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Biomedical hiv prevention

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893304/preventing-hiv-infection-without-targeting-the-virus-how-reducing-hiv-target-cells-at-the-genital-tract-is-a-new-approach-to-hiv-prevention
#1
REVIEW
Julie Lajoie, Lucy Mwangi, Keith R Fowke
For over three decades, HIV infection has had a tremendous impact on the lives of individuals and public health. Microbicides and vaccines studies have shown that immune activation at the genital tract is a risk factor for HIV infection. Furthermore, lower level of immune activation, or what we call immune quiescence, has been associated with a lower risk of HIV acquisition. This unique phenotype is observed in highly-exposed seronegative individuals from different populations including female sex workers from the Pumwani cohort in Nairobi, Kenya...
September 12, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893280/eradication-of-hiv-1-latent-reservoirs-through-therapeutic-vaccination
#2
REVIEW
Joshua Pankrac, Katja Klein, Jamie F S Mann
Despite the significant success of combination anti-retroviral therapy to reduce HIV viremia and save lives, HIV-1 infection remains a lifelong infection that must be appropriately managed. Advances in the understanding of the HIV infection process and insights from vaccine development in other biomedical fields such as cancer, imaging, and genetic engineering have fueled rapid advancements in HIV cure research. In the last few years, several studies have focused on the development of "Kick and Kill" therapies to reverse HIV latency and kick start viral translational activity...
September 12, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880948/prevention-of-vaginal-and-rectal-hiv-transmission-by-antiretroviral-combinations-in-humanized-mice
#3
Philippe A Gallay, Udayan Chatterji, Aaron Kirchhoff, Angel Gandarilla, Manjula Gunawardana, Richard B Pyles, Mark A Marzinke, John A Moss, Marc M Baum
With more than 7,000 new HIV infections daily worldwide, there is an urgent need for non-vaccine biomedical prevention (nBP) strategies that are safe, effective, and acceptable. Clinical trials have demonstrated that pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with antiretrovirals (ARVs) can be effective at preventing HIV infection. In contrast, other trials using the same ARVs failed to show consistent efficacy. Topical (vaginal and rectal) dosing is a promising regimen for HIV PrEP as it leads to low systematic drug exposure...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875351/parents-perspectives-about-adolescent-boys-involvement-in-biomedical-hiv-prevention-research
#4
Brian Mustanski, Kathryn Macapagal, Matthew Thomann, Brian A Feinstein, Michael E Newcomb, Darnell Motley, Celia B Fisher
Research on the use of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among adolescents at high risk for HIV is urgently needed, and parents' perspectives on these studies are essential for guiding the responsible conduct of adolescent PrEP research. We conducted interviews with 30 parents of adolescent boys (50% known/presumed heterosexual; 50% sexual minority) to understand their views of research risks and benefits and parental permission regarding their son's involvement in a hypothetical PrEP adherence trial. Parents identified several health and educational benefits of the study and expressed that waiving parental permission would overcome barriers to accessing PrEP, particularly for youth who may benefit most...
September 5, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872441/negotiating-sexual-safety-in-the-era-of-biomedical-hiv-prevention-relationship-dynamics-among-male-couples-using-pre-exposure-prophylaxis
#5
Jowanna Malone, Jennifer L Syvertsen, Blake E Johnson, Matthew J Mimiaga, Kenneth H Mayer, Angela R Bazzi
Up to two-thirds of new cases of HIV transmission between gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men in the USA are attributed to primary relationships. Understanding the relationship dynamics and sexual agreements of male-male couples can provide insight into HIV transmission patterns and prevention needs in this population. The daily use of antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is highly effective in preventing HIV, but its negotiation and use within social and intimate relationship contexts remain understudied...
September 5, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862483/prep-chicago-a-randomized-controlled-peer-change-agent-intervention-to-promote-the-adoption-of-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-hiv-prevention-among-young-black-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#6
Lindsay E Young, Phil Schumm, Leigh Alon, Alida Bouris, Matthew Ferreira, Brandon Hill, Aditya S Khanna, Thomas W Valente, John A Schneider
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Advances in biomedical prevention strategies such as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) represent a new opportunity for reducing HIV incidence among young Black men who have sex with men, for whom the number of new HIV infections continues to rise. However, studies have documented low rates of PrEP uptake in this community. Research suggests that the peer networks of young Black men who have sex with men play important roles in their sexual health decisions. PrEP Chicago is a randomized controlled trial network intervention designed to increase PrEP uptake among young Black men who have sex with men living in Chicago...
September 1, 2017: Clinical Trials: Journal of the Society for Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859729/factors-influencing-uptake-of-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-some-qualitative-insights-from-an-intervention-study-of-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-china
#7
Chunxing Liu, Yingying Ding, Zhen Ning, Meiyang Gao, Xing Liu, Frank Y Wong, Na He
Background: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a biomedical approach for preventing the acquisition of HIV in populations at substantial risk for HIV. However, its uptake among men who have sex with men (MSM) is low in China. The study aimed to identify factors that might influence MSM's uptake and use of PrEP. Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with 32 self-identified MSM from a PrEP intervention study evaluating daily oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) to prevent HIV infection. Of these men, 11 were presently using the 'TDF' group; 8 from the 'change-over' group (i...
September 1, 2017: Sexual Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830220/exploring-strategies-for-prep-adherence-and-dosing-preferences-in-the-context-of-sexualized-recreational-drug-use-among-msm-a-qualitative-study
#8
Elizabeth F Closson, Jennifer A Mitty, Jowanna Malone, Kenneth H Mayer, Matthew J Mimiaga
The use of recreational drugs while having sex is associated with increased HIV incidence among men who have sex with men (MSM). Taking a daily antiretroviral pill, or pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a biomedical intervention to prevent HIV. However, the efficacy of PrEP is closely tied with high levels of adherence. While PrEP has the potential to reduce HIV acquisition, the use of recreational drugs may impede adherence. We explored perceptions of PrEP utilization and regimen preferences among 40 HIV-negative, MSM who reported concurrent recreational drug use and condomless anal sex with a man...
August 22, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828943/from-a-global-crisis-to-the-end-of-aids-new-epidemics-of-signification
#9
Nora Kenworthy, Matthew Thomann, Richard Parker
In the past decade, discourses about AIDS have taken a remarkable, and largely unquestioned, turn. Whereas mobilisations for treatment scale-up during the 2000s were premised on perceptions of an 'epidemic out of control', we have repeatedly been informed in more recent years that an end to AIDS is immanent. This new discourse and its resulting policies are motivated by post-recession financial pressures, a changing field of global institutions, and shifting health and development priorities. These shifts also reflect a biomedical triumphalism in HIV prevention and treatment, whereby shorter term, privatised, technological, and 'cost-effective' interventions are promoted over long-term support for antiretroviral treatment...
August 22, 2017: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825858/barriers-to-access-and-adoption-of-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-the-prevention-of-hiv-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-msm-in-a-relatively-rural-state
#10
Randolph D Hubach, Joseph M Currin, Carissa A Sanders, André R Durham, Katherine E Kavanaugh, Denna L Wheeler, Julie M Croff
Biomedical intervention approaches, including antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), have been demonstrated to reduce HIV incidence among several at-risk populations and to be cost effective. However, there is limited understanding of PrEP access and uptake among men who have sex with men (MSM) residing in relatively rural states. Twenty semistructured interviews were conducted (August-November 2016) to assess opinions of and perceived barriers to accessing and adopting PrEP among MSM residing in Oklahoma...
August 2017: AIDS Education and Prevention: Official Publication of the International Society for AIDS Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810461/a-journey-to-hiv-prevention-research-from-social-psychology-to-social-health-via-multidisciplinarity
#11
Susan Kippax
This article is a personal account of my research in HIV prevention and how and why I navigated my way from social psychology to 'social health' via multidisciplinarity. My work in HIV prevention - from 1984 to the present day - developed my understandings of epistemology, building on and expanding the ways in which I undertook research. This article describes those whose writings and research influenced me and the input of colleagues and students. It also demonstrates my disquiet with the individualism of psychology as a way of thinking about what was needed to prevent HIV transmission...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780885/perspectives-on-biomedical-hiv-prevention-options-among-women-who-inject-drugs-in-kenya
#12
Angela Robertson Bazzi, Kelly A Yotebieng, Kawango Agot, Grace Rota, Jennifer L Syvertsen
Due to heightened vulnerability to HIV from frequent engagement in sex work and overlapping drug-using and sexual networks, women who inject drugs should be a high priority population for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and other biomedical HIV prevention tools. Kenya is one of the first African countries to approve oral PrEP for HIV prevention among "key populations," including people who inject drugs and sex workers. The objective of this study was to explore preferences and perceived challenges to PrEP adoption among women who inject drugs in Kisumu, Kenya...
August 5, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772262/evolution-and-emergence-of-pathogenic-viruses-past-present-and-future
#13
Mohammad K Parvez, Shama Parveen
Incidences of emerging/re-emerging deadly viral infections have significantly affected human health despite extraordinary progress in the area of biomedical knowledge. The best examples are the recurring outbreaks of dengue and chikungunya fever in tropical and sub-tropical regions, the recent epidemic of Zika in the Americas and the Caribbean, and the SARS, MERS, and influenza A outbreaks across the globe. The established natural reservoirs of human viruses are mainly farm animals, and, to a lesser extent, wild animals and arthropods...
August 4, 2017: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771116/traditional-health-practitioners-management-of-hiv-aids-in-rural-south-africa-in-the-era-of-widespread-antiretroviral-therapy
#14
Thembelihle Zuma, Daniel Wight, Tamsen Rochat, Mosa Moshabela
BACKGROUND: Traditional health practitioners (THPs) have been identified as a key local resource in the fight against human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in South Africa. However, their approaches to the treatment of people living with HIV (PLHIV) have been met with scepticism by some biomedical practitioners amid increasing access to antiretroviral therapy (ART). OBJECTIVE: In light of this ambivalence, this study aims to document and identify treatment approaches of THPs to the management of illness among PLHIV in the current era of widespread access to ART...
2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760729/using-digital-technologies-in-clinical-hiv-research-real-world-applications-and-considerations-for-future-work
#15
Jessica Andriesen, Sheana Bull, Janan Dietrich, Jessica E Haberer, Barbara Van Der Pol, Yegor Voronin, Kristin M Wall, Christopher Whalen, Frances Priddy
BACKGROUND: Digital technologies, especially if used in novel ways, provide a number of potential advantages to clinical research in trials related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and may greatly facilitate operations as well as data collection and analysis. These technologies may even allow answering questions that are not answerable with older technologies. However, they come with a variety of potential concerns for both the participants and the trial sponsors...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752285/hiv-prevention-among-transgender-populations-knowledge-gaps-and-evidence-for-action
#16
REVIEW
Tonia Poteat, Mannat Malik, Ayden Scheim, Ayana Elliott
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize the available evidence-based HIV prevention interventions tailored for transgender people. RECENT FINDINGS: A limited number of evidence-based HIV prevention interventions have been tested with transgender populations. Most existing interventions target behavior change among transgender women, with only one HIV prevention program evaluated for transgender men. Studies addressing biomedical interventions for transgender women are ongoing...
July 27, 2017: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736390/-side-effects-are-central-effects-that-challenge-retention-in-hiv-treatment-programmes-in-six-sub-saharan-african-countries-a-multicountry-qualitative-study
#17
Jenny Renju, Mosa Moshabela, Estelle McLean, William Ddaaki, Morten Skovdal, Fred Odongo, Dominic Bukenya, Joyce Wamoyi, Oliver Bonnington, Janet Seeley, Basia Zaba, Alison Wringe
OBJECTIVES: To explore the bodily and relational experience of taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) and the subsequent effect on retention in HIV care in six sub-Saharan African countries. METHODS: In-depth interviews were conducted with 130 people living with HIV (PLHIV) who had initiated ART, 38 PLHIV who were lost to follow-up and 53 healthcare workers (HCWs) in Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Malawi, Zimbabwe and South Africa. PLHIV were purposely selected to include a range of HIV treatment histories...
July 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729520/challenges-and-emerging-opportunities-for-the-hiv-prevention-treatment-and-care-cascade-in-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-asia-pacific
#18
REVIEW
Frits van Griensven, Thomas E Guadamuz, Jan Willem de Lind van Wijngaarden, Nittaya Phanuphak, Sunil Suhas Solomon, Ying-Ru Lo
In Asia Pacific, most countries have expanded HIV treatment guidelines to include all those with HIV infection and adopted antiretroviral treatment for prevention (TFP) as a blanket strategy for HIV control. Although the overall epidemic development associated with this focus is positive, the HIV epidemic in men who have sex with men (MSM) is continuing unperturbed without any signs of decline or reversal. This raises doubt about whether TFP as a blanket HIV prevention policy is the right approach. This paper reviews currently available biomedical HIV prevention strategies, national HIV prevention policies and guidelines from selected countries and published data on the HIV cascade in MSM...
August 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701272/sexually-transmitted-infections-challenges-ahead
#19
REVIEW
Magnus Unemo, Catriona S Bradshaw, Jane S Hocking, Henry J C de Vries, Suzanna C Francis, David Mabey, Jeanne M Marrazzo, Gerard J B Sonder, Jane R Schwebke, Elske Hoornenborg, Rosanna W Peeling, Susan S Philip, Nicola Low, Christopher K Fairley
WHO estimated that nearly 1 million people become infected every day with any of four curable sexually transmitted infections (STIs): chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis, and trichomoniasis. Despite their high global incidence, STIs remain a neglected area of research. In this Commission, we have prioritised five areas that represent particular challenges in STI treatment and control. Chlamydia remains the most commonly diagnosed bacterial STI in high-income countries despite widespread testing recommendations, sensitive and specific non-invasive testing techniques, and cheap effective therapy...
August 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682799/online-to-offline-models-in-hiv-service-delivery
#20
Tarandeep Anand, Chattiya Nitpolprasert, Nittaya Phanuphak
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Half the world's population has access to Internet and technologies, and utilization is near-ubiquitous among providers and key populations. Despite being so well connected; identifying, reaching and linking vulnerable populations to HIV clinical services remains a global challenge. This review highlights the emerging online-to-offline (O2O) models, their potential in scaling up services, and evaluating impact, and implications for future research. RECENT FINDINGS: Globally, four major types of O2O models have been implemented, primarily in the West and Asia, especially among MSM and transgender women...
September 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
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