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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346769/switching-on-depression-and-potentiation-in-the-cerebellum
#1
Andrew R Gallimore, Taegon Kim, Keiko Tanaka-Yamamoto, Erik De Schutter
Long-term depression (LTD) and long-term potentiation (LTP) in the cerebellum are important for motor learning. However, the signaling mechanisms controlling whether LTD or LTP is induced in response to synaptic stimulation remain obscure. Using a unified model of LTD and LTP at the cerebellar parallel fiber-Purkinje cell (PF-PC) synapse, we delineate the coordinated pre- and postsynaptic signaling that determines the direction of plasticity. We show that LTP is the default response to PF stimulation above a well-defined frequency threshold...
January 16, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346425/hippocampal-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-neurons-support-recognition-memory-and-modulate-hippocampal-excitability
#2
Andrew Hooper, Patrick M Fuller, Jamie Maguire
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) signaling in the hippocampus has been established to be important for mediating the effects of stress on learning and memory. Given our laboratory's recent characterization of a subset of hippocampal CRH neurons as a novel class of GABAergic interneurons, we hypothesized that these local GABAergic hippocampal CRH neurons may influence hippocampal function. Here we applied an array of molecular tools to selectively label and manipulate hippocampal CRH neurons in mice, in order to assess this interneuron population's impact on hippocampus-dependent behaviors and hippocampal network excitability...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346107/brain-mr-image-restoration-using-an-automatic-trilateral-filter-with-gpu-based-acceleration
#3
Herng-Hua Chang, Cheng-Yuan Li, Audrey Haihong Gallogly
OBJECTIVE: Noise reduction in brain magnetic resonance (MR) images has been a challenging and demanding task. This study develops a new trilateral filter that aims to achieve robust and efficient image restoration. METHODS: Extended from the bilateral filter, the proposed algorithm contains one additional intensity similarity funct-ion, which compensates for the unique characteristics of noise in brain MR images. An entropy function adaptive to intensity variations is introduced to regulate the contributions of the weighting components...
February 2018: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344895/bioinformatics-approaches-to-predict-drug-responses-from-genomic-sequencing
#4
Neel S Madhukar, Olivier Elemento
Fulfilling the promises of precision medicine will depend on our ability to create patient-specific treatment regimens. Therefore, being able to translate genomic sequencing into predicting how a patient will respond to a given drug is critical. In this chapter, we review common bioinformatics approaches that aim to use sequencing data to predict sample-specific drug susceptibility. First, we explain the importance of customized drug regimens to the future of medical care. Second, we discuss the different public databases and community efforts that can be leveraged to develop new methods for identifying new predictive biomarkers...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343415/paradigms-for-restoration-of-somatosensory-feedback-via-stimulation-of-the-peripheral-nervous-system
#5
REVIEW
Cristian Pasluosta, Patrick Kiele, Thomas Stieglitz
The somatosensory system contributes substantially to the integration of multiple sensor modalities into perception. Tactile sensations, proprioception and even temperature perception are integrated to perceive embodiment of our limbs. Damage of somatosensory networks can severely affect the execution of daily life activities. Peripheral injuries are optimally corrected via direct interfacing of the peripheral nerves. Recent advances in implantable devices, stimulation paradigms, and biomimetic sensors enabled the restoration of natural sensations after amputation of the limb...
December 27, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343412/implementing-genome-driven-personalized-cardiology-in-clinical-practice
#6
REVIEW
Ares Pasipoularides
Genomics designates the coordinated investigation of a large number of genes in the context of a biological process or disease. It may be long before we attain comprehensive understanding of the genomics of common complex cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) such as inherited cardiomyopathies, valvular diseases, primary arrhythmogenic conditions, congenital heart syndromes, hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerotic heart disease, hypertensive syndromes, and heart failure with preserved/reduced ejection fraction. Nonetheless, as genomics is evolving rapidly, it is constructive to survey now pertinent concepts and breakthroughs...
January 14, 2018: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342857/an-adaptive-deghosting-method-in-neural-network-based-infrared-detectors-nonuniformity-correction
#7
Yiyang Li, Weiqi Jin, Jin Zhu, Xu Zhang, Shuo Li
The problems of the neural network-based nonuniformity correction algorithm for infrared focal plane arrays mainly concern slow convergence speed and ghosting artifacts. In general, the more stringent the inhibition of ghosting, the slower the convergence speed. The factors that affect these two problems are the estimated desired image and the learning rate. In this paper, we propose a learning rate rule that combines adaptive threshold edge detection and a temporal gate. Through the noise estimation algorithm, the adaptive spatial threshold is related to the residual nonuniformity noise in the corrected image...
January 13, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340287/fully-automated-detection-of-breast-cancer-in-screening-mri-using-convolutional-neural-networks
#8
Mehmet Ufuk Dalmış, Suzan Vreemann, Thijs Kooi, Ritse M Mann, Nico Karssemeijer, Albert Gubern-Mérida
Current computer-aided detection (CADe) systems for contrast-enhanced breast MRI rely on both spatial information obtained from the early-phase and temporal information obtained from the late-phase of the contrast enhancement. However, late-phase information might not be available in a screening setting, such as in abbreviated MRI protocols, where acquisition is limited to early-phase scans. We used deep learning to develop a CADe system that exploits the spatial information obtained from the early-phase scans...
January 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339512/neural-preservation-underlies-speech-improvement-from-auditory-deprivation-in-young-cochlear-implant-recipients
#9
Gangyi Feng, Erin M Ingvalson, Tina M Grieco-Calub, Megan Y Roberts, Maura E Ryan, Patrick Birmingham, Delilah Burrowes, Nancy M Young, Patrick C M Wong
Although cochlear implantation enables some children to attain age-appropriate speech and language development, communicative delays persist in others, and outcomes are quite variable and difficult to predict, even for children implanted early in life. To understand the neurobiological basis of this variability, we used presurgical neural morphological data obtained from MRI of individual pediatric cochlear implant (CI) candidates implanted younger than 3.5 years to predict variability of their speech-perception improvement after surgery...
January 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338013/dynamical-networks-of-influence-in-small-group-discussions
#10
Mehdi Moussaïd, Alejandro Noriega Campero, Abdullah Almaatouq
In many domains of life, business and management, numerous problems are addressed by small groups of individuals engaged in face-to-face discussions. While research in social psychology has a long history of studying the determinants of small group performances, the internal dynamics that govern a group discussion are not yet well understood. Here, we rely on computational methods based on network analyses and opinion dynamics to describe how individuals influence each other during a group discussion. We consider the situation in which a small group of three individuals engages in a discussion to solve an estimation task...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337282/comparative-proteome-analysis-of-monolayer-and-spheroid-culture-of-canine-osteosarcoma-cells
#11
Christiane Gebhard, Ingrid Miller, Karin Hummel, Martina Neschi Née Ondrovics, Sarah Schlosser, Ingrid Walter
Osteosarcoma is an aggressive bone tumor with high metastasis rate in the lungs and affects both humans and dogs in a similar way. Three-dimensional tumor cell cultures mimic the in vivo situation of micro-tumors and metastases and are therefore better experimental in vitro models than the often applied two-dimensional monolayer cultures. The aim of the present study was to perform comparative proteomics of standard monolayer cultures of canine osteosarcoma cells (D17) and three-dimensional spheroid cultures, to better characterize the 3D model before starting with experiments like migration assays...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336344/-the-urologist-of-the-future-and-new-technologies
#12
Francois Peinado, Atanasio Fernández, Fernando Teba, Guillermo Celada, Marco Antonio Acosta
The last 25 years have brought about revolutionary changes for medicine and in particular for urology: internet was only in its infancy, medical records were written on paper, searches for medical information were done in the hospital library, medical articles were photocopied and our relationship with patients only existed face to face. Social networks had not yet appeared and even Google did not exist. Just imagine what might happen during the next 25 years, we're going to see even more radical changes. The urologist of the future is going to see the arrival of artificial intelligence, collaborative medicine, telemedicine, machine learning, the Internet of Things and personalized robotics; in the meantime, social media will continue to transform the interaction between physician and patient...
January 2018: Archivos Españoles de Urología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336158/chromosome-gene-orientations-inversion-networks-goins-of-plasmodium-proteome
#13
Viviana F Quevedo-Tumailli, Bernabe Ortega-Tenezaca, Humbert Gonzalez-Diaz
The spatial distribution of genes in chromosomes seems not to be random. For instance, only 10% of genes are transcribed from bidirectional promoters in humans and many more are organised in larger clusters. This raises intriguing questions asked by different authors before. We would like to add a few more questions in this context, related to gene orientation inversions. Does gene orientation (inversion) follow a random pattern? Is it relevant to biological activity somehow? In this paper, we define a new kind of network coined as the Gene Orientation Inversion Network (GOIN)...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335825/application-of-artificial-intelligence-using-a-convolutional-neural-network-for-detecting-gastric-cancer-in-endoscopic-images
#14
Toshiaki Hirasawa, Kazuharu Aoyama, Tetsuya Tanimoto, Soichiro Ishihara, Satoki Shichijo, Tsuyoshi Ozawa, Tatsuya Ohnishi, Mitsuhiro Fujishiro, Keigo Matsuo, Junko Fujisaki, Tomohiro Tada
BACKGROUND: Image recognition using artificial intelligence with deep learning through convolutional neural networks (CNNs) has dramatically improved and been increasingly applied to medical fields for diagnostic imaging. We developed a CNN that can automatically detect gastric cancer in endoscopic images. METHODS: A CNN-based diagnostic system was constructed based on Single Shot MultiBox Detector architecture and trained using 13,584 endoscopic images of gastric cancer...
January 15, 2018: Gastric Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335778/hippocampal-area-ca2-properties-and-contribution-to-hippocampal-function
#15
REVIEW
Vincent Robert, Sadiyah Cassim, Vivien Chevaleyre, Rebecca A Piskorowski
This review focuses on area CA2 of the hippocampus, as recent results have revealed the unique properties and surprising role of this region in encoding social, temporal and contextual aspects of memory. Originally identified and described by Lorente de No, in 1934, this region of the hippocampus has unique intra-and extra-hippocampal connectivity, sending and receiving input to septal and hypothalamic regions. Recent in vivo studies have indicated that CA2 pyramidal neurons encode spatial information during immobility and play an important role in the generation of sharp-wave ripples...
January 15, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335457/an-equation-of-state-meter-of-quantum-chromodynamics-transition-from-deep-learning
#16
Long-Gang Pang, Kai Zhou, Nan Su, Hannah Petersen, Horst Stöcker, Xin-Nian Wang
A primordial state of matter consisting of free quarks and gluons that existed in the early universe a few microseconds after the Big Bang is also expected to form in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. Determining the equation of state (EoS) of such a primordial matter is the ultimate goal of high-energy heavy-ion experiments. Here we use supervised learning with a deep convolutional neural network to identify the EoS employed in the relativistic hydrodynamic simulations of heavy ion collisions. High-level correlations of particle spectra in transverse momentum and azimuthal angle learned by the network act as an effective EoS-meter in deciphering the nature of the phase transition in quantum chromodynamics...
January 15, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335356/single-bursts-of-individual-granule-cells-functionally-rearrange-feed-forward-inhibition
#17
Máté Neubrandt, Viktor János Oláh, János Brunner, Endre Marosi, Ivan Soltesz, János Szabadics
The sparse single spike activity of dentate gyrus granule cells (DG GCs) is punctuated by occasional brief bursts of 3 to 7 action potentials. It is well-known that such presynaptic bursts in individual mossy fibers (MFs; axons of granule cells) are often able to discharge postsynaptic CA3 pyramidal cells due to powerful short-term facilitation. However, what happens in the CA3 network after the passage of a brief MF burst, before the arrival of the next burst or solitary spike, is not understood. Because MFs innervate significantly more CA3 interneurons than pyramidal cells, we focused on unitary MF responses in identified interneurons in the seconds-long post-burst period, using paired recordings in rat hippocampal slices...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333328/learning-tree-structured-detection-cascades-for-heterogeneous-networks-of-embedded-devices
#18
Hamid Dadkhahi, Benjamin M Marlin
In this paper, we present a new approach to learning cascaded classifiers for use in computing environments that involve networks of heterogeneous and resource-constrained, low-power embedded compute and sensing nodes. We present a generalization of the classical linear detection cascade to the case of tree-structured cascades where different branches of the tree execute on different physical compute nodes in the network. Different nodes have access to different features, as well as access to potentially different computation and energy resources...
August 2017: KDD: Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331931/resting-state-fmri-signals-in-offspring-of-parents-with-bipolar-disorder-at-the-high-risk-and-ultra-high-risk-stages-and-their-relations-with-cognitive-function
#19
Kangguang Lin, Robin Shao, Rui Lu, Kun Chen, Weicong Lu, Ting Li, Jiehua Kong, Kwok-Fai So, Guiyun Xu
BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder (BD) has been associated with dysfunctional resting-state brain functioning. However, it is still not known whether the aberrant functioning occurs and predict cognitive functioning before illness onset. AIMS: We examined the resting-state regional and network dysfunctioning, and their correlates with neurocognitive performance, in the high-risk (HR) and ultra-high-risk (UHR) stages of bipolar disorder. METHODS: Using amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF), region homogeneity (ReHo) and hypothesis-driven region-of-interest (ROI)-based connectivity, we examined resting-state fMRI data of 8- to 25-year-old healthy offspring (HR, n = 28) and offspring with subthreshold syndromes (UHR, n = 22) of a BD parent, and age-matched healthy controls without any personal or family psychopathology (HC, n = 46)...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331447/sharp-wave-ripples-as-a-signature-of-hippocampal-prefrontal-reactivation-for-memory-during-sleep-and-waking-states
#20
Wenbo Tang, Shantanu P Jadhav
It is widely believed that memories that are encoded and retrieved during waking behavior are consolidated during sleep. Recent studies on the interactions between the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex have greatly advanced our understanding of the physiological bases of these memory processes. Although hippocampal-prefrontal network activity differs in many aspects during waking and sleep states, here we review evidence that hippocampal sharp-wave ripples (SWRs) emerge as a common neurophysiological pattern in both states, facilitating communication between these two regions via coordinated reactivation of stored memory information...
January 10, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
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