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Cannabis studies

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223098/cannabis-and-alcohol-use-and-the-developing-brain
#1
REVIEW
A D Meruelo, N Castro, C I Cota, S F Tapert
Sex hormones and white (and grey) matter in the limbic system, cortex and other brain regions undergo changes during adolescence. Some of these changes include ongoing white matter myelination and sexually dimorphic features in grey and white matter. Adolescence is also a period of vulnerability when many are first exposed to alcohol and cannabis, which appear to influence the developing brain. Neuropsychological studies have provided considerable understanding of the effects of alcohol and cannabis on the brain...
February 18, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219717/effects-of-tetrahydrocannabinol-on-glucose-uptake-in-the-rat-brain
#2
I Miederer, K Uebbing, J Röhrich, S Maus, N Bausbacher, K Krauter, V Weyer-Elberich, B Lutz, M Schreckenberger, R Urban
Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the psychoactive component of the plant Cannabis sativa and acts as a partial agonist at cannabinoid type 1 and type 2 receptors in the brain. The goal of this study was to assess the effect of THC on the cerebral glucose uptake in the rat brain. 21 male Sprague Dawley rats (12-13 w) were examined and received five different doses of THC ranging from 0.01 to 1 mg/kg. For data acquisition a Focus 120 small animal PET scanner was used and 24.1-28.0 MBq of [(18)F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose were injected...
February 17, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219487/evidence-for-the-risks-and-consequences-of-adolescent-cannabis-exposure
#3
REVIEW
Amir Levine, Kelly Clemenza, Moira Rynn, Jeffrey Lieberman
OBJECTIVE: This review of the scientific literature examines the potential adult sequelae of exposure to cannabis and related synthetic cannabinoids in adolescence. We examine the four neuropsychiatric outcomes that are likely most vulnerable to alteration by early cannabinoid use, as identified within both the clinical and preclinical research: cognition, emotional functioning, risk for psychosis, and addiction. METHOD: A literature search was conducted through PubMed, PsychInfo, and Google Scholar with no publication date restrictions...
March 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217094/in-vivo-evidence-for-therapeutic-properties-of-cannabidiol-cbd-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
REVIEW
Georgia Watt, Tim Karl
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a debilitating neurodegenerative disease that is affecting an increasing number of people. It is characterized by the accumulation of amyloid-β and tau hyperphosphorylation as well as neuroinflammation and oxidative stress. Current AD treatments do not stop or reverse the disease progression, highlighting the need for new, more effective therapeutics. Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychoactive phytocannabinoid that has demonstrated neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties in vitro...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216068/stages-of-dysfunctional-decision-making-in-addiction
#5
REVIEW
Antonio Verdejo-Garcia, Trevor T-J Chong, Julie C Stout, Murat Yücel, Edythe D London
Drug use is a choice with immediate positive outcomes, but long-term negative consequences. Thus, the repeated use of drugs in the face of negative consequences suggests dysfunction in the cognitive mechanisms underpinning decision-making. This cognitive dysfunction can be mapped into three stages: the formation of preferences involving valuation of decision options; choice implementation including motivation, self-regulation and inhibitory processes; and feedback processing implicating reinforcement learning...
February 16, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214781/cannabis-use-and-the-course-and-outcome-of-major-depressive-disorder-a-population-based-longitudinal-study
#6
Daniel Feingold, Jürgen Rehm, Shaul Lev-Ran
Cannabis use has been reported to affect the course of various psychiatric disorders, however its effect on the course of major depressive disorder (MDD) is not yet clear. We used data from Wave 1 and Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Individuals with baseline MDD (N=2,348) were included in the study. Cannabis users without a Cannabis Use Disorder (CUDs) and individuals with a CUD were compared to nonusers using linear and logistic regression analyses controlling for sociodemographics, psychiatric disorders and substance use disorders at baseline...
February 12, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214740/youth-use-of-electronic-vapor-products-and-blunts-for-administering-cannabis
#7
Matthew E Eggers, Youn O Lee, Kyle Jackson, Jenny L Wiley, Lauren Porter, James M Nonnemaker
BACKGROUND: The positive association between youth use of cannabis and tobacco is well-established, and reports show that some youth are using electronic vapor products (EVPs) to administer cannabis. This study examines the prevalence and correlates of youth consumption of cannabis via EVP and how this compares with co-use of cannabis with cigars (blunts) among a large statewide sample of youth. METHODS: We used data from the Florida Youth Tobacco Survey (FYTS), a school-based, pencil-and-paper questionnaire given to Florida middle and high school students (N=12,320)...
February 10, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214433/anxiety-and-cannabis-related-problem-severity-among-dually-diagnosed-outpatients-the-impact-of-false-safety-behaviors
#8
Julia D Buckner, Michael J Zvolensky, Anthony H Ecker, Emily R Jeffries, Austin W Lemke, Kimberlye E Dean, Michael S Businelle, Matthew W Gallagher
Cannabis use disorder (CUD) co-occurs with anxiety disorders at high rates. Little is known about the mechanisms linking CUD and anxiety disorders. One theoretically-driven perspective is that individuals with anxiety disorders may be more apt to use FSBs (i.e., behaviors that may be effective in decreasing anxiety in the short-term, but can maintain and even exacerbate anxiety in the long-term), which can perpetuate cannabis use despite cannabis-related problems. The present study tested whether FSB use explained the relation of anxiety symptom severity with cannabis quantity and related problems among 77 adults with CUD and comorbid anxiety disorders seeking outpatient CUD treatment...
February 10, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213124/reciprocal-relationships-between-substance-use-and-disorders-and-suicidal-ideation-and-suicide-attempts-in-the-collaborative-study-of-the-genetics-of-alcoholism
#9
Arpana Agrawal, Rebecca Tillman, Richard A Grucza, Elliot C Nelson, Vivia V McCutcheon, Lauren Few, Kenneth R Conner, Michael T Lynskey, Danielle M Dick, Howard J Edenberg, Victor M Hesselbrock, John R Kramer, Samuel Kuperman, John I Nurnberger, Marc A Schuckit, Bernice Porjesz, Kathleen K Bucholz
BACKGROUND: Substance use and misuse and suicidal thoughts and behaviors tend to co-occur. The purpose of this study was to examine whether (a) suicidal ideation and attempt are related to onset of alcohol, nicotine and cannabis use and dependence; (b) early use of alcohol, nicotine and cannabis is associated with onset of suicidal ideation and attempt; and (c) whether these associations persist while controlling for covariates, such as family history of alcohol problems, major depression and other internalizing and externalizing disorders...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212939/cannabis-exacerbates-depressive-symptoms-in-rat-model-induced-by-reserpine
#10
Yasser A Khadrawy, Hussein G Sawie, Omar M E Abdel-Salam, Eman N Hosny
Cannabis sativa is one of the most widely recreational drugs and its use is more prevalent among depressed patients. Some studies reported that Cannabis has antidepressant effects while others showed increased depressive symptoms in Cannabis users. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the effect of Cannabis extract on the depressive-like rats. Twenty four rats were divided into: control, rat model of depression induced by reserpine and depressive-like rats treated with Cannabis sativa extract (10mg/kg expressed as Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol)...
February 14, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212173/prediction-of-conversion-to-psychosis-in-individuals-with-an-at-risk-mental-state-a-brief-update-on-recent-developments
#11
Anita Riecher-Rössler, Erich Studerus
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: So far, only little more than one-third of individuals classified as being at-risk for psychosis have been shown to actually convert to frank psychosis during follow-up. There have therefore been enormous efforts to improve the accuracy of predicting this transition. We reviewed the most recent studies in the field with the aim to clarify whether accuracy of prediction has been improved by the different research endeavors and what could be done to further improve it, and/or what alternative goals research should pursue...
February 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210835/a-10-year-review-of-cannabis-exposure-in-children-under-3-years-of-age-do-we-need-a-more-global-approach
#12
Isabelle Claudet, Mathilde Le Breton, Camille Bréhin, Nicolas Franchitto
: Pediatricians working in an emergency environment are confronted with children admitted to emergency departments for intoxication on a daily basis. We carried out a retrospective cohort study of children admitted to a pediatric emergency department due to unintentional cannabis exposure over a 10-year period from 2004 to 2014. Twenty-nine children under the age of 3 were admitted with a positive cannabis urine test. Eighty-seven percent of intoxications occurred at the family home. Resin was the main form of ingested cannabis (69%)...
February 16, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202406/cannabis-cultivation-methodological-issues-for-obtaining-medical-grade-product
#13
REVIEW
Suman Chandra, Hemant Lata, Mahmoud A ElSohly, Larry A Walker, David Potter
As studies continue to reveal favorable findings for the use of cannabidiol in the management of childhood epilepsy syndromes and other disorders, best practices for the large-scale production of Cannabis are needed for timely product development and research purposes. The processes of two institutions with extensive experience in producing large-scale cannabidiol chemotype Cannabis crops-GW Pharmaceuticals and the University of Mississippi-are described, including breeding, indoor and outdoor growing, harvesting, and extraction methods...
February 12, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197175/can-cannabinoids-be-a-potential-therapeutic-tool-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#14
REVIEW
Sabrina Giacoppo, Emanuela Mazzon
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common degenerative disease of the motor neuron system. Over the last years, a growing interest was aimed to discovery new innovative and safer therapeutic approaches in the ALS treatment. In this context, the bioactive compounds of Cannabis sativa have shown antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects in preclinical models of central nervous system disease. However, most of the studies proving the ability of cannabinoids in delay disease progression and prolong survival in ALS were performed in animal model, whereas the few clinical trials that investigated cannabinoids-based medicines were focused only on the alleviation of ALS-related symptoms, not on the control of disease progression...
December 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195831/psychometric-properties-of-the-turkish-versions-of-the-cannabis-use-problems-identi%C3%AF-cation-test-cupit-and-the-adult-cannabis-problems-questionnaire-cpq
#15
Cuneyt Evren, Hanife Yilmaz Cengel, Muge Bozkurt, Bilge Evren, Gokhan Umut, Ruken Agachanli
Cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids are widely used illicit substances in Turkey. The Cannabis Use Problems Identification Test (CUPIT) is a brief self-report screening instrument for detection of problematic cannabis use, whereas the Cannabis Problems Questionnaire (CPQ) is a measure for cannabis treatment outcome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the CUPIT and CPQ among Turkish male outpatients with cannabis (n = 52) and synthetic cannabinoid (n = 45) use disorder. Participants were evaluated with the CUPIT, the CPQ, and the Cannabis Withdrawal Scale (CWS)...
January 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193575/applying-sewage-epidemiology-approach-to-estimate-illicit-drug-consumption-in-a-tropical-context-bias-related-to-sewage-temperature-and-ph
#16
Damien A Devault, Yves Lévi, Sara Karolak
Illicit drug consumption can be estimated from drug target residue (DTR) in wastewater, with the reliability of results being partly linked to DTR stability in the sewage network. However, wastewater temperature and pH drive the stability of molecules and, in this context, tropical conditions must be studied to specify the impact of residence time in the sewage network on DTR degradation. Warmth enhances biotic and abiotic processes such as degradation, leading to a decrease in oxygen content, and consequently, early diagenesis conditions in wastewater...
February 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192643/associations-between-substance-use-disorders-and-suicide-or-suicide-attempts-in-people-with-mental-illness-a-danish-nationwide-prospective-register-based-study-of-patients-diagnosed-with-schizophrenia-bipolar-disorder-unipolar-depression-or-personality-disorder
#17
Marie L D Østergaard, Merete Nordentoft, Carsten Hjorthøj
AIM: To estimate and test associations between substance use disorders (SUDs) and both completed suicides and suicide attempts in a population with severe mental illness. DESIGN: Register-based cohort study with adjusted Cox regression of substance use disorders as time-varying covariates. SETTING: Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: People born in Denmark since 1955 with a diagnosis of schizophrenia (n = 35,625), bipolar disorder (n = 9,279), depression (n = 72,530), or personality disorder (n = 63,958)...
February 13, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191917/newborn-birth-weight-of-pregnant-women-on-methadone-or-buprenorphine-maintenance-treatment-a-national-contingency-management-approach-trial
#18
Einat Peles, Anat Sason, Shaul Schreiber, Miriam Adelson
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is the gold standard for pregnant women with opioid use disorders. Still, low birth-weights were reported, in particular of mothers who became pregnant before admission to MMT. We studied whether an escalating incentive contingency-management approach may contribute to better newborn birth-weights. METHODS: A nationwide controlled randomized trial among all Israeli methadone/buprenorphine maintenance treatment (MBMT), newly or already in treatment pregnant women was performed...
February 13, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191338/accelerated-burn-wound-closure-in-mice-with-a-new-formula-based-on-traditional-medicine
#19
Mehrnaz Mehrabani, Seyyed Mohsen Seyyedkazemi, Mohammad Hadi Nematollahi, Elham Jafari, Mitra Mehrabani, Mohammad Mehdipour, Zahra Sheikhshoaee, Ali Mandegary
BACKGROUND: A combination of the oils of sesame, hemp, wild pistachio, and walnut has been used for treatment of skin disorders, including wound burns, in some parts of Kerman, Iran. Evaluation of this remedy in the form of a pharmaceutical formulation in animal models can pave the way for its future application in wound burn healing in humans. OBJECTIVES: This experimental study investigated the healing potential of a new formula (NF) based on folk medicine from Iran for the treatment of third degree burns in mice...
November 2016: Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190698/therapeutic-effects-of-cannabinoids-in-animal-models-of-seizures-epilepsy-epileptogenesis-and-epilepsy-related-neuroprotection
#20
REVIEW
Evan C Rosenberg, Pabitra H Patra, Benjamin J Whalley
The isolation and identification of the discrete plant cannabinoids in marijuana revived interest in analyzing historical therapeutic claims made for cannabis in clinical case studies and anecdotes. In particular, sources as old as the 11th and 15th centuries claimed efficacy for crude marijuana extracts in the treatment of convulsive disorders, prompting a particularly active area of preclinical research into the therapeutic potential of plant cannabinoids in epilepsy. Since that time, a large body of literature has accumulated describing the effects of several of the >100 individual plant cannabinoids in preclinical models of seizures, epilepsy, epileptogenesis, and epilepsy-related neuroprotection...
February 9, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
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