polysilicon nanobelts featuring selectively deposited sensing materials have been investigated for application as H2 gas sensors. The selective modification of the devices was performed through a combination of localized ablation of a resist and lift-off of a previous catalyst material deposited through e-beam evaporation. Four nanobelt devices, differentiated by their doping concentrations at the n(-) region (from 2.5 × 10(13) to 2.5 × 10(14) cm(-2)), were analyzed in terms of the responses to H2 and their self-heating effects...
December 16, 2016: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866433/rasch-validation-of-the-arabic-version-of-the-lower-extremity-functional-scale
#11
Ali H Alnahdi
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the internal construct validity of the Arabic version of the Lower Extremity Functional Scale (20-item Arabic LEFS) using Rasch analysis. METHODS: Patients (n = 170) with lower extremity musculoskeletal dysfunction were recruited. Rasch analysis of 20-item Arabic LEFS was performed. Once the initial Rasch analysis indicated that the 20-item Arabic LEFS did not fit the Rasch model, follow-up analyses were conducted to improve the fit of the scale to the Rasch measurement model...
November 20, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866085/cognitive-bias-modification-of-interpretation-in-children-with-social-anxiety-disorder
#12
Faith Orchard, Adela Apetroaia, Kiri Clarke, Cathy Creswell
Negative (or a lack of positive) interpretation of ambiguous social situations has been hypothesised to maintain social anxiety disorder in children, yet there is currently limited evidence to support this. Cognitive Bias Modification of Interpretation (CBM-I) provides a means to explore the causal influence of interpretation bias on social anxiety disorder, and has been associated with a reduction in social anxiety symptoms in adults. Seven to twelve year old children with a diagnosis of social anxiety disorder completed CBM-I training, adapted from materials designed for socially anxious children in the community, or no training...
November 6, 2016: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859753/methods-and-processes-of-developing-the-strengthening-the-reporting-of-observational-studies-in-epidemiology-veterinary-strobe-vet-statement
#13
J M Sargeant, A M O'Connor, I R Dohoo, H N Erb, M Cevallos, M Egger, A K Ersbøll, S W Martin, L R Nielsen, D L Pearl, D U Pfeiffer, J Sanchez, M E Torrence, H Vigre, C Waldner, M P Ward
BACKGROUND: Reporting of observational studies in veterinary research presents challenges that often are not addressed in published reporting guidelines. OBJECTIVE: To develop an extension of the STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology) statement that addresses unique reporting requirements for observational studies in veterinary medicine related to health, production, welfare, and food safety. DESIGN: Consensus meeting of experts...
November 2016: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856316/estimation-of-the-binding-potential-bpnd-without-a-reference-region-or-blood-samples-for-brain-pet-studies
#14
Martin Schain, Francesca Zanderigo, J John Mann, R Todd Ogden
Binding potential (BPND) is a commonly used PET outcome measure because it can be estimated without blood sampling if a brain reference region (RR) devoid of the target of interest exists. For many radioligands, however, no RR exists, and the total distribution volume (VT), whose estimation requires arterial blood sampling, is normally considered as the outcome measure. Here, we present a method that allows calculation of BPND without requiring either blood samples or a RR. The method extends our previous algorithm for estimating non-displaceable distribution volumes (VND) without using a RR...
November 14, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851975/cd8-t-cells-from-human-neonates-are-biased-toward-an-innate-immune-response
#15
Ariel O Galindo-Albarrán, Oscar H López-Portales, Darely Y Gutiérrez-Reyna, Otoniel Rodríguez-Jorge, José Antonio Sánchez-Villanueva, Oscar Ramírez-Pliego, Aurélie Bergon, Béatrice Loriod, Hélène Holota, Jean Imbert, Armando Hernández-Mendoza, Pierre Ferrier, Enrique Carrillo-de Santa Pau, Alfonso Valencia, Salvatore Spicuglia, M Angélica Santana
To better understand why human neonates show a poor response to intracellular pathogens, we compared gene expression and histone modification profiles of neonatal naive CD8(+) T cells with that of their adult counterparts. We found that neonatal lymphocytes have a distinct epigenomic landscape associated with a lower expression of genes involved in T cell receptor (TCR) signaling and cytotoxicity and a higher expression of genes involved in the cell cycle and innate immunity. Functional studies corroborated that neonatal CD8(+) T cells are less cytotoxic, transcribe antimicrobial peptides, and produce reactive oxygen species...
November 15, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836042/methods-and-processes-of-developing-the-strengthening-the-reporting-of-observational-studies-in-epidemiology-veterinary-strobe-vet-statement
#16
J M Sargeant, A M O'Connor, I R Dohoo, H N Erb, M Cevallos, M Egger, A K Ersbøll, S W Martin, L R Nielsen, D L Pearl, D U Pfeiffer, J Sanchez, M E Torrence, H Vigre, C Waldner, M P Ward
BACKGROUND: The reporting of observational studies in veterinary research presents many challenges that often are not adequately addressed in published reporting guidelines. OBJECTIVE: To develop an extension of the STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology) statement that addresses unique reporting requirements for observational studies in veterinary medicine related to health, production, welfare, and food safety. DESIGN: A consensus meeting of experts was organized to develop an extension of the STROBE statement to address observational studies in veterinary medicine with respect to animal health, animal production, animal welfare, and food safety outcomes...
November 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835784/from-development-to-aging-holistic-face-perception-in-children-younger-and-older-adults
#17
Bozana Meinhardt-Injac, Isabelle Boutet, Malte Persike, Günter Meinhardt, Margarete Imhof
Few published reports examine the development of holistic face processing across the lifespan such that face-specific processes are adequately differentiated from general developmental effects. To address this gap in the literature, we used the complete design of the composite paradigm (Richler & Gauthier, 2014) with faces and non-face control objects (watches) to investigate holistic processing in children (8-10years), young adults (20-32years) and older adults (65-78years). Several modifications to past research designs were introduced to improve the ability to draw conclusions about the development of holistic processing in terms of face-specificity, response bias, and age-related differences in attention...
November 8, 2016: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834374/trna-mediated-codon-biased-translation-in-mycobacterial-hypoxic-persistence
#18
Yok Hian Chionh, Megan McBee, I Ramesh Babu, Fabian Hia, Wenwei Lin, Wei Zhao, Jianshu Cao, Agnieszka Dziergowska, Andrzej Malkiewicz, Thomas J Begley, Sylvie Alonso, Peter C Dedon
Microbial pathogens adapt to the stress of infection by regulating transcription, translation and protein modification. We report that changes in gene expression in hypoxia-induced non-replicating persistence in mycobacteria-which models tuberculous granulomas-are partly determined by a mechanism of tRNA reprogramming and codon-biased translation. Mycobacterium bovis BCG responded to each stage of hypoxia and aerobic resuscitation by uniquely reprogramming 40 modified ribonucleosides in tRNA, which correlate with selective translation of mRNAs from families of codon-biased persistence genes...
November 11, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829693/practicing-emotionally-biased-retrieval-affects-mood-and-establishes-biased-recall-a-week-later
#19
Janna N Vrijsen, Paula T Hertel, Eni S Becker
Cognitive Bias Modification (CBM) can yield clinically relevant results. Only few studies have directly manipulated memory bias, which is prominent in depression. In a new approach to CBM, we sought to simulate or oppose ruminative processes by training the retrieval of negative or positive words. Participants studied positive and negative word pairs (Swahili cues with Dutch translations). In the positive and negative conditions, each of the three study trials was followed by a cued-recall test of training-congruent translations; a no-practice condition merely studied the pairs...
2016: Cognitive Therapy and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826445/weight-bias-a-call-to-action
#20
Angela S Alberga, Shelly Russell-Mayhew, Kristin M von Ranson, Lindsay McLaren
Weight-related issues (including excess weight, disordered eating and body concerns) are often considered as comprising distinct domains of 'obesity' and 'eating disorders'. In this commentary we argue that the concept of weight bias is an important variable when considering wellbeing across the spectrum of weight-related issues. We make the following six points in support of this argument: i) weight bias is common and has adverse health consequences, ii) shaming individuals for their body weight does not motivate positive behaviour change, iii) internalized weight bias is particularly problematic, iv) public health interventions, if not carefully thought out, can perpetuate weight bias, v) weight bias is a manifestation of social inequity, and vi) action on weight bias requires an upstream, population-level approach...
2016: Journal of Eating Disorders
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