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Biomedical hiv prevention

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492452/the-changing-landscape-of-hiv-prevention-in-the-united-states-health-department-experiences-and-local-adaptations-in-response-to-the-national-hiv-aids-strategy-and-high-impact-prevention-approach
#1
Holly H Fisher, Aba Essuon, Tamika Hoyte, Ekaterine Shapatava, Gene Shelley, Aisha Rios, Stephanie Beane, Stacey Bourgeois, Erica Dunbar, Tobey Sapiano
OBJECTIVE: HIV prevention has changed substantially in recent years due to changes in national priorities, biomedical advances, and health care reform. Starting in 2010, motivated by the National HIV/AIDS Strategy (NHAS) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) High-Impact Prevention (HIP), health departments realigned resources so that cost-effective, evidence-based interventions were targeted to groups at risk in areas most affected by HIV. This analysis describes how health departments in diverse settings were affected by NHAS and HIP...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472981/infectious-diseases-of-poverty-the-first-five-years
#2
EDITORIAL
Wei Wang, Jin Chen, Hui-Feng Sheng, Na-Na Wang, Pin Yang, Xiao-Nong Zhou, Robert Bergquist
Although the focus in the area of health research may be shifting from infectious to non-communicable diseases, the infectious diseases of poverty remain a major burden of disease of global health concern. A global platform to communicate and share the research on these diseases is needed to facilitate the translation of knowledge into effective approaches and tools for their elimination. Based on the "One health, One world" mission, a new, open-access journal, Infectious Diseases of Poverty (IDP), was launched by BioMed Central in partnership with the National Institute of Parasitic Diseases (NIPD), Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (China CDC) on October 25, 2012...
May 4, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470458/a-simple-risk-prediction-algorithm-for-hiv-transmission-results-from-hiv-prevention-trials-in-kwazulu-natal-south-africa-2002-2012
#3
Handan Wand, Tarylee Reddy, Sarita Naidoo, Suri Moonsamy, Samantha Siva, Neetha S Morar, Gita Ramjee
We aimed to develop a HIV risk scoring algorithm for targeted screening among women in South Africa. We used data from five biomedical intervention trials (N = 8982 Cox regression models were used to create a risk prediction algorithm and it was internally and externally validated using standard statistical measures; 7-factors were identified as significant predictors of HIV infection: <25 years old, being single/not cohabiting, parity (<3), age at sexual debut (<16), 3+ sexual partners, using injectables and diagnosis with a sexually transmitted infection(s)...
May 3, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467163/perspectives-on-hiv-pre-and-post-exposure-prophylaxes-prep-and-pep-among-female-and-male-sex-workers-in-mombasa-kenya-implications-for-integrating-biomedical-prevention-into-sexual-health-services
#4
Arjee J Restar, Jack Ume Tocco, Joanne E Mantell, Yves Lafort, Peter Gichangi, Tsitsi B Masvawure, Sophie Vusha Chabeda, Theo G M Sandfort
Pre- and post-exposure prophylaxes (PrEP and PEP) can reduce the risk of HIV acquisition, yet often are inaccessible to and underutilized by most-vulnerable populations, including sex workers in sub-Saharan Africa. Based on in-depth interviews with 21 female and 23 male HIV-negative sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya, we found that awareness and knowledge of PrEP and PEP were low, although willingness to use both was high. Participants felt PrEP would be empowering and give added protection against infection, although some expressed concerns about side effects...
April 2017: AIDS Education and Prevention: Official Publication of the International Society for AIDS Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449588/disparities-in-hiv-knowledge-and-attitudes-toward-biomedical-interventions-among-the-non-medical-hiv-workforce-in-the-united-states
#5
Raniyah M Copeland, Phill Wilson, Gabriela Betancourt, David Garcia, Murray Penner, Rebecca Abravanel, Eric Y Wong, Lori D Parisi
Non-medical, community-based workers play a critical role in supporting people living with (or at risk of acquiring) HIV along the care continuum. The biomedical nature of promising advances in HIV prevention, such as pre-exposure prophylaxis and treatment-as-prevention, requires frontline workers to be knowledgeable about HIV science and treatment. This study was developed to: measure knowledge of HIV science and treatment within the HIV non-medical workforce, evaluate workers' familiarity with and attitudes toward recent biomedical interventions, and identify factors that may affect HIV knowledge and attitudes...
April 27, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449198/systematic-review-of-sex-work-interventions-in-sub-saharan-africa-examining-combination-prevention-approaches
#6
George Awungafac, Therese Delvaux, Bea Vuylsteke
OBJECTIVE: The incidence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections is disproportionately high among sex workers (SW). We aimed to update the evidence on the effectiveness of SW interventions in sub-Saharan Africa and to provide more insights into combination prevention. METHODS: Systematic review following PRISMA guidelines in a search of PUBMED and POPLINE for peer-reviewed literature published between January 1, 2000 and July 22, 2016 (registration number on PROSPERO: CRD42016042529)...
April 27, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419276/molecular-features-of-the-v1-v4-coding-region-of-sexually-transmitted-hiv-1
#7
Jun Yong Choi, Sergei L Kosakovsky Pond, Christy M Anderson, Douglas D Richman, Davey M Smith
Background: Investigations into which HIV-1 sequence features may be selected for transmission during sexual exposure have been hampered by the small number of characterized transmission pairs in individual studies. Methods: To boost statistical power to detect differences in glycosylation, length, and electrical charge in the HIV-1 V1-V4 coding region, we re-analyzed all available 2,485 env sequences derived from 114 subjects representing 58 transmission pairs from previous studies using mixed effects linear regression and an approach to approximate the unobserved transmitted virus...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418987/the-roles-of-behavioral-and-social-science-research-in-the-fight-against-hiv-aids-a-functional-framework
#8
Paul Gaist, Michael J Stirratt
Landmark advances have been made in HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment. These include proof-of-concept and public health implementation of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and "treatment as prevention" (TasP) to reduce HIV transmission as well as definitive evidence of the clinical gain from early antiretroviral treatment (ART) initiation. Significant progress has been made in understanding and addressing the social contexts and behavioral factors that impact HIV prevention, care, and treatment interventions...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418524/evaluating-testing-strategies-for-identifying-youths-with-hiv-infection-and-linking-youths-to-biomedical-and-other-prevention-services
#9
Robin Lin Miller, Cherrie B Boyer, Danielle Chiaramonte, Peter Lindeman, Kate Chutuape, Bendu Cooper-Walker, Bill G Kapogiannis, Craig M Wilson, J Dennis Fortenberry
Importance: Most human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected youths are unaware of their serostatus (approximately 60%) and therefore not linked to HIV medical or prevention services. The need to identify promising and scalable approaches to promote uptake of HIV testing among youths at risk is critical. Objective: To evaluate a multisite HIV testing program designed to encourage localized HIV testing programs focused on self-identified sexual minority males and to link youths to appropriate prevention services after receipt of their test results...
April 17, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415911/risk-safety-and-sex-among-male-prep-users-time-for-a-new-understanding
#10
Kimberly Koester, Rivet K Amico, Hailey Gilmore, Albert Liu, Vanessa McMahan, Kenneth Mayer, Sybil Hosek, Robert Grant
Recent advances in biomedical HIV prevention have led to optimistic projections of a dramatic worldwide reduction of new infections by 2030. This optimism is counterbalanced by concerns that the protective benefits of one such technology, HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), may be negated by increases in other behaviours that offset these benefits (risk compensation). To contribute to a deeper understanding of concepts of safety and risk in the context of HIV PrEP, we draw on the narrative accounts of 61 male PrEP users who participated in the inaugural PrEP demonstration project: the iPrEx open-label extension study...
April 18, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406272/dorsal-longitudinal-foreskin-cut-is-associated-with-reduced-risk-of-hiv-syphilis-and-genital-herpes-in-men-a-cross-sectional-study-in-papua-new-guinea
#11
Andrew J Vallely, David MacLaren, Matthew David, Pamela Toliman, Angela Kelly-Hanku, Ben Toto, Rachael Tommbe, Zure Kombati, Petronia Kaima, Kelwyn Browne, Clement Manineng, Lalen Simeon, Claire Ryan, Handan Wand, Peter Hill, Greg Law, Peter M Siba, W John H McBride, John M Kaldor
INTRODUCTION: Various forms of penile foreskin cutting are practised in Papua New Guinea. In the context of an ecological association observed between HIV infection and the dorsal longitudinal foreskin cut, we undertook an investigation of this relationship at the individual level. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study among men attending voluntary confidential HIV counselling and testing clinics. Following informed consent, participants had a face-to-face interview and an examination to categorize foreskin status...
April 3, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338951/measuring-transitions-in-sexual-risk-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-the-novel-use-of-latent-class-and-latent-transition-analysis-in-hiv-sentinel-surveillance
#12
Anna L Wilkinson, Carol El-Hayek, Christopher K Fairley, Norm Roth, B K Tee, Emma McBryde, Margaret Hellard, Mark Stoové
New combination human acquired deficiency (HIV) prevention strategies that include biomedical and primary prevention approaches add complexity to the task of measuring sexual risk. Latent transition models are beneficial for understanding complex phenomena; therefore, we trialed the application of latent class and latent transition models to HIV surveillance data. Our aims were to identify sexual risk states and model individuals' transitions between states. A total of 4,685 HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM) completed behavioral questionnaires alongside tests for HIV and sexually transmissible infections at one of 2 Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, general practices (2007-2013)...
April 15, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323441/breaking-binaries-biomedicine-and-serostatus-borderlands-among-couples-with-mixed-hiv-status
#13
Asha Persson, Christy E Newman, Jeanne Ellard
With recent breakthroughs in HIV treatment and prevention, the meanings of HIV-positivity and HIV-negativity are changing at biomedical and community levels. We explore how binary constructions of HIV serostatus identities are giving way to something more complex that brings both welcome possibilities and potential concerns. We draw on research with couples with mixed HIV status to argue that, in the context of lived experiences, serostatus identities have always been more ambiguous than allowed for in HIV discourse...
February 28, 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318310/comparison-of-maxim-and-sedia-limiting-antigen-assay-performance-for-measuring-hiv-incidence
#14
Katherine E Schlusser, Jacob Konikoff, Allison R Kirkpatrick, Charles Morrison, Tsungai Chipato, Pai-Lien Chen, Marshall Munjoma, Susan H Eshleman, Oliver Laeyendecker
Accurate methods for cross-sectional incidence estimation are needed for HIV prevention research. The Limiting Antigen Avidity (LAg-Avidity) assay has been marketed by two vendors, Maxim Biomedical and Sedia BioSciences Corporation. Performance differences between the two versions of the assay are unknown. We tested a total 1,410 treatment-naive samples with both versions of the assay. The samples came from 176 seroconverters from the Zimbabwe Hormonal Contraception and HIV Study. The correlation between the two versions of the assay was 0...
March 20, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274904/gender-specific-combination-hiv-prevention-for-youth-in-high-burden-settings-the-mp3-youth-observational-pilot-study-protocol
#15
Jasmine Buttolph, Irene Inwani, Kawango Agot, Charles M Cleland, Peter Cherutich, James N Kiarie, Alfred Osoti, Connie L Celum, Jared M Baeten, Ruth Nduati, John Kinuthia, Timothy B Hallett, Ramzi Alsallaq, Ann E Kurth
BACKGROUND: Nearly three decades into the epidemic, sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) remains the region most heavily affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), with nearly 70% of the 34 million people living with HIV globally residing in the region. In SSA, female and male youth (15 to 24 years) are at a disproportionately high risk of HIV infection compared to adults. As such, there is a need to target HIV prevention strategies to youth and to tailor them to a gender-specific context. This protocol describes the process for the multi-staged approach in the design of the MP3 Youth pilot study, a gender-specific, combination, HIV prevention intervention for youth in Kenya...
March 8, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271718/acceptability-of-microbicidal-vaginal-rings-and-oral-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-hiv-prevention-among-female-sex-workers-in-a-high-prevalence-us-city
#16
Sarah M Peitzmeier, Catherine Tomko, Erin Wingo, Anne Sawyer, Susan G Sherman, Nancy Glass, Chris Beyrer, Michele R Decker
Biomedical HIV prevention tools including oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and vaginal microbicidal rings hold unique value for high-risk women who may have limited capacity for condom negotiation, including the key populations of sex workers and drug users. Commercial sex is a PrEP indicator in CDC guidelines, yet little is known about female sex workers' (FSWs) knowledge of and attitudes toward PrEP or the recently developed monthly vaginal microbicide rings. We describe knowledge and attitudes toward PrEP and microbicide rings in a sample of 60 mostly drug-using FSWs in Baltimore, Maryland, a high HIV-prevalence US city...
March 8, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249722/clinical-trials-and-systematic-reviews-addressing-similar-interventions-for-the-same-condition-do-not-consider-similar-outcomes-to-be-important-a-case-study-in-hiv-aids
#17
Ian J Saldanha, Tianjing Li, Cui Yang, Jill Owczarzak, Paula R Williamson, Kay Dickersin
BACKGROUND: The usefulness of clinical trials and systematic reviews is compromised when they report different outcomes. We compared outcomes in reviews of HIV/AIDS and the trials included in the reviews. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We examined all Cochrane reviews of HIV/AIDS (as of June 2013) that included ≥1 trial and the trials that the reviews included. We compared outcomes within subgroups defined by type of intervention: clinical management, biomedical prevention, behavioral prevention, and health services...
April 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214391/correlates-of-willingness-to-initiate-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-and-anticipation-of-practicing-safer-drug-and-sex-related-behaviors-among-high-risk-drug-users-on-methadone-treatment
#18
Roman Shrestha, Pramila Karki, Frederick L Altice, Tania B Huedo-Medina, Jaimie P Meyer, Lynn Madden, Michael Copenhaver
BACKGROUND: Although people who use drugs (PWUD) are key populations recommended to receive pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to prevent HIV, few data are available to guide PrEP delivery in this underserved group. We therefore examined the willingness to initiate PrEP and the anticipation of HIV risk reduction while on PrEP among high-risk PWUD. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study of 400 HIV-negative, opioid dependent persons enrolled in a methadone program and reporting recent risk behaviors, we examined independent correlates of being willing to initiate PrEP...
April 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176168/a-global-estimate-of-the-acceptability-of-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-hiv-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Peng Peng, Shu Su, Christopher K Fairley, Minjie Chu, Shengyang Jiang, Xun Zhuang, Lei Zhang
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a new biomedical intervention for HIV prevention. This study systematically reviews the acceptability of PrEP among men who have sex with men (MSM) worldwide. We searched major English databases to identify English-language articles published between July 2007 and July 2016, which reported the acceptability of PrEP and associated population characteristics. Meta-analysis was conducted to estimate a pooled acceptability, and meta-regression and subgroup analysis were used to analyse heterogeneities...
February 7, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170304/hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-and-postexposure-prophylaxis-in-japan-context-of-use-and-directions-for-future-research-and-action
#20
Anthony S DiStefano, Makiko Takeda
Biomedical HIV prevention strategies are playing an increasingly prominent role in addressing HIV epidemics globally, but little is known about their use in Japan, where persistent HIV disparities and a recently stable, but not declining, national epidemic indicate the need for evolving approaches. We conducted an ethnographic study to determine the context of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) use and to identify directions for future research and action in Japan. We used data from observational fieldwork in the Kansai region and Tokyo Metropolitan Area (n = 178 persons observed), qualitative interviews (n = 32), documents and web-based data sources (n = 321), and email correspondences (n = 9) in the period 2013-2016...
February 2017: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
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