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Cannabis studies

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822116/interactions-between-variation-in-candidate-genes-and-environmental-factors-in-the-etiology-of-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder-a-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
Błażej Misiak, Filip Stramecki, Łukasz Gawęda, Katarzyna Prochwicz, Maria M Sąsiadek, Ahmed A Moustafa, Dorota Frydecka
Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (BD) are complex and multidimensional disorders with high heritability rates. The contribution of genetic factors to the etiology of these disorders is increasingly being recognized as the action of multiple risk variants with small effect sizes, which might explain only a minor part of susceptibility. On the other site, numerous environmental factors have been found to play an important role in their causality. Therefore, in recent years, several studies focused on gene × environment interactions that are believed to bridge the gap between genetic underpinnings and environmental insults...
August 18, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820970/utility-of-the-comprehensive-marijuana-motives-questionnaire-among-medical-cannabis-patients
#2
Kipling M Bohnert, Erin E Bonar, J Todd Arnedt, Deirdre A Conroy, Maureen A Walton, Mark A Ilgen
BACKGROUND: Little is known about motives for cannabis use among the population of adults using cannabis medically. Therefore, we evaluated the performance of the 12 factor, 36-item Comprehensive Marijuana Motives Questionnaire (CMMQ) among a sample of medical cannabis patients. METHODS: Study participants were adults ages 21years or older with scheduled appointments to obtain new or renewed medical cannabis certification from clinics in one Midwestern state (n=1116)...
August 3, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819922/therapeutic-alliance-client-need-for-approval-and-perfectionism-as-differential-moderators-of-response-to-ehealth-and-traditionally-delivered-treatments-for-comorbid-depression-and-substance-use-problems
#3
Frances J Kay-Lambkin, Amanda L Baker, Kerrin Palazzi, Terry J Lewin, Brian J Kelly
PURPOSE: This study sought to undertake an exploratory analysis of the impact of therapeutic alliance and dysfunctional attitudes (perfectionism and need for approval) on outcomes for participants receiving therapist-delivered and eHealth interventions for comorbid depression and alcohol/cannabis use problems. These factors have been shown in previous research to moderate response to psychological treatment for depression and related disorders. METHOD: Participants (N = 274) with concurrent depression and alcohol/cannabis misuse were randomized to 10 sessions of therapist-delivered cognitive behavior therapy/motivational interviewing (CBT/MI), computer-delivered CBT/MI with brief therapist assistance (SHADE CBT/MI), or supportive counseling (PCT)...
August 17, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818639/addictive-behaviors-and-healthcare-renunciation-for-economic-reasons-in-a-french-population-based-sample
#4
Stéphanie Baggio, Marc Dupuis, Jean-Baptiste Richard, François Beck
BACKGROUND: Healthcare renunciation for economic reasons is a major health concern, but it has been scarcely investigated among drug users, even if drug users constitute a vulnerable population in need of medical care. This study investigated associations of healthcare renunciation for economic reasons and addictive behaviors (alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, illicit drug use, and gambling) in a population-based sample of adults living in France, a country with universal health coverage. METHODS: Data were collected using the 2014 Health Barometer, a French cross-sectional survey conducted among a random representative sample of the general population aged 18-64 (n=12,852)...
August 14, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816100/young-people-s-attitudes-towards-illicit-drugs-a-population-based-study
#5
Karina Friis, Jeanette Østergaard, Sidsel Reese, Mathias Lasgaard
AIMS: Previous studies indicate that young people who have positive attitudes towards illicit drugs are more inclined to experiment with them. The first aim of our study was to identify the sociodemographic and risk behaviour characteristics of young people (16-24 years) with positive attitudes towards illicit drug use. The second aim was to identify the characteristics of young people with positive attitudes towards illicit drugs among those who had never tried drugs, those who had tried cannabis but no other illicit drugs, and those who regularly used cannabis and/or had tried other illicit drugs...
August 1, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815938/optimization-of-recombinant-%C3%AE-glucuronidase-hydrolysis-and-quantification-of-eight-urinary-cannabinoids-and-metabolites-by-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#6
Cristina Sempio, Karl B Scheidweiler, Allan J Barnes, Marilyn A Huestis
Prolonged urinary cannabinoid excretion in chronic frequent cannabis users confounds identification of recent cannabis intake that may be important in treatment, workplace, clinical, and forensic testing programs. In addition, differentiation of synthetic Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) intake from cannabis plant products might be an important interpretive issue. THC, 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC) and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) urine concentrations were evaluated during previous controlled cannabis administration studies following tandem alkaline/E...
June 14, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815876/a-treatment-development-study-of-a-cognitive-and-mindfulness-based-therapy-for-adolescents-with-co-occurring-post-traumatic-stress-and-substance-use-disorder
#7
Lisa R Fortuna, Michelle V Porche, Auralyd Padilla
OBJECTIVE: Substance use is common among adolescents with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We aimed to develop and study an integrated treatment for adolescents with co-occurring disorders. DESIGN: This is a therapy development and open pilot trial study of a manualized therapy for adolescents with post-traumatic stress, depression, and substance use that uses a combination of cognitive therapy (CT) and mindfulness. METHODS: Descriptive statistics and paired sample t-tests were calculated to assess for changes in PTSD symptoms, depression, and substance use frequency from baseline to end of treatment using standardized measures and validated by urine drug screens...
August 16, 2017: Psychology and Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815220/severity-and-outcomes-of-acute-alcoholic-pancreatitis-in-cannabis-users
#8
Hemant Goyal, Kelsey Guerreso, Betsy Smith, Kaitlin Harper, Sheetal Patel, Akash Patel, Puja Parikh
BACKGROUND: Cannabis is the most commonly and widely used illicit drug in the world and is also the most commonly used drug of abuse in alcohol drinkers. Experimental studies have shown conflicting results of the effects of cannabis on the severity of acute pancreatitis (AP). The purpose of this study is to ascertain the clinical effects of simultaneous alcohol and cannabis use on severity at presentation and outcomes of acute alcoholic pancreatitis (AAP). METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted on the patients discharged with principle or secondary diagnosis of AP using ICD-9 & ICD-10 codes during the time period from January 2006 to December 2015 at a large community-based hospital in Central Georgia...
2017: Translational Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813188/cannabis-related-problems-and-social-anxiety-the-mediational-role-of-post-event-processing
#9
Anthony H Ecker, Julia D Buckner
BACKGROUND: Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug in the US, and is associated with a range of psychological, social, and physical health-related problems. Individuals who endorse elevated levels of social anxiety are especially at risk for experiencing cannabis-related problems, including cannabis use disorder, despite not using cannabis more often than those with more normative social anxiety. Identification of mechanisms that underlie the relationship between social anxiety and cannabis-related problems may inform treatment and prevention efforts...
August 16, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811670/sex-dependent-effects-of-cannabis-and-cannabinoids-a-translational-perspective
#10
Ziva D Cooper, Rebecca M Craft
Recent policy changes have led to significant increases in the use of cannabis for both medical and recreational purposes. Although men are more likely to endorse past month cannabis use and are more frequently diagnosed with Cannabis Use Disorder relative to women, a growing proportion of medical cannabis users are reported to be women. The increased popularity of cannabis for medical purposes and the narrowing gap in prevalence of use between men and women raises questions regarding sex-dependent effects related to therapeutic efficacy and negative health effects of cannabis and cannabinoids...
July 17, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810812/are-perceptions-of-social-norms-regarding-peer-alcohol-and-other-drug-use-associated-with-personal-use-in-danish-adolescents
#11
Lotte Vallentin-Holbech, Birthe Marie Rasmussen, Christiane Stock
AIMS: This study aims to describe norm perceptions among Danish pupils aged 13-17 years related to the prevalence of personal lifetime use of alcohol and other drugs (AODs). Further we examined if norm perceptions were associated with personal lifetime AOD use. METHOD: The data were collected as baseline data in the trial The GOOD Life. A total of 2601 pupils from 42 public schools in the Region of Southern Denmark completed an online questionnaire measuring personal lifetime AOD use and personal approval of use...
August 1, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810157/propagating-the-haze-community-and-professional-perceptions-of-cannabis-cultivation-and-the-impacts-of-prohibition
#12
Helen Beckett Wilson, Stuart Taylor, Giles Barrett, Janet Jamieson, Lauren Grindrod
BACKGROUND: Recent decades have seen substantial changes in the UK cannabis landscape, including increased domestic production, the ascendancy of stronger strains (namely 'skunk') and the drug's reclassification under the 1971 Misuse of Drugs Act. Resultantly, cannabis retains significance in the consciousness, priorities and policy agendas of communities, drug services and criminal justice agencies. METHODS: This paper presents an empirical study, which examined both perceptions and impacts of cannabis cultivation and its control within a North-West English borough...
August 12, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808073/unintentional-cannabis-intoxication-in-toddlers
#13
Isabelle Claudet, Sébastien Mouvier, Magali Labadie, Cécile Manin, Anne-Pascale Michard-Lenoir, Didier Eyer, Damien Dufour
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In France, cannabis consumption is illegal. The health impact of its increasing use and higher tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentrations is still poorly documented, particularly that of unintentional pediatric intoxications. We sought to evaluate the French national trend of admissions for unintentional cannabis intoxication in children over an 11-year period (2004-2014). METHODS: A retrospective, national, multicenter, observational study of a pediatric cohort...
August 14, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806817/the-effects-of-cannabis-among-adults-with-chronic-pain-and-an-overview-of-general-harms-a-systematic-review
#14
Shannon M Nugent, Benjamin J Morasco, Maya E O'Neil, Michele Freeman, Allison Low, Karli Kondo, Camille Elven, Bernadette Zakher, Makalapua Motu'apuaka, Robin Paynter, Devan Kansagara
Background: Cannabis is increasingly available for the treatment of chronic pain, yet its efficacy remains uncertain. Purpose: To review the benefits of plant-based cannabis preparations for treating chronic pain in adults and the harms of cannabis use in chronic pain and general adult populations. Data Sources: MEDLINE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and several other sources from database inception to March 2017. Study Selection: Intervention trials and observational studies, published in English, involving adults using plant-based cannabis preparations that reported pain, quality of life, or adverse effect outcomes...
August 15, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806794/benefits-and-harms-of-plant-based-cannabis-for-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-a-systematic-review
#15
Maya E O'Neil, Shannon M Nugent, Benjamin J Morasco, Michele Freeman, Allison Low, Karli Kondo, Bernadette Zakher, Camille Elven, Makalapua Motu'apuaka, Robin Paynter, Devan Kansagara
Background: Cannabis is available from medical dispensaries for treating posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in many states of the union, yet its efficacy in treating PTSD symptoms remains uncertain. Purpose: To identify ongoing studies and review existing evidence regarding the benefits and harms of plant-based cannabis preparations in treating PTSD in adults. Data Sources: MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, and other sources from database inception to March 2017...
August 15, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806104/repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-rtms-administration-to-heavy-cannabis-users
#16
Gregory L Sahlem, Nathaniel L Baker, Mark S George, Robert J Malcolm, Aimee L McRae-Clark
BACKGROUND: Cannabis use disorder (CUD) is a common condition with few treatments. Several studies in other substance use disorders have found that applying repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) decreases cue-elicited craving and possibly decreases use. To date, there have been no studies attempting to use rTMS in CUD. OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to determine if rTMS could be feasibly delivered to a group of non-treatment seeking CUD participants...
August 14, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805408/age-of-initiation-and-substance-use-progression-a-multivariate-latent-growth-analysis
#17
Leah S Richmond-Rakerd, Wendy S Slutske, Phillip K Wood
An individual's age at first substance use may be associated with their risk for progression toward heavier substance involvement. To our knowledge, however, no studies within nationally representative samples have examined the relation between the timing of initiation and progression in use of multiple substances. The present study employed a sample of 9,421 participants from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health who reported on their ages of tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis initiation; frequency of tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis use; and quantity of tobacco and alcohol use across 4 waves...
August 14, 2017: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804966/associations-of-parental-alcohol-use-disorders-and-parental-separation-with-offspring-initiation-of-alcohol-cigarette-and-cannabis-use-and-sexual-debut-in-high-risk-families
#18
Vivia V McCutcheon, Arpana Agrawal, Sally I-Chun Kuo, Jinni Su, Danielle M Dick, Jacquelyn L Meyers, Howard J Edenberg, John I Nurnberger, John R Kramer, Samuel Kuperman, Marc A Schuckit, Victor M Hesselbrock, Andrew Brooks, Bernice Porjesz, Kathleen K Bucholz
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Parental alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and parental separation are associated with increased risk for early use of alcohol in offspring, but whether they increase risks for early use of other substances and for early sexual debut is under-studied. We focused on associations of parental AUDs and parental separation with substance initiation and sexual debut to (1) test the strength of the associations of parental AUDs and parental separation with time to initiation (age in years) of alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis use, and sexual debut, and (2) compare the strength of association of parental AUD and parental separation with initiation...
August 13, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803965/the-great-divide-separation-between-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo-effects-of-psncbam-based-cb1-receptor-allosteric-modulators
#19
Thomas F Gamage, Charlotte E Farquhar, Timothy W Lefever, Brian F Thomas, Thuy Nguyen, Yanan Zhang, Jenny L Wiley
While allosteric modulators of the cannabinoid type-1 receptor (CB1) continue to be developed and characterized, the gap between the in vitro and in vivo data is widening, raising questions regarding translatability of their effects and biological relevance. Among the CB1 allosteric modulators, PSNCBAM-1 has received little attention regarding its effects in vivo. Recently, pregnenolone was reported to act as an allosteric modulator of CB1, blocking THC's effects in vitro and in vivo, highlighting the potential of CB1 allosteric modulators for treatment of cannabis intoxication...
August 10, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800377/antidote-to-cannabinoid-intoxication-inverse-cannabinoid-receptor-one-cb1-agonism-by-n-piperidin-1-yl-5-4-iodophenyl-1-2-4-dichlorophenyl-4-methyl-1h-pyrazole-3-carboxamidse-am251-reverses-the-hypothermic-effects-of-cannabinoid-receptor-one-agonism-by-1-naphthalenyl
#20
Gareth Pryce, David Baker
BACKGROUND & PURPOSE: Cannabis is a recreational drug leading to intoxication, due to cannabinoid receptor one (CB1 ) stimulation. However, more recently herbs mixed with synthetic cannabinoids sometimes known as "Spice" and "Black Mamba" have been increasing used and their high CB1 receptor affinity means not only marked intoxication, but life-threatening complications and an increasing number of deaths. Whilst many studies have indicated that prophylactic CB1 receptor antagonism can block cannabimimetic effects in animals and humans...
August 11, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
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