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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166668/interleukin-36%C3%AE-and-il-36-receptor-signaling-mediate-impaired-host-immunity-and-lung-injury-in-cytotoxic-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-pulmonary-infection-role-of-prostaglandin-e2
#1
Tetsuji Aoyagi, Michael W Newstead, Xianying Zeng, Yuta Nanjo, Marc Peters-Golden, Mitsuo Kaku, Theodore J Standiford
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative pathogen that can lead to severe infection associated with lung injury and high mortality. The interleukin (IL)-36 cytokines (IL-36α, IL-36β and IL-36γ) are newly described IL-1 like family cytokines that promote inflammatory response via binding to the IL-36 receptor (IL-36R). Here we investigated the functional role of IL-36 cytokines in the modulating of innate immune response against P. aeruginosa pulmonary infection. The intratracheal administration of flagellated cytotoxic P...
November 22, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165581/acquisition-persistence-and-clearance-of-human-papillomavirus-infection-among-male-virgins-residing-in-brazil-mexico-and-the-united-states
#2
Zhiyue Liu, Alan G Nyitray, Lu-Yu Hwang, Michael D Swartz, Martha Abrahamsen, Eduardo Lazcano-Ponce, Luisa L Villa, Anna R Giuliano
Background: Little is known about the natural history of HPV infection in male virgins. This study estimated incidence and clearance of genital HPV, and factors associated with HPV, among men who deny ever engaging in penetrative sex at baseline. Methods: A cohort of 4123 men residing in Brazil, Mexico, and the USA were followed every 6 months for up to 10 visits. Genital exfoliated cells were collected and genotyped for 36 HPV types. Eighty-seven men were classified as virgins and included for analysis...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165498/tomographic-magnetic-particle-imaging-of-cancer-targeted-nanoparticles
#3
Hamed Arami, Eric Teeman, Alyssa Troksa, Haydin Bradshaw, Katayoun Saatchi, Asahi Tomitaka, Sanjiv Sam Gambhir, Urs O Häfeli, Denny Liggitt, Kannan M Krishnan
Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI) is an emerging, whole body biomedical imaging technique, with sub-millimeter spatial resolution and high sensitivity to a biocompatible contrast agent consisting of an iron oxide nanoparticle core and a biofunctionalized shell. Successful application of MPI for imaging of cancer depends on the nanoparticles (NPs) accumulating at tumors at sufficient levels relative to other sites. NPs' physiochemical properties such as size, crystallographic structure and uniformity, surface coating, stability, blood circulation time and magnetization determine the efficacy of their tumor accumulation and MPI signal generation...
November 22, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165112/influence-of-a-50bp-ins-del-polymorphism-at-promoter-of-the-superoxide-dismutase-1-on-gene-expression-and-risk-of-heroin-dependency
#4
Khyber Saify, Mostafa Saadat
OBJECTIVE: Superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1, OMIM: 147450) is one of the major antioxidant enzymes, which plays a vital role in clearance of reactive oxygen species. A genetic polymorphism of 50 bp insertion/deletion (Ins/Del) in the promoter region of the SOD1 was reported. The aims of the present study are to evaluate the influence of this polymorphism on the SOD1 mRNA levels in human peripheral blood cells and its association with risk of heroin dependency. METHODS: The present study consisted of 47 healthy students of Shiraz University (south-west Iran) for investigating the association between the Ins/Del polymorphism on expression level of SOD1, also a total of 442 heroin dependent and 799 healthy controls were included in a case-control study investigating the association between the study polymorphism and risk of dependency to heroin...
March 15, 2017: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164583/application-of-dynamic-ct-to-identify-lung-cancer-pulmonary-tuberculosis-and-pulmonary-inflammatory-pseudotumor
#5
X-L Wang, W Shan
OBJECTIVE: To determine the value of dynamic enhanced computed tomography (CT) scanning in diagnosing lung cancer, pulmonary tuberculosis, and pulmonary inflammatory pseudotumor. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We recruited 30 patients with pulmonary tuberculoma, 38 with lung cancer, and 16 with pulmonary inflammatory pseudotumor. All patients received CT scanning, dynamic enhanced CT scanning for 20, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, and 120 s, and scanning for 3, 5, 8, 12, and 15 min...
November 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164523/identification-of-uridine-5-diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferases-responsible-for-the-glucuronidation-of-mirabegron-a-potent-and-selective-%C3%AE-3-adrenoceptor-agonist-in-human-liver-microsomes
#6
Kentaro Konishi, Daisuke Tenmizu, Shin Takusagawa
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Mirabegron is cleared by multiple mechanisms, including drug-metabolizing enzymes. One of the most important clearance pathways is direct glucuronidation. In humans, M11 (O-glucuronide), M13 (carbamoyl-glucuronide), and M14 (N-glucuronide) have been identified, of which M11 is one of the major metabolites in human plasma. The objective of this study was to identify the uridine 5'-diphosphate (UDP)-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) isoform responsible for the direct glucuronidation of mirabegron using human liver microsomes (HLMs) and recombinant human UGTs (rhUGTs)...
November 21, 2017: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164488/spontaneous-elimination-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#7
Maciej Janiak, Kamila Caraballo Cortes, Urszula Demkow, Marek Radkowski
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the etiological agent of chronic hepatitis C and a major cause of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Only a minority of infected individuals can clear the virus spontaneously. The knowledge of the determinants of virus clearance would allow the development of effective methods preventing its further spread and optimizing treatment regimens. Viral factors associated with spontaneous virus clearance in the acute phase of infection, such as HCV genotype, virus heterogeneity, and the impact of viral proteins on the immune system have been characterized...
November 22, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164341/mathematical-models-of-hiv-latency
#8
Alison L Hill
Viral latency is a major barrier to curing HIV infection with antiretroviral therapy, and consequently, for eliminating the disease globally. The establishment, maintenance, and potential clearance of latent infection are complex dynamic processes and can be best understood and described with the help of mathematical models. Here we review the use of viral dynamics models for HIV, with a focus on applications to the latent reservoir. Such models have been used to explain the multiphasic decay of viral load during antiretroviral therapy, the early seeding of the latent reservoir during acute infection and the limited inflow during treatment, the dynamics of viral blips, and the phenomenon of posttreatment control...
November 22, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163795/oral-4-n-stearoyl-gemcitabine-nanoparticles-inhibit-tumor-growth-in-mouse-models
#9
Caixia Wang, Yuanqiang Zheng, Michael A Sand Oval, Solange A Valdes, Zhe Chen, Dharmika S Lansakara-P, Maolin Du, Yanchun Shi, Zhengrong Cui
In spite of recent advances in targeted tumor therapy, systemic chemotherapy with cytotoxic agents remains a vital cancer treatment modality. Gemcitabine is a nucleoside analog commonly used in the treatment of various solid tumors, but an oral gemcitabine dosage form remain unavailable. Previously, we developed the 4-(N)-stearoyl gemcitabine solid lipid nanoparticles (GemC18-SLNs) by incorporating 4-(N)-stearoyl gemcitabine (GemC18), an amide prodrug of gemcitabine, into solid lipid nanoparticles. GemC18-SLNs, when administered intravenously, showed strong antitumor activity against various human and mouse tumors in mouse models...
October 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163541/nucleotide-binding-oligomerization-domain-2-contributes-to-limiting-growth-of-mycobacterium-abscessus-in-the-lung-of-mice-by-regulating-cytokines-and-nitric-oxide-production
#10
Jun-Young Lee, Moo-Seung Lee, Dong-Jae Kim, Soo-Jin Yang, Sang-Jin Lee, Eui-Jeong Noh, Sung Jae Shin, Jong-Hwan Park
Mycobacterium abscessus is a prominent cause of pulmonary infection in immunosuppressed patients and those with cystic fibrosis. Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD) 2 is a cytosolic receptor which senses a bacterial peptidoglycan component, muramyl dipeptide (MDP). Although nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) contributes to protect host against various microbial infections, it is still unclear whether NOD2 is essential to regulate host immune responses against M. abscessus infection...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163531/impaired-resolution-of-inflammation-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-review
#11
REVIEW
Robert A Whittington, Emmanuel Planel, Niccolò Terrando
Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains the leading cause of dementia worldwide, and over the last several decades, the role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of this neurodegenerative disorder has been increasingly elucidated. The initiation of the acute inflammatory response is counterbalanced by an active process termed resolution. This process is designed to restore homeostasis and promote tissue healing by the activation of neutrophilic apoptosis, promotion of neutrophil clearance by macrophages, and increasing anti-inflammatory cytokine levels, while concurrently leading to a diminution in pro-inflammatory mediators...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163508/interferon-%C3%AE-enhanced-cd100-plexin-b1-b2-interactions-promote-natural-killer-cell-functions-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#12
Yu He, Yonghong Guo, Chao Fan, Yingfeng Lei, Yun Zhou, Mingjie Zhang, Chuantao Ye, Guangxi Ji, Li Ma, Jianqi Lian, Jonathan P Moorman, Zhi Q Yao, Jiuping Wang, Chunqiu Hao, Ying Zhang, Zhansheng Jia
Background: CD100, also known as Sema4D, is an immune semaphorin constitutively expressed on natural killer (NK) cells and T cells. As an immune activation molecule, CD100 has important immunoregulatory effects on NK functions by enhancing the interactions between NK cells and target cells. The aim of this study was to investigate whether hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection affects CD100 expression, and whether interferon-α treatment enhances NK killing activity to facilitate HCV clearance via CD100...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163503/efferocytosis-and-outside-in-signaling-by-cardiac-phagocytes-links-to-repair-cellular-programming-and-intercellular-crosstalk-in-heart
#13
REVIEW
Matthew DeBerge, Shuang Zhang, Kristofor Glinton, Luba Grigoryeva, Islam Hussein, Esther Vorovich, Karen Ho, Xunrong Luo, Edward B Thorp
Phagocytic sensing and engulfment of dying cells and extracellular bodies initiate an intracellular signaling cascade within the phagocyte that can polarize cellular function and promote communication with neighboring non-phagocytes. Accumulating evidence links phagocytic signaling in the heart to cardiac development, adult myocardial homeostasis, and the resolution of cardiac inflammation of infectious, ischemic, and aging-associated etiology. Phagocytic clearance in the heart may be carried out by professional phagocytes, such as macrophages, and non-professional cells, including myofibrolasts and potentially epithelial cells...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163500/antibodies-to-senescent-antigen-and-c3-are-not-required-for-normal-red-blood-cell-lifespan-in-a-murine-model
#14
Krystalyn E Hudson, Karen de Wolski, Linda M Kapp, Amanda L Richards, Matthew J Schniederjan, James C Zimring
Red blood cells (RBCs) have a well-defined lifespan, indicating a mechanism by which senescent cells of a certain age are removed from circulation. However, the specifics by which senescent cells are recognized and removed are poorly understood. There are multiple competing hypotheses for this process, perhaps the most commonly cited is that senescent RBCs expose neoantigens [or senescent antigen(s)] that are then recognized by naturally occurring antibodies, which opsonize the senescent cells and result in clearance from circulation...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163481/pro-resolving-mediators-in-regulating-and-conferring-macrophage-function
#15
REVIEW
Jesmond Dalli, Charles N Serhan
Macrophages are central in coordinating the host response to both sterile and infective insults. Clearance of apoptotic cells and cellular debris is a key biological action preformed by macrophages that paves the way to the resolution of local inflammation, repair and regeneration of damaged tissues, and re-establishment of function. The essential fatty acid-derived autacoids termed specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPM) play central roles in promoting these processes. In the present article, we will review the role of microvesicles in controlling macrophage efferocytosis and SPM production...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163477/genes-critical-for-developing-periodontitis-lessons-from-mouse-models
#16
REVIEW
Teun J de Vries, Stefano Andreotta, Bruno G Loos, Elena A Nicu
Since the etiology of periodontitis in humans is not fully understood, genetic mouse models may pinpoint indispensable genes for optimal immunological protection of the periodontium against tissue destruction. This review describes the current knowledge of genes that are involved for a proper maintenance of a healthy periodontium in mice. Null mutations of genes required for leukocyte cell-cell recognition and extravasation (e.g., Icam-1, P-selectin, Beta2-integrin/Cd18), for pathogen recognition and killing (e...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163448/real-time-qpcr-as-a-method-for-detection-of-antibody-neutralized-phage-particles
#17
Anna Kłopot, Adriana Zakrzewska, Dorota Lecion, Joanna M Majewska, Marek A Harhala, Karolina Lahutta, Zuzanna Kaźmierczak, Łukasz Łaczmański, Marlena Kłak, Krystyna Dąbrowska
The most common method for phage quantitation is the plaque assay, which relies on phage ability to infect bacteria. However, non-infective phage particles may preserve other biological properties; specifically, they may enter interactions with the immune system of animals and humans. Here, we demonstrate real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) detection of bacteriophages as an alternative to the plaque assay. The closely related staphylococcal bacteriophages A3R and 676Z and the coliphage T4 were used as model phages...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163395/role-of-soluble-innate-effector-molecules-in-pulmonary-defense-against-fungal-pathogens
#18
REVIEW
Soledad R Ordonez, Edwin J A Veldhuizen, Martin van Eijk, Henk P Haagsman
Fungal infections of the lung are life-threatening but rarely occur in healthy, immunocompetent individuals, indicating efficient clearance by pulmonary defense mechanisms. Upon inhalation, fungi will first encounter the airway surface liquid which contains several soluble effector molecules that form the first barrier of defense against fungal infections. These include host defense peptides, like LL-37 and defensins that can neutralize fungi by direct killing of the pathogen, and collectins, such as surfactant protein A and D, that can aggregate fungi and stimulate phagocytosis...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163381/functional-characterization-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-lacking-the-rna-chaperone-hfq
#19
Han-Yueh Kuo, Hsuan-Hao Chao, Po-Cheng Liao, Long Hsu, Kai-Chih Chang, Chi-Hua Tung, Chang-Hua Chen, Ming-Li Liou
The RNA chaperone Hfq is involved in the riboregulation of diverse genes via small RNAs. Recent studies have demonstrated that Hfq contributes to the stress response and the virulence of several pathogens, and the roles of Hfq vary among bacterial species. Here, we attempted to elucidate the role of Hfq in Acinetobacter baumannii ATCC 17978. In the absence of hfq, A. baumannii exhibited retarded cell growth and was highly sensitive to environmental stress, including osmotic and oxidative pressure, pH, and temperature...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163354/diabetes-and-sepsis-risk-recurrence-and-ruination
#20
REVIEW
Lynn M Frydrych, Fatemeh Fattahi, Katherine He, Peter A Ward, Matthew J Delano
Sepsis develops when an infection surpasses local tissue containment. A series of dysregulated physiological responses are generated, leading to organ dysfunction and a 10% mortality risk. When patients with sepsis demonstrate elevated serum lactates and require vasopressor therapy to maintain adequate blood pressure in the absence of hypovolemia, they are in septic shock with an in-hospital mortality rate >40%. With improvements in intensive care treatment strategies, overall sepsis mortality has diminished to ~20% at 30 days; however, mortality continues to steadily climb after recovery from the acute event...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
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