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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103235/real-time-multiplicative-memory-amplification-mediated-by-whole-cell-scaling-of-synaptic-response-in-key-neurons
#1
Iris Reuveni, Sourav Ghosh, Edi Barkai
Intense spiking response of a memory-pattern is believed to play a crucial role both in normal learning and pathology, where it can create biased behavior. We recently proposed a novel model for memory amplification where the simultaneous two-fold increase of all excitatory (AMPAR-mediated) and inhibitory (GABAAR-mediated) synapses in a sub-group of cells that constitutes a memory-pattern selectively amplifies this memory. Here we confirm the cellular basis of this model by validating its major predictions in four sets of experiments, and demonstrate its induction via a whole-cell transduction mechanism...
January 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095313/prefrontal-mediation-of-emotion-regulation-in-social-anxiety-disorder-during-laughter-perception
#2
Benjamin Kreifelts, Carolin Brück, Thomas Ethofer, Jan Ritter, Lena Weigel, Michael Erb, Dirk Wildgruber
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by negatively biased perception of social cues and deficits in emotion regulation. While negatively biased perception is thought to maintain social anxiety, emotion regulation represents an ability necessary to overcome both biased perception and social anxiety. Here, we used laughter as a social threat in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study to identify cerebral mediators linking SAD with attention and interpretation biases and their modification through cognitive emotion regulation in the form of reappraisal...
January 14, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087143/contribution-of-age-to-clinical-trial-enrollment-and-tolerance-with-ovarian-cancer
#3
Jessica Gillen, Camille Gunderson, Molly Greenwade, Michelle Rowland, Rachel Ruskin, Kai Ding, Aleia Crim, Adam Walter, Emily White, Kathleen Moore
INTRODUCTION: Increasing age has been correlated with shorter survival in ovarian cancer patients, a finding attributed to diminished tolerance of standard therapy. Elderly patients, however, are less likely to enroll on clinical trials; thus, limited data exists to evaluate their response to front line treatment. This study describes how elderly patients on trial fared, with respect to toxicity and response, compared to younger women. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed of ovarian cancer patients enrolled in front line chemotherapy trials at our institution between 2000 and 2013...
January 10, 2017: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081205/anxiety-and-depression-in-patients-with-traumatic-spinal-cord-injury-a-nationwide-population-based-cohort-study
#4
Sher-Wei Lim, Yow-Ling Shiue, Chung-Han Ho, Shou-Chun Yu, Pei-Hsin Kao, Jhi-Joung Wang, Jinn-Rung Kuo
BACKGROUND: Traumatic spinal cord injury (tSCI) may involve new-onset anxiety and depression post-discharge. However, long-term population-based studies have lacked access to follow-up conditions in terms of new-onset anxiety and depression. The objective of this study was to estimate the long-term risk of new-onset anxiety and depression post-discharge. METHODS: The Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000 (LHID2000) from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database was used in this study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077169/distinct-5-methylcytosine-profiles-in-poly-a-rna-from-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells-and-brain
#5
Thomas Amort, Dietmar Rieder, Alexandra Wille, Daria Khokhlova-Cubberley, Christian Riml, Lukas Trixl, Xi-Yu Jia, Ronald Micura, Alexandra Lusser
BACKGROUND: Recent work has identified and mapped a range of posttranscriptional modifications in mRNA, including methylation of the N6 and N1 positions in adenine, pseudouridylation, and methylation of carbon 5 in cytosine (m5C). However, knowledge about the prevalence and transcriptome-wide distribution of m5C is still extremely limited; thus, studies in different cell types, tissues, and organisms are needed to gain insight into possible functions of this modification and implications for other regulatory processes...
January 5, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073958/rudeness-and-medical-team-performance
#6
Arieh Riskin, Amir Erez, Trevor A Foulk, Kinneret S Riskin-Geuz, Amitai Ziv, Rina Sela, Liat Pessach-Gelblum, Peter A Bamberger
OBJECTIVES: Rudeness is routinely experienced by medical teams. We sought to explore the impact of rudeness on medical teams' performance and test interventions that might mitigate its negative consequences. METHODS: Thirty-nine NICU teams participated in a training workshop including simulations of acute care of term and preterm newborns. In each workshop, 2 teams were randomly assigned to either an exposure to rudeness (in which the comments of the patient's mother included rude statements completely unrelated to the teams' performance) or control (neutral comments) condition, and 2 additional teams were assigned to rudeness with either a preventative (cognitive bias modification [CBM]) or therapeutic (narrative) intervention...
January 10, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073948/functioning-and-health-related-quality-of-life-following-injury-in-older-people-a-systematic-review
#7
Katherine Brown, Ian D Cameron, Lisa Keay, Kristy Coxon, Rebecca Ivers
AIM AND BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence around the impact of injury and recovery trajectories but little focuses on older people, despite rising burden. The aim of this review was to describe the evidence for postinjury functioning and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in older people. METHOD: A systematic search of three databases and an extensive search of the grey literature was carried out on prospective injury outcome studies in older people (age ≥65 years) that used a generic health status outcome measure...
January 10, 2017: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067454/concomitant-use-of-calcium-channel-blockers-with-dual-antiplatelet-therapy-and-re-hospitalization-for-acute-coronary-syndrome
#8
Chen-Yu Wang, Zhen-Fang Lin, Chii-Ming Lee, Yi-Wen Tsai, Ting-Ying Huang, Li-Jiuan Shen, Fei-Yuan Hsiao
BACKGROUND: Existing studies suggested that concomitant use of calcium channel blockers (CCBs) may interfere with the antiplatelet effect of clopidogrel. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of concomitant use of CCBs and clopidogrel on risks of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) re-hospitalization in patients receiving percutaneous coronary intervention. METHODS: Using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, we identified 51 925 patients who were admitted for newly diagnosed ACS, received percutaneous coronary intervention, and used clopidogrel within 1 year after discharge...
January 9, 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065480/influence-of-different-intravenous-lipid-emulsions-on-fatty-acid-status-and-laboratory-and-clinical-outcomes-in-adult-patients-receiving-home-parenteral-nutrition-a-systematic-review
#9
Charis J Jones, Philip C Calder
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Intravenous lipid emulsions (IVLEs) are a key component in long-term home parenteral nutrition (HPN), providing energy and essential fatty acids (EFAs). Modification of the fatty acid (FA) composition of IVLEs may lead to changes in metabolic responses and cell and tissue function, providing opportunity for clinical improvements. Studies have suggested that, in place of conventional pure soybean oil (SO)-based IVLEs, which have a high omega-6 FA content, alternative IVLEs with different FA profiles may have beneficial effects...
December 31, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055119/a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial-of-cognitive-bias-modification-to-reduce-fear-of-breast-cancer-recurrence
#10
Wendy G Lichtenthal, Geoffrey W Corner, Elizabeth T Slivjak, Kailey E Roberts, Yuelin Li, William Breitbart, Stephanie Lacey, Malwina Tuman, Katherine N DuHamel, Victoria S Blinder, Courtney Beard
BACKGROUND: The most common, persistent concern among survivors of breast cancer is the fear that their disease will return, yet to the authors' knowledge, few interventions targeting fear of cancer recurrence (FCR) have been developed to date. The current pilot study examined the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of a home-delivered cognitive bias modification intervention to reduce FCR. The intervention, called Attention and Interpretation Modification for Fear of Breast Cancer Recurrence (AIM-FBCR), targeted 2 types of cognitive biases (ie, attention and interpretation biases)...
January 5, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053124/hmcan-diff-a-method-to-detect-changes-in-histone-modifications-in-cells-with-different-genetic-characteristics
#11
Haitham Ashoor, Caroline Louis-Brennetot, Isabelle Janoueix-Lerosey, Vladimir B Bajic, Valentina Boeva
Comparing histone modification profiles between cancer and normal states, or across different tumor samples, can provide insights into understanding cancer initiation, progression and response to therapy. ChIP-seq histone modification data of cancer samples are distorted by copy number variation innate to any cancer cell. We present HMCan-diff, the first method designed to analyze ChIP-seq data to detect changes in histone modifications between two cancer samples of different genetic backgrounds, or between a cancer sample and a normal control...
January 3, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040719/cancer-type-and-risk-of-newly-diagnosed-depression-among-elderly-medicare-beneficiaries-with-incident-breast-colorectal-and-prostate-cancers
#12
Monira Alwhaibi, Usha Sambamoorthi, Suresh Madhavan, Thomas Bias, Kimberly Kelly, James Walkup
BACKGROUND: Elderly individuals (age >65 years) with cancer are at high risk for newly diagnosed depression after a cancer diagnosis. It is not known whether the risk of newly diagnosed depression varies by cancer type. PURPOSE: To examine the variations in the risk of newly diagnosed depression by cancer type among elderly individuals with cancer. METHODS: This study used a retrospective cohort study design and data from the linked SEER-Medicare files...
January 2017: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network: JNCCN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036149/social-dominance-alters-nutrition-related-gene-expression-immediately-transcriptomic-evidence-from-a-monomorphic-queenless-ant
#13
Yasukazu Okada, Yutaka Watanabe, Mandy M Y Tin, Kazuki Tsuji, Alexander S Mikheyev
Queen-worker differentiation in eusocial organisms may have originated from decoupling of maternal care and reproductive behaviors. Recent advances in sequencing techniques have begun to elucidate the molecular basis of queen-worker differentiation. However, current knowledge of the molecular basis of caste differentiation is limited, especially to species with morphological castes. It seems likely that at the dawn of eusociality morphologically undifferentiated, monomorphic females underwent physiological differentiation that yielded egg-laying and caretaking castes...
December 30, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032848/the-chd1-chromatin-remodeler-shifts-hexasomes-unidirectionally
#14
Robert F Levendosky, Anton Sabantsev, Sebastian Deindl, Gregory D Bowman
Despite their canonical two-fold symmetry, nucleosomes in biological contexts are often asymmetric: functionalized with post-translational modifications (PTMs), substituted with histone variants, and even lacking H2A/H2B dimers. Here we show that the Widom 601 nucleosome positioning sequence can produce hexasomes in a specific orientation on DNA, providing a useful tool for interrogating chromatin enzymes and allowing for the generation of nucleosomes with precisely defined asymmetry. Using this methodology, we demonstrate that the Chd1 chromatin remodeler from Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires H2A/H2B on the entry side for sliding, and thus, unlike the back-and-forth sliding observed for nucleosomes, Chd1 shifts hexasomes unidirectionally...
December 29, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027312/the-subclonal-architecture-of-metastatic-breast-cancer-results-from-a-prospective-community-based-rapid-autopsy-program-cascade
#15
Peter Savas, Zhi Ling Teo, Christophe Lefevre, Christoffer Flensburg, Franco Caramia, Kathryn Alsop, Mariam Mansour, Prudence A Francis, Heather A Thorne, Maria Joao Silva, Nnennaya Kanu, Michelle Dietzen, Andrew Rowan, Maik Kschischo, Stephen Fox, David D Bowtell, Sarah-Jane Dawson, Terence P Speed, Charles Swanton, Sherene Loi
BACKGROUND: Understanding the cancer genome is seen as a key step in improving outcomes for cancer patients. Genomic assays are emerging as a possible avenue to personalised medicine in breast cancer. However, evolution of the cancer genome during the natural history of breast cancer is largely unknown, as is the profile of disease at death. We sought to study in detail these aspects of advanced breast cancers that have resulted in lethal disease. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Three patients with oestrogen-receptor (ER)-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative breast cancer and one patient with triple negative breast cancer underwent rapid autopsy as part of an institutional prospective community-based rapid autopsy program (CASCADE)...
December 2016: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013069/cognitive-bias-modification-and-cbt-as-early-interventions-for-adolescent-social-and-test-anxiety-two-year-follow-up-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Eva de Hullu, B Esther Sportel, Maaike H Nauta, Peter J de Jong
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This two-year follow-up study evaluated the long-term outcomes of two early interventions that aimed at reducing social and test anxiety in young adolescents at risk for developing social anxiety disorder. METHODS: In this RCT, moderately socially anxious adolescents (N=240, mean age 13.6 years) were randomly assigned to a 10-week internet-based multifaceted cognitive bias modification training (CBM), a 10-week school-based cognitive behavioral group training (CBT), or a no-intervention control condition...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011448/comparison-of-primary-outcomes-in-protocols-public-clinical-trial-registries-and-publications-the-example-of-oncology-trials
#17
A Perlmutter, V-T Tran, A Dechartres, P Ravaud
BACKGROUND: Protocols are often unavailable to peer-reviewers and readers. To detect outcome reporting bias (ORB), readers usually have to resort to publicly available descriptions of study design such as clinical-trial registries. We compared primary outcomes in protocols, ClinicalTrials.gov and publications of oncology trials and evaluated the use of ClinicalTrials.gov as compared with protocols in detecting discrepancies between planned and published outcomes. METHOD: We searched for phase III oncology trials registered in ClinicalTrials...
December 22, 2016: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009273/life-at-low-copy-number-how-dendrites-manage-with-so-few-mrnas
#18
REVIEW
Kenneth S Kosik
Most mammalian dendrites have surprisingly few copy numbers of mRNAs relative to the large number of synapses and consequently, at any given moment, the majority of synapses do not have a repertoire of mRNAs within their immediate locale capable of initiating translation-dependent plasticity. The dimensions of the translationally serviceable locale around synapses have boundary parameters that can be estimated. When a synapse receives an input beyond that boundary, the requisite mRNAs for local translation and plasticity may not be there...
December 21, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001123/fine-scale-spatial-and-temporal-variation-in-temperature-and-arrhythmia-episodes-in-the-va-normative-aging-study
#19
Antonella Zanobetti, Brent A Coull, Itai Kloog, David Sparrow, Pantel S Vokonas, Diane R Gold, Joel Schwartz
: Many studies have demonstrated that cold and hot temperatures are associated with increased deaths and hospitalization rates; new findings indicate also an association with more specific cardiac risk factors. Most of these existing studies have relied on few weather stations to characterize exposures; few have used residence-specific estimates of temperature, or examined the exposure-response function. We investigated the association of arrhythmia episodes with spatial and temporal variation in temperature...
January 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996085/supportive-interventions-for-enhancing-dietary-intake-in-malnourished-or-nutritionally-at-risk-adults
#20
REVIEW
Christine Baldwin, Katherine L Kimber, Michelle Gibbs, Christine Elizabeth Weekes
BACKGROUND: Supportive interventions such as serving meals in a dining room environment or the use of assistants to feed patients are frequently recommended for the management of nutritionally vulnerable groups. Such interventions are included in many policy and guideline documents and have implications for staff time but may incur additional costs, yet there appears to be a lack of evidence for their efficacy. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of supportive interventions for enhancing dietary intake in malnourished or nutritionally at-risk adults...
December 20, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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