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Cellular trafficking

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643392/retroviruses-and-microtubule-associated-motor-proteins
#1
REVIEW
Gloria Arriagada
Retroviruses are obligate intracellular parasites of eukaryotic cells. After reverse transcription, the viral DNA contained in the preintegration complex (PIC) is delivered to the nucleus of the host cell, where it integrates. Before reaching the nucleus, the incoming particle and the PIC must travel throughout the cytoplasm. Likewise the newly synthesized viral proteins and viral particles must transit the cytoplasm during exit. The cytoplasm is a crowded environment and simple diffusion is difficult. Therefore, viruses have evolved to utilize the cellular mechanisms of movement through the cytoplasm, where microtubules are the roads, and the ATP dependent motors dynein and kinesin are the vehicles for retrograde and anterograde trafficking...
June 22, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642789/androgen-receptor-localizes-to-plasma-membrane-by-binding-to-caveolin-1-in-mouse-sertoli-cells
#2
Qiong Deng, Yong Wu, Zeng Zhang, Yue Wang, Minghua Li, Hui Liang, Yaoting Gui
The nonclassical androgen signaling pathway translates signals into alterations in cellular function within minutes, and this action is proposed to be mediated by an androgen receptor (AR) localized to the plasma membrane. This study was designed to determine the mechanism underlying the membrane association of androgen receptor in TM4 cells, a mouse Sertoli cell line. Western blot analysis indicated testosterone-induced AR translocation to the cell membrane. Data from coimmunoprecipitation indicated that AR is associated with caveolin-1, and testosterone enhanced this association...
2017: International Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642743/hiv-1-nef-signaling-in-intestinal-mucosa-epithelium-suggests-the-existence-of-an-active-inter-kingdom-crosstalk-mediated-by-exosomes
#3
REVIEW
Cristina Felli, Olimpia Vincentini, Marco Silano, Andrea Masotti
The human intestinal mucosal surface represents the first defense against pathogens and regulates the immune response through the combination of epithelial cell (EC) functions and immunological factors. ECs act as sensors of luminal stimuli and interact with the immune cells through signal-transduction pathways, thus representing the first barrier that HIV-1 virus encounters during infection. In particular, the HIV-1 Nef protein plays a crucial role in viral invasion and replication. Nef is expressed early during viral infection and interacts with numerous cellular proteins as a scaffold/adaptor...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641482/insights-into-eukaryotic-evolution-from-transmembrane-domain-lengths
#4
Aditya Mittal, Snigdha Singh
Biological membranes, comprised of proteins anchored by their trans-membrane domains (TMDs) creating a semi-permeable phase with lipid constituents, serve as "checkposts" for not only intracellular trafficking in eukaryotic cells but also for material transactions of all living cells with external environments. Hydropathy (or hydrophobicity) plots of "bitopic" proteins (i.e. having single alpha-helical TMDs) are routinely utilized in biochemistry texts for predicting their TMDs. The number of amino acids (i...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639241/huntington-s-disease-and-mitochondria
#5
REVIEW
Mohammad Jodeiri Farshbaf, Kamran Ghaedi
Huntington's disease (HD) as an inherited neurodegenerative disorder leads to neuronal loss in striatum. Progressive motor dysfunction, cognitive decline, and psychiatric disturbance are the main clinical symptoms of the HD. This disease is caused by expansion of the CAG repeats in exon 1 of the huntingtin which encodes Huntingtin protein (Htt). Various cellular and molecular events play role in the pathology of HD. Mitochondria as important organelles play crucial roles in the most of neurodegenerative disorders like HD...
June 21, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637901/caveolin-1-influences-lfa-1-redistribution-upon-tcr-stimulation-in-cd8-t-cells
#6
Jessica G Borger, Vicky L Morrison, Andrew Filby, Celine Garcia, Liisa M Uotila, Fabio Simbari, Susanna C Fagerholm, Rose Zamoyska
TCR stimulation by peptide-MHC complexes on APCs requires precise reorganization of molecules into the area of cellular contact to form an immunological synapse from where T cell signaling is initiated. Caveolin (Cav)1, a widely expressed transmembrane protein, is involved in the regulation of membrane composition, cellular polarity and trafficking, and the organization of signal transduction pathways. The presence of Cav1 protein in T cells was identified only recently, and its function in this context is not well understood...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637874/direct-demonstration-of-a-neonatal-fc-receptor-fcrn-driven-endosomal-sorting-pathway-for-cellular-recycling-of-albumin
#7
Esben G W Schmidt, Michael L Hvam, Filipa Antunes, Jason Cameron, Dorthe Viuff, Birgitte Andersen, Nanna N Kristensen, Kenneth A Howard
Albumin is the most abundant plasma protein involved in the transport of many compounds, such as fatty acids, bilirubin, and heme. The endothelial cellular neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) has been suggested to play a central role in maintaining the high albumin plasma levels through a cellular recycling pathway. However, direct mapping of this process is still lacking. This work presents the use of wild type and engineered recombinant albumins with either decreased or increased FcRn affinity in combination with a low or high FcRn-expressing endothelium cell line to clearly define the FcRn involvement, intracellular pathway and kinetics of albumin trafficking by flow cytometry, quantitative confocal microscopy, and an albumin-recycling assay...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636662/differential-regulation-of-polarized-synaptic-vesicle-trafficking-and-synapse-stability-in-neural-circuit-rewiring-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#8
Naina Kurup, Dong Yan, Karina Kono, Yishi Jin
Neural circuits are dynamic, with activity-dependent changes in synapse density and connectivity peaking during different phases of animal development. In C. elegans, young larvae form mature motor circuits through a dramatic switch in GABAergic neuron connectivity, by concomitant elimination of existing synapses and formation of new synapses that are maintained throughout adulthood. We have previously shown that an increase in microtubule dynamics during motor circuit rewiring facilitates new synapse formation...
June 21, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635671/rab33b-controls-hepatitis-b-virus-assembly-by-regulating-core-membrane-association-and-nucleocapsid-processing
#9
Christina Bartusch, Tatjana Döring, Reinhild Prange
Many viruses take advantage of cellular trafficking machineries to assemble and release new infectious particles. Using RNA interference (RNAi), we demonstrate that the Golgi/autophagosome-associated Rab33B is required for hepatitis B virus (HBV) propagation in hepatoma cell lines. While Rab33B is dispensable for the secretion of HBV subviral envelope particles, its knockdown reduced the virus yield to 20% and inhibited nucleocapsid (NC) formation and/or NC trafficking. The overexpression of a GDP-restricted Rab33B mutant phenocopied the effect of deficit Rab33B, indicating that Rab33B-specific effector proteins may be involved...
June 21, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635330/multiple-functions-of-insulin-degrading-enzyme-a-metabolic-crosslight
#10
Grazia R Tundo, Diego Sbardella, Chiara Ciaccio, Giuseppe Grasso, Magda Gioia, Andrea Coletta, Fabio Polticelli, Donato Di Pierro, Danilo Milardi, Peter Van Endert, Stefano Marini, Massimo Coletta
Insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) is a ubiquitous zinc peptidase of the inverzincin family, which has been initially discovered as the enzyme responsible for insulin catabolism; therefore, its involvement in the onset of diabetes has been largely investigated. However, further studies on IDE unraveled its ability to degrade several other polypeptides, such as β-amyloid, amylin, and glucagon, envisaging the possible implication of IDE dys-regulation in the "aggregopathies" and, in particular, in neurodegenerative diseases...
June 21, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635265/metabolic-oligosaccharide-engineering-with-alkyne-sialic-acids-confers-neuraminidase-resistance-and-inhibits-influenza-reproduction
#11
Torben Heise, Christian Büll, Daniëlle M H Beurskens, Emiel Rossing, Marien de Jonge, Gosse J Adema, Thomas J Boltje, Jeroen Langereis
Metabolic incorporation of azide or alkyne modified sialic acids into the cellular glycosylation pathway enables the study of sialoglycan expression, localization and trafficking via bioorthogonal chemistry. Herein we report that such modifications of the sialic acid sugar can have a profound influence on their hydrolysis by neuraminidases (sialidase). Azidoacetyl modified sialic acids were prone to neuraminidase cleavage, whereas propargyloxycarbonyl (Poc) modified sialic acids were largely resistent to cleavage...
June 21, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632484/rab-gtpases-and-their-interacting-protein-partners-structural-insights-into-rab-functional-diversity
#12
Olena Pylypenko, Hussein Hammich, I-Mei Yu, Anne Houdusse
Rab molecular switches are key players in defining membrane identity and regulating intracellular trafficking events in eukaryotic cells. In spite of their global structural similarity, Rab-family members acquired particular features that allow them to perform specific cellular functions. The overall fold and local sequence conservations enable them to utilize a common machinery for prenylation and recycling; while individual Rab structural differences determine interactions with specific partners such as GEFs, GAPs and effector proteins...
June 20, 2017: Small GTPases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632260/visualization-of-the-protein-corona-towards-a-biomolecular-understanding-of-nanoparticle-cell-interactions
#13
Maria Kokkinopoulou, Johanna Simon, Katharina Landfester, Volker Mailänder, Ingo Lieberwirth
The use of nanocarriers in biology and medicine is complicated by the current need to understand how nanoparticles interact in complex biological surroundings. When nanocarriers come into contact with serum, proteins immediately adsorb onto their surface, forming a protein corona which defines their biological identity. Although the composition of the protein corona has been widely determined by proteomics, its morphology still remains unclear. In this study we show for the first time the morphology of the protein corona using transmission electron microscopy...
June 20, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630045/structure-based-analysis-of-the-guanine-nucleotide-exchange-factor-smggds-reveals-armadillo-repeat-motifs-and-key-regions-for-activity-and-gtpase-binding
#14
Hikaru Shimizu, Sachiko Toma-Fukai, Shinya Saijo, Nobutaka Shimizu, Kenji Kontani, Toshiaki Katada, Toshiyuki Shimizu
Small GTPases are molecular switches that have critical biological roles and are controlled by GTPase-activating proteins and guanine-nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). The smg GDP dissociation stimulator (SmgGDS) protein functions as a GEF for the RhoA and RhoC small GTPases. SmgGDS has various regulatory roles, including small GTPase trafficking and localization and as a molecular chaperone, and interacts with many small GTPases possessing polybasic regions. Two SmgGDS splice variants, SmgGDS-558 and SmgGDS-607, differ in GEF activity and binding affinity for RhoA depending on the lipidation state, but the reasons for these differences are unclear...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630007/rna-localization-making-its-way-to-the-center-stage
#15
REVIEW
Ashley Chin, Eric Lécuyer
Cells are highly organized entities that rely on intricate addressing mechanisms to sort their constituent molecules to precise subcellular locations. These processes are crucial for cells to maintain their proper organization and carry out specialized functions in the body, while genetic perturbations that clog up these addressing systems can contribute to disease aetiology. The trafficking of RNA molecules represents an important layer in the control of cellular organization, a process that is both highly prevalent and for which features of the regulatory machineries have been deeply conserved evolutionarily...
June 16, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629147/proteomic-high-affinity-zn-2-trafficking-where-does-metallothionein-fit-in
#16
REVIEW
David H Petering, Afsana Mahim
The cellular constitution of Zn-proteins and Zn-dependent signaling depend on the capacity of Zn(2+) to find specific binding sites in the face of a plethora of other high affinity ligands. The most prominent of these is metallothionein (MT). It serves as a storage site for Zn(2+) under various conditions, and has chemical properties that support a dynamic role for MT in zinc trafficking. Consistent with these characteristics, changing the availability of zinc for cells and tissues causes rapid alteration of zinc bound to MT...
June 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628388/coordination-of-ampa-receptor-trafficking-by-rab-small-gtpases
#17
Angelika Hausser, Katalin Schlett
Synaptic connections in the brain are continuously weakened or strengthened in response to changes in neuronal activity. This process, known as synaptic plasticity, is the cellular basis for learning and memory, and is thought to be altered in several neuronal disorders. An important aspect of synaptic plasticity is the tightly controlled trafficking and synaptic targeting of the AMPA-type glutamate receptors, which are the major mediators of fast excitatory transmission in the brain. This review addresses the role of Rab GTPases in AMPA receptor trafficking in neurons under basal conditions and during activity-induced synaptic plasticity, especially during long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD)...
June 19, 2017: Small GTPases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628299/dihydropyrimidine-thiones-and-clioquinol-synergize-to-target-%C3%AE-amyloid-cellular-pathologies-through-a-metal-dependent-mechanism
#18
Daniel F Tardiff, Lauren E Brown, Xiaohui Yan, Richard Trilles, Nathan T Jui, M Inmaculada Barrasa, Kim A Caldwell, Guy A Caldwell, Scott E Schaus, Susan Lindquist
The lack of therapies for neurodegenerative diseases arises from our incomplete understanding of their underlying cellular toxicities and the limited number of predictive model systems. It is critical that we develop approaches to identify novel targets and lead compounds. Here, a phenotypic screen of yeast proteinopathy models identified dihydropyrimidine-thiones (DHPM-thiones) that selectively rescued the toxicity caused by β-amyloid (Aβ), the peptide implicated in Alzheimer's disease. Rescue of Aβ toxicity by DHPM-thiones occurred through a metal-dependent mechanism of action...
June 19, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627613/translocation-of-enterohemorrhagic-escherichia%C3%A2-coli-effector-tir-to-the-plasma-membrane-via-host-golgi-apparatus
#19
Chan Mao, Jiang Gu, Hai-Guang Wang, Yao Fang, Ping Yang, Bin Tang, Na Li, Ting-Ting Wang, Quan-Ming Zou, Qian Li
The translocated intimin receptor (Tir) is a canonical type III secretion system effector, secreted by the enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (E. coli). This receptor alters the regular cellular processing of host cells, to promote intracellular bacterial replication and evasion of the host immune system. Tir is translocated and integrated into the host cell plasma membrane, a process required for its pathogenic activity in these cells, however, the underlying mechanisms of how this occurs remain to be elucidated...
June 13, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626835/disrupted-er-to-golgi-trafficking-underlies-anti-hiv-drugs-and-alcohol-induced-cellular-stress-and-hepatic-injury
#20
Hui Han, Yuxin He, Jay Hu, Rhema Lau, Harrison Lee, Cheng Ji
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and unfolded protein response (UPR) are involved in anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drugs and alcohol-induced liver disease in a significant number of patients infected with HIV. However, the precise mechanism by which the drugs and alcohol cause ER stress remains elusive. We found that ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (RL) activated two canonical UPR branches without activation of the third canonical activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) branch in either HepG2 cells or primary mouse hepatocytes...
April 2017: Hepatol Commun
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