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Biomedical hiv prevention

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337847/hiv-care-continuum-disparities-among-bisexual-black-men-and-the-mediating-effect-of-psychosocial-co-morbidities
#1
M Reuel Friedman, Jordan M Sang, Leigh A Bukowski, Derrick D Matthews, Lisa A Eaton, H Fisher Raymond, Ron Stall
INTRODUCTION: Differences across the HIV care continuum between men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) and men who have sex with men only (MSMO) are emerging in recent literature but have not been comprehensively documented among Black MSM. Although MSMW have lower HIV prevalence than MSMO, they are more likely to be HIV-positive unaware and be virally unsuppressed. Explanatory factors for these differences have not previously been assessed. METHODS: Between 2014-2016, we surveyed sexually active Black MSM ≥18 years old at Black Gay Pride events in six U...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322886/chronicity-crisis-and-the-end-of-aids
#2
Thurka Sangaramoorthy
In biomedical, public health, and popular discourses, the 'end of AIDS' has emerged as a predominant way to understand the future of HIV research and prevention. This approach is predicated on structuring and responding to HIV in ways that underscore its presumed lifelong nature. In this article, I examine the phenomenon of HIV chronicity that undergirds the 'end of AIDS' discourse. In particular, I explore how the logic of HIV chronicity, induced by technological advances in treatment and global financial and political investments, intensifies long-term uncertainty and prolonged crisis...
January 11, 2018: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258455/motivations-and-barriers-to-uptake-and-use-of-female-initiated-biomedical-hiv-prevention-products-in-sub-saharan-africa-an-adapted-meta-ethnography
#3
Robyn Eakle, Adam Bourne, Caitlin Jarrett, Jonathan Stadler, Heidi Larson
BACKGROUND: Women bear a disproportionate burden of HIV throughout the world prompting extensive research into HIV prevention products for women which has met with varied success. With an aim of informing future policy and programming, this review examines the barriers and motivations to the uptake and use of female initiated products in sub-Saharan countries. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review as an adapted meta-ethnography of qualitative data focused on actual use of products...
December 19, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228218/nonhuman-primate-models-and-understanding-the-pathogenesis-of-hiv-infection-and-aids
#4
Ronald S Veazey, Andrew A Lackner
Research using nonhuman primates (NHPs) as models for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has resulted in tremendous achievements not only in the prevention and treatment of HIV, but also in biomedical research more broadly. Once considered a death sentence, HIV infection is now fairly well controlled with combination antiretroviral treatments, almost all of which were first tested for efficacy and safety in nonhuman primates or other laboratory animals...
December 8, 2017: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214408/anticipated-hiv-stigma-and-delays-in-regular-hiv-testing-behaviors-among-sexually-active-young-gay-bisexual-and-other-men-who-have-sex-with-men-and-transgender-women
#5
Kristi E Gamarel, Kimberly M Nelson, Rob Stephenson, Olga J Santiago Rivera, Danielle Chiaramonte, Robin Lin Miller
Young gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (YGBMSM) and young transgender women are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. The success of biomedical prevention strategies is predicated on regular HIV testing; however, there has been limited uptake of testing among YGBMSM and young transgender women. Anticipated HIV stigma-expecting rejection as a result of seroconversion- may serve as a significant barrier to testing. A cross-sectional sample of YGBMSM (n = 719, 95.5%) and young transgender women (n = 33, 4...
December 6, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213302/a-comprehensive-review-of-hiv-sti-prevention-and-sexual-and-reproductive-health-services-among-sex-workers-in-conflict-affected-settings-call-for-an-evidence-and-rights-based-approach-in-the-humanitarian-response
#6
REVIEW
Alyssa Ferguson, Kate Shannon, Jennifer Butler, Shira M Goldenberg
Background: While the conditions in emergency humanitarian and conflict-affected settings often result in significant sex work economies, there is limited information on the social and structural conditions of sex work in these settings, and the impacts on HIV/STI prevention and access to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services for sex workers. Our objective was to comprehensively review existing evidence on HIV/STI prevention and access to SRH services for sex workers in conflict-affected settings globally...
2017: Conflict and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206720/recruitment-of-female-sex-workers-in-hiv-prevention-trials-can-efficacy-endpoints-be-reached-more-efficiently
#7
Daniel Wood, Kathryn E Lancaster, Marie-Claude Boily, Kimberly A Powers, Deborah Donnell, Myron S Cohen, Dobromir T Dimitrov
Background/Setting: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of HIV biomedical prevention interventions often enroll participants with varying levels of HIV exposure, including people never exposed to HIV. We assessed whether enrolling larger proportion of participants with consistently high exposure to HIV, such as female sex workers (FSW), might reduce trial duration and improve the accuracy of product efficacy estimates in future HIV prevention trials. METHODS: We used an individual-based stochastic model to simulate event-driven RCTs of an HIV prevention intervention providing 80% reduction in susceptibility per act under different proportions of FSW enrolled...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192368/are-anal-sex-roles-associated-with-preferences-for-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-administration-modalities-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#8
William C Goedel, John A Schneider, H Rhodes Hambrick, Noah T Kreski, Jace G Morganstein, Su Hyun Park, Ofole Mgbako, Dustin T Duncan
The current study sought to examine awareness of, willingness to use, and preferences for available and theoretical administration modalities for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and the association of anal sex roles with these concepts among a sample of men who have sex with men (MSM) in Paris, France. Broadcast advertisements were placed on a popular geosocial-networking smartphone application for MSM to direct users to complete a Web-based survey. MSM answered questions on their recent engagement in condomless anal intercourse and awareness of and willingness to use PrEP in the form of once daily and event-driven pill regimens, long-acting injections, and penile and rectal microbicides as well as sexual roles...
November 30, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180384/canadian-guideline-on-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-and-nonoccupational-postexposure-prophylaxis
#9
Darrell H S Tan, Mark W Hull, Deborah Yoong, Cécile Tremblay, Patrick O'Byrne, Réjean Thomas, Julie Kille, Jean-Guy Baril, Joseph Cox, Pierre Giguere, Marianne Harris, Christine Hughes, Paul MacPherson, Shannon O'Donnell, Joss Reimer, Ameeta Singh, Lisa Barrett, Isaac Bogoch, Jody Jollimore, Gilles Lambert, Bertrand Lebouche, Gila Metz, Tim Rogers, Stephen Shafran
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 27, 2017: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162727/measuring-and-understanding-the-attitudes-of-australian-gay-and-bisexual-men-towards-biomedical-hiv-prevention-using-cross-sectional-data-and-factor-analyses
#10
Anna L Wilkinson, Bridget L Draper, Alisa E Pedrana, Jason Asselin, Martin Holt, Margaret E Hellard, Mark Stoove
INTRODUCTION: Contemporary responses to HIV embrace biomedical prevention, particularly treatment as prevention (TasP) and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). However, large-scale implementation of biomedical prevention should be ideally preceded by assessments of their community acceptability. We aimed to understand contemporary attitudes of gay and bisexual men (GBM) in Australia towards biomedical-based HIV prevention and propose a framework for their measurement and ongoing monitoring...
November 21, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145733/harnessing-novel-imaging-approaches-to-guide-hiv-prevention-and-cure-discoveries-a-national-institutes-of-health-and-global-hiv-vaccine-enterprise-2017-meeting-report
#11
Brigitte Elisabeth Sanders-Beer, Yegor Voronin, David McDonald, Anjali Singh
Advances in imaging technologies have greatly increased our understanding of cellular and molecular interactions in humans and their corresponding animal models of infectious diseases. In the HIV/SIV field, imaging has provided key insights into mucosal viral transmission, local and systemic virus spread, host-virus dynamics, and chronic inflammation/immune activation and the resultant immunopathology. Recent developments in imaging applications are yielding physical, spatial, and temporal measurements to enhance insight into biological functions and disease processes, while retaining important cellular, microenvironmental, organ and intact organism contextual details...
November 16, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134422/hiv-prevention-among-young-women-in-south-africa-understanding-multiple-layers-of-risk
#12
Christina Psaros, Cecilia Milford, Jennifer A Smit, Letitia Greener, Nzwakie Mosery, Lynn T Matthews, Abigail Harrison, Janna R Gordon, Matthew Mimiaga, David R Bangsberg, Steven A Safren
Despite concerted prevention efforts, young South African women remain at the epicenter of the HIV epidemic. Although these women have grown up in a community powerfully affected by HIV, systematic investigation into how this "second generation" of HIV-affected youth navigates HIV risk is lacking. This study qualitatively explored a complex interplay of factors influencing HIV risk among young pregnant women in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. We conducted in-depth interviews with 35 pregnant women (22 HIV-uninfected and 13 HIV-infected) aged 18-21, 18 healthcare providers, and focus groups with 19 community stakeholders...
November 13, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127535/predictors-of-hiv-testing-and-their-influence-on-prep-acceptance-in-men-who-have-sex-with-men-a-cross-sectional-study
#13
Tsz Ho Kwan, Shui Shan Lee
HIV testing is the gateway to biomedical means of prevention and treatment. Identifying predictors of HIV testing is important to inform future preventive interventions. Of 444 men who have sex with men without known HIV infection enrolled in a study in Hong Kong, 64% had ever been HIV-tested. Testers were generally older, better educated, had a higher monthly income, and more likely self-identified as gay. Testers often used Internet and frequented saunas for sex networking, compared with non-testers attending bars, massage centres and public toilets...
November 10, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090636/-there-s-no-pill-to-help-you-deal-with-the-guilt-and-shame-contemporary-experiences-of-hiv-in-the-united-kingdom
#14
Liz Walker
The experience of living with HIV, in the global north, has changed significantly over the past 20 years. This is largely the result of effective biomedical methods of treatment and prevention. HIV is now widely considered to be a long-term condition like many others - it has been argued that HIV has been 'normalised'. Drawing on online qualitative survey data, with respondents aged 18-35 years, diagnosed with HIV in the past 5 years, this research explores contemporary subjective experiences of being diagnosed, and living, with HIV in the United Kingdom...
October 1, 2017: Health (London)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068715/promoting-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-to-prevent-hiv-infections-among-sexual-and-gender-minority-hispanics-latinxs
#15
Kathleen R Page, Omar Martinez, Karen Nieves-Lugo, Maria Cecilia Zea, Suzanne Dolwick Grieb, Thespina J Yamanis, Kaitlin Spear, Wendy W Davis
Sexual and gender minority Hispanics/Latinxs (henceforth: Latinxs) continue to be disproportionately impacted by HIV/AIDS in the U.S. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a biomedical prevention approach which holds significant promise for at risk and vulnerable populations. We discuss barriers and facilitators to uptake of PrEP among sexual and gender minority Latinxs living in the U.S. through an ecosocial lens that takes into account structural, community, and individual contexts. The impact of immigration status on PrEP uptake emerges as a major and recurrent theme that must be understood and addressed by HIV prevention programs aiming to promote an inclusive strategy for sexual and gender minority Latinxs living in the U...
October 2017: AIDS Education and Prevention: Official Publication of the International Society for AIDS Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029138/the-female-genital-tract-microbiome-is-associated-with-vaginal-antiretroviral-drug-concentrations-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-women-on-antiretroviral-therapy
#16
Renee Donahue Carlson, Anandi N Sheth, Timothy D Read, Michael B Frisch, C Christina Mehta, Amy Martin, Richard E Haaland, Anar S Patel, Chou-Pong Pau, Colleen S Kraft, Igho Ofotokun
Background: The female genital tract (FGT) microbiome may affect vaginal pH and other factors that influence drug movement into the vagina. We examined the relationship between the microbiome and antiretroviral concentrations in the FGT. Methods: Over one menstrual cycle, 20 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women virologically suppressed on tenofovir (TFV) disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine and ritonavir-boosted atazanavir (ATV) underwent serial paired cervicovaginal and plasma sampling for antiretroviral concentrations using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025633/association-between-male-circumcision-and-women-s-biomedical-health-outcomes-a-systematic-review
#17
Jonathan M Grund, Tyler S Bryant, Inimfon Jackson, Kelly Curran, Naomi Bock, Carlos Toledo, Joanna Taliano, Sheng Zhou, Jorge Martin Del Campo, Ling Yang, Apollo Kivumbi, Peizi Li, Sherri Pals, Stephanie M Davis
BACKGROUND: Male circumcision reduces men's risk of acquiring HIV and some sexually transmitted infections from heterosexual exposure, and is essential for HIV prevention in sub-Saharan Africa. Studies have also investigated associations between male circumcision and risk of acquisition of HIV and sexually transmitted infections in women. We aimed to review all evidence on associations between male circumcision and women's health outcomes to benefit women's health programmes. METHODS: In this systematic review we searched for peer-reviewed and grey literature publications reporting associations between male circumcision and women's health outcomes up to April 11, 2016...
November 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991885/predictors-of-hiv-hiv-risk-perception-and-hiv-worry-among-adolescent-girls-and-young-women-in-lilongwe-malawi
#18
Joan T Price, Nora E Rosenberg, Dhrutika Vansia, Twambilile Phanga, Nivedita L Bhushan, Bertha Maseko, Savvy Brar, Mina C Hosseinipour, Jennifer H Tang, Linda-Gail Bekker, Audrey Pettifor
BACKGROUND: Adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) in sub-Saharan Africa have high HIV prevalence and incidence. We sought to understand which HIV risk factors individually and in combination contribute to risk, and whether these factors are associated with HIV worry and risk perception. SETTING: This study is ongoing at four public health centers in Lilongwe, Malawi (2016-2017). METHODS: AGYW 15-24 years old were recruited to participate in a study assessing four models of service delivery...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982161/novel-multipurpose-pod-intravaginal-ring-for-the-prevention-of-hiv-hsv-and-unintended-pregnancy-pharmacokinetic-evaluation-in-a-macaque-model
#19
James M Smith, John A Moss, Priya Srinivasan, Irina Butkyavichene, Manjula Gunawardana, Rob Fanter, Christine S Miller, Debbie Sanchez, Flora Yang, Shanon Ellis, Jining Zhang, Mark A Marzinke, Craig W Hendrix, Amita Kapoor, Marc M Baum
Globally, women bear an uneven burden for sexual HIV acquisition. Results from two clinical trials evaluating intravaginal rings (IVRs) delivering the antiretroviral agent dapivirine have shown that protection from HIV infection can be achieved with this modality, but high adherence is essential. Multipurpose prevention technologies (MPTs) can potentially increase product adherence by offering protection against multiple vaginally transmitted infections and unintended pregnancy. Here we describe a coitally independent, long-acting pod-IVR MPT that could potentially prevent HIV and HSV infection as well as unintended pregnancy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968816/rank-based-two-sample-tests-for-paired-data-with-missing-values
#20
Youyi Fong, Ying Huang, Maria P Lemos, M Juliana Mcelrath
Two-sample location problem is one of the most encountered problems in statistical practice. The two most commonly studied subtypes of two-sample location problem involve observations from two populations that are either independent or completely paired, but a third subtype can oftentimes occur in practice when some observations are paired and some are not. Partially paired two-sample problems, also known as paired two-sample problems with missing data, often arise in biomedical fields when it is difficult for some invasive procedures to collect data from an individual at both conditions we are interested in comparing...
August 24, 2017: Biostatistics
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