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perinatal hypoxia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912656/neurological-impairments-in-hypoxic-neonates-and-lactate-levels
#1
Miljana Z Jovandaric, Svetlana J Milenkovic
INTRODUCTION: Metabolic acidosis with increasing lactate concentration develops due to the lack of oxygen in the tissues. OBJECTIVES: The effect of lactic acidosis on neurological development in the first year of life. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our study included 50 newborns with perinatal hypoxia requiring oxygen therapy and 50 healthy newborns. pH, pCO2, pO2, base excess (BE) and lactates from arterialized capillary blood were determined in both groups of newborns, in the first and second hours after birth, and neurological development in the first year of life was estimated...
June 18, 2018: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912599/the-impact-of-nuchal-cord-on-umbilical-cord-blood-gas-analysis-and-ischaemia-modified-albumin-levels-in-elective-c-section
#2
Aslı Yarcı Gursoy, Burcin Ozgu, Yasemin Tasci, Tuba Candar, Salim Erkaya, Gamze Sinem Caglar
This study was designed to evaluate umbilical cord ischaemia-modified albumin (IMA) levels and the cord blood gas parameters of foetuses with or without nuchal cords, at the time of elective C-section. The cross-sectional study population consisted of the patients who were admitted to the Tertiary Care Center between February and June 2015. Women with uncomplicated single term gestations between 37 and 40 completed weeks and scheduled for elective C-sections were included in the study. Fifty cases with a nuchal cord and 50 cases without a nuchal cord were recruited...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29894897/prognostic-model-based-on-image-based-time-frequency-features-and-genetic-algorithm-for-fetal-hypoxia-assessment
#3
Zafer Cömert, Adnan Fatih Kocamaz, Velappan Subha
Cardiotocography (CTG) is applied routinely for fetal monitoring during the perinatal period to decrease the rates of neonatal mortality and morbidity as well as unnecessary interventions. The analysis of CTG traces has become an indispensable part of present clinical practices; however, it also has serious drawbacks, such as poor specificity and variability in its interpretation. The automated CTG analysis is seen as the most promising way to overcome these disadvantages. In this study, a novel prognostic model is proposed for predicting fetal hypoxia from CTG traces based on an innovative approach called image-based time-frequency (IBTF) analysis comprised of a combination of short time Fourier transform (STFT) and gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM)...
June 6, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29887039/xenon-combined-with-hypothermia-in-perinatal-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy-a-noble-gas-a-noble-mission
#4
REVIEW
Ashraf R Amer, Dorothy E Oorschot
Perinatal hypoxia-ischemia is a major cause of neonatal morbidity. It generates primary neuronal damage of the neonatal brain and later secondary damage when reperfusion of the ischemic brain tissue causes a surge of oxygen free radicals and inflammation. This post-hypoxic-ischemic brain damage is a leading cause of motor and intellectual disabilities in survivors. Research worldwide has focused on mitigating this injury. Mild or moderate hypothermia is the standard treatment in many centers. However, its benefit is modest and the search for combinatorial effective neuroprotectants continues...
February 27, 2018: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29879462/pravastatin-l-arginine-combination-improves-umbilical-artery-blood-flow-and-neonatal-outcomes-in-dichorionic-twin-pregnancies-through-an-nitric-oxide-dependent-vasorelaxant-effect
#5
Aleksandar Jurisic, Zaklina Jurisic, Eleftheria Lefkou, Joaquim Pombo, Guillermina Girardi
The increase in fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality associated with twin pregnancies correlates with an increased risk of preterm delivery, low birth weight, and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Although the pathogenesis of IUGR is unclear and thus management remains a major challenge, feto-placental blood vessels are compromised, and altered umbilical blood flow is observed. In this pilot observational study we investigated the effects of pravastatin plus l-arginine on umbilical artery (umb art) blood flow...
June 4, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29874549/impaired-organization-of-gabaergic-neurons-following-prenatal-hypoxia
#6
Haya Nisimov, Ayelet Orenbuch, Samuel J Pleasure, Hava M Golan
Several conditions related to the intrauterine environment are associated with neuropsychiatric conditions in later life. In humans, approximately 2% of infants are exposed to perinatal hypoxia-ischemia or prolonged anoxic insult, a condition to which very low birth weight preterm infants exhibit the highest susceptibility. Analyses of postmortem tissue link some presentations of these conditions to changes in GABA pathway functionality in the brains of affected subjects. Using animal models of early-life hypoxia-ischemia, losses of particular interneuron populations were reported...
June 3, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867720/early-detection-of-hypothermic-neuroprotection-using-t2-weighted-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-a-mouse-model-of-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#7
Sydney E Doman, Akanksha Girish, Christina L Nemeth, Gabrielle T Drummond, Patrice Carr, Maxine S Garcia, Michael V Johnston, Sujatha Kannan, Ali Fatemi, Jiangyang Zhang, Mary Ann Wilson
Perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) can lead to neurodevelopmental disorders, including cerebral palsy. Standard care for neonatal HIE includes therapeutic hypothermia, which provides partial neuroprotection; magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is often used to assess injury and predict outcome after HIE. Immature rodent models of HIE are used to evaluate mechanisms of injury and to examine the efficacy and mechanisms of neuroprotective interventions such as hypothermia. In this study, we first confirmed that, in the CD1 mouse model of perinatal HIE used for our research, MRI obtained 3 h after hypoxic ischemia (HI) could reliably assess initial brain injury and predict histopathological outcome...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29860252/hypothermia-is-neuroprotective-after-severe-hypoxic-ischaemic-brain-injury-in-neonatal-rats-pre-exposed-to-pam3csk4
#8
Mari Falck, Damjan Osredkar, Elke Maes, Torun Flatebø, Thomas Ragnar Wood, Lars Walløe, Hemmen Sabir, Marianne Thoresen
BACKGROUND: Preclinical research on the neuroprotective effect of hypothermia (HT) after perinatal asphyxia has shown variable results, depending on comorbidities and insult severity. Exposure to inflammation increases vulnerability of the neonatal brain to hypoxic-ischaemic (HI) injury, and could be one explanation for those neonates whose injury is unexpectedly severe. Gram-negative type inflammatory exposure by lipopolysaccharide administration prior to a mild HI insult results in moderate brain injury, and hypothermic neuroprotection is negated...
June 1, 2018: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29858855/perinatal-hypoxia-as-a-risk-factor-for-psychopathology-later-in-life-the-role-of-dopamine-and-neurotrophins
#9
REVIEW
Ioanna Giannopoulou, Marianna A Pagida, Despina D Briana, Maria T Panayotacopoulou
Brain development is influenced by various prenatal, intrapartum, and postnatal events which may interact with genotype to affect the neural and psychophysiological systems related to emotions, specific cognitive functions (e.g., attention, memory), and language abilities and thereby heighten the risk for psychopathology later in life. Fetal hypoxia (intrapartum oxygen deprivation), hypoxia-related obstetric complications, and hypoxia during the early neonatal period are major environmental risk factors shown to be associated with an increased risk for later psychopathology...
March 2018: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791868/ontogeny-of-white-matter-toll-like-receptor-expression-and-motor-skills-in-the-neonatal-ferret
#10
Jessica M Snyder, Thomas R Wood, Kylie Corry, Daniel H Moralejo, Pratik Parikh, Sandra E Juul
Inflammation caused by perinatal infection, superimposed with hypoxia and/or hyperoxia, appears to be important in the pathogenesis of preterm neonatal encephalopathy, with white matter particularly vulnerable during the third trimester. The associated inflammatory response is at least partly mediated through Toll-like receptor (TLR)-dependent mechanisms. Immunohistochemistry, gene expression, and behavioral studies were used to characterize white matter development and determine TLR3 and TLR4 expression and accumulation in the neonatal ferret brain...
May 20, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789056/the-six-hour-window-how-the-community-hospital-nursery-can-optimize-outcomes-of-the-infant-with-suspected-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#11
Dafina Ibrani, Shanon Molacavage
Perinatal hypoxia is a devastating event before, during, or immediately after birth that deprives an infant's vital organs of oxygen. This injury at birth often requires a complex resuscitation and increases the newborn's risk of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). The resuscitation team in a community hospital nursery may have less experience with complex resuscitation and post-resuscitation care of this infant than a NICU. This article provides the neonatal nurse in a Level I or Level II nursery with information about resuscitation and post-resuscitation care of an infant at risk of HIE while awaiting transport to a NICU for therapeutic cooling...
May 1, 2018: Neonatal Network: NN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784025/prevalence-of-electrolyte-disturbances-in-perinatal-asphyxia-a-prospective-study
#12
Jitendra Thakur, Nisha Keshary Bhatta, Rupa Rajbhandari Singh, Prakash Poudel, Madhab Lamsal, Anjum Shakya
BACKGROUND: Birth asphyxia is defined as the presence of hypoxia, hypercapnia, and acidosis leading the newborn to systemic disturbances probably electrolyte disturbance also. Knowledge of these electrolyte disturbances is very valuable as it can be an important parameter affecting perinatal morbidity, mortality and ongoing management. METHODS: Serum sodium, potassium and ionized calcium of asphyxiated term newborn were sent within one hour of birth as per the inclusion criteria...
May 21, 2018: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774532/the-fetus-at-the-tipping-point-modifying-the-outcome-of-fetal-asphyxia
#13
Simerdeep K Dhillon, Christopher A Lear, Robert Galinsky, Guido Wassink, Joanne O Davidson, Sandra Juul, Nicola J Robertson, Alistair J Gunn, Laura Bennet
Brain injury around birth is associated with nearly half of all cases of cerebral palsy. Although brain injury is multifactorial, particularly after preterm birth, acute hypoxia-ischaemia is a major contributor to injury. It is now well established that the severity of injury after HI is determined by a dynamic balance between injurious and protective processes. In addition, mothers who are at risk of premature delivery have high rates of diabetes and antepartum infection/inflammation and are almost universally given treatments such as antenatal glucocorticoids and magnesium sulphate to reduce the risk of death and complications after preterm birth...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773977/journey-to-the-center-of-the-fetal-brain-environmental-exposures-and-autophagy
#14
REVIEW
Jun Lei, Pilar Calvo, Richard Vigh, Irina Burd
Fetal brain development is known to be affected by adverse environmental exposures during pregnancy, including infection, inflammation, hypoxia, alcohol, starvation, and toxins. These exposures are thought to alter autophagy activity in the fetal brain, leading to adverse perinatal outcomes, such as cognitive and sensorimotor deficits. This review introduces the physiologic autophagy pathways in the fetal brain. Next, methods to detect and monitor fetal brain autophagy activity are outlined. An additional discussion explores possible mechanisms by which environmental exposures during pregnancy alter fetal brain autophagy activity...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772556/perinatal-brain-injury-mechanisms-and-therapeutic-approaches
#15
Joanne O Davidson, Justin M Dean, Mhoyra Fraser, Guido Wassink, Ted C Andelius, Simerdeep K Dhillon, Laura Bennet, Alistair Jan Gunn
Brain damage resulting from perinatal hypoxia-ischemia evolves slowly over time. While a small number of brain cells may die during a sufficiently profound period of hypoxia-ischemia, many will show initial recovery during a "latent" phase characterized by actively suppressed neural metabolism and activity. Critically, this transient recovery may be followed after ~6 hours by a phase of secondary deterioration, with delayed seizures, failure of mitochondrial function, cytotoxic edema, and bulk cell death over ~72 hours...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753727/gender-dependent-changes-in-physical-development-bdnf-content-and-gsh-redox-system-in-a-model-of-acute-neonatal-hypoxia-in-rats
#16
Iu A Sukhanova, E A Sebentsova, D D Khukhareva, D M Manchenko, N Yu Glazova, P A Vishnyakova, L S Inozemtseva, O V Dolotov, M Y Vysokikh, N G Levitskaya
Perinatal hypoxia-ischaemia is one of the leading factors that negatively influence the development of the central nervous system. Our aim was to investigate the effects of sex on the outcomes of acute neonatal hypoxia (ANH) in rat pups. Male and female Wistar rats were exposed to a hypoxic condition (8% oxygen for 120 min) at postnatal day 2 (P2). Immediately after ANH an increase in HIF1-α gene expression was observed in the rat brains, independently of sex. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and glutathione peroxidase-4 gene expression was increased in female animals only...
May 10, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747893/perinatal-brain-injury-mechanisms-prevention-and-outcomes
#17
REVIEW
Christopher M Novak, Maide Ozen, Irina Burd
Perinatal brain injury may lead to long-term morbidity and neurodevelopmental impairment. Improvements in perinatal care have resulted in the survival of more infants with perinatal brain injury. The effects of hypoxia-ischemia, inflammation, and infection during critical periods of development can lead to a common pathway of perinatal brain injury marked by neuronal excitotoxicity, cellular apoptosis, and microglial activation. Various interventions can prevent or improve the outcomes of different types of perinatal brain injury...
June 2018: Clinics in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740570/influence-of-sex-on-gestational-complications-fetal-to-neonatal-transition-and-postnatal-adaptation
#18
REVIEW
Sheila Lorente-Pozo, Anna Parra-Llorca, Begoña Torres, Isabel Torres-Cuevas, Antonio Nuñez-Ramiro, María Cernada, Ana García-Robles, Maximo Vento
Fetal sex is associated with striking differences during in utero development, fetal-to-neonatal transition, and postnatal morbidity and mortality. Male sex fetuses are apparently protected while in utero resulting in a higher secondary sex rate for males than for females. However, during fetal-to-neonatal transition and thereafter in the newborn period, female exhibits a greater degree of maturation that translates into a better capacity to stabilize, less incidence of prematurity and prematurity-associated morbidities, and better long-term outcomes...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713307/fetal-neuroprotection-by-magnesium-sulfate-from-translational-research-to-clinical-application
#19
REVIEW
Clément Chollat, Loïc Sentilhes, Stéphane Marret
Despite improvements in perinatal care, preterm birth still occurs regularly and the associated brain injury and adverse neurological outcomes remain a persistent challenge. Antenatal magnesium sulfate administration is an intervention with demonstrated neuroprotective effects for preterm births before 32 weeks of gestation (WG). Owing to its biological properties, including its action as an N -methyl-d-aspartate receptor blocker and its anti-inflammatory effects, magnesium is a good candidate for neuroprotection...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706928/repetitive-neonatal-erythropoietin-and-melatonin-combinatorial-treatment-provides-sustained-repair-of-functional-deficits-in-a-rat-model-of-cerebral-palsy
#20
Lauren L Jantzie, Akosua Y Oppong, Fatu S Conteh, Tracylyn R Yellowhair, Joshua Kim, Gabrielle Fink, Adam R Wolin, Frances J Northington, Shenandoah Robinson
Cerebral palsy (CP) is the leading cause of motor impairment for children worldwide and results from perinatal brain injury (PBI). To test novel therapeutics to mitigate deficits from PBI, we developed a rat model of extreme preterm birth (<28 weeks of gestation) that mimics dual intrauterine injury from placental underperfusion and chorioamnionitis. We hypothesized that a sustained postnatal treatment regimen that combines the endogenous neuroreparative agents erythropoietin (EPO) and melatonin (MLT) would mitigate molecular, sensorimotor, and cognitive abnormalities in adults rats following prenatal injury...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
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