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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781207/modelling-the-impact-of-a-national-scale-up-of-interventions-on-hepatitis-c-virus-transmission-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-scotland
#1
H Fraser, C Mukandavire, N K Martin, D Goldberg, N Palmateer, A Munro, A Taylor, M Hickman, S Hutchinson, P Vickerman
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To reduce hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission among people who inject drugs (PWID), Scottish Government-funded national strategies, launched in 2008, promoted scaling-up opioid substitution therapy (OST) and needle and syringe provision (NSP), with some increases in HCV treatment. We test whether observed decreases in HCV incidence post-2008 can be attributed to this intervention scale-up. DESIGN: A dynamic HCV transmission model amongst PWID incorporating intervention scale-up and observed decreases in behavioural risk, calibrated to Scottish HCV prevalence and incidence data for 2008/09...
May 20, 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778774/continuous-opioid-substitution-treatment-over-five-years-heroin-use-trajectories-and-outcomes
#2
Brian Eastwood, John Strang, John Marsden
BACKGROUND: This is the first national study in England of continuous long-term opioid substitution treatment (OST). METHODS: All adults were admitted to community OST for opioid use disorder (OUD) in 2008/09 with continuous enrolment to 2013/14 (n = 7719). Heroin use trajectories were identified by multilevel Latent Class Growth Analysis. In Year 6 and 7 of follow-up, the outcome measure (analysed by multilevel, multivariable logistic regression) was 'successful completion and no re-presentation' (SCNR) to community treatment within six months...
May 16, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774607/impact-of-current-and-scaled-up-levels-of-hepatitis-c-prevention-and-treatment-interventions-for-people-who-inject-drugs-in-three-uk-settings-what-is-required-to-achieve-the-who-s-hcv-elimination-targets
#3
Zoe Ward, Lucy Platt, Sedona Sweeney, Vivian D Hope, Lisa Maher, Sharon Hutchinson, Norah Palmateer, Josie Smith, Noel Craine, Avril Taylor, Natasha Martin, Rachel Ayres, John Dillon, Matthew Hickman, Peter Vickerman
AIMS: To estimate the impact of existing high-coverage needle and syringe provision (HCNSP, defined as obtaining more than one sterile needle and syringe per injection reported) and opioid substitution therapy (OST) on hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission among people who inject drugs (PWID) in three UK settings and to determine required scale-up of interventions, including HCV treatment, needed to reach the World Health Organization (WHO) target of reducing HCV incidence by 90% by 2030...
May 17, 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771745/national-institute-on-drug-abuse-international-program-improving-opioid-use-disorder-treatment-through-international-research-training
#4
Steven W Gust, Judy McCormally
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: For more than 25 years, the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) has supported research-training programs, establishing a global research network and expanding the knowledge base on substance use disorders. International research to inform approaches to opioid addiction is particularly important and relevant to the United States, where opioid misuse, addiction, and overdose constitute an emerging public health crisis. This article summarizes the NIDA International Program and illustrates its impact by reviewing recent articles about treatment approaches for opioid use disorders (OUD)...
May 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769809/managing-infants-born-to-mothers-who-have-used-opioids-during-pregnancy
#5
Thierry Lacaze-Masmonteil, Pat O'Flaherty
The incidence of infant opioid withdrawal has grown rapidly in many countries, including Canada, in the last decade, presenting significant health and early brain development concerns. Increased prenatal exposure to opioids reflects rising prescription opioid use as well as the presence of both illegal opiates and opioid-substitution therapies. Infants are at high risk for experiencing symptoms of abstinence or withdrawal that may require assessment and treatment. This practice point focuses specifically on the effect(s) of opioid withdrawal and current management strategies in the care of infants born to mothers with opioid dependency...
May 2018: Paediatrics & Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751763/harm-reduction-and-viral-hepatitis-c-in-european-prisons-a-cross-sectional-survey-of-25-countries
#6
Rob Bielen, Samya R Stumo, Rachel Halford, Klára Werling, Tatjana Reic, Heino Stöver, Geert Robaeys, Jeffrey V Lazarus
BACKGROUND: Current estimates suggest that 15% of all prisoners worldwide are chronically infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV), and this number is even higher in regions with high rates of injecting drug use. Although harm reduction services such as opioid substitution therapy (OST) and needle and syringe programs (NSPs) are effective in preventing the further spread of HCV and HIV, the extent to which these are available in prisons varies significantly across countries. METHODS: The Hep-CORE study surveyed liver patient groups from 25 European countries in 2016 and mid-2017 on national policies related to harm reduction, testing/screening, and treatment for HCV in prison settings...
May 11, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734749/synthesis-and-structure-activity-relationships-of-cis-n-normetazocine-based-lp1-derivatives
#7
Lorella Pasquinucci, Carmela Parenti, Emanuele Amata, Zafiroula Georgoussi, Paschalina Pallaki, Valeria Camarda, Girolamo Calò, Emanuela Arena, Lucia Montenegro, Rita Turnaturi
(−)- cis - N -Normetazocine represents a rigid scaffold able to mimic the tyramine moiety of endogenous opioid peptides, and the introduction of different N -substituents influences affinity and efficacy of respective ligands at MOR (mu opioid receptor), DOR (delta opioid receptor), and KOR (kappa opioid receptor). We have previously identified LP1, a MOR/DOR multitarget opioid ligand, with an N -phenylpropanamido substituent linked to (−)- cis - N -Normetazocine scaffold. Herein, we report the synthesis, competition binding and calcium mobilization assays of new compounds 10 ⁻ 16 that differ from LP1 by the nature of the N -substituent...
May 5, 2018: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731530/noble-metal-nanostructures-in-optical-biosensors-basics-and-their-introduction-to-anti-doping-detection
#8
Hedieh Malekzad, Parham Sahandi Zangabad, Hadi Mohammadi, Mohsen Sadroddini, Zahra Jafari, Niloofar Mahlooji, Somaye Abbaspour, Somaye Gholami, Mana Ghanbarpoor, Rahim Pashazadeh, Ali Beyzavi, Mahdi Karimi, Michael R Hamblin
Nanotechnology has illustrated significant potentials in biomolecular-sensing applications; particularly its introduction to anti-doping detection is of great importance. Illicit recreational drugs, substances that can be potentially abused, and drugs with dosage limitations according to the prohibited lists announced by the World Antidoping Agency (WADA) are becoming of increasing interest to forensic chemists. In this review, the theoretical principles of optical biosensors based on noble metal nanoparticles, and the transduction mechanism of commonly-applied plasmonic biosensors are covered...
March 2018: Trends in Analytical Chemistry: TRAC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728088/opioid-substitution-treatment-and-heroin-dependent-adolescents-reductions-in-heroin-use-and-treatment-retention-over-twelve-months
#9
Bobby P Smyth, Khalifa Elmusharaf, Walter Cullen
BACKGROUND: Opioid dependence is a major health concern across the world and does also occur in adolescents. While opioid substitution treatment (OST) has been thoroughly evaluated in adult populations, very few studies have examined its use in adolescents. There are concerns that OST is underutilised in adolescents with heroin dependence. We sought to measure changes in drug use among adolescents receiving OST and also to examine treatment attrition during the first 12 months of this treatment...
May 4, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705547/nociceptin-orphanin-fq-receptors-modulate-the-discriminative-stimulus-effects-of-oxycodone-in-c57bl-6-mice
#10
D Matthew Walentiny, Jason M Wiebelhaus, Patrick M Beardsley
BACKGROUND: Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (NOP) receptor ligands have shown efficacy as putative analgesics and can modulate the abuse-related effects of opioids, suggesting therapeutic applications. The discriminative stimulus effects of a drug are related to their subjective effects, a predictor of abuse potential. To determine whether activation of NOP receptors could alter the subjective effects of an abused opioid analgesic, a novel oxycodone discrimination was established in mice, characterized with positive and negative controls, and its expression evaluated with a NOP receptor agonist...
April 15, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702515/integrated-care-for-the-use-of-direct-acting-antivirals-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-and-substance-use-disorder
#11
Jean-Baptiste Trabut, Camille Barrault, Hélène Charlot, Damien Carmona, Anne Bourdel, Mustapha Benslimane, Murielle François, Willy Kini-Matondo, Richard Causse, Françoise Roudot-Thoraval, Christophe Hézode
OBJECTIVES: Since little is currently known about predictors of response to direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) in people who inject drugs, we undertook an analysis of patients attending a hepatitis clinic with addiction services (outpatient clinics and inpatient services) to examine the outcomes associated with the treatment of difficult-to-manage patients with substance use. Our experience was based on integrated care. METHOD: A retrospective analysis was undertaken of 50 patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and a history of addiction who received treatment with DAAs, according to European guidelines...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677442/synthesis-and-pharmacological-evaluation-of-novel-c-8-substituted-tetrahydroquinolines-as-balanced-affinity-mu-delta-opioid-ligands-for-the-treatment-of-pain
#12
Anthony F Nastase, Nicholas W Griggs, Jessica P Anand, Thomas J Fernandez, Aubrie A Harland, Tyler J Trask, Emily M Jutkiewicz, John R Traynor, Henry I Mosberg
The use of opioids for the treatment of pain, while largely effective, is limited by detrimental side effects including analgesic tolerance, physical dependence, and euphoria, which may lead to opioid abuse. Studies have shown that compounds with a -opioid receptor (MOR) agonist/-opioid receptor (DOR) antagonist profile reduce or eliminate some of these side effects including development of tolerance and dependence. Herein we report the synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of a series of tetrahydroquinoline-based peptidomimetics with substitutions at the C-8 position...
April 20, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672985/the-impact-of-buprenorphine-and-methadone-on-mortality-a-primary-care-cohort-study-in-the-united-kingdom
#13
Matthew Hickman, Colin Steer, Kate Tilling, Aaron G Lim, John Marsden, Tim Millar, John Strang, Maggie Telfer, Peter Vickerman, John Macleod
AIMS: To estimate whether opioid substitution treatment (OST) with buprenorphine or methadone is associated with a greater reduction in the risk of all-cause mortality (ACM) and opioid drug-related poisoning (DRP) mortality. DESIGN: Cohort study with linkage between clinical records from Clinical Practice Research Datalink and mortality register. SETTING: UK primary care. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 11 033 opioid-dependent patients who received OST from 1998 to 2014, followed-up for 30 410 person-years...
April 19, 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660211/effectiveness-and-cost-effectiveness-of-interventions-targeting-harm-reduction-and-chronic-hepatitis-c-cascade-of-care-in-people-who-inject-drugs-the-case-of-france
#14
Anthony Cousien, Viet Chi Tran, Sylvie Deuffic-Burban, Marie Jauffret-Roustide, Guillaume Mabileau, Jean-Stéphane Dhersin, Yazdan Yazdanpanah
Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) represent an opportunity to improve hepatitis C virus (HCV) care cascade. This, combined with improved harm reduction interventions may lead to HCV elimination especially in people who inject drugs (PWID). We assessed the effectiveness/cost-effectiveness of improvements in harm reduction and chronic hepatitis C (CHC) care cascade in PWID in France. We used a dynamic model of HCV transmission and CHC natural history and evaluated: improved needle/syringe programs-opioid substitution therapies, faster diagnosis/linkage to care, earlier treatment initiation, alone and in combination among active PWID (mean age=36)...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649890/what-parenteral-opioids-to-use-in-face-of-shortages-of-morphine-hydromorphone-and-fentanyl
#15
Mellar P Davis, Mary Lynn McPherson, Zankhana Mehta, Bertrand Behm, Carlos Fernandez
Parenteral potent opioid availability is becoming an issue in acute pain management. Two opioids, nalbuphine and buprenorphine, are available which can be substituted for hydromorphone, fentanyl, and morphine. There are advantages and disadvantages in using these 2 opioids which are discussed, and potential dosing strategies are outlined.
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624813/feasibility-of-reaching-world-health-organization-targets-for-hepatitis-c-and-the-cost-effectiveness-of-alternative-strategies
#16
Torbjørn Wisløff, Richard White, Olav Dalgard, Ellen J Amundsen, Hinta Meijerink, Hilde Kløvstad
New drugs for treating hepatitis C have considerably increased the probability of being cured. Treatment uptake, however, is still low. The objectives of this study were to analyse the impact of initiatives that may increase the proportion of infected people on treatment and interventions aimed at reducing the incidence of new infection among people who inject drugs. A compartmental model for Norway was used to simulate hepatitis C and related complications. We analysed two different screening initiatives aimed to increase the proportion of infected people on treatment...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594179/intervention-packages-to-reduce-the-impact-of-hiv-and-hcv-infections-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-eastern-europe-and-central-asia-a-modeling-and-cost-effectiveness-study
#17
Guillaume Mabileau, Otilia Scutelniciuc, Maia Tsereteli, Ivan Konorazov, Alla Yelizaryeva, Svetlana Popovici, Karimov Saifuddin, Elena Losina, Manoela Manova, Vinay Saldanha, Jean-Elie Malkin, Yazdan Yazdanpanah
Background: We evaluated the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of interventions targeting hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV infections among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Eastern Europe/Central Asia. We specifically considered the needle-syringe program (NSP), opioid substitution therapy (OST), HCV and HIV diagnosis, antiretroviral therapy (ART), and/or new HCV treatment (direct acting antiviral [DAA]) in Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Republic of Moldova, and Tajikistan. Methods: We developed a deterministic dynamic compartmental model and evaluated the number of infections averted, costs, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) of interventions...
March 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589873/cost-effectiveness-of-hydromorphone-for-severe-opioid-use-disorder-findings-from-the-salome-randomized-clinical-trial
#18
Nick Bansback, Daphne Guh, Eugenia Oviedo-Joekes, Suzanne Brissette, Scott Harrison, Amin Janmohamed, Michael Krausz, Scott MacDonald, David C Marsh, Martin T Schechter, Aslam H Anis
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Previous research has found diacetylmorphine, delivered under supervision, to be cost-effective in the treatment of severe opioid use disorder, but diacetylmorphine is not available in many settings. The Study to Assess Long-term Opioid Maintenance Effectiveness (SALOME) randomized controlled trial provided evidence that injectable hydromorphone is non-inferior to diacetylmorphine. The current study aimed to compare the cost-effectiveness of hydromorphone directly with diacetylmorphine and indirectly with methadone maintenance treatment...
March 28, 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559070/anova-health-institute
#19
Johannes M Hugo, Kevin B Rebe, Evan Tsouroulis, Anthony Manion, Glenn de Swart, Helen Struthers, James A McIntyre
Chemsex is the colloquial term used for a specific pattern of drug use that is increasingly common among men who have sex with men (MSM) globally. The recreational substances employed are used specifically in a sexualized context. The reasons for chemsex among MSM are complex. The Anova Health Institute (Anova) provided harm-reduction services in Cape Town, South Africa in 2013 and 2014. This project, known as Tikking the Boxes had two objectives: first to provide direct harm-reduction services to drug-using MSM in Cape Town, South Africa, and second, to reduce HIV and hepatitis B and C transmission among this population...
March 21, 2018: Sexual Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556967/lethal-endomyocarditis-caused-by-chronic-krokodil-intoxication
#20
Antonella Sorrentino, Silvia Trotta, Anna Pia Colucci, Lucia Aventaggiato, Andrea Marzullo, Biagio Solarino
"Krokodil" is a home-made opioid drug obtained by synthesizing desomorphine from codeine and combining it with other low-cost additives. Initially introduced in the former Soviet countries, it was then imported to Western Europe as a heroin substitute. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an Italian case of lethal krokodil abuse, that occurred in a 39-year-old man, who died suddenly after transportation to the Emergency Department (ED) for hyperthermia associated with sweating, dyspnoea and tachycardia...
June 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
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