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perinatal hypoxia

Gavino Faa, Mirko Manchia, Roberta Pintus, Clara Gerosa, Maria Antonietta Marcialis, Vassilios Fanos
Starting from the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypotheses proposed by David Barker, namely fetal programming, in the past years, there is a growing evidence of the major role played by epigenetic factors during the intrauterine life and the perinatal period. Furthermore, it has been assessed that these factors can affect the health status in infancy and even in adulthood. In this review, we focus our attention on the fetal programming of the brain, analyzing the most recent literature concerning the epigenetic factors that can influence the development of neuropsychiatric disorders such as bipolar disorders, major depressive disorders, and schizophrenia...
October 24, 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part C, Embryo Today: Reviews
Courtney Stanley Sundin, Lauren Bradham Mazac
Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is a rare but serious and potentially deadly complication of pregnancy that is unpreventable and unpredictable. Most AFE events occur during labor; however, approximately one third happen during the immediate postpartum period. Presentation is abrupt and thought to be an abnormal response to fetal materials entering maternal circulation through the placental insertion site. Care providers must recognize the signs and symptoms of AFE and react quickly in effort to treat potential complications...
October 13, 2016: MCN. the American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing
Jorge Soliz, Rose Tam, Richard Kinkead
Perinatal exposure to adverse experiences disrupts brain development, including the brainstem network that regulates breathing. At adulthood, rats previously subjected to stress (in the form of neonatal maternal separation; NMS) display features reported in patients suffering from sleep disordered breathing, including an increased hypoxic ventilatory response and hypertension. This effect is also sex-specific (males only). Based on these observations, we hypothesized that NMS augments the carotid body's O2-chemosensitivity...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Serkalem Tadesse, Nicholas G Norwitz, Seth Guller, Felice Arcuri, Paolo Toti, Errol R Norwitz, Dawit Kidane
Preeclampsia (PE) (gestational proteinuric hypertension) is the leading cause of maternal and perinatal mortality worldwide. Although placental endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress are known to contribute to PE, the exact pathological basis for this disorder remains unclear. Previously, we demonstrated that DNA damage at the maternal-fetal interface is more common in the placentas of women with PE than normotensive controls. In this study, we utilized an in vivo comparative study, including 20 preeclamptic women and 8 healthy control subjects, and an in vitro hypoxia/reperfusion model to mimic the effects of oxidative stress at the maternal-fetal interface...
October 5, 2016: Reproductive Sciences
Ellie Wernham, Jason Gurney, James Stanley, Lis Ellison-Loschmann, Diana Sarfati
BACKGROUND: Internationally, a typical model of maternity care is a medically led system with varying levels of midwifery input. New Zealand has a midwife-led model of care, and there are movements in other countries to adopt such a system. There is a paucity of systemic evaluation that formally investigates safety-related outcomes in relationship to midwife-led care within an entire maternity service. The main objective of this study was to compare major adverse perinatal outcomes between midwife-led and medical-led maternity care in New Zealand...
September 2016: PLoS Medicine
Ryan J Felling, Matthew V Covey, Paul Wolujewicz, Mona Batish, Steven W Levison
Brain injuries, such as cerebral hypoxia-ischemia (H-I), induce a regenerative response from the neural stem/progenitors (NSPs) of the subventricular zone (SVZ); however, the mechanisms that regulate this expansion have not yet been fully elucidated. The Notch- Delta-Serrate-Lag2 (DSL) signaling pathway is considered essential for the maintenance of neural stem cells, but it is not known if it is necessary for the expansion of the NSPs subsequent to perinatal H-I injury. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether this pathway contributes to NSP expansion in the SVZ after H-I and, if so, to establish whether this pathway is directly induced by H-I or regulated by paracrine factors...
December 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Richa Gangwar, Sarita Chaudhary
BACKGROUND: The main documented indication of intrapartum caesarean section is foetal distress (MacKenzie and Cooke in BMJ 323(7318):930, 2001). Foetal distress indicates foetal hypoxia and acidosis during intrauterine life. PURPOSE: To correlate the diagnosis of foetal distress and perinatal outcome. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study of women who underwent caesarean section for foetal distress as detected by cardiotocography and not responding to intrauterine resuscitation...
October 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of India
S Wolf, N Hainz, A Beckmann, C Maack, M D Menger, T Tschernig, C Meier
Perinatal hypoxia is a critical complication during delivery and is mostly studied in animal models of postnatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. We here studied the effects of postnatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in two different sub-strains of C57BL/6 mice, i.e. C57BL/6J and C57BL/6N mice. These two sub-strains show different metabolic properties, for instance an impaired glucose tolerance in C57BL/6J mice. Genetically, this was linked to differences in their nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (Nnt) genes: In C57BL/6J mice, exons 7-11 of the Nnt gene are deleted, resulting in the absence of functional Nnt protein...
November 1, 2016: Brain Research
Mathilde Chevin, Clémence Guiraut, Caroline Maurice-Gelinas, Jessica Deslauriers, Sylvain Grignon, Guillaume Sébire
BACKGROUND: Despite the recent introduction of hypothermia as a mandatory standard of care, the incidence of neonatal encephalopathy in full-term newborns and its devastating neuro-behavioral outcomes continues to be a major individual, familial and social issue. Neonatal encephalopathy is mainly due to the compounding and interacting effects of hypoxia-ischemia and inflammation resulting from placental and other perinatal infections. It is unclear why hypothermia is effective in alleviating neonatal encephalopathy in some, but not all, full-term newborns...
September 9, 2016: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Marcin Gamdzyk, Apolonia Ziembowicz, Ewelina Bratek, Elzbieta Salinska
BACKGROUND: Perinatal hypoxia-ischemia causes brain injury in neonates, but a fully successful treatment to prevent changes in the brain has yet to be developed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of combining memantine treatment with HBO (2.5 ATA) or HH (0.47 ATA) on neonatal hypoxia-ischemia brain injury. METHODS: 7-day old rats were subjected to hypoxia-ischemia (H-I) and treated with combination of memantine and HBO or HH. The brain damage was evaluated by examination of infarct area and the number of apoptotic cells in CA1 region of hippocampus...
October 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Sebastián Castillo-Galán, Sebastián Quezada, Fernando A Moraga, Germán Ebensperger, Emilio A Herrera, Felipe Beñaldo, Ismael Hernandez, Renato Ebensperger, Santiago Ramirez, Anibal J Llanos, Roberto V Reyes
Calcium signaling through store operated channels (SOC) is involved in hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. We determined whether a treatment with 2-aminoethyldiphenylborinate (2-APB), a compound with SOC blocker activity, reduces pulmonary hypertension and vascular remodeling. Twelve newborn lambs exposed to perinatal chronic hypoxia were studied, 6 of them received a 2-APB treatment and the other 6 received vehicle treatment, for 10 days in both cases. Throughout this period, we recorded cardiopulmonary variables and on day 11 we evaluated the response to an acute hypoxic challenge...
August 19, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Leonie Brinks, Rob Mj Moonen, Javier Moral-Sanz, Bianca Barreira, Lilian Kessels, Francisco Perez-Vizcaino, Angel Cogolludo, Eduardo Villamor
The fetal cardiovascular responses to acute hypoxia includes a redistribution of the cardiac output towards the heart and the brain at the expense of other organs, such as the intestine. We hypothesized that hypoxia exerts a direct effect on the mesenteric artery (MA) that may contribute to this response. Using wire myography, we investigated the response to hypoxia (Po2 ~2.5 kPa for 20 min) of isolated MAs from 15- to 21-d chicken embryos (E15, E19 E21), and 1- to 45-d-old chickens (P1, P3, P14, P45). Agonist-induced pretone or an intact endothelium were not required to obtain a consistent and reproducible response to hypoxia, which showed a pattern of initial rapid phasic contraction followed by a sustained tonic contraction...
August 17, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Daniel Sachse, Anne Lee Solevåg, Jens Petter Berg, Britt Nakstad
BACKGROUND: Optimizing resuscitation is important to prevent morbidity and mortality from perinatal asphyxia. The metabolism of cells and tissues is severely disturbed during asphyxia and resuscitation, and metabolomic analyses provide a snapshot of many small molecular weight metabolites in body fluids or tissues. In this study metabolomics profiles were studied in newborn pigs that were asphyxiated and resuscitated using different protocols to identify biomarkers for subject characterization, intervention effects and possibly prognosis...
2016: PloS One
Adam M Sheikh, Heather Yvonne Small, Gemma Currie, Christian Delles
BACKGROUND: Pre-eclampsia (PE) is a complex, multi-systemic condition of pregnancy which greatly impacts maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. MicroRNAs (miRs) are differentially expressed in PE and may be important in helping to understand the condition and its pathogenesis. METHODS: Case-control studies investigating expression of miRs in PE were collected through a systematic literature search. Data was extracted and compared from 58 studies to identify the most promising miRs associated with PE pathogenesis and identify areas of methodology which could account for often conflicting results...
2016: PloS One
Abbot R Laptook
Birth asphyxia, also termed perinatal hypoxia-ischemia, is a modifiable condition as evidenced by improved outcomes of infants ≥36 weeks' gestation provided hypothermia treatment in randomized trials. Preterm animal models of asphyxia in utero demonstrate that hypothermia can provide short-term neuroprotection for the developing brain, supporting the interest in extending therapeutic hypothermia to preterm infants. This review focuses on the challenge of identifying preterm infants with perinatal asphyxia; the neuropathology of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury across extreme, moderate, and late preterm infants; and patterns of brain injury, use of therapeutic hypothermia, and approach to patient selection for neuroprotective treatments among preterm infants...
September 2016: Clinics in Perinatology
Christina A Herrera, Robert M Silver
Perinatal asphyxia is a general term referring to neonatal encephalopathy related to events during birth. Asphyxia refers to a deprivation of oxygen for a duration sufficient to cause neurologic injury. Most cases of perinatal asphyxia are not necessarily caused by intrapartum events but rather associated with underlying chronic maternal or fetal conditions. Of intrapartum causes, obstetric emergencies are the most common and are not always preventable. Screening high-risk pregnancies with ultrasound, Doppler velocimetry, and antenatal testing can aid in identifying fetuses at risk...
September 2016: Clinics in Perinatology
Matthew A Rainaldi, Jeffrey M Perlman
The pathophysiology of asphyxia generally results from interruption of placental blood flow with resultant fetal hypoxia, hypercarbia, and acidosis. Circulatory and noncirculatory adaptive mechanisms exist that allow the fetus to cope with asphyxia and preserve vital organ function. With severe and/or prolonged insults, these compensatory mechanisms fail, resulting in hypoxic ischemic injury, leading to cell death via necrosis and apoptosis. Permanent brain injury is the most severe long-term consequence of perinatal asphyxia...
September 2016: Clinics in Perinatology
Torkil Benterud, Martin B Ystgaard, Sophia Manueldas, Leonid Pankratov, Clara Alfaro-Cervello, Geir Florholmen, Muhammad Shakil Ahmed, Leiv Sandvik, Svante Norgren, Magnar Bjørås, Lars O Baumbusch, Ronnaug Solberg, Ola Didrik Saugstad
BACKGROUND: Perinatal asphyxia and ensuing reoxygenation change the antioxidant capacity of cells and organs. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the neuroprotective effect of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine amide (NACA) after perinatal hypoxia-reoxygenation with an emphasis on proinflammatory cytokines and the transcription factor NF-x03BA;B in the prefrontal cortex of neonatal pigs. METHODS: Twenty-nine newborn pigs, aged 12-36 h, were subjected to global hypoxia and hypercapnia...
August 6, 2016: Neonatology
K Tree, J C Viemari, F Cayetanot, J Peyronnet
Impaired transplacental supply of oxygen leads to intrauterine growth restriction, one of the most important causes of perinatal mortality and respiratory morbidity. Breathing rhythm depends on the central respiratory network modulated by catecholamines. We investigated the impact of growth restriction, using prenatal hypoxia, on respiratory frequency, on central respiratory-like rhythm, and on its catecholaminergic modulation after birth. At birth, respiratory frequency was increased and confirmed in en bloc medullary preparations, where the frequency of the fourth cervical (C4) ventral root discharge was increased, and in slice preparations containing the pre-Bötzinger complex with an increased inspiratory rhythm...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Ernest M Graham, Irina Burd, Allen D Everett, Frances J Northington
Recent research in identification of brain injury after trauma shows many possible blood biomarkers that may help identify the fetus and neonate with encephalopathy. Traumatic brain injury shares many common features with perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Trauma has a hypoxic component, and one of the 1st physiologic consequences of moderate-severe traumatic brain injury is apnea. Trauma and hypoxia-ischemia initiate an excitotoxic cascade and free radical injury followed by the inflammatory cascade, producing injury in neurons, glial cells and white matter...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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