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Cannabis studies

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234402/extract-of-fructus-cannabis-ameliorates-learning-and-memory-impairment-induced-by-d-galactose-in-an-aging-rats-model
#1
Ning-Yuan Chen, Cheng-Wu Liu, Wei Lin, Yi Ding, Zhang-Ya Bian, Ling Huang, Hao Huang, Kai-Hui Yu, Si-Bang Chen, Yu Sun, Lei Wei, Jun-Hua Peng, Shang-Ling Pan
Hempseed (Cannabis sativa L.) has been used as a health food and folk medicine in China for centuries. In the present study, we sought to define the underlying mechanism by which the extract of Fructus Cannabis (EFC) protects against memory impairment induced by D-galactose in rats. To accelerate aging and induce memory impairment in rats, D-galactose (400 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally once daily for 14 weeks. EFC (200 and 400 mg/kg) was simultaneously administered intragastrically once daily in an attempt to slow the aging process...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230888/the-status-of-support-for-cannabis-regulation-in-uruguay-4-years-after-reform-evidence-from-public-opinion-surveys
#2
José Miguel Cruz, Maria Fernanda Boidi, Rosario Queirolo
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: The objective of this study was to measure the public support for marijuana legalisation in Uruguay, both overall and in its provisions, in nearly 4 years after its implementation. DESIGN AND METHODS: Three separate cross-national surveys were conducted in early 2014, late 2015 and mid-2017 with national representative samples of adults. The first study was carried out during the initial months of implementation of the law and used face-to-face interviews (N = 1490); the second survey was conducted using a computer-assisted telephone interviewing system (N = 703); and the third study (N = 1515), using face-to-face interviews, was completed just before the implementation of pharmacy sales...
December 12, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229000/changes-in-specific-substance-involvement-scores-among-sbirt-recipients-in-an-hiv-primary-care-setting
#3
Carol Dawson-Rose, Jessica E Draughon, Yvette Cuca, Roland Zepf, Emily Huang, Bruce A Cooper, Paula J Lum
BACKGROUND: Substance use is common among people living with HIV (PLHIV) and is associated with worse outcomes along the HIV care continuum. One potentially effective clinic-based approach to addressing unhealthy substance use is screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT). METHODS: We conducted a two-arm randomized trial to examine the effects of a self-administered, computerized SBIRT intervention compared to a clinician-administered SBIRT intervention in an HIV primary clinic...
December 12, 2017: Addiction Science & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227894/substance-induced-psychotic-symptoms-in-borderline-personality-disorder-among-substance-use-disorder-samples-in-spain
#4
Carmen Barral, Laia Rodríguez-Cintas, Lara Grau-López, Constanza Daigre, Elena Ros-Cucurull, Natalia Calvo, Marc Ferrer, Carlos Roncero
Substance-induced psychosis (SIP) is frequent in substance use disorder patients. However, little is known about the presence of SIP in Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) and what the risk factors for the development of SIP in this population would be. A sample of 91 BPD drug-dependent patients attending an outpatient substance use disorder unit was evaluated. Comorbidity with Axis I and II was assessed using SCID-I and SCID-II. Psychoactive drug related variables were registered as well as the presence of the ninth criterion of DSM-IV-TR as a code of psychotic symptoms...
December 6, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227883/associations-between-medical-cannabis-and-other-drug-use-among-unstably-housed-women
#5
Meredith C Meacham, Danielle E Ramo, Alex H Kral, Elise D Riley
BACKGROUND: Several studies suggest that U.S. state-level legalization of cannabis for medical purposes may be associated with reductions in opioid use; yet its relationship with stimulant use, particularly in high-risk populations like unstably housed women, has received less attention. The purpose of this study was to estimate independent associations between medical and non-medical use of cannabis and use of stimulants and opioids among unstably housed women. METHODS: Cross-sectional data were analyzed from 245 women in the SHADOW study, a community based cohort in San Francisco, CA, in which HIV+ women were oversampled (126 HIV+ and 119 HIV-)...
December 8, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224920/-cognitive-doping-in-students-a-chim-er-ical-way-to-get-full-head
#6
Louise Carton, Nicolas Cabé, Olivier Ménard, Sylvie Deheul, Anne-Sylvie Caous, David Devos, Olivier Cottencin, Régis Bordet
For students, the requirements for memorization, increased performance and peer competition may encourage cognitive doping behaviors. We aimed to describe recent practices and the benefit/risk ratio of such behavior to discuss the different issues. The prevalence of cognitive doping among students was 1.3% to 33% according to the studies, depending on the country concerned and the definition of cognitive doping used. The therapeutic classes most frequently cited as being diverted were psychostimulants and nootropics (methylphenidate, modafinil, piracetam), corticosteroids, sedative drugs and beta-blockers...
November 22, 2017: Thérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220642/substance-use-patterns-associated-with-recent-exposure-to-fentanyl-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-vancouver-canada-a-cross-sectional-urine-toxicology-screening-study
#7
Kanna Hayashi, M-J Milloy, Mark Lysyshyn, Kora DeBeck, Ekaterina Nosova, Evan Wood, Thomas Kerr
INTRODUCTION: Vancouver, Canada is experiencing an opioid overdose crisis where fentanyl, a potent, synthetic opioid contaminating the illicit drug supply, has been detected in the majority of fatal overdose cases. Despite its growing presence throughout North America, few studies have characterized exposure to fentanyl among people who use illicit drugs (PWUD). We sought to identify the prevalence and correlates of fentanyl exposure among PWUD in Vancouver. METHODS: Data were derived from cohort studies of PWUD in Vancouver...
December 5, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220602/an-observational-study-of-treatment-seeking-users-of-natural-opiates-from-india
#8
Arpit Parmar, Vaibhav Patil, Siddharth Sarkar, Ravindra Rao
BACKGROUND: The type of opioid used influences the severity and complications experienced. Natural opiates (opium and poppy husk) use is a socio-culturally accepted phenomenon reported in India. However, studies on their profile, quality of life, and addiction severity are limited. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this cross-sectional, observational study was to assess the socio-demographic profile, clinical profile, addiction severity, and quality of life of treatment-seeking natural opiate users...
December 8, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218823/perspectives-of-cannabis-use-in-the-life-experience-of-men-with-schizophrenia
#9
Chris Wagstaff, Hermine Graham, Derek Farrell, Michael Larkin, Lloyd Tatham
Substance use amongst people with schizophrenia is well-established: up to 50% report using illicit substances. The occurrence of both conditions can also induce people to disengage from mental health services. The research question sought to understand, from the perspective of both service users and clinicians, cannabis use within the experience of people with schizophrenia. The transcripts of the seven participants and the two focus groups were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Service Users and Clinicians were recruited from Assertive outreach community-based teams...
December 8, 2017: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218748/adolescent-non-drinkers-who-are-they-social-relations-school-performance-lifestyle-factors-and-health-behaviours
#10
Peter Larm, Cecilia Åslund, Jonas Raninen, Kent W Nilsson
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Traditionally, non-drinking adults or young adults have been associated with health deficits rather than health benefits. However, as the proportion of Swedish non-drinking adolescents has doubled since 2000, their health profiles are of interest. The aim of the present study is to examine whether social relations, school characteristics, lifestyle factors or health behaviours distinguish adolescent non-drinkers from adolescent drinkers, and if their health profiles have changed from 2004 to 2012...
December 7, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216571/negative-affectivity-as-a-mechanism-underlying-perceived-distress-tolerance-and-cannabis-use-problems-barriers-to-cessation-and-self-efficacy-for-quitting-among-urban-cannabis-users
#11
Kara Manning, Daniel J Paulus, Julianna B D Hogan, Julia D Buckner, Samantha G Farris, Michael J Zvolensky
Cannabis use rates continue to rise in the United States and currently cannabis is among the most widely used substances in the world. Cannabis use is associated with several mental health problems, low educational attainment, low income, and underemployment. The current study explored the tendency to experience negative affect (negative affectivity) as a factor accounting for the association between perceived distress tolerance and problems related to the use of cannabis. Participants included 203 urban adult daily cannabis users (29...
November 28, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213247/mediating-effects-of-global-negative-effect-expectancies-on-the-association-between-problematic-cannabis-use-and-social-anxiety
#12
Maria Di Blasi, Paola Cavani, Laura Pavia, Crispino Tosto, Sabina La Grutta, Rosa Lo Baido, Cecilia Giordano, Adriano Schimmenti
The relationship between social anxiety (SA) and cannabis use among adolescents and young adults is a highly debated topic. In this cross-sectional study, we tested whether cannabis use expectancies mediated the association between SA and cannabis use severity in a sample of 343 young adults (74.3% male) who used cannabis. They completed self-report measures for the screening of problematic cannabis use (Cannabis Use Problems Identification Test) and SA symptoms (Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and Social Phobia Scale)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207512/molecular-investigation-of-the-stem-snap-point-in-textile-hemp
#13
Marc Behr, Sylvain Legay, Jean-Francois Hausman, Stanley Lutts, Gea Guerriero
Fibre crops are important natural resources, as they sustainably provide bast fibres, an economically-valuable raw material used in the textile and biocomposite sectors. Among fibre crops, textile hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is appreciated for its long and strong gelatinous bast fibres. The stem of fibre crops is a useful system for cell wall-oriented studies, because it shows a strong tissue polarity with a lignified inner core and a cellulosic hypolignified cortex, as well as a basipetal lignification gradient...
December 4, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207008/cannabis-use-and-hypomania-in-young-people-a-prospective-analysis
#14
Steven Marwaha, Catherine Winsper, Paul Bebbington, Daniel Smith
Background: Cannabis use in young people is common and associated with psychiatric disorders. However, the prospective link between cannabis use and bipolar disorder symptoms has rarely been investigated. The study hypothesis was that adolescent cannabis use is associated with hypomania in early adulthood via several potential etiological pathways. Methods: Data were used from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a UK birth cohort study. The prospective link between cannabis use at age 17 and hypomania at age 22-23 years was tested using regression analysis, adjusted for gender, early environmental risk factors, alcohol and drug use, and depression and psychotic symptoms at age 18 years...
November 28, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206230/decisional-balance-and-processes-of-change-in-community-recruited-with-moderate-high-versus-mild-severity-of-cannabis-dependence
#15
Francisca López-Torrecillas, Eva María López-Quirantes, Antonio Maldonado, Natalia Albein-Urios, Mª Del Mar Rueda, Antonio Verdejo-Garcia
Decisional Balance and Processes of Change are generally addressed in motivational interventions for the treatment of cannabis use disorders. However, specific aspects of these multifaceted constructs, with greater relevance for severe cannabis users, need to be ascertained to enable better interventions. This study aimed to compare the different facets of decisional balance and processes of change between mild and severe cannabis users in a community-based sample of young undergraduates. Thirty-one severe cannabis users and 31 mild cannabis users, indicated with the Severity of Dependence Scale, were assessed using the Decisional Balance Questionnaire (DBQ) and the Processes of Change Questionnaire (PCQ)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202510/extraction-method-and-analysis-of-cannabinoids-in-cannabis-olive-oil-preparations
#16
Antonella Casiraghi, Gabriella Roda, Eleonora Casagni, Cecilia Cristina, Umberto Maria Musazzi, Silvia Franzè, Paolo Rocco, Claudia Giuliani, Gelsomina Fico, Paola Minghetti, Veniero Gambaro
Recently, an increasing number of pharmacists had to supply medicinal products based on Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae), prescribed by physicians to individual patients. Cannabis olive oil preparation is the first choice as a concentrated extract of cannabinoids, even though standardized operative conditions for obtaining it are still not available. In this work, the impact of temperature and extraction time on the concentration of active principles was studied to harmonize the different compounding methods, optimize the extraction process, and reduce the variability among preparations...
December 4, 2017: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199844/a-scoping-review-and-meta-analysis-of-psychosocial-and-pharmacological-treatments-for-cannabis-and-tobacco-use-among-african-americans
#17
LaTrice Montgomery, Cendrine Robinson, Elizabeth L Seaman, Angela M Haeny
The rates of co-occurring cannabis and tobacco use are higher among African Americans relative to other racial/ethnic groups. One plausible approach to treating co-use among African Americans is to examine the effectiveness of treatments for the sole use of cannabis and tobacco to identify effective approaches that might be combined to treat the dual use of these substances. The current meta-analysis sought to include studies that reported cannabis and/or tobacco use outcomes from randomized clinical trials (RCTs) with 100% African American samples...
December 2017: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199807/health-risks-of-drugs-in-finland-can-the-risks-be-managed
#18
Jussi Kauhanen, Jari Tiihonen
In the HUUTI consortium research project, the illicit use of drugs and consequences thereof among Finnish people were studied, also seeking possible new pharmacological therapies for dependency problems. The epidemiological part included 4,817 persons, who attended the services for drug users at Helsinki Deaconess Institute between 1997 and 2008. The majority were below 35 years of age. The average level of education was low and the proportion of employed was small. On the average, 3.5 different substances were being used, of which buprenorphine and amphetamine were the most common primary drugs, cannabis being the most common secondary drug...
2017: Duodecim; Lääketieteellinen Aikakauskirja
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198276/does-cannabis-use-cause-declines-in-neuropsychological-functioning-a-review-of-longitudinal-studies
#19
Raul Gonzalez, Ileana Pacheco-Colón, Jacqueline C Duperrouzel, Samuel W Hawes
Cannabis use has been linked to impairments in neuropsychological functioning across a large and continually expanding body of research. Yet insight into underlying causal relations remains limited due to the historically cross-sectional nature of studies in this area. Recently, however, studies have begun to use more informative design strategies to delineate these associations. The aim of this article is to provide a critical evaluation and review of research that uses longitudinal designs to examine the link between cannabis use and neuropsychological functioning...
October 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197535/driving-under-the-influence-behaviours-among-high-school-students-who-mix-alcohol-with-energy-drinks
#20
Maria N Wilson, Tammy Cumming, Robin Burkhalter, Donald B Langille, Rachel Ogilvie, Mark Asbridge
Alcohol and energy drinks are commonly used substances by youth in Canada, and are often mixed (AmED). While several studies have shown that AmED can have dangerous effects, less well understood is how AmED is associated with driving under the influence of either alcohol or drugs. This study sought to determine whether youth who use AmED were more likely to engage in driving, or being a passenger of a driver, under the influence of alcohol or cannabis compared to youth who use either alcohol or energy drinks alone...
November 29, 2017: Preventive Medicine
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