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Bias modification

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048185/impulsivity-and-approach-tendencies-towards-cigarette-stimuli-implications-for-cigarette-smoking-and-cessation-behaviors-among-youth
#1
Hanna Weckler, Grace Kong, Helle Larsen, Janna Cousijn, Reinout W Wiers, Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin
Impulsivity is associated with smoking, difficulties quitting smoking, and approach tendencies toward cigarette stimuli among adolescents. We examined the effects of impulsivity on (a) the association between approach tendencies and adolescents' smoking status and (b) the effectiveness of Cognitive Bias Modification (CBM), a smoking cessation intervention focused on changing approach tendencies, among adolescent smokers. We conducted a secondary analysis of evidence from 2 previous published studies: Study 1: a cross-sectional study comparing impulsivity and approach tendencies between adolescent smokers (n = 67) and nonsmokers (n = 58); Study 2: a treatment study that randomized 60 adolescent smokers to receive either CBM or sham training...
October 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046330/systematic-review-and-metaanalysis-comparing-the-bias-and-accuracy-of-the-modification-of-diet-in-renal-disease-and-chronic-kidney-disease-epidemiology-collaboration-equations-in-community-based-populations
#2
REVIEW
Emily C McFadden, Jennifer A Hirst, Jan Y Verbakel, Julie H McLellan J, F D Richard Hobbs, Richard J Stevens, Chris A O'Callaghan, Daniel S Lasserson
BACKGROUND: The majority of patients with chronic kidney disease are diagnosed and monitored in primary care. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is a key marker of renal function, but direct measurement is invasive; in routine practice, equations are used for estimated GFR (eGFR) from serum creatinine. We systematically assessed bias and accuracy of commonly used eGFR equations in populations relevant to primary care. CONTENT: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were searched for studies comparing measured GFR (mGFR) with eGFR in adult populations comparable to primary care and reporting both the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) and the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equations based on standardized creatinine measurements...
October 18, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040973/sulforaphane-and-epigallocatechin-gallate-restore-estrogen-receptor-expression-by-modulating-epigenetic-events-in-the-breast-cancer-cell-line-mda-mb-231-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
Vincenza Gianfredi, Samuele Vannini, Massimo Moretti, Milena Villarini, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Alberto Izzotti, Daniele Nucci
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Epigenetics refers to modifications in gene activity and expression without alteration at the DNA sequence. Environment and diet could influence gene expression. Diet modifications may be meaningful in preventing and treating chronic diseases, cancer included. Dietary bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols (e.g., curcumin, resveratrol, or epigallocatechin gallate [EGCG]) or isothiocyanate (e.g., sulforaphane [SFN]), can regulate histone acetylation. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effect of SFN and EGCG on breast cancer (BC) cells cultured in vitro...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034489/modification-of-automatic-alcohol-approach-tendencies-in-alcohol-dependent-patients-with-mild-or-major-neurocognitive-disorder
#4
Anke Loijen, Mike Rinck, Serge J W Walvoort, Roy P C Kessels, Eni S Becker, Jos I M Egger
BACKGROUND: To examine the applicability of an alcohol-avoidance training procedure in patients with alcohol dependence and alcohol-induced neurocognitive disorders, we trained two groups that differed in the degree of cognitive impairment: One group fulfilled the DSM-5 criteria for Alcohol-Induced Mild Neurocognitive Disorder, and one group was diagnosed with Korsakoff's syndrome (Alcohol-Induced Major Neurocognitive Disorder, Confabulatory/Amnesic subtype; DSM-5). The intervention is assumed to match the preserved cognitive capacity for implicit learning in both groups...
October 16, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031084/moving-towards-the-benign-automatic-interpretation-bias-modification-in-dysphoria
#5
Alexandra H Cowden Hindash, Jonathan A Rottenberg
Automatic cognitive biases are important to theories of depression and reducing such biases may contribute to therapeutic gains. The present study examined (1) whether it was possible to reduce automatic interpretation biases (AIB) in a single session among dysphoric subjects and (2) whether the effects of modifying AIB generalized to other measures of cognition and emotion. 76 dysphoric students completed a modified semantic association paradigm in which they were randomized to receive active or random-feedback-based training...
September 21, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030838/cloning-and-identification-of-recombinant-argonaute-bound-small-rnas-using-next-generation-sequencing
#6
Pooja Gangras, Daniel M Dayeh, Justin W Mabin, Kotaro Nakanishi, Guramrit Singh
Argonaute proteins (AGOs) are loaded with small RNAs as guides to recognize target mRNAs. Since the target specificity heavily depends on the base complementarity between two strands, it is important to identify small guide and long target RNAs bound to AGOs. For this purpose, next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have extended our appreciation truly to the nucleotide level. However, the identification of RNAs via NGS from scarce RNA samples remains a challenge. Further, most commercial and published methods are compatible with either small RNAs or long RNAs, but are not equally applicable to both...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029647/renal-manifestations-of-hiv-during-the-antiretroviral-era-in-south-africa-a-systematic-scoping-review
#7
Shirelle Assaram, Nombulelo P Magula, Suman Mewa Kinoo, Tivani P Mashamba-Thompson
BACKGROUND: It is estimated that 650,000 patients may develop human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related renal disease in South Africa. South Africa has recently adopted WHO policy, stipulating that all HIV-infected patients have access to antiretroviral treatment (ART) irrespective of CD4 cell count. METHODS: We searched Google Scholar, PubMed, Medline, Cochrane Library, Worldcat.org and EBSCO host databases from July 2015 to December 2015. Eligibility criteria included articles pertaining to renal manifestations of HIV in South Africa from 2004 to 2015 in adult patients (≥ 18 years)...
October 13, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020064/canine-companionship-is-associated-with-modification-of-attentional-bias-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#8
Steven H Woodward, Andrea L Jamison, Sasha Gala, Tyson H Holmes
Attentional bias towards aversive stimuli has been demonstrated in the anxiety disorders and in posttraumatic stress disorder, and attentional bias modification has been proposed as a candidate treatment. This study rigorously assessed attentional bias towards aversive and pleasant visual imagery associated with the presence or absence of a familiar service canine in 23 veterans with chronic military-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Participants were repeatedly tested with and without their service canines present on two tasks designed to elicit spontaneous visual attention to facial and scenic image pairs, respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993911/identifying-the-intersection-of-alcohol-adherence-and-sex-in-hiv-positive-men-on-art-treatment-in-india-using-an-adapted-timeline-followback-procedure
#9
Jean J Schensul, Toan Ha, Stephen Schensul, Avina Sarna, Kendall Bryant
People living with HIV (PLHIV) on anti-retroviral treatment (ART) who drink are less adherent and more likely to engage in unprotected sex but the connections among these events are correlational. Using an adapted Timeline Follow-Back (A-TLFB) procedure, this paper examines the day by day interface of alcohol, medication adherence and sex to provide a fine grained understanding of how multiple behavioral risks coincide in time and space, explores concordance/discordance of measures with survey data and identifies potential recall bias...
October 9, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992377/a-single-session-of-attentional-bias-modification-reduces-alcohol-craving-and-implicit-measures-of-alcohol-bias-in-young-adult-drinkers
#10
Peter Luehring-Jones, Courtney Louis, Tracy A Dennis-Tiwary, Joel Erblich
BACKGROUND: Attentional bias modification (ABM) techniques for reducing problematic alcohol consumption hold promise as highly-accessible and cost-effective treatment approaches. A growing body of literature has examined ABM as a potentially efficacious intervention for reducing drinking and drinking-related cognitions in alcohol-dependent individuals as well as those at-risk of developing problem drinking habits. METHODS: The present study tested the effectiveness of a single session of visual probe-based ABM training in a cohort of 60 non-treatment-seeking young adult drinkers, with a focus on examining mechanisms underlying training efficacy...
October 9, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986451/impact-of-selection-bias-on-estimation-of-subsequent-event-risk
#11
Yi-Juan Hu, Amand F Schmidt, Frank Dudbridge, Michael V Holmes, James M Brophy, Vinicius Tragante, Ziyi Li, Peizhou Liao, Arshed A Quyyumi, Raymond O McCubrey, Benjamin D Horne, Aroon D Hingorani, Folkert W Asselbergs, Riyaz S Patel, Qi Long
BACKGROUND: Studies of recurrent or subsequent disease events may be susceptible to bias caused by selection of subjects who both experience and survive the primary indexing event. Currently, the magnitude of any selection bias, particularly for subsequent time-to-event analysis in genetic association studies, is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used empirically inspired simulation studies to explore the impact of selection bias on the marginal hazard ratio for risk of subsequent events among those with established coronary heart disease...
October 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986341/computerized-decision-aids-for-shared-decision-making-in-serious-illness-systematic-review
#12
Anna Staszewska, Pearl Zaki, Joon Lee
BACKGROUND: Shared decision making (SDM) is important in achieving patient-centered care. SDM tools such as decision aids are intended to inform the patient. When used to assist in decision making between treatments, decision aids have been shown to reduce decisional conflict, increase ease of decision making, and increase modification of previous decisions. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the impact of computerized decision aids on patient-centered outcomes related to SDM for seriously ill patients...
October 6, 2017: JMIR Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985839/peritoneal-drainage-is-associated-with-higher-survival-rates-for-necrotizing-enterocolitis-in-premature-extremely-low-birth-weight-infants
#13
Jun Tashiro, Amy E Wagenaar, Eduardo A Perez, Juan E Sola
BACKGROUND: To evaluate peritoneal drainage (PD) and laparotomy ± resection/ostomy (LAP) as initial approaches to the surgical management of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in premature, extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. METHODS: Kids' Inpatient Database (2003-2012) was searched for cases of NEC (International Classification of Diseases, ninth revision, Clinical Modification [ICD-9-CM] 777.5x) in premature (<37 weeks), extremely low birth weight (<1000 g) infants...
October 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985112/minimally-sufficient-conditions-for-the-evolution-of-social-learning-and-the-emergence-of-non-genetic-evolutionary-systems
#14
Miguel Gonzalez, Richard Watson, Seth Bullock
Social learning, defined as the imitation of behaviors performed by others, is recognized as a distinctive characteristic in humans and several other animal species. Previous work has claimed that the evolutionary fixation of social learning requires decision-making cognitive abilities that result in transmission bias (e.g., discriminatory imitation) and/or guided variation (e.g., adaptive modification of behaviors through individual learning). Here, we present and analyze a simple agent-based model that demonstrates that the transition from instinctive actuators (i...
October 6, 2017: Artificial Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981848/social-cognition-psychometric-evaluation-results-of-the-final-validation-study
#15
Amy E Pinkham, Philip D Harvey, David L Penn
Social cognition is increasingly recognized as an important treatment target in schizophrenia; however, the dearth of well-validated measures that are suitable for use in clinical trials remains a significant limitation. The Social Cognition Psychometric Evaluation (SCOPE) study addresses this need by systematically evaluating the psychometric properties of promising measures. In this final phase of SCOPE, eight new or modified tasks were evaluated. Stable outpatients with schizophrenia (n = 218) and healthy controls (n = 154) completed the battery at baseline and 2-4 weeks later across three sites...
August 31, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980819/high-mobility-ultrathin-organic-semiconducting-films-realized-by-surface-mediated-crystallization
#16
I Vladimirov, M Kellermeier, T Geßner, Zarah Molla, S Grigorian, U Pietsch, L S Schaffroth, M Kühn, F May, R T Weitz
The functionality of common organic semiconductor materials is determined by their chemical structure and crystal modification. While the former can be fine-tuned via synthesis, a priori control over the crystal structure has remained elusive. We show that the surface tension is the main driver for the plate-like crystallization of a novel small organic molecule n-type semiconductor at the liquid-air interface. This interface provides an ideal environment for the growth of millimeter-sized semiconductor platelets that are only few nanometers thick and thus highly attractive for application in transistors...
October 10, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974265/effectiveness-of-two-web-based-cognitive-bias-modification-interventions-targeting-approach-and-attentional-bias-in-gambling-problems-study-protocol-for-a-pilot-randomised-controlled-trial
#17
Marilisa Boffo, Ronny Willemen, Thomas Pronk, Reinout W Wiers, Geert Dom
BACKGROUND: Disordered gamblers have phenotypical and pathological similarities to those with substance use disorders (SUD), including exaggerated automatic cognitive processing of motivationally salient gambling cues in the environment (i.e., attentional and approach bias). Cognitive bias modification (CBM) is a family of computerised interventions that have proved effective in successfully re-training these automatic cognitive biases in SUD. CBM interventions can, in principle, be administered online, thus showing potential of being a low-cost, low-threshold addition to conventional treatments...
October 3, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972140/a-conserved-energetic-footprint-underpins-recognition-of-human-leukocyte-antigen-e-by-two-distinct-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cell-receptors
#18
Lucy C Sullivan, Nicholas G Walpole, Carine Farenc, Gabriella Pietra, Matthew J Wenhwa Sum, Craig S Clements, Eleanor J Lee, Travis Beddoe, Michela Falco, Maria Cristina Mingari, Lorenzo Moretta, Stephanie Gras, Jamie Rossjohn, Andrew G Brooks
αβ T cell receptors (TCRs) interact with peptides bound to the polymorphic Major Histocompatibility Complex class Ia (MHC-Ia) and class II (MHC-II) molecules, as well as the essentially monomorphic MHC class Ib (MHC-Ib) molecules. While there is a large amount of information on how TCRs engage with MHC-Ia and MHC-II, our understanding of TCR-MHC-Ib interactions is very limited. Infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV) can elicit a CD8+ T cell response restricted by the human MHC-Ib molecule, Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-E, and specific for an epitope from UL40 (VMAPRTLIL), which is characterized by biased TRBV14 gene usage...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968342/attention-bias-modification-training-for-adolescents-with-chronic-pain-a-randomized-placebocontrolled-trial
#19
Lauren C Heathcote, Konrad Jacobs, Dimitri M L Van Ryckeghem, Emma Fisher, Christopher Eccleston, Elaine Fox, Jennifer Y F Lau
Attention bias for pain-related information is theorised to maintain chronic pain, indicating that changing this bias could improve pain-related outcomes. Modifying attention biases in adolescents, when chronic pain often first emerges, may be particularly beneficial. We report here a randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial of Attention Bias Modification (ABM) training in adolescents with chronic non-cancer pain. Adolescent patients (N=66) were randomly assigned to complete multiple sessions of dot-probe ABM training (N=23), placebo training (N=22), or no training (waitlist; N=21) across a period of four weeks...
September 29, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968085/quantum-point-contact-single-nucleotide-conductance-for-dna-and-rna-sequence-identification
#20
Sepideh Afsari, Lee Erik Korshoj, Gary R Abel, Sajida Khan, Anushree Chatterjee, Prashant Nagpal
Several nanoscale electronic methods have been proposed for high-throughput single-molecule nucleic acid sequence identification. While many studies display a large ensemble of measurements as "electronic fingerprints" with some promise for distinguishing the DNA and RNA nucleobases (adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine, and uracil), important metrics like accuracy and confidence of base calling fall well below the current genomic methods. Issues such as unreliable metal-molecule junction formation, variation of nucleotide conformations, insufficient differences between the molecular orbitals responsible for single-nucleotide conduction, and lack of rigorous base-calling algorithms lead to overlapping nanoelectronic measurements and poor nucleotide discrimination, especially at low coverage on single molecules...
October 2, 2017: ACS Nano
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