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Cannabis studies

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431313/raman-spectroscopy-for-the-characterization-of-different-fractions-of-hemp-essential-oil-extracted-at-130%C3%A2-c-using-steam-distillation-method
#1
Muhammad Asif Hanif, Haq Nawaz, Saima Naz, Rubina Mukhtar, Nosheen Rashid, Ijaz Ahmad Bhatti, Muhammad Saleem
In this study, Raman spectroscopy along with Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is used for the characterization of pure essential oil (pure EO) isolated from the leaves of the Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.,) as well as its different fractions obtained by fractional distillation process. Raman spectra of pure Hemp essential oil and its different fractions show characteristic key bands of main volatile terpenes and terpenoids, which significantly differentiate them from each other. These bands provide information about the chemical composition of sample under investigation and hence can be used as Raman spectral markers for the qualitative monitoring of the pure EO and different fractions containing different active compounds...
April 1, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431292/cannabis-and-cue-induced-craving-in-cocaine-dependent-individuals-a-pilot-study
#2
K Giasson-Gariépy, S Potvin, M Ghabrash, J Bruneau, D Jutras-Aswad
BACKGROUND: Cannabis consumption is common among cocaine users; however, little is known about its effect on cocaine craving. The objective of this study was to assess whether cannabis co-use is associated with lower cue-induced cocaine craving in non-treatment-seeking cocaine-dependent individuals. METHODS: Data from twenty-eight cocaine-dependent men were analyzed in this pilot study. Cocaine-dependent subjects (n=12) were compared with cocaine-dependent subjects who also abused or were dependent on cannabis (n=16)...
March 30, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430385/significant-reductions-in-alcohol-use-after-hepatitis-c-treatment-results-from-the-french-anrs-co13-hepavih-cohort
#3
Rod Knight, Perrine Roux, Antoine Vilotitch, Fabienne Marcellin, Eric Rosenthal, Laure Esterle, François Boué, David Rey, Lionel Piroth, Stéphanie Dominguez, Philippe Sogni, Dominique Salmon-Ceron, Bruno Spire, Maria Patrizia Carrieri
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Few data exist on changes to substance use patterns before and after hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment. We used longitudinal data of HIV-HCV co-infected individuals to examine whether receiving Peg-interferon (Peg-IFN)-based therapy irrespective of HCV clearance could modify tobacco, cannabis and alcohol use. DESIGN: A prospective cohort of HIV-HCV co-infected individuals was enrolled from 2006. Participants' clinical data were retrieved from medical records and socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics were collected by yearly self-administered questionnaires...
April 21, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427930/the-relative-prevalence-of-schizophrenia-among-cannabis-and-cocaine-users-attending-addiction-services
#4
Nicolás Libuy, Valeria de Angel, Carlos Ibáñez, Robin M Murray, Adrian P Mundt
BACKGROUND: Cannabis and cocaine are the most common illicit drugs for which people are treated in addiction services in Latin America. Much research has suggested that the use of cannabis increases the risk of schizophrenia; there is less evidence concerning cocaine. The aim of the present study was to establish the relative prevalence of schizophrenia in people treated for cannabis use and cocaine use disorders in Chile. METHODS: A sample of 22,615 people treated for illicit drug use disorders was obtained from a national registry of addiction service users in Chile...
April 18, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427301/corneal-endothelial-changes-in-long-term-cannabinoid-users
#5
Nihat Polat, Birgul Cumurcu, Tongabay Cumurcu, İlknur Tuncer
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of long-term cannabis use on the corneal endothelial cells with the specular microscopy. METHODS: The study enrolled 28 eyes of 28 patients diagnosed with cannabinoid use disorder. The cannabinoid group was selected among patients who had been using the substance for 3 days or more per week over the past 1 year. 32 eyes of 32 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals enrolled as control group in the study...
April 20, 2017: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424833/cannabis-related-hippocampal-volumetric-abnormalities-specific-to-subregions-in-dependent-users
#6
Yann Chye, Chao Suo, Murat Yücel, Lauren den Ouden, Nadia Solowij, Valentina Lorenzetti
RATIONALE: Cannabis use is associated with neuroanatomical alterations in the hippocampus. While the hippocampus is composed of multiple subregions, their differential vulnerability to cannabis dependence remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study is to investigate gray matter alteration in each of the hippocampal subregions (presubiculum, subiculum, cornu ammonis (CA) subfields CA1-4, and dentate gyrus (DG)) as associated with cannabis use and dependence...
April 19, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424105/specific-impact-of-stimulant-alcohol-and-cannabis-use-disorders-on-first-episode-psychosis-2-year-functional-and-symptomatic-outcomes
#7
C Ouellet-Plamondon, A Abdel-Baki, É Salvat, S Potvin
BACKGROUND: Many studies have concluded that cannabis use disorder (CUD) negatively influences outcomes in first-episode psychosis (FEP). However, few have taken into account the impact of concurrent misuse of other substances. METHODS: This 2-year, prospective, longitudinal study of FEP patients, aged between 18 and 30 years, admitted to early intervention programs in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, examined the specific influence of different substance use disorders (SUD) (alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, amphetamines) on service utilization, symptomatic and functional outcomes in FEP...
April 20, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422803/marijuana-use-and-self-reported-quality-of-eyesight
#8
Obinna F Akano
PURPOSE: There is increasing use of marijuana among young adults and more states in the United States are legalizing medical marijuana use. A number of studies have revealed both the beneficial and harmful effects of marijuana to the human system. Despite some beneficial effects, studies have shown marijuana to have a lot of deleterious effects on the visual system, which subsequently reduces the quality of eyesight. The aim of this study was to investigate if heavy marijuana smoking is associated with a poor quality of eyesight compared with light/no use of marijuana...
May 2017: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422145/compromised-external-validity-federally-produced-cannabis-does-not-reflect-legal-markets
#9
Daniela Vergara, L Cinnamon Bidwell, Reggie Gaudino, Anthony Torres, Gary Du, Travis C Ruthenburg, Kymron deCesare, Donald P Land, Kent E Hutchison, Nolan C Kane
As the most widely used illicit drug worldwide, and as a source of numerous under-studied pharmacologically-active compounds, a precise understanding of variability in psychological and physiological effects of Cannabis varieties is essential. The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) is designated as the sole legal producer of Cannabis for use in US research studies. We sought to compare the chemical profiles of Cannabis varieties that are available to consumers in states that have state-legalized use versus what is available to researchers interested in studying the plant and its effects...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419656/cannabis-psychosis-and-schizophrenia-unravelling-a-complex-interaction
#10
Ian Hamilton
The relationship between cannabis and psychosis and schizophrenia has tested the field of addiction for decades, and in some ways serves as measure of our ability to provide a credible contribution to public health. As cannabis is used widely, many people are interested in the risks the drug poses to mental health. This paper focuses upon a seminal study examining this, the trajectory of subsequent research findings and what this has meant for understanding and communicating risk factor information. These studies provided evidence of a dose-response relationship between cannabis and psychosis, and that for those individuals with schizophrenia cannabis exacerbated their symptoms...
April 16, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418321/s100a10-identified-in-a-genome-wide-gene-%C3%A3-cannabis-dependence-interaction-analysis-of-risky-sexual-behaviours
#11
Renato Polimanti, Shashwath A Meda, Godfrey D Pearlson, Hongyu Zhao, Richard Sherva, Lindsay A Farrer, Henry R Kranzler, Joel Gelernter
BACKGROUND: We conducted a genome-wide gene × environment interaction analysis to identify genetic variants that interact with cannabis dependence (CaD) in influencing risky sexual behaviours (RSB). METHODS: Our sample included cannabis-exposed and sexually experienced African-American and European-American participants. A DSM-IV CaD diagnosis and RSB were evaluated using the Semi-Structured Assessment for Drug Dependence and Alcoholism. We analyzed RSBs as a score that takes into account experiences of unprotected sex and multiple sexual partners...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414475/cognitive-functioning-of-adolescent-and-young-adult-cannabis-users-in-the-philadelphia-neurodevelopmental-cohort
#12
J Cobb Scott, Daniel H Wolf, Monica E Calkins, Emily C Bach, Jennifer Weidner, Kosha Ruparel, Tyler M Moore, Jason D Jones, Chad T Jackson, Raquel E Gur, Ruben C Gur
Cannabis use in youth is rising and has been linked to deficits in cognitive functioning. However, cognitive findings have primarily been based on small samples of users seeking treatment, and few studies have evaluated cognition in occasional cannabis users. Here, we examined 4,568 adolescents and young adults (ages 14-21 years) drawn from the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort, a prospective, population-based study. Participants were classified as cannabis Non-Users (n = 3,401), Occasional Users (twice per week or less; n = 940), or Frequent Users (>3 times per week; n = 227)...
April 17, 2017: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414474/abstinence-based-incentives-plus-parent-training-for-adolescent-alcohol-and-other-substance-misuse
#13
Catherine Stanger, Emily A Scherer, Steven F Babbin, Stacy R Ryan, Alan J Budney
The purpose of this study was to conduct a randomized test of clinic- and home-based incentives plus parent training for adolescent problem alcohol use. Adolescents (N = 75) with alcohol misuse, with or without other substance misuse, were enrolled. All youth received individual Motivational Enhancement Therapy/Cognitive Behavior Therapy and weekly urine drug testing. The experimental condition (EXP) included Abstinence Incentives (clinic-based incentives for abstinence from all substances) plus weekly behavioral parent training that included a parent-delivered, abstinence-based, substance monitoring contract...
April 17, 2017: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414051/mechanisms-contributing-to-cognitive-deficits-in-cannabis-users
#14
REVIEW
Romina Mizrahi, Jeremy Watts, Kuei Y Tseng
Studies from preclinical animal models indicate that sustained activation of CB1 receptor signaling is a major contributing factor for the onset of cognitive deficits associated to chronic cannabis use, in particular within the working memory and decision-making domains. Yet, very few studies have been designed to directly assess the role of CB1 receptors in mediating the effects of cannabis on human brain function. This perspective review article provides an overview of current state of knowledge on possible neurobiological mechanisms accounting for the detrimental effects of chronic cannabis use on cognition and related changes in brain structure and functional connectivity...
April 14, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412950/prevalence-withdrawal-symptoms-and-associated-factors-of-khat-chewing-among-students-at-jimma-university-in-ethiopia
#15
Tilahun Abdeta, Daniel Tolessa, Kristina Adorjan, Mubarek Abera
BACKGROUND: Recently, khat chewing has become a common practice among high school, college, and university students. Regular khat chewing is thought to be a predisposing factor for different physical and mental health problems. It can lead to absenteeism from work and classes. In Ethiopia, to our knowledge no published study has investigated khat withdrawal symptoms. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the prevalence, withdrawal symptoms, and associated factors of khat chewing among regular undergraduate students on the main campus of Jimma University in Ethiopia...
April 17, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412920/neuropsychiatric-and-general-interactions-of-natural-and-synthetic-cannabinoids-with-drugs-of-abuse-and-medicines
#16
Ana Lucia Arellano, Esther Papaseit, Anna Romaguera, Marta Torrens, Magi Farré
Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug. The two most important natural cannabinoids are delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). The THC content of cannabis has been increasing during the last years and recently appeared in the market a series of synthetic cannabinoids with potent agonist activity. Recreational users frequently combine cannabis with other drugs of abuse as alcohol, amphetamines and derivatives, nicotine and cocaine. In addition these subjects can be taking medicines for acute and chronic medical conditions...
April 13, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412918/neurological-aspects-of-medical-use-of-cannabidiol
#17
Carmen Mannucci, Michele Navarra, Fabrizio Calapai, Elvira Ventura Spagnolo, Francesco Paolo Busardò, Roberto Da Cas, Francesca Menniti Ippolito, Gioacchino Calapai
BACKGROUND: Cannabidiol (CBD) is among the major secondary metabolites of Cannabis devoid of the delta-9-tetra-hydrocannabinol psychoactive effects. It is a resorcinol-based compound with a broad spectrum of potential therapeutic properties, including neuroprotective effects in numerous pathological conditions. CBD neuroprotection is due to its antioxidant and antiinflammatory activi-ties and the modulation of a large number of brain biological targets (receptors, channels) involved in the development and maintenance of neurodegenerative diseases...
April 13, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412917/is-there-a-teratogenicity-risk-associated-with-cannabis-and-synthetic-cannabimimetics-spice-intake
#18
Laura Orsolini, Duccio Papanti, John Corkery, Maria Antonietta De Luca, Cristina Cadoni, Gaetano Di Chiara, Fabrizio Schifano
BACKGROUND: Substance use, including cannabis, has been documented amongst women both in the pre-conception period and during pregnancy, particularly during the 1st trimester, which is clearly the most critical period in the organogenesis. The recent emergence on the drug market of synthetic cannabimimetics/SC ('spice') may represent a new challenge for clinicians. OBJECTIVE: A literature overview on the teratogenicity profile of both cannabis and synthetic cannabimimetics was here carried out...
April 13, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412575/the-role-of-illicit-licit-and-designer-drugs-in-the-traffic-in-hungary
#19
László Institóris, Előd Hidvégi, Adrienn Dobos, Éva Sija, Éva M Kereszty, László Balázs Tajti, Gábor Pál Somogyi, Tibor Varga
The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and pattern of psychoactive substances among suspected DUID (Driving Under the Influence of Drugs) drivers in Hungary in 2014 and 2015. Blood and/or urine samples of 1252 suspected drivers (600 in 2014 and 652 in 2015) were analyzed for classical illicit and licit drugs, stimulant designer drugs (SDDs), and for synthetic cannabinoids, with 78.3% and 79.6% positive cases for at least one substance in 2014, and 2015, respectively. Impairment was proven in 39...
April 3, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412574/work-place-drug-testing-of-police-officers-after-thc-exposure-during-large-volume-cannabis-seizures
#20
Gregory S Doran, Ralph Deans, Carlo De Filippis, Chris Kostakis, Julia A Howitt
Police officers responsible for the seizure and removal of illegally grown cannabis plants from indoor and outdoor growing operations face the prospect of THC exposure while performing their work duties. As a result, a study investigating the amount of THC on hands and uniforms of officers during raids on cannabis growing houses (CGHs) and forest cannabis plantations (FCPs) and in the air at these sites was conducted. Swabs of gloves/hands, chests, and heads/necks were collected and analysed for THC. Results of hand swabs indicated that officers removing plants from FCPs were exposed to THC concentrations up to 20 times those involved in raids at CGHs, which was mainly associated with the number and size of plants seized...
April 2, 2017: Forensic Science International
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