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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745916/experiences-and-perceived-social-support-among-iranian-men-on-methadone-maintenance-therapy-a-qualitative-study
#1
Nader Aghakhani, Violeta Lopez, Michelle Cleary
The use of drugs predominantly among Iranian men leads to health and social problems. Iran has established methadone maintenance therapy centres but there is limited research exploring the experiences of men who make use of this therapy. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the experiences of men on methadone maintenance therapy in Urmia, Iran. Sixteen opioid-dependent males on methadone syrup substitution therapy were interviewed. Transcribed data were subjected to thematic analysis. Three themes emerged from the data: (1) the role of family in drug addiction; (2) the role of environment in drug addiction; and (3) the support needed to overcome drug addiction...
July 26, 2017: Issues in Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740609/simple-tetrahydroisoquinolines-are-potent-and-selective-kappa-opioid-receptor-antagonists
#2
Chad M Kormos, Pauline W Ondachi, Scott P Runyon, James B Thomas, S Wayne Mascarella, Ann M Decker, Hernán A Navarro, F Ivy Carroll
Potent and selective κ opioid receptor antagonists have been derived from the N-substituted trans-3,4-dimethyl-4-(3-hydroxyphenyl)piperidine class of pure opioid receptor antagonists. In order to determine if the 3-hydroxyphenyl and/or the piperidine amino groups are required for obtaining the pure opioid antagonists, (3R)-7-hydroxy-N-[(1S)-2-methyl-1-(piperidine-1-ylmethyl)propyl]-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroiosquinoline-3-carboxamide (1), which does not have a 4-(3-hydroxyphenyl) group, and (3R)-N-(1R)-1-(cyclohexylmethyl)-2-methylpropyl]-7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxamide (2), which does not have a 4-hydroxylphenyl or a piperidine amino group, were synthesized and evaluated for their [(35)S]GTPγS binding properties at the μ, δ, and κ opioid receptors...
July 13, 2017: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738683/state-prescription-drug-monitoring-programs-and-fatal-drug-overdoses
#3
Young Hee Nam, Dennis G Shea, Yunfeng Shi, John R Moran
OBJECTIVES: To examine the impact of prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs) on drug overdose deaths. STUDY DESIGN: We used variation in the timing of state PDMP legislation and implementation to estimate the impact of these programs on drug overdose mortality rates across all drug categories from 1999 to 2014 and separately for each category from 1999 to 2010. Data used include US all-jurisdiction mortality data, estimated population data, and sociodemographic data from the CDC and the US Census Bureau...
May 2017: American Journal of Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735775/heroin-uncertainties-exploring-users-perceptions-of-fentanyl-adulterated-and-substituted-heroin
#4
Daniel Ciccarone, Jeff Ondocsin, Sarah G Mars
BACKGROUND: The US is experiencing an unprecedented opioid overdose epidemic fostered in recent years by regional contamination of the heroin supply with the fentanyl family of synthetic opioids. Since 2011 opioid-related overdose deaths in the East Coast state of Massachusetts have more than tripled, with 75% of the 1374 deaths with an available toxicology positive for fentanyl. Fentanyl is 30-50X more potent than heroin and its presence makes heroin use more unpredictable. A rapid ethnographic assessment was undertaken to understand the perceptions and experiences of people who inject drugs sold as 'heroin' and to observe the drugs and their use...
July 11, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735774/trends-in-hepatitis-c-antibody-prevalence-among-aboriginal-and-torres-strait-islander-people-attending-australian-needle-and-syringe-programs-1996-2015
#5
Simon Graham, Lisa Maher, Handan Wand, Michael Doyle, Jenny Iversen
BACKGROUND: Research indicates that hepatitis C antibody (anti-HCV) prevalence is higher among Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Aboriginal) than non-Aboriginal people who inject drugs (PWID). We examined trends in demographic and drug use characteristics and anti-HCV prevalence among Australian Needle and Syringe Program Survey (ANSPS) respondents by Aboriginal status from 1996 to 2015. METHODS: The ANSPS survey involved collecting demographic, behavioural data and a dried blood spot for anti-HCV testing...
July 20, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735773/today-s-fentanyl-crisis-prohibition-s-iron-law-revisited
#6
Leo Beletsky, Corey S Davis
More than a decade in the making, America's opioid crisis has morphed from being driven by prescription drugs to one fuelled by heroin and, increasingly, fentanyl. Drawing on historical lessons of the era of National Alcohol Prohibition highlights the unintended, but predictable impact of supply-side interventions on the dynamics of illicit drug markets. Under the Iron Law of Prohibition, efforts to interrupt and suppress the illicit drug supply produce economic and logistical pressures favouring ever-more compact substitutes...
June 26, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721344/exploring-patient-characteristics-and-barriers-to-hepatitis-c-treatment-in-patients-on-opioid-substitution-treatment-attending-a-community-based-fibro-scanning-clinic
#7
Des Crowley, Walter Cullen, Eamon Laird, John S Lambert, Tina Mc Hugh, Carol Murphy, Marie Claire Van Hout
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major public health issue. There is substandard uptake in HCV assessment and treatment among people who inject drugs (PWID). Community fibroscanning is used to assess disease severity and target treatment. METHODS: A survey was administered to a cohort of chronically HCV infected patients attending a community fibroscanning clinic. Questions targeted diagnosis of HCV, suitability, willingness and barriers to engagement in treatment...
June 2017: Journal of Translational Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719060/drug-use-and-phylogenetic-clustering-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-among-people-who-use-drugs-in-vancouver-canada-a-latent-class-analysis-approach
#8
Brendan Jacka, Bethany Bray, Tanya L Applegate, Brandon Dl Marshall, Viviane Dias Lima, Kanna Hayashi, Kora DeBeck, Jayna Raghwani, P Richard Harrigan, Mel Krajden, Julio Montaner, Jason Grebely
BACKGROUND: This study estimated latent classes (i.e., unobserved subgroups in a population) of people who use drugs in Vancouver, Canada and examined how these classes relate to phylogenetic clustering of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. METHODS: HCV antibody positive people who use drugs from two cohorts in Vancouver, Canada (1996-2012) with a Core-E2 sequence were included. Time-stamped phylogenetic trees were inferred and phylogenetic clustering was determined by time to most common recent ancestor...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708940/the-street-like-synthesis-of-krokodil-results-in-the-formation-of-an-enlarged-cluster-of-known-and-new-morphinans-with-therapeutic-potential
#9
José Soares, Emanuele Alves, André Silva, Natália Figueiredo, João F Neves, Sara Cravo, Maria Rangel, Annibal Netto, Félix Carvalho, Ricardo Jorge Dinis-Oliveira, Carlos Afonso
"Krokodil" is the street name for a homemade injectable drug that has been used as a cheap substitute for heroin. Codeine is the opioid starting material for krokodil synthesis and desomorphine is the opioid claimed to be the main component of krokodil and the main responsible for its addictive and psychoactive characteristics. However, due to its peculiar manufacture, using cheap raw materials, krokodil is composed by a large and complex mixture of different substances. In order to shed some light upon the chemical complexity of krokodil, its profiling was conducted by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode array detector (RP-HPLC-DAD) and by liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-IT-Orbitrap-MS)...
July 14, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701461/opioid-use-disorder-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-effect-of-participation-in-buprenorphine-naloxone-substitution-programs-on-glycemic-control
#10
Devon Tilbrook, Jeffrey Jacob, Pierre Parsons, Craig Edwards, Kassandra Loewen, Len Kelly
OBJECTIVE: To measure the effect of buprenorphine-naloxone as opioid substitution therapy on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and opioid use disorder. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study and secondary data analysis. SETTING: Northwestern Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with diabetes receiving opioid substitution therapy, as well as patients with diabetes only, who live in 6 remote First Nations communities...
July 2017: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687506/effects-of-alkaloid-rich-extract-from-mitragyna-speciosa-korth-havil-on-naloxone-precipitated-morphine-withdrawal-symptoms-and-local-field-potential-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-of-mice
#11
Dania Cheaha, Chayaporn Reakkamnuan, Jakkrit Nukitram, Somsmorn Chittrakarn, Pimpimol Phukpattaranont, Niwat Keawpradub, Ekkasit Kumarnsit
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Mitragyna speciosa (Korth.) Havil. (M. speciosa) is among the most well-known plants used in ethnic practice of Southeast Asia. It has gained increasing attention as a plant with potential to substitute morphine in addiction treatment program. However, its action on the central nervous system is controversial. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study investigated the effects of M. speciosa alkaloid extract on naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal and neural signaling in the nucleus accumbens (NAc, brain reward center) of mice...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673437/-i-didn-t-want-to-let-it-go-too-far-the-decisions-and-experiences-of-people-who-inject-drugs-who-received-a-liver-disease-assessment-as-part-of-a-liver-health-promotion-campaign-the-liverlife-study
#12
Alison D Marshall, Jason Grebely, Gregory J Dore, Carla Treloar
BACKGROUND: An open cohort study (LiveRLife) evaluating an intervention integrating non-invasive liver disease assessment via transient elastography (TE) among people who inject drugs (PWID) was conducted in New South Wales, Australia. Participant follow-up occurred 2-16 weeks post-enrolment. It is imperative that PWID understand liver assessment results in order to make informed decisions about their health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the decisions and experiences of participants who received a liver disease assessment, including interpretation of TE score and subsequent health behaviours, using a health literacy framework...
June 30, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667880/how-does-the-use-of-multiple-needles-syringes-per-injecting-episode-impact-on-the-measurement-of-individual-level-needle-and-syringe-program-coverage
#13
Daniel O'Keefe, Angus McCormack, Shelley Cogger, Campbell Aitken, Lucinda Burns, Raimondo Bruno, Jenny Stafford, Kerryn Butler, Courtney Breen, Paul Dietze
BACKGROUND: Recent work by McCormack et al. (2016) showed that the inclusion of syringe stockpiling improves the measurement of individual-level syringe coverage. We explored whether including the use of a new parameter, multiple sterile syringes per injecting episode, further improves coverage measures. METHODS: Data comes from 838 people who inject drugs, interviewed as part of the 2015 Illicit Drug Reporting System. Along with syringe coverage questions, the survey recorded the number of sterile syringes used on average per injecting episode...
June 28, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666635/initial-outcomes-of-integrated-community-based-hepatitis-c-treatment-for-people-who-inject-drugs-findings-from-the-queensland-injectors-health-network
#14
Leith Morris, Andrew Smirnov, Amanda Kvassay, Ellen Leslie, Rebecca Kavanagh, Nik Alexander, Geoff Davey, Owain Williams, Charles Gilks, Jake Najman
BACKGROUND: Integrated treatment and harm reduction services provide a unique opportunity to facilitate direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy for hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected people who inject drugs (PWID). We examine outcomes of community-based delivery of DAA therapy for PWID. METHODS: The Queensland Injectors' Health Network (QuIHN) is a community-based agency providing harm reduction and treatment services. Data (including current injecting, involvement in opioid substitution therapy and other treatment, level of case management support) for participants initiating DAA therapy were collected...
June 27, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661714/early-initiation-of-amphetamine-type-stimulants-ats-use-associated-with-lowered-cognitive-performance-among-individuals-with-co-occurring-opioid-and-ats-use-disorders-in-malaysia
#15
Weng-Tink Chooi, Norzarina Mohd Zaharim, Alethea Desrosiers, Imran Ahmad, Mohd Azhar Mohd Yasin, Sharifah Z Syed Jaapar, Richard S Schottenfeld, Balasingam K Vicknasingam, Marek C Chawarski
Amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) use is increasingly prevalent in Malaysia, including among individuals who also use opioids. We evaluated cognitive functioning profiles among individuals with co-occurring opioid and ATS dependence and their lifetime patterns of drug use. Participants (N = 50) enrolling in a clinical trial of buprenorphine/naloxone treatment with or without atomoxetine completed the Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices, Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test, Digit Span, Trail Making and Symbol Digit Substitution tasks...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657190/repeated-subcutaneous-administrations-of-krokodil-causes-skin-necrosis-and-internal-organs-toxicity-in-wistar-rats-putative-human-implications
#16
Emanuele Amorim Alves, Pedro Brandão, João Filipe Neves, Sara Manuela Cravo, José Xavier Soares, Jean-Paul C Grund, José Alberto Duarte, Carlos M M Afonso, Annibal Duarte Pereira Netto, Félix Carvalho, Ricardo Jorge Dinis-Oliveira
OBJECTIVE: "Krokodil" is the street name for an impure homemade drug mixture used as a cheap substitute for heroin, containing desomorphine as the main opioid. Abscesses, gangrene, thrombophlebitis, limb ulceration and amputations, jaw osteonecrosis, skin discoloration, ulcers, skin infections, and bleeding are some of the typical reported signs in humans. This study aimed to understand the toxicity of krokodil using Wistar male rats as experimental model. METHODS: Animals were divided into seven groups and exposed subcutaneously to NaCl 0...
May 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652132/oral-substitution-treatment-of-injecting-opioid-users-for-prevention-of-hiv-infection
#17
Leticia Barajas-Nava
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 6, 2017: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: JANAC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648162/-treatment-of-acute-pain-in-opioid-addicts
#18
Henrik Rindom, Jette Højsted, Nina Brünés
The challenge of managing acute pain in opioid-addicted patients is a question of fully understanding the pharmacological effects of the illegal drugs and to prevent overdosing or withdrawal symptoms. It requires a thorough knowledge of the patient's daily consumption of legal and illegal drugs and an understanding obtained through an accepting and empathetic communication with the patient. Substitution management aims to prevent opioid withdrawal symptoms and is not a means of managing pain. When planning the pain management the patient must receive at least 25% of the daily methadone dose, recalculated into equipotent substitute morphine...
June 26, 2017: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647161/dot-c-a-cluster-randomised-feasibility-trial-evaluating-directly-observed-anti-hcv-therapy-in-a-population-receiving-opioid-substitute-therapy-from-community-pharmacy
#19
Andrew Radley, Jan Tait, John F Dillon
BACKGROUND: Direct-acting antiviral therapy (DAAs) for hepatitis C infection (HCV) have a much smaller burden of treatment than interferon-based regimes, require less monitoring and are very effective. New pathways are required to increase access to treatment amongst people prescribed opioid substitution therapy (OST). METHODS: An exploratory cluster randomised controlled trial with mixed methods evaluation was undertaken to compare the uptake of dried blood spot testing (DBST) and treatment of people with genotype 1 HCV infection in a conventional service pathway versus a pharmacist-led pathway in a population receiving OST...
June 21, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633998/changes-in-risk-behaviours-during-and-following-treatment-for-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-among-people-who-inject-drugs-the-activate-study
#20
Håvard Midgard, Behzad Hajarizadeh, Evan B Cunningham, Brian Conway, Markus Backmund, Philip Bruggmann, Julie Bruneau, Stefan Bourgeois, Adrian Dunlop, Graham R Foster, Margaret Hellard, Geert Robaeys, Maria C Thurnheer, Martin Weltman, Janaki Amin, Philippa S Marks, Sophie Quiene, Gregory J Dore, Olav Dalgard, Jason Grebely
BACKGROUND: The risk of hepatitis C virus (HCV) reinfection due to continued injecting risk behaviours might remain a barrier to HCV treatment among people who inject drugs. We aimed to evaluate changes in risk behaviours during and following HCV treatment among people with ongoing injecting drug use or receiving opioid substitution treatment (OST). METHODS: ACTIVATE was an international multicentre clinical trial conducted between 2012 and 2014. Participants with HCV genotypes 2/3 infection were treated with peg-interferon/ribavirin for 12 or 24 weeks and completed a self-administered behavioural questionnaire at each study visit...
June 17, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
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