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Bias modification

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233089/de-novo-transcriptome-assembly-from-flower-buds-of-dioecious-gynomonoecious-and-chemically-masculinized-female-coccinia-grandis-reveals-genes-associated-with-sex-expression-and-modification
#1
Ravi Suresh Devani, Sangram Sinha, Jayeeta Banerjee, Rabindra Kumar Sinha, Abdelhafid Bendahmane, Anjan Kumar Banerjee
BACKGROUND: Coccinia grandis (ivy gourd), is a dioecious member of Cucurbitaceae having heteromorphic sex chromosomes. Chromosome constitution of male and female plants of C. grandis is 22A + XY and 22A + XX respectively. Earlier we showed that a unique gynomonoecious form of C. grandis (22A + XX) also exists in nature bearing morphologically hermaphrodite flowers (GyM-H). Additionally, application of silver nitrate (AgNO3) on female plants induces stamen development leading to the formation of morphologically hermaphrodite flowers (Ag-H) despite the absence of Y-chromosome...
December 12, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211057/neonatal-neutrophils-stimulated-by-group-b-streptococcus-induce-a-proinflammatory-t-helper-cell-bias
#2
Jianguo Lin, Seema Haridas, Stephen J Barenkamp, Larissa Chioquetta Lorenset, Ashley Sang Eun Lee, Benjamin T Schroeder, Guangyong Peng, Joyce M Koenig
BackgroundGroup B Streptococcus (GBS) infection causes inflammatory comorbidities in newborns. While the mechanisms remain unclear, evidence suggests that impaired innate-adaptive immune interactions may be contributory. We hypothesized that GBS-stimulated neonatal neutrophils provide a milieu that may drive proinflammatory T-helper (Th) cell programming.MethodsNeutrophils were stimulated with Type III GBS (COH1); supernatants or intact neutrophils were cocultured with CD4+ T cells or regulatory T cells (Tregs)...
December 6, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198755/differentiation-between-oppositely-oriented-microtubules-controls-polarized-neuronal-transport
#3
Roderick P Tas, Anaël Chazeau, Bas M C Cloin, Maaike L A Lambers, Casper C Hoogenraad, Lukas C Kapitein
Microtubules are essential for polarized transport in neurons, but how their organization guides motor proteins to axons or dendrites is unclear. Because different motors recognize distinct microtubule properties, we used optical nanoscopy to examine the relationship between microtubule orientations, stability, and modifications. Nanometric tracking of motors to super-resolve microtubules and determine their polarity revealed that in dendrites, stable and acetylated microtubules are mostly oriented minus-end out, while dynamic and tyrosinated microtubules are oriented oppositely...
November 28, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193632/lip-repositioning-for-the-treatment-of-excess-gingival-display-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
Omnia K Tawfik, Hani E El-Nahass, Peter Shipman, Stephen W Looney, Christopher W Cutler, Mark Brunner
BACKGROUND: Lip repositioning is a conservative surgical technique used to treat excess gingival display. An array of modifications has been introduced to the technique over time and as studies show the technique and its modifications to be successful, there is little standardized information for clinicians to make informed decisions when choosing this technique for the treatment of patients with excessive gingival display (EGD). OBJECTIVES: To review the current literature on the topic of lip repositioning for the treatment of excessive EGD, exploring outcome, and result longevity...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Esthetic and Restorative Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190036/devices-for-preventing-percutaneous-exposure-injuries-caused-by-needles-in-healthcare-personnel
#5
REVIEW
Viraj K Reddy, Marie-Claude Lavoie, Jos H Verbeek, Manisha Pahwa
BACKGROUND: Percutaneous exposure injuries from devices used for blood collection or for injections expose healthcare workers to the risk of blood borne infections such as hepatitis B and C, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Safety features such as shields or retractable needles can possibly contribute to the prevention of these injuries and it is important to evaluate their effectiveness. OBJECTIVES: To determine the benefits and harms of safety medical devices aiming to prevent percutaneous exposure injuries caused by needles in healthcare personnel versus no intervention or alternative interventions...
November 14, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187708/-library-construction-from-subnanogram-dna-for-pelagic-sea-water-and-deep-sea-sediments
#6
Miho Hirai, Shinro Nishi, Miwako Tsuda, Michinari Sunamura, Yoshihiro Takaki, Takuro Nunoura
Shotgun metagenomics is a low biased technology for assessing environmental microbial diversity and function. However, the requirement for a sufficient amount of DNA and the contamination of inhibitors in environmental DNA leads to difficulties in constructing a shotgun metagenomic library. We herein examined metagenomic library construction from subnanogram amounts of input environmental DNA from subarctic surface water and deep-sea sediments using two library construction kits: the KAPA Hyper Prep Kit and Nextera XT DNA Library Preparation Kit, with several modifications...
November 28, 2017: Microbes and Environments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187143/dmrfinder-efficiently-identifying-differentially-methylated-regions-from-methylc-seq-data
#7
John M Gaspar, Ronald P Hart
BACKGROUND: DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification that is studied at a single-base resolution with bisulfite treatment followed by high-throughput sequencing. After alignment of the sequence reads to a reference genome, methylation counts are analyzed to determine genomic regions that are differentially methylated between two or more biological conditions. Even though a variety of software packages is available for different aspects of the bioinformatics analysis, they often produce results that are biased or require excessive computational requirements...
November 29, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179140/modifying-a-negative-interpretation-bias-for-ambiguous-social-scenarios-that-depict-the-risk-of-rejection-in-women-with-anorexia-nervosa
#8
Robert Turton, Valentina Cardi, Janet Treasure, Colette R Hirsch
BACKGROUND: A heightened sensitivity to social rejection might contribute towards the interpersonal difficulties and symptoms that characterise Anorexia Nervosa (AN). This paper examines the effect of Cognitive Bias Modification for Interpretation biases (CBM-I) training on a negative interpretation bias for ambiguous social scenarios that involve the risk of rejection and eating behaviour. METHOD: Women with AN received a single session of CBM-I training to develop a more benign interpretational style or a control condition (which included 50:50 negative and benign resolutions)...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174765/attention-training-modulates-resting-state-neurophysiological-abnormalities-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#9
Amy Badura-Brack, Timothy J McDermott, Katherine M Becker, Tara J Ryan, Maya M Khanna, Daniel S Pine, Yair Bar-Haim, Elizabeth Heinrichs-Graham, Tony W Wilson
Recent research indicates the relative benefits of computerized attention control treatment (ACT) and attention bias modification treatment (ABMT) for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however, neural changes underlying these therapeutic effects remain unknown. This study examines how these two types of attention training modulate neurological dysfunction in veterans with PTSD. A community sample of 46 combat veterans with PTSD participated in a randomized double-blinded clinical trial of ACT versus ABMT and 32 of those veterans also agreed to undergo resting-state magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings...
November 14, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172614/a-novel-measure-of-effect-size-for-mediation-analysis
#10
Mark J Lachowicz, Kristopher J Preacher, Ken Kelley
Mediation analysis has become one of the most popular statistical methods in the social sciences. However, many currently available effect size measures for mediation have limitations that restrict their use to specific mediation models. In this article, we develop a measure of effect size that addresses these limitations. We show how modification of a currently existing effect size measure results in a novel effect size measure with many desirable properties. We also derive an expression for the bias of the sample estimator for the proposed effect size measure and propose an adjusted version of the estimator...
November 27, 2017: Psychological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168991/an-assessment-of-the-cox-proportional-hazards-regression-model-for-epidemiologic-studies
#11
Suresh H Moolgavkar, Ellen T Chang, Heather N Watson, Edmund C Lau
The basic assumptions of the Cox proportional hazards regression model are rarely questioned. This study addresses whether hazard ratio, i.e., relative risk (RR), estimates using the Cox model are biased when these assumptions are violated. We investigated also the dependence of RR estimates on temporal exposure characteristics, and how inadequate control for a strong, time-dependent confounder affects RRs for a modest, correlated risk factor. In a realistic cohort of 500,000 adults constructed using the National Cancer Institute Smoking History Generator, we used the Cox model with increasing control of smoking to examine the impact on RRs for smoking and a correlated covariate X...
November 23, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165595/con-the-role-of-diet-for-people-with-advanced-stage-5-ckd
#12
Graham Woodrow
Restriction of dietary protein intake has been used in the management of chronic kidney disease (CKD) for many decades, yet remains controversial, with marked variations in its application in clinical practice. There is extensive literature on the subject, with some expert opinion advocating the use of protein restriction based on the balance of the available evidence. The largest randomized trial of low-protein diets is the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease study. Despite multiple secondary analyses, the essential intention-to-treat analysis failed to demonstrate a benefit in the primary outcome of rate of decline of glomerular filtration rate...
November 17, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161610/experimental-modification-of-dysfunctional-interpretations-in-individuals-with-contamination-concerns
#13
Sara L Conley, Kevin D Wu
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Dysfunctional interpretations of intrusive thoughts are implicated in the etiology and maintenance of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). Cognitive Bias Modification training for interpretations (CBM-I) has successfully modified dysfunctional interpretations in the context of several disorders, including OCD. However, research regarding CBM-I's impact on symptom reduction and behavior is mixed, which limits its clinical application. Further, support for the specific efficacy of CBM-I in individuals with contamination concerns is limited...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155430/engineering-peptide-ligase-specificity-by-proteomic-identification-of-ligation-sites
#14
Amy M Weeks, James A Wells
Enzyme-catalyzed peptide ligation is a powerful tool for site-specific protein bioconjugation, but stringent enzyme-substrate specificity limits its utility. We developed an approach for comprehensively characterizing peptide ligase specificity for N termini using proteome-derived peptide libraries. We used this strategy to characterize the ligation efficiency for >25,000 enzyme-substrate pairs in the context of the engineered peptide ligase subtiligase and identified a family of 72 mutant subtiligases with activity toward N-terminal sequences that were previously recalcitrant to modification...
November 20, 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154128/discrete-circuits-support-generalized-versus-context-specific-vocal-learning-in-the-songbird
#15
Lucas Y Tian, Michael S Brainard
Motor skills depend on the reuse of individual gestures in multiple sequential contexts (e.g., a single phoneme in different words). Yet optimal performance requires that a given gesture be modified appropriately depending on the sequence in which it occurs. To investigate the neural architecture underlying such context-dependent modifications, we studied Bengalese finch song, which, like speech, consists of variable sequences of "syllables." We found that when birds are instructed to modify a syllable in one sequential context, learning generalizes across contexts; however, if unique instruction is provided in different contexts, learning is specific for each context...
November 15, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150296/structural-mri-based-measures-of-neuroplasticity-in-an-extended-amygdala-network-as-a-target-for-attention-bias-modification-treatment-outcome
#16
Jacob Aday, Joshua M Carlson
Increased attentional bias to threat has been identified as a causal mechanism in the development of anxiety. As such, attention bias modification (ABM) was conceived as a treatment option where anxiety is alleviated through a computerized cognitive training regimen that reduces an individual's attentional bias to threat. Although ABM appears to be a promising treatment option for anxiety, the mechanism of action by which the treatment is effective is unknown. We hypothesize that effective ABM treatment is associated with neuroplasticity-related structural changes in an extended amygdala - prefrontal cortex network that can be detected with standard T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
November 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149327/focused-time-lapse-analysis-reveals-novel-aspects-of-human-fertilization-and-suggests-new-parameters-of-embryo-viability
#17
G Coticchio, M Mignini Renzini, P V Novara, M Lain, E De Ponti, D Turchi, R Fadini, M Dal Canto
STUDY QUESTION: Can focused application of time-lapse microscopy (TLM) lead to a more detailed map of the morphokinetics of human fertilization, revealing novel or neglected aspects of this process? SUMMARY ANSWER: Intensive harnessing of TLM reveals novel or previously poorly characterised phenomena of fertilization, such as a cytoplasmic wave (CW) preceding pronuclear formation and kinetics of pronuclear chromatin polarization, thereby suggesting novel non-invasive biomarkers of embryo quality...
November 15, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140930/attention-bias-modification-for-children-what-should-we-make-of-a-null-finding
#18
Louise Sharpe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 13, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133511/which-individuals-to-choose-to-update-the-reference-population-minimizing-the-loss-of-genetic-diversity-in-animal-genomic-selection-programs
#19
S E Eynard, P Croiseau, D Laloë, S Fritz, M P L Calus, G Restoux
Genomic selection is commonly used in livestock and increasingly in plant breeding. Relying on phenotypes and genotypes of a reference population, genomic selection allows performance prediction for young individuals having only genotypes. This is expected to achieve fast high genetic gain but with a potential loss of genetic diversity. Existing methods to conserve genetic diversity depend mostly on the choice of the breeding individuals. In this study we propose a modification of the reference population composition to mitigate diversity loss...
November 13, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133324/effects-of-falls-prevention-interventions-on-falls-outcomes-for-hospitalised-adults-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-with-meta-analysis
#20
Susan C Slade, David L Carey, Anne-Marie Hill, Meg E Morris
INTRODUCTION: Falls are a major global public health problem and leading cause of accidental or unintentional injury and hospitalisation. Falls in hospital are associated with longer length of stay, readmissions and poor outcomes. Falls prevention is informed by knowledge of reversible falls risk factors and accurate risk identification. The extent to which hospital falls are prevented by evidence-based practice, patient self-management initiatives, environmental modifications and optimisation of falls prevention systems awaits confirmation...
November 12, 2017: BMJ Open
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