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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938502/-alarming-pregabalin-abuse-in-munich-prevalence-patterns-of-use-and-complications
#1
Nicolas Zellner, Florian Eyer, Tobias Zellner
Background Pregabalin is used e. g. for the treatment of neuropathic pain and anxiety disorder. Recently, its potential for abuse and addiction has become apparent. Methods From 2008 - 2015, we searched our database for the term "Pregabalin", including all patients treated in our department and all calls to the Poison Information Centre (PIC) Munich.From October 2013 to September 2014, all patients were included in a cohort study who either were admitted with a drug intoxication or who presented themselves for a course of detoxification (except ethanol)...
September 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929198/-substance-abuse-detection-in-substitution-therapy-oral-fluid-versus-urine-screening
#2
Johannes Stein, Max Geraedts
BACKGROUND: A patient's health in an opioid maintenance program is potentially endangered due to concurrent consumption of drugs. Therefore, the German Medical Association requests evidence of compliant substitute intake while type and frequency of drug screening is chosen by the physician. This study comparatively assessed the feasibility and potential advantage of oral fluid drug testing versus urine screening in day-to-day practice. METHODS: Urine and oral fluid-samples of a randomly chosen third of a total of 361 patients, treated in four different practices in a major German city, were tested...
September 19, 2017: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922449/needle-syringe-programmes-and-opioid-substitution-therapy-for-preventing-hepatitis-c-transmission-in-people-who-inject-drugs
#3
REVIEW
Lucy Platt, Silvia Minozzi, Jennifer Reed, Peter Vickerman, Holly Hagan, Clare French, Ashly Jordan, Louisa Degenhardt, Vivian Hope, Sharon Hutchinson, Lisa Maher, Norah Palmateer, Avril Taylor, Julie Bruneau, Matthew Hickman
BACKGROUND: Needle syringe programmes and opioid substitution therapy for preventing hepatitis C transmission in people who inject drugsNeedle syringe programmes (NSP) and opioid substitution therapy (OST) are the primary interventions to reduce hepatitis C (HCV) transmission in people who inject drugs. There is good evidence for the effectiveness of NSP and OST in reducing injecting risk behaviour and increasing evidence for the effectiveness of OST and NSP in reducing HIV acquisition risk, but the evidence on the effectiveness of NSP and OST for preventing HCV acquisition is weak...
September 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919445/cognitive-effects-of-labeled-addictolytic-medications
#4
REVIEW
Camille Noélie Pujol, Cecilia Paasche, Vincent Laprevote, Benoit Trojak, Pierre Vidailhet, Elisabeth Bacon, Laurence Lalanne
INTRODUCTION: Alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drug usage is pervasive throughout the world, and abuse of these substances is a major contributor to the global disease burden. Many pharmacotherapies have been developed over the last 50years to target addictive disorders. While the efficacy of these pharmacotherapies is largely recognized, their cognitive impact is less known. However, all substance abuse disorders are known to promote cognitive disorders like executive dysfunction and memory impairment...
September 14, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917801/development-of-a-quantitative-approach-in-blood-plasma-for-low-dosed-hallucinogens-and-opioids-using-lc-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#5
Achim T Caspar, Andreas B Kollas, Hans H Maurer, Markus R Meyer
The WHO annually reports an increasing abuse of new psychoactive substances (NPS), which are a heterogeneous group of synthetic drugs and are consumed as substitute for controlled drugs of abuse. In this work, we focused on highly potent derivatives such those of phenethylamine (2C), N-2-methoxybenzyl phenethylamine (NBOMes), lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), and fentanyl. Severe to fatal intoxications were described due to their high potency. Therefore, they have to be taken at very low doses resulting in low blood concentration in the low ng/mL range, which is a challenge for reliable analytical detection and quantification...
January 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914120/the-furthest-left-behind-the-urgent-need-to-scale-up-harm-reduction-in-prisons
#6
Gen Sander, Fionnuala Murphy
Purpose Raise awareness about the disproportionate impact of HIV and hepatitis C (HCV) on prisoners worldwide and the need for key harm reduction services such as needle and syringe programmes and opioid substitution therapy in prisons offer practical recommendations to assist policy makers in implementing or scaling up these services. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach This study is a desk review of existing data and evidence on HIV, HCV and harm reduction in prisons, analysis of political barriers and formulation of key policy recommendations...
September 11, 2017: International Journal of Prisoner Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900714/efficacy-of-peginterferon-plus-ribavirin-in-patients-receiving-opioid-substitution-therapy-final-results-of-the-austrian-peghope-study
#7
Michael Gschwantler, Hermann Laferl, Wolfgang Vogel, Wolfgang Korak, Stephan Moser, Harald Hofer, Bernhard Bauer, Michael Schleicher, Barbara Bognar, Martin Bischof, Rudolf Stauber, Andreas Maieron, Peter Ferenci
BACKGROUND: Patients with a history of intravenous drug abuse included in an official opioid substitution program represent an important subgroup of patients with chronic hepatitis C. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of and adherence to treatment with peginterferon and ribavirin in Austrian patients on stable opioid substitution therapy (OST). METHODS: This prospective, multicenter, observational, non-interventional trial (clinicaltrials...
September 12, 2017: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891267/needle-syringe-programmes-and-opioid-substitution-therapy-for-preventing-hcv-transmission-among-people-who-inject-drugs-findings-from-a-cochrane-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
REVIEW
Lucy Platt, Silvia Minozzi, Jennifer Reed, Peter Vickerman, Holly Hagan, Clare French, Ashly Jordan, Louisa Degenhardt, Vivian Hope, Sharon Hutchinson, Lisa Maher, Norah Palmateer, Avril Taylor, Julie Bruneau, Matthew Hickman
AIMS: To estimate the effects of needle syringe programmes (NSP) and opioid substitution therapy (OST), alone or in combination, for preventing acquisition of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) in people who inject drugs (PWID). METHODS: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Bibliographic databases were searched for studies measuring concurrent exposure to current OST (within last 6 months) and/or NSP and HCV incidence among PWID. High NSP coverage was defined as regular NSP attendance or ≥100% coverage (receiving sufficient or greater number of needles/syringes per reported injecting frequency)...
September 11, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861516/cannabis-as-a-substitute-for-opioid-based-pain-medication-patient-self-report
#9
Amanda Reiman, Mark Welty, Perry Solomon
Introduction: Prescription drug overdoses are the leading cause of accidental death in the United States. Alternatives to opioids for the treatment of pain are necessary to address this issue. Cannabis can be an effective treatment for pain, greatly reduces the chance of dependence, and eliminates the risk of fatal overdose compared to opioid-based medications. Medical cannabis patients report that cannabis is just as effective, if not more, than opioid-based medications for pain. Materials and Methods: The current study examined the use of cannabis as a substitute for opioid-based pain medication by collecting survey data from 2897 medical cannabis patients...
2017: Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853439/u-s-epidemiology-of-cannabis-use-and-associated-problems
#10
Deborah S Hasin
This review provides an overview of the changing U.S. epidemiology of cannabis use and associated problems. Adults and adolescents increasingly view cannabis as harmless, and some can use cannabis without harm. However, potential problems include harms from pre-natal exposure and unintentional childhood exposure; decline in educational or occupational functioning after early adolescent use, and in adulthood, impaired driving and vehicle crashes; cannabis use disorders (CUD), cannabis withdrawal, and psychiatric comorbidity...
August 30, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839912/a-quasi-experimental-evaluation-of-dried-blood-spot-testing-through-community-pharmacies-in-the-tayside-region-of-scotland
#11
Andrew Radley, Karen Melville, Jan Tait, Brian Stephens, Josie M M Evans, John F Dillon
OBJECTIVE: Comparison of uptake of dried blood spot testing (DBST) for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection between community pharmacies and established services. DESIGN: Quantitative evaluation of a service development with qualitative process evaluation undertaken in parallel. SETTING: Six pharmacies from 36 community pharmacies within Dundee City, a large urban settlement with high levels of socioeconomic deprivation. PARTICIPANTS: Patients in receipt of opioid substitution therapy (OST) not tested for HCV within 12 months...
July 2017: Frontline Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831184/direct-acting-antiviral-agents-for-hcv-infection-affecting-people-who-inject-drugs
#12
REVIEW
Jason Grebely, Behzad Hajarizadeh, Gregory J Dore
Globally, 12 million people are estimated to have injected drugs in the past year, 50% of whom have chronic HCV infection, with people who have previously injected drugs presenting an additional large reservoir of infection. The availability of simple and tolerable interferon-free direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) for HCV infection, which have a cure rate of >95% represents one of the most exciting advances in clinical medicine in the past few decades. Adherence and response to DAA therapy among people who inject drugs (PWID) receiving opioid substitution therapy (OST) in clinical trials are comparable to populations without a history of injecting drugs...
August 23, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829824/a-syndemic-approach-to-assess-the-effect-of-substance-use-and-social-disparities-on-the-evolution-of-hiv-hcv-infections-in-british-columbia
#13
Zahid Ahmad Butt, Nabin Shrestha, Stanley Wong, Margot Kuo, Dionne Gesink, Mark Gilbert, Jason Wong, Amanda Yu, Maria Alvarez, Hasina Samji, Jane A Buxton, James C Johnston, Victoria J Cook, David Roth, Theodora Consolacion, Michelle Murti, Travis S Hottes, Gina Ogilvie, Robert Balshaw, Mark W Tyndall, Mel Krajden, Naveed Z Janjua
BACKGROUND: Co-occurrence of social conditions and infections may affect HIV/HCV disease risk and progression. We examined the changes in relationship of these social conditions and infections on HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections over time in British Columbia during 1990-2013. METHODS: The BC Hepatitis Testers Cohort (BC-HTC) includes ~1.5 million individuals tested for HIV or HCV, or reported as a case of HCV, HIV, HBV, or tuberculosis linked to administrative healthcare databases...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825813/highly-potent-and-selective-new-diphenethylamines-interacting-with-the-%C3%AE%C2%BA-opioid-receptor-synthesis-pharmacology-and-structure-activity-relationships
#14
Filippo Erli, Elena Guerrieri, Tanila Ben Haddou, Aquilino Lantero, Michael Mairegger, Helmut Schmidhammer, Mariana Spetea
We previously reported on a series of small molecules targeting the κ-opioid (KOP) receptor featuring a diphenethylamine scaffold and showed the promise of these ligands as effective analgesics with reduced liability for adverse effects. This study expands the structure-activity relationships on our original series by presenting several modifications in the lead compounds 1 (HS665) and 2 (HS666). A library of new diphenethylamines was designed, synthesized, and pharmacologically evaluated. In comparison with 1 and 2, the KOP receptor affinity, selectivity, and agonist activity were modulated by introducing bulkier N-substituents, a 2-fluoro substitution, and additional hydroxyl groups at positions 3' and 4'...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812816/the-challenges-of-projecting-the-public-health-impacts-of-marijuana-legalization-in-canada-comment-on-legalizing-and-regulating-marijuana-in-canada-review-of-potential-economic-social-and-health-impacts
#15
Stephanie Lake, Thomas Kerr
A recent editorial in this journal provides a summary of key economic, social, and public health considerations of the forthcoming legislation to legalize, regulate, and restrict access to marijuana in Canada. As our government plans to implement an evidence-based public health framework for marijuana legalization, we reflect and expand on recent discussions of the public health implications of marijuana legalization, and offer additional points of consideration. We select two commonly cited public concerns of marijuana legalization - adolescent usage and impaired driving - and discuss how the underdeveloped and equivocal body of scientific literature surrounding these issues limits the ability to predict the effects of legalization...
September 10, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804788/pro-dopamine-regulator-kb220-to-balance-brain-reward-circuitry-in-reward-deficiency-syndrome-rds
#16
Kenneth Blum, Marcelo Febo, Lyle Fried, David Baron, Eric R Braverman, Kristina Dushaj, Mona Li, Zsolt Demetrovics, Rajendra D Badgaiyan
We are faced with a worldwide opiate/opioid epidemic that is devastating. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), at least 127 people, young and old, are dying every day in America due to narcotic overdose. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved Medication-Assisted Treatments (MATs) for opiate/opioids as well as alcohol and nicotine. The mechanism of action of most MATS favors either blocking of dopaminergic function or a form of Opiate Substitution Therapy (OST). These treatment options are adequate for short-term treatment of the symptoms of addiction and harm reduction but fail long-term to deal with the cause or lead to recovery...
2017: Journal of Reward Deficiency Syndrome and Addiction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796483/placement-of-hydroxy-moiety-on-pendant-of-peptidomimetic-scaffold-modulates-mu-and-kappa-opioid-receptor-efficacy
#17
Aubrie A Harland, Irina D Pogozheva, Nicholas W Griggs, Tyler J Trask, John R Traynor, Henry I Mosberg
In an effort to expand the structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies of a series of mixed-efficacy opioid ligands, peptidomimetics that incorporate methoxy and hydroxy groups around a benzyl or 2-methylindanyl pendant on a tetrahydroquinoline (THQ) core of the peptidomimetics were evaluated. Compounds containing a methoxy or hydroxy moiety in the o- or m- positions increased binding affinity to the kappa opioid receptor (KOR), whereas compounds containing methoxy or hydroxy groups in the p- position decreased KOR affinity and reduced or eliminated efficacy at the mu opioid receptor (MOR)...
August 10, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782335/elimination-of-hcv-as-a-public-health-concern-among-people-who-inject-drugs-by-2030-what-will-it-take-to-get-there
#18
REVIEW
Jason Grebely, Gregory J Dore, Sébastien Morin, Jürgen K Rockstroh, Marina B Klein
INTRODUCTION: Globally, there is a considerable burden of HCV and HIV infections among people who inject drugs (PWID) and transmission of both infections continues. Needle and syringe programme (NSP) and opioid substitution therapy (OST) coverage remains low, despite evidence demonstrating their prevention benefit. Direct-acting antiviral therapies (DAA) with HCV cure >95% among PWID provide an opportunity to reverse rising trends in HCV-related morbidity and mortality and reduce incidence...
July 28, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753684/erratum-unexpected-serious-cardiac-arrhythmias-in-the-setting-of-loperamide-abuse
#19
Somwail Rasla, Parag Parikh, Peter Hoffmeister, Amy St Amand, Marina K Garas, Amr El Meligy, Taro Minami, Nishant R Shah
Loperamide (Imodium) is a non-prescription opioid receptor agonist available over-the-counter for the treatment of diarrhea. When ingested in excessive doses, loperamide can penetrate the blood-brain barrier and is reported to produce euphoria, central nervous system and respiratory depression, and cardiotoxicity. There is an emerging trend in its use among drug abusers for its euphoric effects or for self-treatment of opioid withdrawal. We report a case of ventricular dysrhythmias associated with loperamide abuse in a 28-year-old man who substituted loperamide for the opioids that he used to abuse...
August 1, 2017: Rhode Island Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745916/experiences-and-perceived-social-support-among-iranian-men-on-methadone-maintenance-therapy-a-qualitative-study
#20
Nader Aghakhani, Violeta Lopez, Michelle Cleary
The use of drugs predominantly among Iranian men leads to health and social problems. Iran has established methadone maintenance therapy centres but there is limited research exploring the experiences of men who make use of this therapy. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the experiences of men on methadone maintenance therapy in Urmia, Iran. Sixteen opioid-dependent males on methadone syrup substitution therapy were interviewed. Transcribed data were subjected to thematic analysis. Three themes emerged from the data: (1) the role of family in drug addiction; (2) the role of environment in drug addiction; and (3) the support needed to overcome drug addiction...
July 26, 2017: Issues in Mental Health Nursing
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