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perinatal hypoxia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651324/cerebellum-susceptibility-to-neonatal-asphyxia-possible-protective-effects-of-n-acetylcysteine-amide
#1
T Benterud, S Manueldas, S Rivera, E Henckel, E M Løberg, S Norgren, L O Baumbusch, R Solberg, O D Saugstad
Background: After perinatal asphyxia, the cerebellum presents more damage than previously suggested. Objectives: To explore if the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine amide (NACA) could reduce cerebellar injury after hypoxia-reoxygenation in a neonatal pig model. Methods: Twenty-four newborn pigs in two intervention groups were exposed to 8% oxygen and hypercapnia, until base excess fell to -20 mmol/l or the mean arterial blood pressure declined to <20 mmHg...
2018: Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651259/perinatal-hypoxia-and-ischemia-in-animal-models-of-schizophrenia
#2
Dimitri Hefter, Hugo H Marti, Peter Gass, Dragos Inta
Intrauterine or perinatal complications constitute a major risk for psychiatric diseases. Infants who suffered from hypoxia-ischemia (HI) are at twofold risk to develop schizophrenia in later life. Several animal models attempt to reproduce these complications to study the yet unknown steps between an insult in early life and outbreak of the disease decades later. However, it is very challenging to find the right type and severity of insult leading to a disease-like phenotype in the animal, but not causing necrosis and focal neurological deficits...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648595/progesterone-as-a-postnatal-prophylactic-agent-for-encephalopathy-caused-by-prenatal-hypoxic-ischemic-insult
#3
Yoshimasa Kawarai, Hirokazu Tanaka, Tatsuya Kobayashi, Makio Shozu
Brain damage caused by hypoxic ischemic insult during the perinatal period causes hypoxic ischemic encephalopathies (HIEs). Therapeutic hypothermia is indicated for HIE, but since the therapeutic burden is large for its limited therapeutic effectiveness, another strategy is needed. Progesterone (P4) plays a neuroprotective role through the actions of its metabolite, allopregnanolone (Allo), on P4 receptor, GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid)A receptors or both. We examined the therapeutic potential of P4 using a newborn rat model of HIE...
April 10, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629602/deactivation-of-mitochondrial-complex-i-after-hypoxia-ischemia-in-the-immature-brain
#4
Anna Stepanova, Csaba Konrad, Sergio Guerrero-Castillo, Giovanni Manfredi, Susan Vannucci, Susanne Arnold, Alexander Galkin
Mortality from perinatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury reached 1.15 million worldwide in 2010 and is also a major factor for neurological disability in infants. HI directly influences the oxidative phosphorylation enzyme complexes in mitochondria, but the exact mechanism of HI-reoxygenation response in brain remains largely unresolved. After induction of HI-reoxygenation in postnatal day 10 rats, activities of mitochondrial respiratory chain enzymes were analysed and complexome profiling was performed...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615958/lymphocytes-contribute-to-the-pathophysiology-of-neonatal-brain-injury
#5
Arshed Nazmi, Anna-Maj Albertsson, Eridan Rocha-Ferreira, Xiaoli Zhang, Regina Vontell, Aura Zelco, Mary Rutherford, Changlian Zhu, Gisela Nilsson, Carina Mallard, Henrik Hagberg, Jacqueline C Y Lai, Jianmei W Leavenworth, Xiaoyang Wang
Background: Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) is the most common form of preterm brain injury affecting the cerebral white matter. This type of injury involves a multiphase process and is induced by many factors, including hypoxia-ischemia (HI) and infection. Previous studies have suggested that lymphocytes play a significant role in the pathogenesis of brain injury, and the aim of this study was to determine the contribution of lymphocyte subsets to preterm brain injury. Methods: Immunohistochemistry on brain sections from neonatal mice was performed to evaluate the extent of brain injury in wild-type and T cell and B cell-deficient neonatal mice ( Rag1 -/- mice) using a mouse model of HI-induced preterm brain injury...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608930/atomoxetine-a-selective-norepinephrine-reuptake-inhibitor-improves-short-term-histological-outcomes-after-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury-in-the-neonatal-male-rat
#6
Masatake Toshimitsu, Yoshimasa Kamei, Mari Ichinose, Takahiro Seyama, Shinya Imada, Takayuki Iriyama, Tomoyuki Fujii
BACKGROUND: Despite the recent progress of perinatal medicine, perinatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) insult remains an important cause of brain injury in neonates, and is pathologically characterized by neuronal loss and the presence of microglia. Neurotransmitters, such as norepinephrine (NE) and glutamate, are involved in the pathogenesis of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy via the interaction between neurons and microglia. Although it is well known that the monoamine neurotransmitter NE acts as an anti-inflammatory agent in the brain under pathological conditions, its effects on perinatal HI insult remains elusive...
March 30, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582399/perinatal-asphyxia-and-brain-development-mitochondrial-damage-without-anatomical-or-cellular-losses
#7
Jean Pierre Mendes Lima, Danielle Rayêe, Thaia Silva-Rodrigues, Paula Ribeiro Paes Pereira, Ana Paula Miranda Mendonca, Clara Rodrigues-Ferreira, Diego Szczupak, Anna Fonseca, Marcus F Oliveira, Flavia Regina Souza Lima, Roberto Lent, Antonio Galina, Daniela Uziel
Perinatal asphyxia remains a significant cause of neonatal mortality and is associated with long-term neurodegenerative disorders. In the present study, we evaluated cellular and subcellular damages to brain development in a model of mild perinatal asphyxia. Survival rate in the experimental group was 67%. One hour after the insult, intraperitoneally injected Evans blue could be detected in the fetuses' brains, indicating disruption of the blood-brain barrier. Although brain mass and absolute cell numbers (neurons and non-neurons) were not reduced after perinatal asphyxia immediately and in late brain development, subcellular alterations were detected...
March 26, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562870/sleep-eeg-of-microcephaly-in-zika-outbreak
#8
Paulo Afonso Medeiros Kanda, Aline de Almeida Xavier Aguiar, Jose Lucivan Miranda, Alexandre Loverde Falcao, Claudia Suenia Andrade, Luigi Neves Dos Santos Reis, Ellen White R Bacelar Almeida, Yanes Brum Bello, Arthur Monfredinho, Rafael Guimaraes Kanda
Microcephaly (MC), previously considered rare, is now a health emergency of international concern because of the devastating Zika virus pandemic outbreak of 2015. The authors describe the electroencephalogram (EEG) findings in sleep EEG of epileptic children who were born with microcephaly in areas of Brazil with active Zika virus transmission between 2014 and 2017. The authors reviewed EEGs from 23 children. Nine were females (39.2%), and the age distribution varied from 4 to 48 months. MC was associated with mother positive serology to toxoplasmosis (toxo), rubella (rub), herpes, and dengue (1 case); toxo (1 case); chikungunya virus (CHIKV) (1 case); syphilis (1 case); and Zika virus (ZIKV) (10 cases)...
2018: Neurodiagnostic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562785/extracellular-vesicles-derived-from-wharton-s-jelly-mesenchymal-stem-cells-prevent-and-resolve-programmed-cell-death-mediated-by-perinatal-hypoxia-ischemia-in-neuronal-cells
#9
Marianne S Joerger-Messerli, Byron Oppliger, Marialuigia Spinelli, Gierin Thomi, Ivana di Salvo, Philipp Schneider, Andreina Schoeberlein
Hypoxic-ischemic (HI) insult in the perinatal phase harbors a high risk of encephalopathy in the neonate. Brain cells undergo apoptosis, initiating neurodegeneration. So far, therapeutic approaches such as cooling remain limited. Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exhibits therapeutic success despite the short-time survival in the host brain, providing strong evidence that their beneficial effects are largely based on secreted factors, including extracellular vesicles (EVs). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of human Wharton's jelly MSC (hWJ-MSC)-derived EVs on neuroprotection and neuroregeneration, using an in vitro model of oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) mimicking HI injury in the mouse neuroblastoma cell line neuro2a (N2a)...
January 2018: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561203/n-acetylcysteine-rapidly-replenishes-central-nervous-system-glutathione-measured-via-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-in-human-neonates-with-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#10
Hunter G Moss, Truman R Brown, Donald B Wiest, Dorothea D Jenkins
Persistent oxidative stress depletes reduced glutathione (GSH), an intracellular antioxidant and an important determinant of CNS injury after hypoxia ischemia. We used standard, short echo time Stimulated Echo Acquisition Mode (STEAM) to detect GSH by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in 24 term neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), on day of life 5-6, after rewarming from therapeutic hypothermia. MRS demonstrated reliable, consistent GSH of 1·64 ± 0·20 mM in the basal ganglia immediately before intravenous infusion of N-acetylcysteine...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557357/glia-and-hemichannels-key-mediators-of-perinatal-encephalopathy
#11
REVIEW
Robert Galinsky, Joanne O Davidson, Justin M Dean, Colin R Green, Laura Bennet, Alistair J Gunn
Perinatal encephalopathy remains a major cause of disability, such as cerebral palsy. Therapeutic hypothermia is now well established to partially reduce risk of disability in late preterm/term infants. However, new and complementary therapeutic targets are needed to further improve outcomes. There is increasing evidence that glia play a key role in neural damage after hypoxia-ischemia and infection/inflammation. In this review, we discuss the role of astrocytic gap junction (connexin) hemichannels in the spread of neural injury after hypoxia-ischemia and/or infection/inflammation...
February 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468591/a-rat-model-of-perinatal-seizures-provoked-by-global-hypoxia
#12
Jason A Justice, Russell M Sanchez
Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) refers to acute brain injury that results from perinatal asphyxia. HIE is a major cause of neonatal seizures, and outcomes can range from apparent recovery to severe cognitive impairment, cerebral palsy, and epilepsy. Acute partial seizures frequently aid in indicating the severity and localization of brain injury. However, evidence also suggests that the occurrence of seizures further increases the likelihood of epilepsy in later life regardless of the severity of the initial injury...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453493/altered-prepulse-inhibition-of-the-acoustic-startle-response-in-bdnf-deficient-mice-in-a-model-of-early-postnatal-hypoxia-implications-for-schizophrenia
#13
Juan M Lima-Ojeda, Anne S Mallien, Christiane Brandwein, Undine E Lang, Dimitri Hefter, Dragos Inta
The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a major proliferative agent in the nervous system. Both BDNF-deficiency and perinatal hypoxia represent genetic/environmental risk factors for schizophrenia. Moreover, a decreased BDNF response to birth hypoxia was associated with the disease. BDNF expression is influenced by neuronal activity and environmental conditions such as hypoxia. Thus, it may partake in neuroprotective and reparative mechanisms in acute or chronic neuronal insults. However, the interaction of hypoxia and BDNF is insufficiently understood and the behavioral outcome unknown...
February 16, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406989/excessive-fetal-movements-are-a-sign-of-fetal-compromise-which-merits-further-examination
#14
Alexander E P Heazell, Tomasina Stacey, Louise M O'Brien, Edwin A Mitchell, Jane Warland
Changes in fetal movement are associated with increased risk of stillbirth after 28 weeks of pregnancy. The majority of studies have focussed on maternal perception of reduced fetal movements, which is associated with stillbirth via placental dysfunction. Recent studies have also described an association between a single episode of excessive fetal movements and late stillbirth. We present a hypothesis that a sudden episode of excessive fetal activity indicates fetal compromise relating to underlying disturbance of the in utero environment, which if it persists can lead to fetal death...
February 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355822/mild-prenatal-hypoxia-ischemia-leads-to-social-deficits-and-central-and-peripheral-inflammation-in-exposed-offspring
#15
David J O ' Driscoll, Valeria D Felice, Louise C Kenny, Geraldine B Boylan, Gerard W O'Keeffe
Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) resulting from intrauterine or perinatal hypoxic-ischemia (HI) is a leading cause of long-term neonatal neurodisability. While most studies of long-term outcome have focused on moderate and severe HIE in term infants, recent work has shown that those with mild HIE may have subtle neurological impairments. However, the impact of mild HI on pre-term infants is much less clear given that pre-term birth is itself a risk factor for neurodisability. Here we show that mild HI insult alters behaviour, inflammation and the corticosterone stress response in a rat model of pre-term HIE...
March 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355709/magnesium-sulphate-induces-preconditioning-in-preterm-rodent-models-of-cerebral-hypoxia-ischemia
#16
Gabriella Koning, Ellinor Lyngfelt, Pernilla Svedin, Anna-Lena Leverin, Masako Jinnai, Pierre Gressens, Claire Thornton, Xiaoyang Wang, Carina Mallard, Henrik Hagberg
BACKGROUND: Brain injury in preterm infants represents a substantial clinical problem associated with development of motor impairment, cognitive deficits and psychiatric problems. According to clinical studies, magnesium sulphate (MgSO4 ) given to women in preterm labor reduces the risk of cerebral palsy in the offspring but the mechanisms behind its neuroprotective effects are still unclear. Our aim was to explore whether MgSO4 induces tolerance (preconditioning) in the preterm rodent brain...
February 2, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352997/microglia-and-neonatal-brain-injury
#17
Carina Mallard, Marie-Eve Tremblay, Zinaida S Vexler
Microglial cells are now recognized as the "gate-keepers" of healthy brain microenvironment with their disrupted functions adversely affecting neurovascular integrity, neuronal homeostasis, and network connectivity. The perception that these cells are purely toxic under neurodegenerative conditions has been challenged by a continuously increasing understanding of their complexity, the existence of a broad array of microglial phenotypes, and their ability to rapidly change in a context-dependent manner to attenuate or exacerbate injuries of different nature...
January 17, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346139/blood-biomarkers-for-evaluation-of-perinatal-encephalopathy-state-of-the-art
#18
Ernest M Graham, Allen D Everett, Jean-Christophe Delpech, Frances J Northington
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The rapid progress in biomarker science is on the threshold of significantly changing clinical care for infants in the neonatal ICU. Infants with neonatal brain injuries will likely be the first group whose management is dramatically altered with point-of-care, rapidly available brain biomarker analysis. Providing an interim update on progress in this area is the purpose of this review. RECENT FINDINGS: Highlighted findings from the past 18 months of publications on biomarkers in neonatal brain injury include; Specific nonbrain markers of cardiac health and global asphyxia continue to provide information on brain injury after hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE)...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339173/neuroprotective-effects-of-topiramate-and-memantine-in-combination-with-hypothermia-in-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#19
Elisa Landucci, Luca Filippi, Elisabetta Gerace, Serena Catarzi, Renzo Guerrini, Domenico E Pellegrini-Giampietro
Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a major cause of perinatal mortality and subsequent severe neurological sequelae. Mild hypothermia is a standard therapy for HIE, but is used only in selected Reference Centers and in neonates >1800 g. Since neuronal death following HIE occurs by a cascade of events triggered by activation of glutamate receptors, we used in vitro and in vivo models of HIE to examine whether the AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist topiramate and the NMDA receptor antagonist memantine could exert neuroprotective effects, alone or in combination with hypothermia...
March 6, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335023/early-neonatal-glutaric-aciduria-type-i-hidden-by-perinatal-asphyxia-a-case-report
#20
Giacomo Biasucci, Nicola Morelli, Federica Natacci, Massimo Mastrangelo
BACKGROUND: Perinatal asphyxia (PA) occurs in about 2 to 10 per 1000 live full-term births. Although neonatal epileptic seizures are observed in up to 60% of cases, PA may mimic or subtend other conditions. Hypoxia related brain injury is particularly relevant, as it may have permanent effects on neuropsychomotor development. Antepartum obstetric conditions, may, in turn, lead to hypoxic-ischemic damage to the fetus and the newborn, often underlying PA. Herein, a case of PA that hid and triggered signs and symptoms of Glutaric Aciduria type I (GA-I), is reported...
January 15, 2018: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
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