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Biomedical hiv prevention

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145733/harnessing-novel-imaging-approaches-to-guide-hiv-prevention-and-cure-discoveries-a-national-institutes-of-health-and-global-hiv-vaccine-enterprise-2017-meeting-report
#1
Brigitte Elisabeth Sanders-Beer, Yegor Voronin, David McDonald, Anjali Singh
Advances in imaging technologies have greatly increased our understanding of cellular and molecular interactions in humans and their corresponding animal models of infectious diseases. In the HIV/SIV field, imaging has provided key insights into mucosal viral transmission, local and systemic virus spread, host-virus dynamics, and chronic inflammation/immune activation and the resultant immunopathology. Recent developments in imaging applications are yielding physical, spatial, and temporal measurements to enhance insight into biological functions and disease processes, while retaining important cellular, microenvironmental, organ and intact organism contextual details...
November 16, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134422/hiv-prevention-among-young-women-in-south-africa-understanding-multiple-layers-of-risk
#2
Christina Psaros, Cecilia Milford, Jennifer A Smit, Letitia Greener, Nzwakie Mosery, Lynn T Matthews, Abigail Harrison, Janna R Gordon, Matthew Mimiaga, David R Bangsberg, Steven A Safren
Despite concerted prevention efforts, young South African women remain at the epicenter of the HIV epidemic. Although these women have grown up in a community powerfully affected by HIV, systematic investigation into how this "second generation" of HIV-affected youth navigates HIV risk is lacking. This study qualitatively explored a complex interplay of factors influencing HIV risk among young pregnant women in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. We conducted in-depth interviews with 35 pregnant women (22 HIV-uninfected and 13 HIV-infected) aged 18-21, 18 healthcare providers, and focus groups with 19 community stakeholders...
November 13, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127535/predictors-of-hiv-testing-and-their-influence-on-prep-acceptance-in-men-who-have-sex-with-men-a-cross-sectional-study
#3
Tsz Ho Kwan, Shui Shan Lee
HIV testing is the gateway to biomedical means of prevention and treatment. Identifying predictors of HIV testing is important to inform future preventive interventions. Of 444 men who have sex with men without known HIV infection enrolled in a study in Hong Kong, 64% had ever been HIV-tested. Testers were generally older, better educated, had a higher monthly income, and more likely self-identified as gay. Testers often used Internet and frequented saunas for sex networking, compared with non-testers attending bars, massage centres and public toilets...
November 10, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090636/-there-s-no-pill-to-help-you-deal-with-the-guilt-and-shame-contemporary-experiences-of-hiv-in-the-united-kingdom
#4
Liz Walker
The experience of living with HIV, in the global north, has changed significantly over the past 20 years. This is largely the result of effective biomedical methods of treatment and prevention. HIV is now widely considered to be a long-term condition like many others - it has been argued that HIV has been 'normalised'. Drawing on online qualitative survey data, with respondents aged 18-35 years, diagnosed with HIV in the past 5 years, this research explores contemporary subjective experiences of being diagnosed, and living, with HIV in the United Kingdom...
October 1, 2017: Health (London)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068715/promoting-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-to-prevent-hiv-infections-among-sexual-and-gender-minority-hispanics-latinxs
#5
Kathleen R Page, Omar Martinez, Karen Nieves-Lugo, Maria Cecilia Zea, Suzanne Dolwick Grieb, Thespina J Yamanis, Kaitlin Spear, Wendy W Davis
Sexual and gender minority Hispanics/Latinxs (henceforth: Latinxs) continue to be disproportionately impacted by HIV/AIDS in the U.S. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a biomedical prevention approach which holds significant promise for at risk and vulnerable populations. We discuss barriers and facilitators to uptake of PrEP among sexual and gender minority Latinxs living in the U.S. through an ecosocial lens that takes into account structural, community, and individual contexts. The impact of immigration status on PrEP uptake emerges as a major and recurrent theme that must be understood and addressed by HIV prevention programs aiming to promote an inclusive strategy for sexual and gender minority Latinxs living in the U...
October 2017: AIDS Education and Prevention: Official Publication of the International Society for AIDS Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029138/the-female-genital-tract-microbiome-is-associated-with-vaginal-antiretroviral-drug-concentrations-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-women-on-antiretroviral-therapy
#6
Renee Donahue Carlson, Anandi N Sheth, Timothy D Read, Michael B Frisch, C Christina Mehta, Amy Martin, Richard E Haaland, Anar S Patel, Chou-Pong Pau, Colleen S Kraft, Igho Ofotokun
Background: The female genital tract (FGT) microbiome may affect vaginal pH and other factors that influence drug movement into the vagina. We examined the relationship between the microbiome and antiretroviral concentrations in the FGT. Methods: Over one menstrual cycle, 20 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women virologically suppressed on tenofovir (TFV) disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine and ritonavir-boosted atazanavir (ATV) underwent serial paired cervicovaginal and plasma sampling for antiretroviral concentrations using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025633/association-between-male-circumcision-and-women-s-biomedical-health-outcomes-a-systematic-review
#7
Jonathan M Grund, Tyler S Bryant, Inimfon Jackson, Kelly Curran, Naomi Bock, Carlos Toledo, Joanna Taliano, Sheng Zhou, Jorge Martin Del Campo, Ling Yang, Apollo Kivumbi, Peizi Li, Sherri Pals, Stephanie M Davis
BACKGROUND: Male circumcision reduces men's risk of acquiring HIV and some sexually transmitted infections from heterosexual exposure, and is essential for HIV prevention in sub-Saharan Africa. Studies have also investigated associations between male circumcision and risk of acquisition of HIV and sexually transmitted infections in women. We aimed to review all evidence on associations between male circumcision and women's health outcomes to benefit women's health programmes. METHODS: In this systematic review we searched for peer-reviewed and grey literature publications reporting associations between male circumcision and women's health outcomes up to April 11, 2016...
November 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991885/predictors-of-hiv-hiv-risk-perception-and-hiv-worry-among-adolescent-girls-and-young-women-in-lilongwe-malawi
#8
Joan T Price, Nora E Rosenberg, Dhrutika Vansia, Twambilile Phanga, Nivedita L Bhushan, Bertha Maseko, Savvy Brar, Mina C Hosseinipour, Jennifer H Tang, Linda-Gail Bekker, Audrey Pettifor
BACKGROUND: Adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) in sub-Saharan Africa have high HIV prevalence and incidence. We sought to understand which HIV risk factors individually and in combination contribute to risk, and whether these factors are associated with HIV worry and risk perception. SETTING: This study is ongoing at four public health centers in Lilongwe, Malawi (2016-2017). METHODS: AGYW 15-24 years old were recruited to participate in a study assessing four models of service delivery...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982161/novel-multipurpose-pod-intravaginal-ring-for-the-prevention-of-hiv-hsv-and-unintended-pregnancy-pharmacokinetic-evaluation-in-a-macaque-model
#9
James M Smith, John A Moss, Priya Srinivasan, Irina Butkyavichene, Manjula Gunawardana, Rob Fanter, Christine S Miller, Debbie Sanchez, Flora Yang, Shanon Ellis, Jining Zhang, Mark A Marzinke, Craig W Hendrix, Amita Kapoor, Marc M Baum
Globally, women bear an uneven burden for sexual HIV acquisition. Results from two clinical trials evaluating intravaginal rings (IVRs) delivering the antiretroviral agent dapivirine have shown that protection from HIV infection can be achieved with this modality, but high adherence is essential. Multipurpose prevention technologies (MPTs) can potentially increase product adherence by offering protection against multiple vaginally transmitted infections and unintended pregnancy. Here we describe a coitally independent, long-acting pod-IVR MPT that could potentially prevent HIV and HSV infection as well as unintended pregnancy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968816/rank-based-two-sample-tests-for-paired-data-with-missing-values
#10
Youyi Fong, Ying Huang, Maria P Lemos, M Juliana Mcelrath
Two-sample location problem is one of the most encountered problems in statistical practice. The two most commonly studied subtypes of two-sample location problem involve observations from two populations that are either independent or completely paired, but a third subtype can oftentimes occur in practice when some observations are paired and some are not. Partially paired two-sample problems, also known as paired two-sample problems with missing data, often arise in biomedical fields when it is difficult for some invasive procedures to collect data from an individual at both conditions we are interested in comparing...
August 24, 2017: Biostatistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967541/minors-and-young-adults-experiences-of-the-research-consent-process-in-a-phase-ii-safety-study-of-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-hiv
#11
Amelia S Knopf, Mary A Ott, Nancy Liu, Bill G Kapogiannis, Gregory D Zimet, J Dennis Fortenberry, Sybil G Hosek
PURPOSE: There is a persistent HIV epidemic among sexual and gender minority adolescents in the U.S. Oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an efficacious prevention strategy, but not yet approved for minors. Minors' access to biomedical HIV prevention technologies is impeded by the ethical and legal complexities of consent to research participation. We explore autonomous consent and study experiences among minor and adult participants in Project PrEPare, a Phase II safety study of PrEP for HIV prevention...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953322/a-historical-review-of-hiv-prevention-and-care-initiatives-in-british-columbia-canada-1996-2015
#12
Michelle Olding, Ben Enns, Dimitra Panagiotoglou, Jean Shoveller, P Richard Harrigan, Rolando Barrios, Thomas Kerr, Julio S G Montaner, Bohdan Nosyk
INTRODUCTION: British Columbia has made significant progress in the treatment and prevention of HIV since 1996, when Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) became available. However, we currently lack a historical summary of HIV prevention and care interventions implemented in the province since the introduction of HAART and how they have shaped the HIV epidemic. Guided by a socio-ecological framework, we present a historical review of biomedical and health services, community and structural interventions implemented in British Columbia from 1996-2015 to prevent HIV transmission or otherwise enhance the cascade of HIV care...
September 19, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949893/moral-conflict-and-competing-duties-in-the-initiation-of-a-biomedical-hiv-prevention-trial-with-minor-adolescents
#13
Amelia S Knopf, Amy Lewis Gilbert, Gregory D Zimet, Bill G Kapogiannis, Sybil G Hosek, J Dennis Fortenberry, Mary A Ott
BACKGROUND: Biomedical HIV prevention research with minors is complicated by the requirement of parental consent, which may disclose sensitive information to parents. We examine the experience of principal investigators (PIs) and study personnel who faced this complex ethical issue in the first biomedical HIV prevention study that allowed minors to self-consent for enrollment. METHODS: We conducted in-depth interviews with PIs and study personnel from 13 medical trial sites in cities across the United States...
July 2017: AJOB Empirical Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941042/nanomaterials-in-the-prevention-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infections
#14
REVIEW
Kaijin Xu, Zhen Chang Liang, Xin Ding, Haiyang Hu, Shaoqiong Liu, Martin Nurmik, Sheng Bi, Feishu Hu, Zhongkang Ji, Jingjing Ren, Shigui Yang, Yi Yan Yang, Lanjuan Li
Despite the tremendous advancements that have been made in biomedical research, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) still remains one of the top 10 causes of death worldwide, outpacing the Human Immunodeficiency Virus as a leading cause of death from an infectious disease. In the light of such significant disease burden, tremendous efforts have been made worldwide to stem this burgeoning spread of disease. The use of nanomaterials in TB management has increased in the past decade, particularly in the areas of early TB detection, prevention, and treatment...
September 21, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893304/preventing-hiv-infection-without-targeting-the-virus-how-reducing-hiv-target-cells-at-the-genital-tract-is-a-new-approach-to-hiv-prevention
#15
REVIEW
Julie Lajoie, Lucy Mwangi, Keith R Fowke
For over three decades, HIV infection has had a tremendous impact on the lives of individuals and public health. Microbicides and vaccines studies have shown that immune activation at the genital tract is a risk factor for HIV infection. Furthermore, lower level of immune activation, or what we call immune quiescence, has been associated with a lower risk of HIV acquisition. This unique phenotype is observed in highly-exposed seronegative individuals from different populations including female sex workers from the Pumwani cohort in Nairobi, Kenya...
September 12, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893280/eradication-of-hiv-1-latent-reservoirs-through-therapeutic-vaccination
#16
REVIEW
Joshua Pankrac, Katja Klein, Jamie F S Mann
Despite the significant success of combination anti-retroviral therapy to reduce HIV viremia and save lives, HIV-1 infection remains a lifelong infection that must be appropriately managed. Advances in the understanding of the HIV infection process and insights from vaccine development in other biomedical fields such as cancer, imaging, and genetic engineering have fueled rapid advancements in HIV cure research. In the last few years, several studies have focused on the development of "Kick and Kill" therapies to reverse HIV latency and kick start viral translational activity...
September 12, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880948/prevention-of-vaginal-and-rectal-hiv-transmission-by-antiretroviral-combinations-in-humanized-mice
#17
Philippe A Gallay, Udayan Chatterji, Aaron Kirchhoff, Angel Gandarilla, Manjula Gunawardana, Richard B Pyles, Mark A Marzinke, John A Moss, Marc M Baum
With more than 7,000 new HIV infections daily worldwide, there is an urgent need for non-vaccine biomedical prevention (nBP) strategies that are safe, effective, and acceptable. Clinical trials have demonstrated that pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with antiretrovirals (ARVs) can be effective at preventing HIV infection. In contrast, other trials using the same ARVs failed to show consistent efficacy. Topical (vaginal and rectal) dosing is a promising regimen for HIV PrEP as it leads to low systematic drug exposure...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875351/parents-perspectives-about-adolescent-boys-involvement-in-biomedical-hiv-prevention-research
#18
Brian Mustanski, Kathryn Macapagal, Matthew Thomann, Brian A Feinstein, Michael E Newcomb, Darnell Motley, Celia B Fisher
Research on the use of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among adolescents at high risk for HIV is urgently needed, and parents' perspectives on these studies are essential for guiding the responsible conduct of adolescent PrEP research. We conducted interviews with 30 parents of adolescent boys (50% known/presumed heterosexual; 50% sexual minority) to understand their views of research risks and benefits and parental permission regarding their son's involvement in a hypothetical PrEP adherence trial. Parents identified several health and educational benefits of the study and expressed that waiving parental permission would overcome barriers to accessing PrEP, particularly for youth who may benefit most...
September 5, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872441/negotiating-sexual-safety-in-the-era-of-biomedical-hiv-prevention-relationship-dynamics-among-male-couples-using-pre-exposure-prophylaxis
#19
Jowanna Malone, Jennifer L Syvertsen, Blake E Johnson, Matthew J Mimiaga, Kenneth H Mayer, Angela R Bazzi
Up to two-thirds of new cases of HIV transmission between gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men in the USA are attributed to primary relationships. Understanding the relationship dynamics and sexual agreements of male-male couples can provide insight into HIV transmission patterns and prevention needs in this population. The daily use of antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is highly effective in preventing HIV, but its negotiation and use within social and intimate relationship contexts remain understudied...
September 5, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862483/prep-chicago-a-randomized-controlled-peer-change-agent-intervention-to-promote-the-adoption-of-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-hiv-prevention-among-young-black-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#20
Lindsay E Young, Phil Schumm, Leigh Alon, Alida Bouris, Matthew Ferreira, Brandon Hill, Aditya S Khanna, Thomas W Valente, John A Schneider
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Advances in biomedical prevention strategies such as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) represent a new opportunity for reducing HIV incidence among young Black men who have sex with men, for whom the number of new HIV infections continues to rise. However, studies have documented low rates of PrEP uptake in this community. Research suggests that the peer networks of young Black men who have sex with men play important roles in their sexual health decisions. PrEP Chicago is a randomized controlled trial network intervention designed to increase PrEP uptake among young Black men who have sex with men living in Chicago...
September 1, 2017: Clinical Trials: Journal of the Society for Clinical Trials
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