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Health care inequality

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912783/exploring-levers-and-barriers-to-accessing-primary-care-for-marginalised-groups-and-identifying-their-priorities-for-primary-care-provision-a-participatory-learning-and-action-research-study
#1
Patrick O'Donnell, Edel Tierney, Austin O'Carroll, Diane Nurse, Anne MacFarlane
BACKGROUND: The involvement of patients and the public in healthcare has grown significantly in recent decades and is documented in health policy documents internationally. Many benefits of involving these groups in primary care planning have been reported. However, these benefits are rarely felt by those considered marginalised in society and they are often excluded from participating in the process of planning primary care. It has been recommended to employ suitable approaches, such as co-operative and participatory initiatives, to enable marginalised groups to highlight their priorities for care...
December 3, 2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905954/measuring-and-tracking-obesity-inequality-in-the-united-states-evidence-from-nhanes-1971-2014
#2
Tae-Young Pak, Susana Ferreira, Gregory Colson
BACKGROUND: Because people care about their weight relative to peers and society, obesity inequality plays a role in explaining obesity incidence and the impacts of being obese on subjective well-being. While the increase in obesity prevalence and mean body mass index (BMI) is well documented, the measurement of distributional changes and corresponding obesity inequality is yet to be fully explored. METHODS: The present study analyzed BMI data for adults aged 20 to 74 from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) I (1971-1974), II (1976-1980), III (1988-1994), and continuous NHANES (1999-2014)...
April 4, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905951/expansion-or-compression-of-long-term-care-in-germany-between-2001-and-2009-a-small-area-decomposition-study-based-on-administrative-health-data
#3
Daniel Kreft, Gabriele Doblhammer
BACKGROUND: Studies state profound cross-country differences in healthy life years and its time trends, suggesting either the health scenario of expansion or compression of morbidity. A much-discussed question in public health research is whether the health scenarios are heterogeneous or homogeneous on the subnational level as well. Furthermore, the question arises whether the morbidity trends or the mortality trends are the decisive drivers of the care need-free life years (CFLY), the life years with care need (CLY), and, ultimately, the health scenarios...
July 13, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903309/the-rise-and-fall-of-hospitalizations-for-skin-infections-in-new-zealand-2004-2014-trends-by-ethnicity-and-socioeconomic-deprivation
#4
A Lim, J Rumball-Smith, R Jones, I Kawachi
Since the 1990s, New Zealand (NZ) has seen an increasing incidence of paediatric skin infections leading to hospitalization. We sought to describe the epidemiology of these infections over time. Hospital discharge data were analysed for all children admitted to any NZ public hospital from 2004 to 2014. We found the age-standardized incidence of hospitalizations due to skin infections increased during this period from 522/100 000 in 2004 to a peak of 644/100 000 in 2011, after which it declined to 524/100 000 in 2014...
December 1, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903062/geographically-weighted-regression-for-modelling-the-accessibility-to-the-public-hospital-network-in-concepci%C3%A3-n-metropolitan-area-chile
#5
Marcela Martínez Bascuñán, Carolina Rojas Quezada
Accessibility models in transport geography based on geographic information systems have proven to be an effective method in determining spatial inequalities associated with public health. This work aims to model the spatial accessibility from populated areas within the Concepción metropolitan area (CMA), the second largest city in Chile. The city's public hospital network is taken into consideration with special reference to socio-regional inequalities. The use of geographically weighted regression (GWR) and ordinary least squares (OLS) for modelling accessibility with socioeconomic and transport variables is proposed...
November 22, 2016: Geospatial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894838/direct-and-indirect-costs-for-adverse-drug-events-identified-in-medical-records-across-care-levels-and-their-distribution-among-payers
#6
Jennie Natanaelsson, Katja M Hakkarainen, Staffan Hägg, Karolina Andersson Sundell, Max Petzold, Clas Rehnberg, Anna K Jönsson, Hanna Gyllensten
BACKGROUND: Adverse drug events (ADEs) cause considerable costs in hospitals. However, little is known about costs caused by ADEs outside hospitals, effects on productivity, and how the costs are distributed among payers. OBJECTIVE: To describe the direct and indirect costs caused by ADEs, and their distribution among payers. Furthermore, to describe the distribution of patient out-of-pocket costs and lost productivity caused by ADEs according to socio-economic characteristics...
November 19, 2016: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893947/challenges-in-the-uptake-of-telemedicine-in-dentistry
#7
Mohamed Estai, Estie Kruger, Marc Tennant, Stuart Bunt, Yogesan Kanagasingam
With the availability of oral care services very unevenly distributed in rural or remote areas, underserved people seek oral care from non-dental care providers. Against this backdrop, and coupled with the decreasing cost of and innovations in technology, there is a growing interest in the adoption of telemedicine services. Regardless of the lack of good-quality evidence supporting the cost-effectiveness of telemedicine, evidence already indicates that telemedicine, even with extra costs, helps in reducing the inequalities in the provision of primary health care...
October 2016: Rural and Remote Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887750/chronic-kidney-disease
#8
REVIEW
Angela C Webster, Evi V Nagler, Rachael L Morton, Philip Masson
The definition and classification of chronic kidney disease (CKD) have evolved over time, but current international guidelines define this condition as decreased kidney function shown by glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of less than 60 mL/min per 1·73 m(2), or markers of kidney damage, or both, of at least 3 months duration, regardless of the underlying cause. Diabetes and hypertension are the main causes of CKD in all high-income and middle-income countries, and also in many low-income countries. Incidence, prevalence, and progression of CKD also vary within countries by ethnicity and social determinants of health, possibly through epigenetic influence...
November 22, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885048/trends-in-educational-inequalities-in-premature-mortality-in-belgium-between-the-1990s-and-the-2000s-the-contribution-of-specific-causes-of-deaths
#9
Françoise Renard, Sylvie Gadeyne, Brecht Devleesschauwer, Jean Tafforeau, Patrick Deboosere
BACKGROUND: Reducing socioeconomic inequalities in mortality, a key public health objective may be supported by a careful monitoring and assessment of the contributions of specific causes of death to the global inequality. METHODS: The 1991 and 2001 Belgian censuses were linked with cause-of-death data, each yielding a study population of over 5 million individuals aged 25-64, followed up for 5 years. Age-standardised mortality rates (ASMR) were computed by educational level (EL) and cause...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876048/an-integrated-approach-to-care-attracts-people-living-with-hiv-who-use-illicit-drugs-in-an-urban-centre-with-a-concentrated-hiv-epidemic
#10
S Fernando, R McNeil, K Closson, H Samji, S Kirkland, C Strike, R Baltzer Turje, W Zhang, R S Hogg, S Parashar
BACKGROUND: People living with HIV (PLHIV) who are also marginalized by social and structural inequities often face barriers to accessing and adhering to HIV treatment and care. The Dr. Peter Centre (DPC) is a non-profit integrated care facility with a supervised injection room that serves PLHIV experiencing multiple barriers to social and health services in Vancouver, Canada. This study examines whether the DPC is successful in drawing in PLHIV with complex health issues, including addiction...
November 22, 2016: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875834/medical-social-and-supportive-services-for-older-adults-with-hiv
#11
Lisa E Cox, Mark Brennan-Ing
Older people living with HIV are increasingly requiring formal supportive community-based services. Supportive services are essential to medical care and treatment for older people living with HIV/AIDS. This chapter considers Andersen's behavioral model of health services, and explores the predisposing, enabling, and need factors that affect service utilization among the older HIV population. The Andersen model provides a lens to understand the need for supportive services to go beyond primary medical care...
2017: Interdisciplinary Topics in Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875643/crowdfunding-for-medical-care-ethical-issues-in-an-emerging-health-care-funding-practice
#12
Jeremy Snyder
Crowdfunding websites allow users to post a public appeal for funding for a range of activities, including adoption, travel, research, participation in sports, and many others. One common form of crowdfunding is for expenses related to medical care. Medical crowdfunding appeals serve as a means of addressing gaps in medical and employment insurance, both in countries without universal health insurance, like the United States, and countries with universal coverage limited to essential medical needs, like Canada...
November 2016: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869925/time-trends-in-mortality-from-intestinal-infectious-diseases-among-children-under-five-years-old-in-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-state-brazil-2000-2012
#13
Renata Soares Martins, Maria Bernadete de Paula Eduardo, Andréia de Fátima Nascimento
OBJECTIVE: to analyze time trends in mortality owing to intestinal infectious diseases (IID) among children under five years of age in São Paulo State and its Regional Health Care Networks (RRAS), from 2000 to 2012. METHODS: this was a time series study of deaths having IID as their underlying, antecedent or contributory cause, using Mortality Information System data. RESULTS: there were 2,886 deaths from IID in the state; the IID mortality rate went down by 10...
July 2016: Epidemiologia e Servicos de Saude: Revista do Sistema Unico de Saude do Brasil
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866451/health-advocacy
#14
Maria Hubinette, Sarah Dobson, Ian Scott, Jonathan Sherbino
In the medical profession, activities related to ensuring access to care, navigating the system, mobilizing resources, addressing health inequities, influencing health policy and creating system change are known as health advocacy. Foundational concepts in health advocacy include social determinants of health and health inequities. The social determinants of health (i.e. the conditions in which people live and work) account for a significant proportion of an individual's and a population's health outcomes. Health inequities are disparities in health between populations, perpetuated by economic, social, and political forces...
November 21, 2016: Medical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865332/human-immunodeficiency-virus-other-sexually-transmitted-infections-and-sexual-and-reproductive-health-in-lesbian-gay-bisexual-transgender-youth
#15
REVIEW
Sarah M Wood, Caroline Salas-Humara, Nadia L Dowshen
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT), and questioning youth represent a diverse population who are affected by many sexual health inequities, including increased risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). To provide comprehensive sexual health care for LGBT youth, providers should set the stage with a nonjudgmental, respectful tone. Providers should be competent in recognizing symptoms of STIs and HIV and aware of the most up-to-date screening guidelines for LGBT youth...
December 2016: Pediatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863508/the-effects-of-mch-insurance-cards-on-improving-equity-in-access-and-use-of-maternal-and-child-health-care-services-in-tanzania-a-mixed-methods-analysis
#16
August Kuwawenaruwa, Gemini Mtei, Jitihada Baraka, Kassimu Tani
BACKGROUND: Inequity in access and use of child and maternal health services is impeding progress towards reduction of maternal mortality in low-income countries. To address low usage of maternal and newborn health care services as well as financial protection of families, some countries have adopted demand-side financing. In 2010, Tanzania introduced free health insurance cards to pregnant women and their families to influence access, use, and provision of health services. However, little is known about whether the use of the maternal and child health cards improved equity in access and use of maternal and child health care services...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862757/easy-read-and-accessible-information-for-people-with-intellectual-disabilities-is-it-worth-it-a-meta-narrative-literature-review
#17
REVIEW
Deborah Chinn, Claire Homeyard
BACKGROUND: The proliferation of "accessible information" for people with intellectual disabilities in UK health care has accelerated in recent years, underpinned by policy guidance alongside the recent introduction of mandatory standards. However, questions have been raised as to the impact of such resources as a means of enhancing involvement in health care and addressing health inequalities. OBJECTIVE: To review and synthesize the evidence from different approaches used to evaluate the impact of accessible information for people with intellectual disabilities using a meta-narrative approach...
November 16, 2016: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862249/a-critical-caring-theory-of-protection-for-migrants-and-seasonal-farmworkers
#18
Jennifer E Shearer
Pesticide exposures represent inequities among a vulnerable population of migrant and seasonal farmworkers. A social justice theory synthesized from an environmental health research framework, a middle range theory of critical caring, and literature on pesticide exposure is presented as a situation-specific public health practice theory. Concepts from the physiological, epistemological, vulnerability, and health protection domains are related to concepts of critical caring revealing protective strategies for vulnerable populations exposed to pesticides...
November 14, 2016: Public Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860251/incorporating-antiracism-coursework-into-a-cultural-competency-curriculum
#19
Wendy M Gordon, Safiya A U McCarter, Susan J Myers
Creating a socially conscious educational environment is an imperative if health care practitioners are to have a significant impact on health inequities. The effects of practitioner bias, prejudice, and discrimination on health and health outcomes have been well documented in the literature. Individuals being trained to provide health care will be entering into an increasingly diverse world and must be equipped with the appropriate knowledge and skills in order to meet the needs of those seeking their care...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858278/primary-health-care-models-addressing-health-equity-for-immigrants-a-systematic-scoping-review
#20
REVIEW
Ricardo Batista, Kevin Pottie, Louise Bouchard, Edward Ng, Peter Tanuseputro, Peter Tugwell
To examine two healthcare models, specifically "Primary Medical Care" (PMC) and "Primary Health Care" (PHC) in the context of immigrant populations' health needs. We conducted a systematic scoping review of studies that examined primary care provided to immigrants. We categorized studies into two models, PMC and PHC. We used subjects of access barriers and preventive interventions to analyze the potential of PMC/PHC to address healthcare inequities. From 1385 articles, 39 relevant studies were identified. In the context of immigrant populations, the PMC model was found to be more oriented to implement strategies that improve quality of care of the acute and chronically ill, while PHC models focused more on health promotion and strategies to address cultural and access barriers to care, and preventive strategies to address social determinants of health...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
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