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Cannabis studies

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911410/endophytes-of-industrial-hemp-cannabis-sativa-l-cultivars-identification-of-culturable-bacteria-and-fungi-in-leaves-petioles-and-seeds
#1
Maryanne Scott, Mamta Rani, Jamil Samsatly, Jean-Benoit Charron, Suha Jabaji
Plant endophytes are a group of microorganisms that reside asymptomatically within the healthy living tissue. The diversity and molecular and biochemical characterization of industrial hemp-associated endophytes have not been previously studied. This study explored the abundance and diversity of culturable endophytes residing in petioles, leaves, and seeds of three industrial hemp cultivars, and examined their biochemical attributes and antifungal potential. A total of 134 bacterial and 53 fungal strains were isolated from cultivars Anka, CRS-1, and Yvonne...
June 18, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910036/trajectories-of-impulsivity-by-sex-predict-substance-use-and-heavy-drinking
#2
Victor Martinez-Loredo, Jose Ramon Fernandez-Hermida, Alejandro De La Torre-Luque, Sergio Fernandez-Artamendi
Although impulsivity and sensation seeking have been consistently associated with substance use, few studies have analyzed the relationship between changes in these variables and substance use in early adolescents. The aim of this study was to identify trajectories of impulsivity and sensation seeking and explore their relationship with substance use and heavy drinking. A total of 1342 non-user adolescents (53.6% males; mean age = 12.98, SD = 0.50) annually completed the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, the Zuckerman's Impulsive Sensation Seeking scale and a delay discounting task, over a total period of three years...
June 14, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910010/cannabis-use-other-substance-use-and-co-occurring-mental-health-concerns-among-youth-presenting-for-substance-use-treatment-services-sex-and-age-differences
#3
Lisa D Hawke, Emiko Koyama, Joanna Henderson
Cannabis use among youth is of significant concern given the potential negative health impacts on young people. This study describes the mental health characteristics, cannabis use, and substance use profiles of youth aged 14 to 24 years seen at the Youth Addiction and Concurrent Disorders Service at the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, through an age and gender lens. Almost all participating youth indicated lifetime cannabis use. Substance use and mental health profiles among those indicating a history of cannabis use differed along sex and age...
August 2018: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909427/contrast-sensitivity-and-motion-discrimination-in-cannabis-users
#4
Elena Mikulskaya, Frances Heritage Martin
RATIONALE: Cannabis use impairs visual attention; however, it is unclear whether cannabis use also impairs low level visual processing or whether low level visual deficits can be related to lower dopaminergic functioning found in cannabis users. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether spatiotemporal contrast sensitivity and motion discrimination under normal and low luminance conditions differ in cannabis users and non-users. METHODS: Control (n = 20) and cannabis (n = 21) participants completed a visual acuity test, a saliva test and self-report measures...
June 16, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908582/dangerous-plants-in-dermatology-legal-and-controlled
#5
Deeptej Singh, Juliya Fisher, Devorah Shagalov, Aakaash Varma, Daniel M Siegel
The plant and mushroom kingdoms have species used for intoxication, inebriation, or recreation. Some of these species are toxic. Given that many of these plants or substances are illegal and have histories of abuse, much of the research regarding therapeutic application is based on basic science, animal studies, and traditional use. This review examines Cannabis, Euphorbia, Ricinus, Podophyllum, Veratrum, mushrooms, and nightshades, along with resveratrol and cocaine as they relate to dermatology.
May 2018: Clinics in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908515/an-altered-state-emergent-changes-to-illicit-drug-markets-and-distribution-networks-in-scotland
#6
James Densley, Robert McLean, Ross Deuchar, Simon Harding
BACKGROUND: Many efforts have been undertaken to construct an overview of various aspects of illicit drug distribution in the United Kingdom. Yet given that national, regional, and local differences can be profound, this has proven difficult, to the extent that Scotland has been largely excluded from the conversation. In addition, the level of supply being examined, the drug type, and the actors involved only add to confusion and vast differences between some findings. METHOD: The current study aims to provide a holistic account, as best as possible considering variations of illegal drug supply in illicit networks, by focusing in on a particular geographical context (Scotland) and addressing drug supply at all levels...
June 13, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903791/multilevel-population-based-cross-sectional-study-examining-school-substance-misuse-policy-and-the-use-of-cannabis-mephedrone-and-novel-psychoactive-substances-among-students-aged-11-16-years-in-schools-in-wales
#7
Luke S Midgley, Simon Murphy, Graham Moore, Gillian Hewitt, James White
OBJECTIVES: To examine whether young peoples' risk of cannabis, mephedrone and novel psychoactive substances (NPS) use is associated with school substance-misuse policy. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey of secondary school students combined with a School Environment Questionnaire and independently coded school substance-misuse policies (2015/6). SETTING: 66 secondary schools in Wales. PARTICIPANTS: Students aged 11-16 years (n=18 939)...
June 14, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903544/the-impact-of-traumatic-experiences-on-risky-sexual-behaviors-in-black-and-white-young-adult-women
#8
Kimberly B Werner, Renee M Cunningham-Williams, Whitney Sewell, Arpana Agrawal, Vivia V McCutcheon, Mary Waldron, Andrew C Heath, Kathleen K Bucholz
BACKGROUND: Trauma exposure has been linked to risky sexual behavior (RSB), but few studies have examined the impact of distinct trauma types on RSB in one model or how the association with trauma and RSB may differ across race. PURPOSE: The objective of the current study was to examine the contribution of trauma exposure types to RSB-substance-related RSB and partner-related RSB identified through factor analysis-in young Black and White adult women. METHODS: We investigated the associations of multiple trauma types and RSB factor scores in participants from a general population sample of young adult female twins (n = 2,948)...
June 11, 2018: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902416/cannabidiol-did-not-induce-teratogenicity-or-neurotoxicity-in-exposed-zebrafish-embryos
#9
Tamires Amabile Valim Brigante, Flavia R Abe, Antônio Waldo Zuardi, Jaime Eduardo Cecílio Hallak, José Alexandre S Crippa, Danielle P de Oliveira
Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychotomimetic compound of the Cannabis sativa that has been used for the treatment of severe epilepsy as well as other diseases of nervous system. However, toxicity studies of CBD have great relevance to guarantee the patients safety. In this context, morphological analyses of zebrafish can contribute to evaluate the teratogenic potential, as well as evaluation of acetylcholinesterase activity and motor activity of zebrafish are valuable tools to verify the neurotoxicity potential...
June 11, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897019/alcohol-use-and-sexual-and-physical-assault-victimization-among-university-students-three-years-of-follow-up
#10
Francisco Caamano-Isorna, Amy Adkins, Lucía Moure-Rodríguez, Abigail H Conley, Danielle Dick
The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of sexual and physical assault among university students and its association with alcohol use. The research is part of a wider cohort study (Spit for ScienceTM ) at a large public university in the United States. The follow-up data include the first two cohorts (2011, 2012; n = 5,170). The dependent variables were victim of sexual assault and victim of physical assault. The independent variables were alcohol dependence and abuse according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897004/episodic-foresight-deficits-in-regular-but-not-recreational-cannabis-users
#11
Kimberly Mercuri, Gill Terrett, Julie D Henry, H Valerie Curran, Morgan Elliott, Peter G Rendell
BACKGROUND: Cannabis use is associated with a range of neurocognitive deficits, including impaired episodic memory. However, no study to date has assessed whether these difficulties extend to episodic foresight, a core component of which is the ability to mentally travel into one's personal future. This is a particularly surprising omission given that episodic memory is considered to be critical to engage episodic foresight. AIMS: In the present study, we provide the first test of how episodic foresight is affected in the context of differing levels of cannabis use, and the degree to which performance on a measure of this construct is related to episodic memory...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896112/a-systematic-review-of-the-complex-effects-of-cannabinoids-on-cerebral-and-peripheral-circulation-in-animal-models
#12
REVIEW
J Sebastian Richter, Véronique Quenardelle, Olivier Rouyer, Jean Sébastien Raul, Rémy Beaujeux, Bernard Gény, Valérie Wolff
While cannabis is perceived as a relatively safe drug by the public, accumulating clinical data suggest detrimental cardiovascular effects of cannabinoids. Cannabis has been legalized in several countries and jurisdictions recently. Experimental studies specifically targeting cannabinoids' effects on the cerebral vasculature are rare. There is evidence for transient vasoconstrictive effects of cannabinoids in the peripheral and cerebral vasculature in a complex interplay of vasodilation and vasoconstriction...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895258/spirituality-religiosity-and-addiction-recovery-current-perspectives
#13
Joao Mauricio Castaldelli-Maia, Livia Beraldo, Antonio Ventriglio, Arthur Guerra de Andrade, Antonio Geraldo da Silva, Julio Torales, Priscila Dib Goncalves, Dinesh Bhugra
Substance use disorders are an important public health problem with a multifactorial etiology and limited effective treatment options. Within this context, spirituality-based approaches may provide interesting and useful options in managing substance use disorders. This kind of intervention can have positive effects in alleviating some core symptoms associated with substance use, such as aggressiveness. Improvement in cessation rates for alcohol, cocaine and opioid use disorders have also been described in some clinical studies...
June 11, 2018: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29894828/cannabis-users-exhibit-increased-cortical-activation-during-resting-state
#14
Shikha Prashad, Elizabeth S Dedrick, Francesca M Filbey
Studies have shown altered task-based brain functioning as a result of cannabis use. To date, however, whether similar alterations in baseline resting state and functional organization of neural activity are observable in cannabis users remains unknown. We characterized global resting state cortical activations and functional connectivity via electroencephalography (EEG) in cannabis users and related these activations to measures of cannabis use. Resting state EEG in the eyes closed condition was collected from age- and gender-matched cannabis users (N = 17; 6 females; mean age = 30...
June 9, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891008/the-association-between-cannabis-use-and-suicidal-behavior-in-patients-with-psychiatric-disorders-an-analysis-of-sex-differences
#15
Leen Naji, Tea Rosic, Brittany Dennis, Meha Bhatt, Nitika Sanger, Jackie Hudson, Natalia Mouravska, Lehana Thabane, Zainab Samaan
BACKGROUND: Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug. In the general population, its use has been linked to a heightened propensity for suicidal behavior (SB). We hypothesize that this association varies in patients with psychiatric disorders. SB is known to vary by sex and therefore an investigation of cannabis' association with SB must consider sex differences. The purpose of this study is to investigate the association between cannabis use and suicide attempts in men and women with psychiatric disorders...
June 11, 2018: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29889330/the-initiation-of-cannabis-use-in-adolescence-is-predicted-by-sex-specific-psychosocial-and-neurobiological-features
#16
Philip A Spechler, Nicholas Allgaier, Bader Chaarani, Robert Whelan, Richard Watts, Catherine Orr, Matthew D Albaugh, Nicholas D'Alberto, Stephen T Higgins, Kelsey E Hudson, Scott Mackey, Alexandra Potter, Tobias Banaschewski, Arun L W Bokde, Uli Bromberg, Christian Büchel, Anna Cattrell, Patricia J Conrod, Sylvane Desrivières, Herta Flor, Vincent Frouin, Jürgen Gallinat, Penny Gowland, Andreas Heinz, Bernd Ittermann, Jean-Luc Martinot, Marie-Laure Paillère Martinot, Frauke Nees, Dimitri Papadopoulos Orfanos, Tomáš Paus, Michael N Smolka, Henrik Walter, Gunter Schumann, Robert R Althoff, Hugh Garavan
Cannabis use initiated during adolescence might precipitate negative consequences in adulthood. Thus, predicting adolescent cannabis use prior to any exposure will inform the etiology of substance abuse by disentangling predictors from consequences of use. In this prediction study, data were drawn from the IMAGEN sample, a longitudinal study of adolescence. All selected participants (n=1,581) were cannabis-naïve at age 14. Those reporting any cannabis use (out of 6 ordinal use levels) by age 16 were included in the outcome group (N=365, males n=207)...
June 11, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29888821/striatal-alcohol-cue-reactivity-is-stronger-in-male-than-female-problem-drinkers
#17
Anne Marije Kaag, Reinout W Wiers, Taco de Vries, Tommy Pattij, Anna E Goudriaan
Despite apparent sex differences in the development and treatment of alcohol use disorder, relatively little is known about the underlying neural mechanisms. In this study we therefore investigated neural cue-reactivity in a sample of male (n=28) and female (n=27) problem drinkers (matched on age and alcohol use severity) with an average alcohol use disorder identification test score of 12 which is indicative of a likely alcohol use disorder. Neural cue-reactivity data were extracted from four regions of interest: the ventral and dorsal striatum and the ventral and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, with a significance level set at p<0...
June 11, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29887756/rolling-and-scrolling-the-portrayal-of-marijuana-cigars-blunts-on-youtube
#18
LaTrice Montgomery, Andrew Yockey
Background: Blunts are partially or fully hollowed-out cigars or cigarillos that are filled with marijuana. Despite the high prevalence of blunt use, very few studies assess this specific method of cannabis administration. YouTube, a popular video-sharing website, has the potential to provide insights into blunt use. Methods: The purpose of this study was to examine the content of YouTube videos that discuss blunts. A sample of 41 videos was coded for content. Results: The 41 videos had a total of 27,579,636 views...
2018: Journal of Substance Use
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29887287/probing-the-endocannabinoid-system-in-healthy-volunteers-cannabidiol-alters-fronto-striatal-resting-state-connectivity
#19
Oliver Grimm, Martin Löffler, Sandra Kamping, Aljoscha Hartmann, Cathrin Rohleder, Markus Leweke, Herta Flor
Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and Cannabidiol (CBD) are two substances from cannabis sativa that have beenimplicated in the treatment of mental and neurological disorders. We concentrated on a previously validated neuroimaging phenotype, fronto-striatal connectivity across different striatal seeds, because of this loop's relevance to executive functioning, decision making, salience generation and motivation and its link to various neuropsychiatric conditions. Therefore, we studied the effect of THC and CBD on fronto-striatal circuitry by a seed-voxel connectivity approach using seeds from the caudate and the putamen...
June 7, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29885927/the-effects-of-medical-marijuana-laws-on-cannabis-involved-driving
#20
Eric L Sevigny
This study uses data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System and a differences-in-differences model to examine the effect of state medical marijuana laws (MMLs) on cannabis-involved driving among U.S. drivers involved in a fatal crash between 1993-2014. Findings indicate that MMLs in general have a null effect on cannabis-positive driving, as do state laws with specific supply provisions including home cultivation and unlicensed or quasi-legal dispensaries. Only in jurisdictions with state-licensed medical marijuana dispensaries did the odds of marijuana-involved driving increase significantly by 14 percent, translating into an additional 87 to 113 drivers testing positive for marijuana per year...
June 6, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
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