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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633998/changes-in-risk-behaviours-during-and-following-treatment-for-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-among-people-who-inject-drugs-the-activate-study
#1
Håvard Midgard, Behzad Hajarizadeh, Evan B Cunningham, Brian Conway, Markus Backmund, Philip Bruggmann, Julie Bruneau, Stefan Bourgeois, Adrian Dunlop, Graham R Foster, Margaret Hellard, Geert Robaeys, Maria C Thurnheer, Martin Weltman, Janaki Amin, Philippa S Marks, Sophie Quiene, Gregory J Dore, Olav Dalgard, Jason Grebely
BACKGROUND: The risk of hepatitis C virus (HCV) reinfection due to continued injecting risk behaviours might remain a barrier to HCV treatment among people who inject drugs. We aimed to evaluate changes in risk behaviours during and following HCV treatment among people with ongoing injecting drug use or receiving opioid substitution treatment (OST). METHODS: ACTIVATE was an international multicentre clinical trial conducted between 2012 and 2014. Participants with HCV genotypes 2/3 infection were treated with peg-interferon/ribavirin for 12 or 24 weeks and completed a self-administered behavioural questionnaire at each study visit...
June 17, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628897/diverted-medications-and-new-psychoactive-substances-a-chemical-network-analysis-of-discarded-injecting-paraphernalia-in-hungary
#2
Valéria Anna Gyarmathy, Anna Péterfi, Tamás Figeczki, József Kiss, Katalin Medgyesi-Frank, János Posta, József Csorba
BACKGROUND: Until about 2010, people who inject drugs (PWIDs) injected almost exclusively heroin and amphetamines in Hungary. After 2010, self-reported studies have indicated a dominance of new psychoactive substances on the drug market for injectable drugs. METHODS: Between March 2015 and February 2016, we collected used and discarded injecting paraphernalia. We utilized chemical analysis to assess and UCINet to visualize the connections between the most prevalent main substances and their respective co-occurring additional components at 7 locations in Hungary...
June 16, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624134/efficacy-of-response-guided-directly-observed-pegylated-interferon-and-self-administered-ribavirin-for-people-who-inject-drugs-with-hepatitis-c-virus-genotype-2-3-infection-the-activate-study
#3
Jason Grebely, Olav Dalgard, Evan B Cunningham, Behzad Hajarizadeh, Graham R Foster, Philip Bruggmann, Brian Conway, Markus Backmund, Geert Robaeys, Tracy Swan, Janaki Amin, Philippa S Marks, Sophie Quiene, Tanya L Applegate, Martin Weltman, David Shaw, Adrian Dunlop, Margaret Hellard, Julie Bruneau, Håvard Midgard, Stefan Bourgeois, Cornelia Staehelin, Gregory J Dore
BACKGROUND: There are few data on treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among people with ongoing injecting drug use. This study evaluated the efficacy of response-guided therapy for chronic HCV genotypes 2/3 infection among people with ongoing injecting drug use or receiving opioid substitution therapy (OST). A secondary aim was to identify predictors of HCV treatment response. METHODS: ACTIVATE was a multicentre clinical trial recruited between 2012 and 2014...
June 14, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618002/novel-psychoactive-substance-use-among-treatment-seeking-opiate-users-the-role-of-life-events-and-psychiatric-symptoms
#4
Máté Kapitány-Fövény, Judit Farkas, Patrícia Andrea Pataki, Anna Kiss, Janka Horváth, Róbert Urbán, Zsolt Demetrovics
OBJECTIVE: Over the past 5 years, a shift to the use of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) has been observed among opioid users. The aim of this study was to assess the potential reasons for NPS use among treatment-seeking patients receiving opiate substitution therapy. METHOD: A structured questionnaire was filled out by a sample of 198 opiate dependent patients of Hungary's National Institute of Psychiatry and Addiction. This questionnaire assessed demographics, treatment characteristics, lifetime substance use, potential reasons for NPS use, negative life events (Life Events Scale), and psychiatric symptoms (Brief Symptom Inventory)...
June 15, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615077/service-utilization-and-cost-of-implementing-a-comprehensive-hiv-prevention-and-care-program-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-delhi-india
#5
Mary Philip Sebastian, Aparajita Dasgupta, Lopamudra Ray Saraswati, Asha Singh, Vartika Sharma, Ira Madan, Waimar Tun, Julie Pulerwitz, Ibou Thior, Avina Sarna
BACKGROUND: WHO, UNODC, and UNAIDS recommend a comprehensive package for prevention, treatment, and care of HIV among people who inject drugs (PWID). We describe the uptake of services and the cost of implementing a comprehensive package for HIV prevention, treatment, and care services in Delhi, India. METHODS: A cohort of 3774 PWID were enrolled for a prospective HIV incidence study and provided the comprehensive package: HIV and hepatitis testing and counseling, hepatitis B (HB) vaccination, syndromic management of sexually transmitted infections, clean needles-syringes, condoms, abscess care, and education...
June 14, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610605/adherence-to-response-guided-pegylated-interferon-and-ribavirin-for-people-who-inject-drugs-with-hepatitis-c-virus-genotype-2-3-infection-the-activate-study
#6
Evan B Cunningham, Behzad Hajarizadeh, Olav Dalgard, Janaki Amin, Margaret Hellard, Graham R Foster, Philip Bruggmann, Brian Conway, Markus Backmund, Geert Robaeys, Tracy Swan, Philippa S Marks, Sophie Quiene, Tanya L Applegate, Martin Weltman, David Shaw, Adrian Dunlop, Julie Bruneau, Håvard Midgard, Stefan Bourgeois, Maria Christine Thurnheer, Gregory J Dore, Jason Grebely
BACKGROUND: The aims of this analysis were to investigate treatment completion and adherence among people with ongoing injecting drug use or receiving opioid substitution therapy (OST) in a study of response-guided therapy for chronic HCV genotypes 2/3 infection. METHODS: ACTIVATE was a multicenter clinical trial recruited between 2012 and 2014. Participants with genotypes 2/3 were treated with directly observed peg-interferon alfa-2b (PEG-IFN) and self-administered ribavirin for 12 (undetectable HCV RNA at week 4) or 24 weeks (detectable HCV RNA at week 4)...
June 13, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604329/report-on-the-first-government-funded-opioid-substitution-programme-for-heroin-users-in-the-western-cape-province-south-africa
#7
Graeme Michie, Shuaib Hoosain, Muiruri Macharia, Lize Weich
BACKGROUND: Although pharmacological opioid substitution treatment (OST) is a well-established treatment modality for heroin addiction, it is a relatively recent introduction in low- and middle-income countries. OBJECTIVE: To report on a pilot OST programme initiated in 2013 that was the only public-funded programme in South Africa (SA) at the time. Participants were offered standard care only (n=68) or, for the OST group (n=67), standard care plus Suboxone (Reckitt Benckiser), a synthetic partial opioid agonist, in a 12-week clinician-monitored programme...
May 24, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587943/delivering-direct-acting-antiviral-therapy-for-hepatitis-c-to-highly-marginalised-and-current-drug-injecting-populations-in-a-targeted-primary-health-care-setting
#8
Phillip Read, Rebecca Lothian, Karen Chronister, Rosie Gilliver, John Kearley, Gregory J Dore, Ingrid van Beek
BACKGROUND: The Kirketon Road Centre (KRC) is a community-based public health facility in Sydney, Australia, that provides healthcare to people who inject drugs (PWID) care, including hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment. From March 2016, the Australian Government has provided access to direct-acting antivirals (DAA) for adults with chronic HCV, without liver disease stage or drug and alcohol use restrictions. The aim of this study was to report DAA treatment outcomes among highly marginalised PWID treated at KRC...
June 3, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583302/implementation-of-a-mental-health-medication-management-intervention-in-australian-community-pharmacies-facilitators-and-challenges
#9
H Laetitia Hattingh, Fiona Kelly, Jane Fowler, Amanda J Wheeler
BACKGROUND: Community pharmacists are in an ideal position to promote and provide mental health medication management services. However, formalised or structured pharmacy services to support consumers with mental health conditions are scarce. Australian mental health consumers indicated a need for targeted community pharmacy mental health services which presented an opportunity to develop an intervention that were integrated with remunerated professional services. OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to pilot a mental health medication management intervention in Australian community pharmacies...
May 29, 2017: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582697/increases-in-self-reported-fentanyl-use-among-a-population-entering-drug-treatment-the-need-for-systematic-surveillance-of-illicitly-manufactured-opioids
#10
Theodore J Cicero, Matthew S Ellis, Zachary A Kasper
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Recent reports indicate a sharp increase in fentanyl-related overdose deaths across the United States, much of which is likely related to the introduction of cheap, illicitly manufactured fentanyl derivatives. In this study, we sought to estimate the magnitude of illicit fentanyl use from 2012 to 2016 using a national opioid abuse surveillance system. METHODS: The study program surveyed 10,900 individuals entering substance abuse treatment for opioid use disorder, with participants asked to endorse past month 'use to get high' of fentanyl drugs, stratified by identifiable (i...
May 30, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558841/physical-pain-is-common-and-associated-with-nonmedical-prescription-opioid-use-among-people-who-inject-drugs
#11
Disa Dahlman, Alex H Kral, Lynn Wenger, Anders Hakansson, Scott P Novak
BACKGROUND: People who inject drugs (PWID) often have poor health and lack access to health care. The aim of this study was to examine whether PWID engage in self-treatment through nonmedical prescription opioid use (NMPOU). We describe the prevalence and features of self-reported physical pain and its association with NMPOU. METHODS: PWID (N = 702) in San Francisco, California (age 18+) were recruited to complete interviewer administered surveys between 2011 and 2013...
May 30, 2017: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553701/opioid-antagonists-with-minimal-sedation-for-opioid-withdrawal
#12
REVIEW
Linda Gowing, Robert Ali, Jason M White
BACKGROUND: Managed withdrawal is a necessary step prior to drug-free treatment or as the endpoint of long-term substitution treatment. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of opioid antagonists plus minimal sedation for opioid withdrawal. Comparators were placebo as well as more established approaches to detoxification, such as tapered doses of methadone, adrenergic agonists, buprenorphine and symptomatic medications. SEARCH METHODS: We updated our searches of the following databases to December 2016: CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO and Web of Science...
May 29, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529359/the-journey-of-opioid-substitution-therapy-in-india-achievements-and-challenges
#13
Ravindra Rao
Opioids are one of the most problematic illegal substances globally. Opioid abuse is associated with complications in various spheres of the user's life, his/her family, and the society. Injecting drug use (IDU) is also linked to public health problems such as HIV infection and viral hepatitis. Medications form an important cornerstone in the treatment of opioid dependence. Treatment strategies such as "detoxification" alone or long-term treatment with opioid antagonist have limited acceptability and retention rates...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529353/challenges-in-the-scale-up-of-opioid-substitution-treatment-in-india
#14
EDITORIAL
Atul Ambekar, Pratima Murthy, Debasish Basu, G Prasad Rao, Ashwin Mohan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511053/opioid-analgesics-and-heroin-examining-drug-misuse-trends-among-a-sample-of-drug-treatment-clients-in-kentucky
#15
Grant A Victor, Robert Walker, Jennifer Cole, T K Logan
BACKGROUND: In an effort to mitigate Kentucky's prescription drug misuse, legislative intervention efforts were introduced in 2012 and 2013 to better regulate pain clinics, prescribed use of opioid analgesics, and to expand the monitoring of opioid prescriptions. The focus of this paper is primarily on opioid analgesics and heroin and the relationship of use/misuse patterns of these drugs to state drug policy initiatives. METHODS: A secondary data analysis of drug treatment clients (N=52,360) was conducted to project illicit drug use trends in Kentucky...
May 13, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501425/the-effects-of-kratom-on-restraint-stress-induced-analgesia-and-its-mechanisms-of-action
#16
José Luis Vázquez López, Lorenz Schild, Thomas Günther, Stefan Schulz, Hartmud Neurath, Axel Becker
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Mitragyna speciosa and its extracts are called kratom (dried leaves, extract). They contain several alkaloids with an affinity for different opioid receptors. They are used in traditional medicine for the treatment of different diseases, as a substitute by opiate addicts, and to mitigate opioid withdrawal symptoms. Apart from their medical properties, they are used to enhance physical endurance and as a means of overcoming stress. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine the mechanisms underlying the effects of kratom on restraint-stress-induced analgesia which occurs during or following exposure to a stressful or fearful stimulus...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499731/discovery-of-n-substituted-endo-3-8-aza-bicyclo-3-2-1-oct-3-yl-phenol-and-phenyl-carboxamide-series-of-%C3%AE-opioid-receptor-antagonists
#17
Lan Jiang, David T Beattie, John R Jacobsen, Samuel Kintz, Glenmar P Obedencio, Daisuke Saito, Ioanna Stergiades, Ross G Vickery, Daniel D Long
Gastrointestinal dysfunction as a consequence of the use of opioid analgesics is of significant clinical concern. First generation drugs to treat these opioid-induced side-effects were limited by their negative impact on opioid receptor agonist-induced analgesia. Second generation therapies target a localized, peripherally-restricted, non-CNS penetrant drug distribution of opioid receptor antagonists. Herein we describe the discovery of the N-substituted-endo-3-(8-aza-bicyclo[3.2.1]oct-3-yl)-phenol and -phenyl carboxamide series of μ-opioid receptor antagonists...
May 3, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496355/cannabis-as-a-substitute-for-prescription-drugs-a-cross-sectional-study
#18
James M Corroon, Laurie K Mischley, Michelle Sexton
BACKGROUND: The use of medical cannabis is increasing, most commonly for pain, anxiety and depression. Emerging data suggest that use and abuse of prescription drugs may be decreasing in states where medical cannabis is legal. The aim of this study was to survey cannabis users to determine whether they had intentionally substituted cannabis for prescription drugs. METHODS: A total of 2,774 individuals were a self-selected convenience sample who reported having used cannabis at least once in the previous 90 days...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489467/use-of-opioid-substitution-therapies-in-the-treatment-of-opioid-use-disorder-results-of-a-uk-cost-effectiveness-modelling-study
#19
James Kenworthy, Yunni Yi, Antony Wright, Jim Brown, Ana Maria Madrigal, William C N Dunlop
AIMS: This study investigated the cost-effectiveness of buprenorphine maintenance treatment (BMT) and methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) vs no opioid substitution therapy (OST) for the treatment of opioid use disorder, from the UK National Health Service (NHS)/personal social services (PSS) and societal perspectives over 1 year. METHODS: Cost-effectiveness of OST vs no OST was evaluated by first replicating and then expanding an existing UK health technology assessment model...
July 2017: Journal of Medical Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484399/biochemical-benefits-diagnosis-and-clinical-risks-evaluation-of-kratom
#20
REVIEW
Dimy Fluyau, Neelambika Revadigar
BACKGROUND: Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is a tropical tree with a long history of traditional use in parts of Africa and Southeast Asia. Kratom is also known as Thom, Thang, and Biak. Its leaves and the teas brewed from them have long been used by people in that region to manage pain and opioid withdrawal and to stave off fatigue. Kratom is actually consumed throughout the world for its stimulant effects and as an opioid substitute (in form of tea, chewed, smoked, or ingested in capsules)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
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