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Cannabis studies

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679954/are-changes-in-drinking-related-to-changes-in-cannabis-use-among-swedish-adolescents-a-time-series-analysis-for-the-period-1989-2016
#1
Isabella Gripe, Anna-Karin Danielsson, Mats Ramstedt
AIMS: To examine if changes in alcohol consumption are associated with changes in cannabis use among Swedish adolescents in a period of diverging trends, and to investigate if cannabis and alcohol act as complements or substitutes. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS AND MEASUREMENTS: Data comprise a nationally representative annual school survey of alcohol and drug habits among Swedish 9th grade students (15-16 years) covering the years 1989-2016 (n=149 603). Alcohol and cannabis use were measured concurrently and alcohol consumption was measured in liters of 100% alcohol per year...
April 21, 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679914/a-multi-site-proof-of-concept-investigation-of-computerized-approach-avoidance-training-in-adolescent-cannabis-users
#2
Joanna Jacobus, Charles T Taylor, Kevin M Gray, Lindsay R Meredith, Anna M Porter, Irene Li, Norma Castro, Lindsay M Squeglia
BACKGROUND: Few effective treatment options exist for cannabis-using youth. This pilot study aimed to test Approach-Avoidance Training to reduce cannabis use with non-treatment-seeking adolescents. METHODS: Eighty cannabis-using non-treatment-seeking adolescents (average age 19) were recruited from San Diego, California and Charleston, South Carolina, and randomized to complete either six sessions of Cannabis Approach-Avoidance Task Training (CAAT-training) designed to reduce automatic approach biases for cannabis cues or CAAT-sham training...
April 11, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679913/the-relation-between-gray-matter-volume-and-the-use-of-alcohol-tobacco-cocaine-and-cannabis-in-male-polysubstance-users
#3
A M Kaag, M H J Schulte, J M Jansen, G van Wingen, J Homberg, W van den Brink, R W Wiers, L Schmaal, A E Goudriaan, L Reneman
BACKGROUND: Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated gray matter (GM) volume abnormalities in substance users. While the majority of substance users are polysubstance users, very little is known about the relation between GM volume abnormalities and polysubstance use. METHODS: In this study we assessed the relation between GM volume, and the use of alcohol, tobacco, cocaine and cannabis as well as the total number of substances used, in a sample of 169 males: 15 non-substance users, 89 moderate drinkers, 27 moderate drinkers who also smoke tobacco, 13 moderate drinkers who also smoke tobacco and use cocaine, 10 heavy drinkers who smoke tobacco and use cocaine and 15 heavy drinkers who smoke tobacco, cannabis and use cocaine...
April 15, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678279/the-psychiatric-consequences-of-cannabinoids
#4
Joao P De Aquino, Mohamed Sherif, Rajiv Radhakrishnan, John D Cahill, Mohini Ranganathan, Deepak C D'Souza
With rising rates of cannabis use in the general population and an increasing number of US states legalizing both recreational and medical cannabis use, it is important to be informed about the adverse consequences of cannabinoids. This Commentary provides an overview of the psychiatric effects of plant-based and synthetic cannabinoids, differentiating acute effects from effects associated with persistent use. Cannabinoids produce multiphasic and dose-dependent effects on anxiety, mood, and perception, in addition to impairing cognition and psychomotor function...
April 17, 2018: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677592/development-of-rapid-and-simple-method-for-dna-extraction-from-cannabis-resin-based-on-the-evaluation-of-relative-pcr-amplification-ability
#5
Tadashi Yamamuro, Yuko T Iwata, Hiroki Segawa, Kenji Kuwayama, Kenji Tsujikawa, Tatsuyuki Kanamori, Hiroyuki Inoue
In recent years, analysis of cannabis DNA has been increasingly used in forensic drug tests. However, in the case of cannabis resin, a processed marijuana product, complicated procedures are required for the extraction of clean DNA, as the presence of various impurities inhibits PCR amplification. Therefore, in this study, we attempted to identify the factors that would allow quick and simple DNA extraction from cannabis resin with a commercially available kit. We also constructed a simple assay system for comparing relative amplification efficiencies by end-point PCR and used it to evaluate the purity of the obtained DNA solutions...
April 4, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674967/no-acute-effects-of-cannabidiol-on-the-sleep-wake-cycle-of-healthy-subjects-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-crossover-study
#6
Ila M P Linares, Francisco S Guimaraes, Alan Eckeli, Ana C S Crippa, Antonio W Zuardi, Jose D S Souza, Jaime E Hallak, José A S Crippa
Cannabidiol (CBD) is a component of Cannabis sativa that has a broad spectrum of potential therapeutic effects in neuropsychiatric and other disorders. However, few studies have investigated the possible interference of CBD on the sleep-wake cycle. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a clinically anxiolytic dose of CBD on the sleep-wake cycle of healthy subjects in a crossover, double-blind design. Twenty-seven healthy volunteers that fulfilled the eligibility criteria were selected and allocated to receive either CBD (300 mg) or placebo in the first night in a double-blind randomized design (one volunteer withdrew from the study)...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674131/efficacy-of-cbd-enriched-medical-cannabis-for-treatment-of-refractory-epilepsy-in-children-and-adolescents-an-observational-longitudinal-study
#7
Moran Hausman-Kedem, Shay Menascu, Uri Kramer
The objective of this observational study was to evaluate the efficacy of medical cannabis for the treatment of refractory epilepsy. Fifty-seven patients (age 1-20 years) with epilepsy of various etiologies were treated with Cannabis oil extract (CBD/THC ratio of 20:1) for at least 3 months (Median follow up time-18 months). Forty-Six Patients were included in the efficacy analysis. Average CBD dose was11.4 mg/kg/d. Twenty-six patients (56%) had ≤50% reduction in mean monthly seizure frequency. There was no statistically significant difference in response rate among various epilepsy etiologies, and cannabis strain used...
April 16, 2018: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672683/daily-internet-time-towards-an-evidence-based-recommendation
#8
André Berchtold, Christina Akre, Yara Barrense-Dias, Grégoire Zimmermann, Joan-Carles Surís
Background: Since 2001, a recommendation of no more than 2 h per day of screen time for children 2 years of age or older was adopted in many countries. However, this recommendation was rarely examined empirically. The goal of the present study was to question this recommendation in today's connected world. Methods: We used data from the ado@internet.ch survey (spring 2012), a representative sample of 8th graders in the Canton of Vaud, Switzerland (n = 2942, 50.6% female)...
April 17, 2018: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672090/subjective-cannabis-effects-as-part-of-a-developing-disorder-in-adolescents-and-emerging-adults
#9
Hayley Treloar Padovano, Robert Miranda
In light of expanding legalization of cannabis and swelling debate about the potential risks, particularly for younger users, understanding acute cannabis effects among adolescents and emerging adults is more important than ever. Contemporary models of addiction development identify subjective drug responses as central to the developmental unfolding of drug use disorders. Despite this, surprisingly little is known about cannabis's acute subjective effects in human youths. This research utilized ecological momentary assessment (EMA) in the natural environment to identify the typical situational context of cannabis use among 85 frequent cannabis users, ages 15-24 years (M = 19...
April 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670893/prevalence-of-cannabis-use-disorder-and-associated-factors-among-cannabis-young-adult-users-at-shashemene-town-oromia-region-ethiopia-2016
#10
Mikiyas Tullu, Telake Azale, Dessie Abebaw, Haddis Solomon, Yodit Habtamu
Introduction: Cannabis users are at high risk of developing cannabis use disorder which is a problematic pattern of cannabis use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress. Objective: To assess the magnitude of cannabis use disorder and associated factors among young adults using cannabis at Shashemene Town, Oromia Region, Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at Shashemene Town, from May to June 2016. Young adults aged 18-25 who use cannabis and are permanent residents of Shashemene were included in the study...
2018: Psychiatry Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668421/factors-associated-with-unplanned-early-discharges-from-a-dual-diagnosis-inpatient-detoxification-unit-in-israel
#11
Menachem M Sofer, Alexander Kaptsan, Jonathan Anson
OBJECTIVES: Currently, Israel has a single governmental inpatient dual diagnosis detoxification unit. We provide a cross-section of patient profiles in this unit, as well as explore possible associations between clinical/demographic factors, and the unplanned early discharge of patients from the unit, aiming at improving rehabilitation success rates. METHODS: In this retrospective study, medical records of all patients admitted to the unit between January 1st 2012 and July 1st 2013 were examined (N = 323)...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Dual Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664894/does-medical-cannabis-use-increase-or-decrease-the-use-of-opioid-analgesics-and-other-prescription-drugs
#12
Marcus A Bachhuber, Julia H Arnsten, Chinazo O Cunningham, Nancy Sohler
: In observational and retrospective studies, people who use cannabis are more likely than people who do not use cannabis to also use other drugs. People who take medical cannabis are also more likely to report medical and non-medical use of opioid analgesics, stimulants, and tranquilizers. Given that people who take medical cannabis and those who do not are likely to have different underlying morbidity, it is possible that medical cannabis use reduces prescription drug use yet prescription drug use remains relatively high...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662957/new-york-physicians-perspectives-and-knowledge-of-the-state-medical-marijuana-program
#13
Alexandra Sideris, Fahad Khan, Alina Boltunova, Germaine Cuff, Christopher Gharibo, Lisa V Doan
Introduction: In 2014, New York (NY) became the 23rd state to legalize medical marijuana (MMJ). The purpose of this survey was to collect data about practicing NY physicians' comfort level, opinions, and experience in recommending or supporting patient use of MMJ. Materials and Methods: An anonymous web-based survey was distributed to medical societies and to academic departments in medical schools within NY. Results: A total of 164 responses were analyzed. Physician participants were primarily located in New York City and surrounding areas...
2018: Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659126/guanfacine-decreases-symptoms-of-cannabis-withdrawal-in-daily-cannabis-smokers
#14
Margaret Haney, Ziva D Cooper, Gillinder Bedi, Evan Herrmann, Sandra D Comer, Stephanie Collins Reed, Richard W Foltin, Frances R Levin
The α2a-adrenergic agonist, lofexidine, reduced cannabis withdrawal-related sleep disruption in the laboratory, but side effects (e.g. fatigue, hypotension) limit its utility as a treatment for cannabis use disorder. This study tested the potential efficacy and tolerability of a daily bedtime administration of the FDA-approved α2a-adrenergic agonist, guanfacine, in a human laboratory model of cannabis use disorder. Daily, nontreatment-seeking cannabis smokers (13M, 2F) completed a within-subject study comprising two 9-day inpatient study phases...
April 16, 2018: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656401/daily-patterns-of-marijuana-and-alcohol-co-use-among-individuals-with-alcohol-and-cannabis-use-disorders
#15
Jane Metrik, Rachel L Gunn, Kristina M Jackson, Alexander W Sokolovsky, Brian Borsari
BACKGROUND: The study aims were to examine daily associations between marijuana and alcohol use and the extent to which the association differs as a function of cannabis use disorder (CUD) and/or alcohol use disorder (AUD) diagnosis. METHODS: Timeline Followback interview data collected in a study of veterans (N=127) recruited from a Veterans Affairs hospital who reported at least one day of co-use of marijuana and alcohol in the past 180 days (22,860 observations)...
April 15, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656267/a-naturalistic-examination-of-the-perceived-effects-of-cannabis-on-negative-affect
#16
Carrie Cuttler, Alexander Spradlin, Ryan J McLaughlin
BACKGROUND: Cannabis is commonly used to alleviate symptoms of negative affect. However, a paucity of research has examined the acute effects of cannabis on negative affect in everyday life. The current study provides a naturalistic account of perceived changes in symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress as a function of dose and concentration of Δ9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). METHOD: Data from the app StrainprintTM (which provides medical cannabis users a means of tracking changes in symptoms as a function of different doses and chemotypes of cannabis) were analyzed using multilevel modeling...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655375/association-between-traumatic-stress-load-psychopathology-and-cognition-in-the-philadelphia-neurodevelopmental-cohort
#17
Ran Barzilay, Monica E Calkins, Tyler M Moore, Daniel H Wolf, Theodore D Satterthwaite, J Cobb Scott, Jason D Jones, Tami D Benton, Ruben C Gur, Raquel E Gur
BACKGROUND: Traumatic stressors during childhood and adolescence are associated with psychopathology, mostly studied in the context of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. We investigated broader associations of traumatic stress exposure with psychopathology and cognition in a youth community sample. METHODS: The Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort (N = 9498) is an investigation of clinical and neurobehavioral phenotypes in a diverse (56% Caucasian, 33% African American, 11% other) US youth community population (aged 8-21)...
April 15, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653439/medical-cannabis-an-oxymoron-physicians-perceptions-of-medical-cannabis
#18
Yuval Zolotov, Simon Vulfsons, Dana Zarhin, Sharon Sznitman
BACKGROUND: Medical cannabis policies are changing in many places around the world, and physicians play a major role in the implementation of these policies. The aim of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of physicians' views on medical cannabis and its possible integration into their clinic, as well as to identify potential underlying factors that influence these perceptions. METHODS: Qualitative narrative analysis of in-depth interviews with twenty-four Israeli physicians from three specialties (pain medicine, oncology and family medicine)...
April 10, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653350/relevance-of-treated-cocaine-users-retrospective-memory-of-first-cocaine-use
#19
Emily Karsinti, Kristel Piani, El Hedi Zerdazi, Uwe Maskos, Philippe Faure, Lucia Romo, Frank Bellivier, Georges Brousse, Jean Pierre Lépine, Vanessa Bloch, Florence Vorspan
Little is known regarding between-subject variability in the subjective effects of first cocaine use. This study retrospectively assesses the subjective effects of first cocaine use in 160 current treatment-seeking cocaine use disorder patients. Subjective effects of first cocaine use were evaluated with an ad-hoc questionnaire used for cannabis effects. A principal component analysis (PCA) was performed, with resulting factors correlated with clinical variables (α = 0.05). Four factors emerged in the PCA, namely Anxiety (accounting for 21...
March 29, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651709/-cannabinoid-therapy-in-practice
#20
REVIEW
T Rasche, D Emmert, C Stieber, M Mücke, R Conrad
BACKGROUND: In recent years, the media and scientists have shown increased interest in cannabis-based drugs. OBJECTIVES: Background information about cannabis-based drugs and their mechanism of action as well as discussion of possible applications as supportive therapy or in palliative medicine, respectively, are presented. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The recent literature was examined and evaluated. RESULTS: In many medical fields, we do not have sufficient evidence for the efficacy of cannabinoids...
April 12, 2018: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
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