keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Cellular trafficking

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327539/diverse-mechanisms-of-sulfur-decoration-in-bacterial-trna-and-their-cellular-functions
#1
REVIEW
Chenkang Zheng, Katherine A Black, Patricia C Dos Santos
Sulfur-containing transfer ribonucleic acids (tRNAs) are ubiquitous biomolecules found in all organisms that possess a variety of functions. For decades, their roles in processes such as translation, structural stability, and cellular protection have been elucidated and appreciated. These thionucleosides are found in all types of bacteria; however, their biosynthetic pathways are distinct among different groups of bacteria. Considering that many of the thio-tRNA biosynthetic enzymes are absent in Gram-positive bacteria, recent studies have addressed how sulfur trafficking is regulated in these prokaryotic species...
March 22, 2017: Biomolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324651/line-activity-of-ganglioside-gm1-regulates-raft-size-distribution-in-a-cholesterol-dependent-manner
#2
Timur R Galimzyanov, Anna S Lyushnyak, Veronika V Aleksandrova, Liudmila A Shilova, Ilya I Mikhalyov, Irina M Molotkovskaya, Sergey A Akimov, Oleg V Batishchev
Liquid-ordered lipid domains, also called rafts, are assumed to be important players in different cellular processes, mainly signal transduction and membrane trafficking. They are thicker than the disordered part of the membrane and are thought to form for compensating the hydrophobic mismatch between transmembrane proteins and lipid environment. Despite the existence of such structures in vivo is still an open question, they are observed in model systems of multicomponent lipid bilayers. Moreover, the predictions obtained from model experiments allow explaining different physiological processes possibly involving rafts...
March 21, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324111/arap1-deficiency-causes-photoreceptor-degeneration-in-mice
#3
Ala Moshiri, Devin Humpal, Brian C Leonard, Denise M Imai, Addy Tham, Lynette Bower, Dave Clary, Thomas M Glaser, K C Kent Lloyd, Christopher J Murphy
Purpose: Small guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) ADP-ribosylation factors (Arfs) regulate membrane traffic and actin reorganization under the control of GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs). Arap1 is an Arf-directed GAP that inhibits the trafficking of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) to the early endosome, but the diversity of its functions is incompletely understood. The aim of this study was to determine the role of Arap1 in the mammalian retina. Methods: Genetically engineered Arap1 knockout mice were screened for ocular abnormalities in the National Institutes of Health Knockout Mouse Production and Phenotyping (KOMP2) Project...
March 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319729/stromal-networking-cellular-connections-in-the-germinal-centre
#4
REVIEW
Alice E Denton, Michelle A Linterman
Secondary lymphoid organs are organized into distinct zones, governed by different types of mesenchymal stromal cells. These stromal cell subsets are critical for the generation of protective humoral immunity because they direct the migration of, and interaction between, multiple immune cell types to form the germinal centre. The germinal centre response generates long-lived antibody-secreting plasma cells and memory B cells which can provide long-term protection against re-infection. Stromal cell subsets mediate this response through control of immune cell trafficking, activation, localization and antigen access within the secondary lymphoid organ...
March 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319098/irap-endosomes-restrict-tlr9-activation-and-signaling
#5
Joel Babdor, Delphyne Descamps, Aimé Cézaire Adiko, Mira Tohmé, Sophia Maschalidi, Irini Evnouchidou, Luiz Ricardo Vasconcellos, Mariacristina De Luca, Francois-Xavier Mauvais, Meriem Garfa-Traore, Melanie M Brinkmann, Michel Chignard, Bénédicte Manoury, Loredana Saveanu
The retention of intracellular Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the endoplasmic reticulum prevents their activation under basal conditions. TLR9 is activated by sensing ligands in specific endosomal-lysosomal compartments. Here we identified IRAP(+) endosomes as major cellular compartments for the early steps of TLR9 activation in dendritic cells (DCs). Both TLR9 and its ligand, the dinucleotide CpG, were present as cargo in IRAP(+) endosomes. In the absence of the aminopeptidase IRAP, the trafficking of CpG and TLR9 to lysosomes and signaling via TLR9 were enhanced in DCs and in mice following bacterial infection...
March 20, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318354/hs1bp3-inhibits-autophagy-by-regulation-of-pld1
#6
Kristiane Søreng, Helene Knævelsrud, Petter Holland, Anne Simonsen
Macroautophagy/autophagy is a membrane trafficking and intracellular degradation process involving the formation of double-membrane autophagosomes and their ultimate fusion with lysosomes. Much is yet to be learned about the regulation of this process, especially at the level of the membranes and lipids involved. We have recently found that the PX domain protein HS1BP3 (HCLS1 binding protein 3) is a negative regulator of autophagosome formation. HS1BP3 depletion increases the formation of LC3-positive autophagosomes both in human cells and zebrafish...
February 25, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316240/heme-gazing-illuminating-eukaryotic-heme-trafficking-dynamics-and-signaling-with-fluorescent-heme-sensors
#7
David A Hanna, Osiris Martinez-Guzman, Amit Ram Reddi
Heme (iron protoporphyrin IX) is an essential protein prosthetic group and signaling molecule required for most life on Earth. All heme dependent processes require the dynamic and rapid mobilization of heme from sites of synthesis or uptake to hemoproteins present in virtually every subcellular compartment. The cytotoxicity and hydrophobicity of heme necessitates that heme mobilization is carefully controlled to mitigate the deleterious effects of this essential toxin. Indeed, a number of disorders, including certain cancers, cardiovascular diseases, and aging and age-related neurodegenerative diseases, are tied to defects in heme homeostasis...
March 18, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315475/evolution-of-the-ability-to-modulate-host-chemokine-networks-via-gene-duplication-in-human-cytomegalovirus-hcmv
#8
Jessica A Scarborough, John R Paul, Juliet V Spencer
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a widespread pathogen that is particularly skillful at evading immune detection and defense mechanisms, largely due to extensive co-evolution with its host. One aspect of this co-evolution involves the acquisition of virally encoded G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) with homology to the chemokine receptor family. GPCRs are the largest family of cell surface proteins, found in organisms from yeast to humans, and they regulate a variety of cellular processes including development, sensory perception, and immune cell trafficking...
March 14, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314111/indication-for-differential-sorting-of-the-rat-v-snare-splice-isoforms-vamp-1a-and-1b
#9
Fiona R Rodepeter, Susanne Wiegand, Hans-Georg Lüers, Gabriel A Bonaterra, Anson W Lowe, Michael Bette, Ralf Jacob, Robert Mandic
SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) proteins are essential constituents of the intracellular trafficking machinery. The variable C-terminus in the two rat VAMP-1 splice isoforms VAMP-1a and -1b potentially acts as a sorting signal since similar changes at the C-terminal end of a human VAMP-1 splice isoform resulted in its sorting to mitochondria. To evaluate differences in the subcellular localization of these two v-SNARE proteins, GFP and RFP tagged VAMP-1a and -1b proteins were expressed in HeLa, COS-7 and MDCK cells and evaluated by conventional confocal as well as total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy...
March 17, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301372/news-on-the-molecular-regulation-and-function-of-hepatic-low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-and-ldlr-related-protein-1
#10
Bart van de Sluis, Melinde Wijers, Joachim Herz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Clearing of atherogenic lipoprotein particles by the liver requires hepatic low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and LDLR-related protein 1 (LRP1). This review highlights recent studies that have expanded our understanding of the molecular regulation and metabolic functions of LDLR and LRP1 in the liver. RECENT FINDINGS: Various proteins orchestrate the intracellular trafficking of LDLR and LRP1. After internalization, the receptors are redirected via recycling endosomes to the cell surface...
March 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299773/trafficking-and-other-regulatory-mechanisms-for-organic-anion-transporting-polypeptides-oatps-and-organic-anion-transporters-oats-that-modulate-cellular-drug-and-xenobiotic-influx-and-that-are-dysregulated-in-disease
#11
REVIEW
Michael Murray, Fanfan Zhou
Organic anion transporters (OATs) and organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATPs), encoded by a number of SLC22A and SLCO genes, mediate the absorption and distribution of drugs and other xenobiotics. The regulation of OATs and OATPs is complex, comprising both transcriptional and post-translational mechanisms. Plasma membrane expression is required for cellular substrate influx by OATs/OATPs. Thus, interest in post-translational regulatory processes, including membrane targeting, endocytosis, recycling and degradation of transporter proteins, is increasing because these are critical for plasma membrane expression...
March 15, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298605/cxcr5-dependent-entry-of-cd8-t-cells-into-rhesus-macaque-b-cell-follicles-achieved-through-t-cell-engineering
#12
Victor I Ayala, Claire Deleage, Matthew T Trivett, Sumiti Jain, Lori V Coren, Matthew W Breed, Joshua A Kramer, James A Thomas, Jacob D Estes, Jeffrey D Lifson, David E Ott
Follicular helper CD4 T cells, TFH, residing in B-cell follicles within secondary lymphoid tissues, are readily infected by AIDS viruses and are a major source of persistent virus despite relative control of viral replication. This persistence is due at least in part to a relative exclusion of effective antiviral CD8 T cells from B-cell follicles. To determine whether CD8 T cells could be engineered to enter B-cell follicles, we genetically modified unselected CD8 T cells to express CXCR5, the chemokine receptor implicated in cellular entry into B-cell follicles...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298493/deubiquitinating-enzymes-ubp2-and-ubp15-regulate-endocytosis-by-limiting-ubiquitination-and-degradation-of-arts
#13
Hsuan-Chung Ho, Jason A MacGurn, Scott D Emr
Endocytic downregulation of cell-surface proteins is a fundamental cellular process for cell survival and adaptation to environmental stimuli. Ubiquitination of cargo proteins serves as the sorting signal for downstream trafficking, and relies on the Rsp5-ART (arrestin-related trafficking adaptors) ubiquitin ligase adaptor network in yeast. Hence, proper regulation of the abundance and activity of these ligase-adaptor complexes is critical for maintenance of optimal plasma membrane (PM) protein composition...
March 15, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298487/tgf-%C3%AE-triggers-rapid-fibrillogenesis-via-a-novel-t%C3%AE-rii-dependent-fibronectin-trafficking-mechanism
#14
Archana Varadaraj, Laura M Jenkins, Priyanka Singh, Anindya Chanda, John Snider, N Y Lee, Ayelet R Amsalem-Zafran, Marcelo Ehrlich, Yoav I Henis, Karthikeyan Mythreye
Fibronectin (FN) is a critical regulator of extra cellular matrix (ECM) remodeling through its availability and stepwise polymerization for fibrillogenesis. Availability of FN is regulated by its synthesis and turnover, while fibrillogenesis is a multistep integrin dependent process essential for cell migration, proliferation and tissue function. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is an established regulator of ECM remodeling through transcriptional control of ECM proteins. Here, we show that TGF-β, through increased FN trafficking in a transcription and SMAD independent manner, is a direct and rapid inducer of fibrillogenesis required for TGF-β induced cell migration...
March 15, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298292/cellular-cholesterol-homeostasis-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Ta Yuan Chang, Yoshio Yamauchi, Mazahir Hasan, Catherine Cy Chang
Alzheimer's disease [AD] is the most common form of dementia in older adults. Currently, there is no cure for AD. The hallmark of AD is the accumulation of extracellular amyloid plaques composed of amyloid beta peptides [Abeta; especially Abeta1-42], and neurofibrillary tangles, composed of hyper-phosphorylated tau, accompanied with chronic neuroinflammation. Abeta are derived from the amyloid precursor protein APP. The oligomeric form of Abeta is probably the most neurotoxic species; its accumulation eventually forms the insoluble and aggregated amyloid plaques...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296950/cellular-and-molecular-defects-in-a-patient-with-hermansky-pudlak-syndrome-type-5
#16
Joshi Stephen, Tadafumi Yokoyama, Nathanial J Tolman, Kevin J O'Brien, Elena-Raluca Nicoli, Brian P Brooks, Laryssa Huryn, Steven A Titus, David R Adams, Dong Chen, William A Gahl, Bernadette R Gochuico, May Christine V Malicdan
Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is a heterogeneous group of genetic disorders typically manifesting with tyrosinase-positive oculocutaneous albinism, bleeding diathesis, and pulmonary fibrosis, in some subtypes. Most HPS subtypes are associated with defects in Biogenesis of Lysosome-related Organelle Complexes (BLOCs), which are groups of proteins that function together in the formation and/or trafficking of lysosomal-related endosomal compartments. BLOC-2, for example, consists of the proteins HPS3, HPS5, and HPS6...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294977/phosphoinositides-major-actors-in-membrane-trafficking-and-lipid-signaling-pathways
#17
REVIEW
Johan-Owen De Craene, Dimitri L Bertazzi, Séverine Bär, Sylvie Friant
Phosphoinositides are lipids involved in the vesicular transport of proteins and lipids between the different compartments of eukaryotic cells. They act by recruiting and/or activating effector proteins and thus are involved in regulating various cellular functions, such as vesicular budding, membrane fusion and cytoskeleton dynamics. Although detected in small concentrations in membranes, their role is essential to cell function, since imbalance in their concentrations is a hallmark of many cancers. Their synthesis involves phosphorylating/dephosphorylating positions D3, D4 and/or D5 of their inositol ring by specific lipid kinases and phosphatases...
March 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293820/crosstalk-of-cell-polarity-signaling-pathways
#18
REVIEW
Tomáš Mazel
Cell polarity, the asymmetric organization of cellular components along one or multiple axes, is present in most cells. From budding yeast cell polarization induced by pheromone signaling, oocyte polarization at fertilization to polarized epithelia and neuronal cells in multicellular organisms, similar mechanisms are used to determine cell polarity. Crucial role in this process is played by signaling lipid molecules, small Rho family GTPases and Par proteins. All these signaling circuits finally govern the cytoskeleton, which is responsible for oriented cell migration, cell shape changes, and polarized membrane and organelle trafficking...
March 14, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293541/high-content-imaging-reveals-expansion-of-the-endosomal-compartment-during-coxiella-burnetii-parasitophorous-vacuole-maturation
#19
Charles L Larson, Robert A Heinzen
Coxiella burnetii is an obligate intracellular pathogen and the causative agent of human Q fever. Replication of the bacterium within a large parasitophorous vacuole (PV) resembling a host phagolysosome is required for pathogenesis. PV biogenesis is a pathogen driven process that requires engagement of several host cell vesicular trafficking pathways to acquire vacuole components. The goal of this study was to determine if infection by C. burnetii modulates endolysosomal flux to potentially benefit PV formation...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293421/protein-misfolding-in-neurodegenerative-diseases-implications-and-strategies
#20
REVIEW
Patrick Sweeney, Hyunsun Park, Marc Baumann, John Dunlop, Judith Frydman, Ron Kopito, Alexander McCampbell, Gabrielle Leblanc, Anjli Venkateswaran, Antti Nurmi, Robert Hodgson
A hallmark of neurodegenerative proteinopathies is the formation of misfolded protein aggregates that cause cellular toxicity and contribute to cellular proteostatic collapse. Therapeutic options are currently being explored that target different steps in the production and processing of proteins implicated in neurodegenerative disease, including synthesis, chaperone-assisted folding and trafficking, and degradation via the proteasome and autophagy pathways. Other therapies, like mTOR inhibitors and activators of the heat shock response, can rebalance the entire proteostatic network...
2017: Translational Neurodegeneration
keyword
keyword
56856
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"