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Cellular trafficking

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240780/filamina-and-formin2-regulate-skeletal-muscular-and-intestinal-formation-through-mesenchymal-progenitor-proliferation
#1
Gewei Lian, Sneha Kanaujia, Timothy Wong, Volney Sheen
The effects of actin dependent molecular mechanisms in coordinating cellular proliferation, migration and differentiation during embryogenesis are not well-understood. We have previously shown that actin-binding Filamin A (FlnA) and actin-nucleating Formin 2 (Fmn2) influence the development of the brain causing microcephaly in mice. In this study, we broaden this phenotype to explore the effects of these two proteins in the development of extra-CNS organ systems, including the gut, muscle, and skeleton. We observed defects in rib and sternum midline closure leading to thoracoabdominal schisis in FlnA+Fmn2 knockout mice, reminiscent of the pentalogy of Cantrell syndrome...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240300/genomic-origin-and-nuclear-localization-of-terra-telomeric-repeat-containing-rna-from-darkness-to-dawn
#2
REVIEW
Aurélie Diman, Anabelle Decottignies
Long non-coding RNAs, produced from distinct regions of the chromosomes, are emerging as new key players in several important biological processes. The long non-coding RNAs add a new layer of complexity to cellular regulatory pathways, from transcription to cellular trafficking or chromatin remodeling. More than 25 years ago, the discovery of a transcriptional activity at telomeres of protozoa ended the long-lasting belief that telomeres were transcriptionally silent. Since then, progressively accumulating evidences established that production of TElomeric Repeat-containing RNA (TERRA) was a general feature of eukaryotic cells...
December 14, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239692/consequences-of-rab-gtpase-dysfunction-in-genetic-or-acquired-human-diseases
#3
Marcellus J Banworth, Guangpu Li
Rab GTPases are important regulators of intracellular membrane trafficking in eukaryotes. Both activating and inactivating mutations in Rab genes have been identified and implicated in human diseases ranging from neurological disorders to cancer. In addition, altered Rab expression is often associated with disease prognosis. As such, the study of diseases associated with Rabs or Rab-interacting proteins has shed light on the important role of intracellular membrane trafficking in disease etiology. In this review, we cover recent advances in the field with an emphasis on cellular mechanisms...
December 14, 2017: Small GTPases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239314/taking-out-the-garbage-cathepsin-d-and-calcineurin-in-neurodegeneration
#4
REVIEW
Andreas Aufschnaiter, Verena Kohler, Sabrina Büttner
Cellular homeostasis requires a tightly controlled balance between protein synthesis, folding and degradation. Especially long-lived, post-mitotic cells such as neurons depend on an efficient proteostasis system to maintain cellular health over decades. Thus, a functional decline of processes contributing to protein degradation such as autophagy and general lysosomal proteolytic capacity is connected to several age-associated neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's, Alzheimer's and Huntington's diseases...
November 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237840/human-cytomegalovirus-ul111a-and-us27-gene-products-enhance-the-cxcl12-cxcr4-signaling-axis-via-distinct-mechanisms
#5
Carolyn C Tu, Kathleen L Arnolds, Christine M O'Connor, Juliet V Spencer
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a prevalent pathogen that establishes lifelong infection in the host. Virus persistence is aided by extensive manipulation of the host immune system, particularly cytokine and chemokine signaling pathways. The HCMV UL111A gene encodes cmvIL-10, an ortholog of human interleukin-10 that has many immunomodulatory effects. We found that cmvIL-10 increased signaling outcomes from human CXCR4, a chemokine receptor with essential roles in hematopoiesis and immune cell trafficking, in response to its natural ligand CXCL12...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237479/birth-delivery-method-affects-expression-of-immune-genes-in-lung-and-jejunum-tissue-of-neonatal-beef-calves
#6
Carla Surlis, Keelan McNamara, Eoin O'Hara, Sinead Waters, Marijke Beltman, Joseph Cassidy, David Kenny
BACKGROUND: Caesarean section is a routine veterinary obstetrical procedure employed to alleviate dystocia in cattle. However, CS, particularly before the onset of labour, is known to negatively affect neonatal respiration and metabolic adaptation in humans, though there is little published information for cattle. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of elective caesarean section (ECS) or normal trans-vaginal (TV) delivery, on lung and jejunal gene expression profiles of neonatal calves...
December 14, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233871/interplay-of-autophagy-receptor-tyrosine-kinase-signalling-and-endocytic-trafficking
#7
REVIEW
Jane Fraser, Ainara G Cabodevilla, Joanne Simpson, Noor Gammoh
Vesicular trafficking events play key roles in the compartmentalization and proper sorting of cellular components. These events have crucial roles in sensing external signals, regulating protein activities and stimulating cell growth or death decisions. Although mutations in vesicle trafficking players are not direct drivers of cellular transformation, their activities are important in facilitating oncogenic pathways. One such pathway is the sensing of external stimuli and signalling through receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs)...
December 12, 2017: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232129/the-effect-of-structural-modifications-to-glyoxalbis-thiosemicarbazanoto-copper-ii-complexes-on-cellular-copper-uptake-copper-mediated-atp7a-trafficking-and-p-glycoprotein-mediated-efflux
#8
Karla M Acevedo, David J Hayne, Lachlan E McInnes, Asif Noor, Clare Duncan, Diane Moujalled, Irene Volitakis, Angela Rigopoulos, Kevin Jeffrey Barnham, Victor L Villemagne, Anthony R White, Paul S Donnelly
Bis(thiosemicarbazonato)copper(II) complexes are of interest as potential therapeutics for cancer and neurodegenerative diseases as well as imaging agents for positron emission tomography (PET). The cellular uptake of six bis(thiosemcarbazonato)copper(II)complexes derived from glyoxal, with different functional groups, Cu(gtsx) where x = different functional groups, was investigated in SKOV-3, HEK293 and HEK293 P-gp cell lines. Treatment of the cells with the copper complexes increased intracellular copper and increased levels of p-ERK due to activation of the Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK pathway...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229837/early-endosome-as-a-pathogenic-target-for-antiphosphatidylethanolamine-antibodies
#9
Songwang Hou, Heike Fölsch, Ke Ke, Joan Cook Mills, Rosalind Ramsey-Goldman, Ming Zhao
Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) is a major phospholipid species with important roles in membrane trafficking and reorganization. Accumulating clinical data indicate that the presence of circulating antibodies against PE is positively correlated with the symptoms of antiphospholipid syndromes (APS), including thrombosis and repeated pregnancy loss. However, PE is generally sequestered inside a normal resting cell, and the mechanism by which circulating anti-PE antibodies access cellular PE remains unknown. The studies presented here were conducted with synthetic PE-binding agents, plasma samples from patients with anti-PE autoimmunity, and purified anti-PE antibodies...
December 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226179/virus-binding-and-internalization-assay-for-adeno-associated-virus
#10
Garrett E Berry, Longping V Tse
The binding and internalization of adeno-associated virus (AAV) is an important determinant of viral infectivity and tropism. The ability to dissect these two tightly connected cellular processes would allow better understanding and provide insight on virus entry and trafficking. In the following protocol, we describe a quantitative PCR (qPCR) based method to determine the amount of vector bound to the cell surface and the amount of subsequent virus internalization based on viral genome quantification. This protocol is optimized for studying AAV...
January 20, 2017: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223392/parkinson-s-disease-associated-mutant-lrrk2-phosphorylates-rab7l1-and-modifies-trans-golgi-morphology
#11
Tetta Fujimoto, Tomoki Kuwahara, Tomoya Eguchi, Maria Sakurai, Tadayuki Komori, Takeshi Iwatsubo
Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are the major genetic cause of autosomal-dominantly inherited Parkinson's disease. LRRK2 is implicated in the regulation of intracellular trafficking, neurite outgrowth and PD risk in connection with Rab7L1, a putative interactor of LRRK2. Recently, a subset of Rab GTPases have been reported as substrates of LRRK2. Here we examine the kinase activity of LRRK2 on Rab7L1 in situ in cells. Phos-tag analyses and metabolic labeling assays revealed that LRRK2 readily phosphorylates Golgi-localized wild-type Rab7L1 but not mutant forms that are distributed in the cytoplasm...
December 6, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223352/atp-binding-cassette-transporter-2-abca2-as-a-therapeutic-target
#12
REVIEW
Warren Davis, Kenneth D Tew
The ATP binding cassette transporter ABCA2 is primarily an endolysosomal membrane protein that demonstrates pleiotropic functionalities, coalescing around the maintenance of homeostasis of sterols, sphingolipids and cholesterol. It is most highly expressed in brain tissue and ABCA2 knockout mice express neurological defects consistent with aberrant myelination. Increased expression of the transporter has been linked with resistance to cancer drugs, particularly those possessing a steroid backbone and gene expression (in concert with other genes involved in cholesterol metabolism) was found to be regulated by sterols...
December 6, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222900/comparisons-of-proteomic-profiles-of-whey-protein-between-donor-human-milk-collected-earlier-than-3-months-and-6-months-after-delivery
#13
Won-Ho Hahn, Joon-Hwan Song, Jong-Bok Seo, Jung Eun Lee, Jeong-Sang Lee, Seunghyun Song, Joohyun Lee, Nam Mi Kang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Human milk has nutritional, protective, and developmental advantages for premature infants. However, proteomic information of low abundant protein of donor milk is insufficient. The purpose of this study is to analyze and compare the proteome of low abundant protein of donor milk obtained at different postpartum ages other than the colostrum. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Donor breast milk from 12 healthy mothers was collected 15 days, 2 months and 6 months after delivery and stored by medically approved methods...
2018: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215074/structural-analysis-of-the-complex-between-influenza-b-nucleoprotein-and-human-importin-%C3%AE
#14
Alice Labaronne, Sigrid Milles, Amélie Donchet, Malene Ringkjøbing Jensen, Martin Blackledge, Jean-Marie Bourhis, Rob W H Ruigrok, Thibaut Crépin
Influenza viruses are negative strand RNA viruses that replicate in the nucleus of the cell. The viral nucleoprotein (NP) is the major component of the viral ribonucleoprotein. In this paper we show that the NP of influenza B has a long N-terminal tail of 70 residues with intrinsic flexibility. This tail contains the Nuclear Location Signal (NLS). The nuclear trafficking of the viral components mobilizes cellular import factors at different stages, making these host-pathogen interactions promising targets for new therapeutics...
December 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211767/investigating-endogenous-%C3%A2%C2%B5-opioid-receptors-in-human-keratinocytes-as-pharmacological-targets-using-novel-fluorescent-ligand
#15
Cheryl Leong, Christine Neumann, Srinivas Ramasamy, Bhimsen Rout, Lim Yi Wee, Mei Bigliardi-Qi, Paul L Bigliardi
Opioids in skin function during stress response, regeneration, ageing and, particularly in regulating sensation. In chronic pruritus, topical treatment with Naltrexone changes μ-opioid receptor (μ-OR) localization to relieve itch. The molecular mechanisms behind the effects of Naltrexone on μ-OR function in reduction of itching behavior has not been studied. There is an immediate need to understand the endogenous complexity of μ-OR dynamics in normal and pathological skin conditions. Here we evaluate real-time behavior of μ-OR-Endomorphine complexes in the presence of agonist and antagonists...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209342/physical-functional-and-genetic-interactions-between-the-beach-domain-protein-spirrig-and-lip5-and-skd1-and-its-role-in-endosomal-trafficking-to-the-vacuole-in-arabidopsis
#16
Alexandra Steffens, Marc Jakoby, Martin Hülskamp
Beige and Chediak Higashi (BEACH) domain-containing proteins (BDCPs) are facilitators of membrane-dependent cellular processes in eukaryotes. Mutations in BDCPs cause malfunctions of endosomal compartments in various cell types. Recently, the molecular analysis of the BDCP homolog gene SPIRRIG (SPI) has revealed a molecular function in P-bodies and the regulation of RNA stability. We therefore aimed to analyze, whether SPI has also a role in membrane-dependent processes. In this study, we show that SPI physically interacts with endosomal sorting complex required for transport associated ATPase Suppressor of K+-transport growth defect1 (SKD1) and its positive regulator, LYST Interacting Protein 5 (LIP5) and report genetic interactions between SPI and SKD1 and LIP5...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209279/promoting-glucose-transporter-4-vesicle-trafficking-along-cytoskeletal-tracks-pak-ing-them-out
#17
REVIEW
Ragadeepthi Tunduguru, Debbie C Thurmond
Glucose is the principal cellular energy source in humans and maintenance of glucose homeostasis is critical for survival. Glucose uptake into peripheral skeletal muscle and adipose tissues requires the trafficking of vesicles containing glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) from the intracellular storage compartments to the cell surface. Trafficking of GLUT4 storage vesicles is initiated via the canonical insulin signaling cascade in skeletal muscle and fat cells, as well as via exercise-induced contraction in muscle cells...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209174/potential-mechanisms-underlying-inflammation-enhanced-aminoglycoside-induced-cochleotoxicity
#18
REVIEW
Meiyan Jiang, Farshid Taghizadeh, Peter S Steyger
Aminoglycoside antibiotics remain widely used for urgent clinical treatment of life-threatening infections, despite the well-recognized risk of permanent hearing loss, i.e., cochleotoxicity. Recent studies show that aminoglycoside-induced cochleotoxicity is exacerbated by bacteriogenic-induced inflammation. This implies that those with severe bacterial infections (that induce systemic inflammation), and are treated with bactericidal aminoglycosides are at greater risk of drug-induced hearing loss than previously recognized...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207600/host-cell-transcriptome-modification-upon-exogenous-hpv16-l2-protein-expression
#19
Xinwei An, Yuhan Hao, Patricio I Meneses
Human papillomavirus type 16 minor capsid protein L2 has been shown to assist in the initial entry and intracellular trafficking events leading to nuclear translocation of the viral genome. During our investigations of L2 function, we observed that expression of L2 in a keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT) resulted in phenotypic changes. In this manuscript, we present data that expression of the L2 protein in this cellular model system HaCaTs resulted in a shift from G0/G1 phase to mitotic S phase, as well as a reduced amount of retinoblastoma protein (Rb) and an increase in Cdc2 phosphorylation...
October 31, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207511/subcellular-trafficking-of-the-papillomavirus-genome-during-initial-infection-the-remarkable-abilities-of-minor-capsid-protein-l2
#20
REVIEW
Samuel K Campos
Since 2012, our understanding of human papillomavirus (HPV) subcellular trafficking has undergone a drastic paradigm shift. Work from multiple laboratories has revealed that HPV has evolved a unique means to deliver its viral genome (vDNA) to the cell nucleus, relying on myriad host cell proteins and processes. The major breakthrough finding from these recent endeavors has been the realization of L2-dependent utilization of cellular sorting factors for the retrograde transport of vDNA away from degradative endo/lysosomal compartments to the Golgi, prior to mitosis-dependent nuclear accumulation of L2/vDNA...
December 3, 2017: Viruses
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