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Cellular trafficking

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689431/calcium-deprivation-enhances-non-selective-fluid-phase-endocytosis-and-modifies-membrane-lipid-profiles-in-arabidopsis-roots
#1
Ting Zhang, Ju Yang, Yongwei Sun, Yan Kang, Jia Yang, Zhi Qi
Ecological studies have revealed significant decreases in calcium (Ca) levels in various soils, and widely occurring physiological Ca deficits worldwide. These changes may cause decreases in plant diversity and increases in plant vulnerability to environmental stress, but the underlying cellular mechanism is not well understood. In this study, we found that in Arabidopsis thaliana roots, deprivation of Ca2+ , but not other minerals, dramatically enhanced plasma membrane invagination, endosome formation, and trafficking to the vacuole through the trans-Golgi network and pre-vacuole compartment, a typical pathway of endocytosis...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689231/rab-gtpases-and-membrane-trafficking-in-neurodegeneration
#2
REVIEW
Ferdi Ridvan Kiral, Friederike Elisabeth Kohrs, Eugene Jennifer Jin, Peter Robin Hiesinger
Defects in membrane trafficking are hallmarks of neurodegeneration. Rab GTPases are key regulators of membrane trafficking. Alterations of Rab GTPases, or the membrane compartments they regulate, are associated with virtually all neuronal activities in health and disease. The observation that many Rab GTPases are associated with neurodegeneration has proven a challenge in the quest for cause and effect. Neurodegeneration can be a direct consequence of a defect in membrane trafficking. Alternatively, changes in membrane trafficking may be secondary consequences or cellular responses...
April 23, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689227/how-the-ciliary-membrane-is-organized-inside-out-to-communicate-outside-in
#3
REVIEW
Galo Garcia, David R Raleigh, Jeremy F Reiter
Cilia, organelles that move to execute functions like fertilization and signal to execute functions like photoreception and embryonic patterning, are composed of a core of nine-fold doublet microtubules overlain by a membrane. Distinct types of cilia display distinct membrane morphologies, ranging from simple domed cylinders to the highly ornate invaginations and membrane disks of photoreceptor outer segments. Critical for the ability of cilia to signal, both the protein and the lipid compositions of ciliary membranes are different from those of other cellular membranes...
April 23, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689222/snare-complex-assembly-and-disassembly
#4
Tae-Young Yoon, Mary Munson
A fundamental hallmark of eukaryotic cells is their compartmentalization into functionally distinct organelles, including those of the secretory and endocytic pathways. Transport of cargo between these compartments and to/from the cell surface is mediated by membrane-bound vesicles and tubules. Delivery of cargo is facilitated by SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor)-mediated membrane fusion of vesicles with their target compartments. Vesicles contain a variety of cargos, including lipids, membrane proteins, signaling molecules, biosynthetic and hydrolytic enzymes, and the trafficking machinery itself...
April 23, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688820/elucidating-differential-nano-bio-interactions-of-multi-walled-andsingle-walled-carbon-nanotubes-using-subcellular-proteomics
#5
Joseph D T Ndika, Jukka Sund, Harri Alenius, Anne Puustinen
Understanding the relationship between adverse exposure events and specific material properties will facilitate predictive classification of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) according to their mechanisms of action, and a safe-by-design approach for the next generation of CNTs. Mass-spectrometry-based proteomics is a reliable tool to uncover the molecular dynamics of hazardous exposures, yet challenges persist with regards to its limited dynamic range when sampling whole organisms, tissues or cell lysates. Here, the simplicity of the sub-cellular proteome was harnessed to unravel distinctive adverse exposure outcomes at the molecular level, between two CNT subtypes...
April 24, 2018: Nanotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688489/protective-role-of-the-lipid-phosphatase-fig4-in-the-adult-nervous-system
#6
Yevgeniya A Mironova, Jing-Ping Lin, Ashley Kalinski, Lucas Huffman, Guy M Lenk, Leif A Havton, Miriam H Meisler, Roman J Giger
The signaling lipid phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate, PI(3,5)P2, functions in vesicular trafficking through the endo-lysosomal compartment. Cellular levels of PI(3,5)P2 are regulated by an enzyme complex comprised of the kinase PIKFYVE, the phosphatase FIG4, and the scaffold protein VAC14. Mutations of human FIG4 cause inherited disorders including Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4J, polymicrogyria with epilepsy, and Yunis-Varón syndrome. Constitutive Fig4-/- mice exhibit intention tremor, spongiform degeneration of neural tissue, hypomyelination, and juvenile lethality...
April 24, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686650/glucose-transporters-in-diabetic-kidney-disease-friends-or-foes
#7
REVIEW
Anita A Wasik, Sanna Lehtonen
Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is a major microvascular complication of diabetes and a common cause of end-stage renal disease worldwide. DKD manifests as an increased urinary protein excretion (albuminuria). Multiple studies have shown that insulin resistance correlates with the development of albuminuria in non-diabetic and diabetic patients. There is also accumulating evidence that glomerular epithelial cells or podocytes are insulin sensitive and that insulin signaling in podocytes is essential for maintaining normal kidney function...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685992/spindly-is-required-for-rapid-migration-of-human-cells
#8
Claudia Conte, Michelle A Baird, Michael W Davidson, Eric R Griffis
Dynein is the sole processive minus-end directed microtubule motor found in animals. It has roles in cell division, membrane trafficking, and cell migration. Together with dynactin, dynein regulates centrosomal orientation to establish and maintain cell polarity, controls focal adhesion turnover and anchors microtubules at the leading edge. In higher eukaryotes, dynein/dynactin requires additional components such as Bicaudal D to form an active motor complex and for regulating its cellular localization. Spindly is a protein that targets dynein/dynactin to kinetochores in mitosis and can activate its motility in vitro However, no role for Spindly in interphase dynein/dynactin function has been found...
April 23, 2018: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684208/patellin1-negatively-modulates-salt-tolerance-by-regulating-pm-na-h-antiport-activity-and-cellular-redox-homeostasis-in-arabidopsis
#9
Huapeng Zhou, Chongwu Wang, Tinghong Tan, Jingqing Cai, Jiaxian He, Honghui Lin
Soil salinity significantly represses plant development and growth. Mechanisms involved sodium (Na+) extrusion and compartmentation, intracellular membrane trafficking as well as redox homeostasis regulation play important roles in plant salt tolerance. In this study, we report that Patellin1 (PATL1), a membrane trafficking-related protein, modulates salt tolerance in Arabidopsis. The T-DNA insertion mutant of PATL1 (patl1) with elevated PATL1 transcription level displays salt-sensitive phenotype. PATL1 partially associates with plasma membrane (PM) and endosomal system, and might participate in regulating membrane trafficking...
April 19, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682743/the-selective-mineralcorticoid-receptor-mr-antagonist-eplerenon-prevents-decompensation-of-liver-cirrhosis
#10
Barbara Schreier, Anja Wolf, Stefanie Hammer, Sabine Pohl, Sigrid Mildenberger, Sindy Rabe, Michael Gekle, Alexander Zipprich
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The MR contributes to fibrosis in various tissues and MR antagonists, like eplerenone, are used to prevent fibrosis. The role of MR antagonists for hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis is unknown. Here, we investigated the role of MR and eplerenone in cirrhosis development. METHODS: Liver fibrosis (5 weeks), cirrhosis without (8w) and with ascites (12w) were induced by CCl4 in rats and comprehensively analyzed. In addition the effect of eplerenone (MR antagonist) on the development of cirrhosis with ascites was assessed...
April 22, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680149/recent-progress-in-the-discovery-and-development-of-small-molecule-modulators-of-cftr
#11
Phil R Kym, Xueqing Wang, Mathieu Pizzonero, Steven E Van der Plas
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disorder driven by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. While different mutations lead to varying levels of disease severity, the most common CFTR F508del mutation leads to defects in protein stability, trafficking to the cell membrane and gating of chloride ions. Recently, advances in medicinal chemistry have led to the identification small-molecule drugs that result in significant clinical efficacy in improving lung function in CF patients...
2018: Progress in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679260/slow-release-of-hiv-1-protein-nef-from-vesicle-like-structures-is-inhibited-by-cytosolic-calcium-elevation-in-single-human-microglia
#12
Matjaž Stenovec, Eva Lasič, Pia Pužar Dominkuš, Saša Trkov Bobnar, Robert Zorec, Metka Lenassi, Marko Kreft
Once infected by HIV-1, microglia abundantly produce accessory protein Nef that enhances virus production and infectivity, but little is known about its intracellular compartmentalization, trafficking mode(s), and release from microglia. Here, we transfected immortalized human microglia with a plasmid encoding Nef tagged with green fluorescent protein (Nef.GFP) to biochemically and microscopically identify Nef.GFP-associated cellular compartments and examine their mobility and Nef release from cultured cells...
April 21, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675239/a-luminescent-aluminium-salen-complex-allows-for-monitoring-dynamic-vesicle-trafficking-from-the-golgi-apparatus-to-lysosomes-in-living-cells
#13
Juan Tang, Hao-Yan Yin, Jun-Long Zhang
The Golgi apparatus is well-known as the center of vesicle trafficking whose malfunction might cause the breakdown of overall cellular architecture and ultimately cell death. The development of fluorescent probes to not only precisely stain the Golgi apparatus but also monitor dynamic vesicle trafficking is of great significance. While fluorescent proteins and fluorescent lipid analogs have been reported, they are sometime limited by either overexpression and toxicity or lack of high selectivity, respectively...
February 21, 2018: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674711/microtubule-dynamics-an-interplay-of-biochemistry-and-mechanics
#14
REVIEW
Gary J Brouhard, Luke M Rice
Microtubules are dynamic polymers of αβ-tubulin that are essential for intracellular organization, organelle trafficking and chromosome segregation. Microtubule growth and shrinkage occur via addition and loss of αβ-tubulin subunits, which are biochemical processes. Dynamic microtubules can also engage in mechanical processes, such as exerting forces by pushing or pulling against a load. Recent advances at the intersection of biochemistry and mechanics have revealed the existence of multiple conformations of αβ-tubulin subunits and their central role in dictating the mechanisms of microtubule dynamics and force generation...
April 19, 2018: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674675/pathogen-derived-extracellular-vesicles-mediate-virulence-in-the-fatal-human-pathogen-cryptococcus-gattii
#15
Ewa Bielska, Marta Arch Sisquella, Maha Aldeieg, Charlotte Birch, Eloise J O'Donoghue, Robin C May
The Pacific Northwest outbreak of cryptococcosis, caused by a near-clonal lineage of the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus gattii, represents the most significant cluster of life-threatening fungal infections in otherwise healthy human hosts currently known. The outbreak lineage has a remarkable ability to grow rapidly within human white blood cells, using a unique 'division of labour' mechanism within the pathogen population, where some cells adopt a dormant behaviour to support the growth of neighbouring cells...
April 19, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674524/insulin-receptor-plasma-membrane-levels-increased-by-the-progesterone-receptor-membrane-component-1
#16
Kaia K Hampton, Hilaree Frazier, Katie Anderson, Olivier Thibault, Rolf J Craven
The Insulin Receptor (IR) is a ligand-activated receptor tyrosine kinase that has a key role in metabolism, cellular survival and proliferation. Progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1) promotes cellular signaling via receptor trafficking, and is essential for some elements of tumor growth and metastasis. In the present study, we demonstrate that PGRMC1 co-precipitates with IR. Furthermore, we show that PGRMC1 increases plasma membrane IR levels in multiple cell lines and decreases insulin binding at the cell surface...
April 19, 2018: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673930/amelioration-of-neurosensory-structure-and-function-in-animal-and-cellular-models-of-a-congenital-blindness
#17
Ji Yun Song, Puya Aravand, Sergei Nikonov, Lanfranco Leo, Arkady Lyubarsky, Jeannette L Bennicelli, Jieyan Pan, Zhangyong Wei, Ivan Shpylchak, Pamela Herrera, Daniel J Bennett, Nicoletta Commins, Albert M Maguire, Jennifer Pham, Anneke I den Hollander, Frans P M Cremers, Robert K Koenekoop, Ronald Roepman, Patsy Nishina, Shangzhen Zhou, Wei Pan, Gui-Shuang Ying, Tomas S Aleman, Jimmy de Melo, Ilan McNamara, Junwei Sun, Jason Mills, Jean Bennett
Most genetically distinct inherited retinal degenerations are primary photoreceptor degenerations. We selected a severe early onset form of Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA), caused by mutations in the gene LCA5, in order to test the efficacy of gene augmentation therapy for a ciliopathy. The LCA5-encoded protein, Lebercilin, is essential for the trafficking of proteins and vesicles to the photoreceptor outer segment. Using the AAV serotype AAV7m8 to deliver a human LCA5 cDNA into an Lca5 null mouse model of LCA5, we show partial rescue of retinal structure and visual function...
March 21, 2018: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671352/huntington-s-disease-novel-therapeutic-perspectives-hanging-in-the-balance
#18
Ana Saavedra, Gerardo García-Díaz Barriga, Esther Pérez-Navarro, Jordi Alberch
Huntington's disease (HD), an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by an expansion of CAG repeats in the huntingtin gene, has long been characterized by the presence of motor symptoms due to the loss of striatal projection neurons. Cognitive dysfunction and neuropsychiatric symptoms are also present and they occur in the absence of cell death in most mouse models, pointing to neuronal dysfunction and abnormal synaptic plasticity as causative mechanisms. Areas covered: Here, we focus on those common mechanisms altered by the presence of mutant huntingtin affecting corticostriatal and hippocampal function as therapeutic targets that could prove beneficial to ameliorate both cognitive and motor function in HD...
April 19, 2018: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667445/the-mechanism-of-lauric-acid-modified-protein-nanocapsules-escape-from-intercellular-trafficking-vesicles-and-its-implication-for-drug-delivery
#19
Lijuan Jiang, Xin Liang, Gan Liu, Yun Zhou, Xinyu Ye, Xiuli Chen, Qianwei Miao, Li Gao, Xudong Zhang, Lin Mei
Protein nanocapsules have exhibited promising potential applications in the field of protein drug delivery. A major issue with various promising nano-sized biotherapeutics including protein nanocapsules is that owing to their particle size they are subject to cellular uptake via endocytosis, and become entrapped and then degraded within endolysosomes, which can significantly impair their therapeutic efficacy. In addition, many nano-sized biotherapeutics could be also sequestered by autophagosomes and degraded through the autolysosomal pathway...
November 2018: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667289/endosomal-receptor-trafficking-retromer-and-beyond
#20
REVIEW
Jing Wang, Alina Fedoseienko, Bayou Chen, Ezra Burstein, Da Jia, Daniel D Billadeau
The tubular endolysosomal network is a quality control system that ensures the proper delivery of internalized receptors to specific subcellular destinations in order to maintain cellular homeostasis. Although retromer was originally described in yeast as a regulator of endosome-to-Golgi receptor recycling, mammalian retromer has emerged as a central player in endosome-to-plasma membrane recycling of a variety of receptors. Over the past decade, information regarding the mechanism by which retromer facilitates receptor trafficking has emerged, as has the identification of numerous retromer-associated molecules including the WASH complex, sorting nexins and TBC1d5...
April 18, 2018: Traffic
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