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jc virus treatment

Bin Zhang, Rizhen Huang, Jing Hua, Hong Liang, Yingming Pan, Lumei Dai, Dong Liang, Hengshan Wang
BACKGROUND: Cancer is one of the leading cause of unnatural death globally. There is still a great need for effective anticancer agents from plant sources. Corydalis saxicola Bunting is a medicinal plant that is traditionally used to treat various diseases in southwest China. Previous phytochemical investigations of C. saxicola have focused on isoquinoline alkaloids that have been isolated, which have activity against anti-hepatitis B virus and inhibit DNA topoisomerase I. However, the exploration of other classes of constituents and their bioactivities needs further study...
December 1, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Heidi Barth, Morgane Solis, Quentin Lepiller, Charlotte Sueur, Eric Soulier, Sophie Caillard, Françoise Stoll-Keller, Samira Fafi-Kremer
Nearly 45 years after the discovery of the first two human polyomaviruses BK and JC, their life-long persistence and mechanisms of pathogenesis remain poorly understood and efficient antiviral treatments are severely lacking. In this review, we sought to provide an update on recent advances in understanding the life cycle of these two viruses, particularly focusing on their interaction with the host immune system and pathogenesis. We have also discussed novel treatment approaches and highlighted areas of future research...
November 1, 2016: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Jennifer Trofe-Clark, Deirdre Sawinski
For more than 40 years, polyomaviruses (BK virus and JC virus) have been known to cause disease in human beings. Recently, 11 new polyomaviruses were discovered. However, the majority of these viruses are rare in renal transplant recipients and BK and JC viruses remain the most important polyomaviruses to impact this population. BK virus presents as BK virus nephropathy and has, in rare instances, been associated with hemorrhagic cystitis or ureteral strictures. JC virus can cause progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy or nephropathy in this population as well, but is uncommon...
September 2016: Seminars in Nephrology
J Comerlato, F Souza-Campos, T Souza-Arantes, M I Roos-Kulmann, M Trindade-Oliveira, F Rosado-Spilki, A P Guedes-Frazzon, P M Roehe, A C Franco
The human polyomaviruses JC and BK (JCPyV and BKPyV) are ubiquitous, species-specific viruses that belong to the family Polyomaviridae. These viruses are known to be excreted in human urine, and they are potential indicators of human wastewater contamination. In order to assess the distribution of both JCPyV and BKPyV in urban water samples collected from a sewage treatment plant (STP) and from a canalized water stream of Porto Alegre, Brazil, two nested-PCR assays were optimized and applied to the samples collected...
September 26, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
J Mallada, N Perez-Carmona, L Berenguer-Ruiz, R Sanchez-Perez, R Martin-Gonzalez, D Sola-Martinez, S Mola, J M Lopez-Arlandis, R Vela-Yebra, L Gabaldon-Torres, E Freire-Alvarez, A Garcia-Escriva, A P Sempere
INTRODUCTION: Post-authorisation studies are important to confirm whether the outcomes of clinical trials are reproduced in usual clinical practice. AIMS: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of fingolimod in clinical practice in the province of Alicante. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective multi-centre study was conducted with remitting multiple sclerosis patients treated with fingolimod. Demographic, clinical and pharmacological data were collected...
September 5, 2016: Revista de Neurologia
Jahir Andres Miranda Acuña, Bianca Weinstock-Guttman
BACKGROUND: Natalizumab (NTZ) is an effective therapy for multiple sclerosis (MS). A common concern related to NTZ therapy is the risk of developing progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). CLINICAL CASE: A patient that after seven years on NTZ therapy, testing on every 3 months repeated evaluations negative for anti-JCV status became positive (>3 units) 4 weeks after receiving influenza vaccine. Despite continuous therapy on NTZ for additional 2 years her anti-JCV index progressively declined to a level 0...
September 2016: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Yuanyuan Qiu, Bonita E Lee, Norma J Ruecker, Norman Neumann, Nicholas Ashbolt, Xiaoli Pang
A one-step centrifugal ultrafiltration method was developed to enhance rapid detection of human enteric viruses and co-occurring viruses in wastewater. Samples were collected pre- and post-UV treatment at two full-scale tertiary municipal wastewater treatment plants in Calgary, Canada. Viruses were concentrated from 100mL wastewater samples through direct centrifugation using the Centricon Plus-70 ultrafilter. Seven viruses, including norovirus, rotavirus, sapovirus, astrovirus, enterovirus, adenovirus and JC virus, were tested using real-time quantitative PCR (rt-qPCR) and cell culture...
November 2016: Journal of Virological Methods
Bradley W Schmitz, Masaaki Kitajima, Maria E Campillo, Charles P Gerba, Ian L Pepper
The present study investigated wastewater treatment for the removal of 11 different virus types (pepper mild mottle virus; Aichi virus; genogroup I, II, and IV noroviruses; enterovirus; sapovirus; group-A rotavirus; adenovirus; and JC and BK polyomaviruses) by two wastewater treatment facilities utilizing advanced Bardenpho technology and compared the results with conventional treatment processes. To our knowledge, this is the first study comparing full-scale treatment processes that all received sewage influent from the same region...
September 6, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Yvan Jamilloux, Sébastien Kerever, Tristan Ferry, Christiane Broussolle, Jérôme Honnorat, Pascal Sève
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a rare, JC-virus-mediated, demyelinating disease with a high mortality rate. As no recommended treatment exists, mirtazapine, a potential blocker of virus entry into cells, has been empirically used. METHODS: We analysed existing data on mirtazapine's efficacy to treat PML by systematically reviewing the literature since 2005, when it was first used. RESULTS: Searches in PubMed, EBSCO, SCOPUS and Google Scholar between January 2005 and December 2015, identified five cohort studies and 74 case reports...
October 2016: Clinical Drug Investigation
Dominique Bonafoux, Suganthini Nanthakumar, Upul K Bandarage, Christine Memmott, Derek Lowe, Alex M Aronov, Govinda Rao Bhisetti, Kenneth C Bonanno, Joyce Coll, Joshua Leeman, Christopher A Lepre, Fan Lu, Emanuele Perola, Rene Rijnbrand, William P Taylor, Dean Wilson, Yi Zhou, Jacque Zwahlen, Ernst Ter Haar
There are currently no treatments for life-threatening infections caused by human polyomaviruses JCV and BKV. We therefore report herein the first crystal structure of the hexameric helicase of JCV large T antigen (apo) and its use to drive the structure-based design of dual JCV and BKV ATP-competitive inhibitors. The crystal structures obtained by soaking our early inhibitors into the JCV helicase allowed us to rapidly improve the biochemical activity of our inhibitors from 18 μM for the early 6-(2-methoxyphenyl)- and the 6-(2-ethoxyphenyl)-[1,2,4]triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]thiadiazole hits 1a and 1b to 0...
August 11, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Nobuo Sanjo, Satoko Kina, Yukiko Shishido-Hara, Yurie Nose, Satoru Ishibashi, Tetsuya Fukuda, Taketoshi Maehara, Yoshinobu Eishi, Hidehiro Mizusawa, Takanori Yokota
A 53-year-old man was admitted for sub-acute progressive dementia and Gerstmann syndrome. MRI demonstrated lesions in the white matter involving the left parietal lobe, accompanied by speckled or faint linear peripheral enhancement. Brain biopsy revealed JC virus infection in oligodendrocytes and balanced infiltration of CD8+ and CD4+ T lymphocytes. We diagnosed progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) with controlled inflammation. The finding of CD4/CD8 T cells in the infected PML brain suggested therapeutically valuable immune system involvement, which we decided to preserve by withholding corticosteroids...
2016: Internal Medicine
Tatsuya Asami, Hiroyuki Katayama, Jason Robert Torrey, Chettiyappan Visvanathan, Hiroaki Furumai
In order to properly assess and manage the risk of infection by enteric viruses in tap water, virus removal efficiency should be evaluated quantitatively for individual processes in actual drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs); however, there have been only a few studies due to technical difficulties in quantifying low virus concentration in water samples. In this study, the removal efficiency of indigenous viruses was evaluated for coagulation-sedimentation (CS) and rapid sand filtration (RSF) processes in a DWTP in Bangkok, Thailand by measuring the concentration of viruses before and after treatment processes using real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)...
September 15, 2016: Water Research
X Fernandez-Cassi, C Silvera, S Cervero-Aragó, M Rusiñol, F Latif-Eugeni, C Bruguera-Casamada, S Civit, R M Araujo, M J Figueras, R Girones, S Bofill-Mas
The use of lagooning as a complementary natural method of treating secondary effluents of wastewater treatment plants has been employed as an affordable and easy means of producing reclaimed water. However, using reclaimed water for some purposes, for example, for food irrigation, presents some risks if the effluents contain microbial pathogens. Classical bacterial indicators that are used to assess faecal contamination in water do not always properly indicate the presence of bacterial or viral pathogens. In the current study, the presence of faecal indicator bacteria (FIB), heterotrophic bacterial counts (HBC), pathogens and opportunistic pathogens, such as Legionella spp...
August 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Turgay Ebiloglu, Engin Kaya, Sercan Yilmaz, Gökhan Özgür, Yusuf Kibar
Haemorrhagic Cystitis (HC) is defined as diffuse inflammatory bladder bleeding due to many aetiologies. Massive HC often arises from anticancer chemotherapy or radiotherapy for the treatment of pelvic malignancies. Phosphamides are the anti-cancer drugs used for treating breast cancer, B-cell lymphoma, leukemia, rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythaematosis by cross-linking strands of DNA and preventing the cell division. They are also used in bone marrow transplantation for prevention of Graft Versus Host Disease (GVHD)...
April 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Liangwei Qiao, Qingshan Qu, Xin Jiang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate value of quantitative and qualitative detection of BK virus (BKV) and JC virus (JCV) in timely diagnosing polyomavirus-associated nephropathy (PVAN) occurring inrenal transplantation recipients. METHODS: We collected 306 cases of urine specimen and 310 cases of blood specimen from 306 patients who underwent renal transplant. Levels of BKV and JCV in blood and urine were detected using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
March 2016: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
M I Domínguez-Mozo, E Toledano-Martínez, L Rodríguez-Rodríguez, M García-Montojo, R Alvarez-Lafuente, B Fernández-Gutiérrez
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the presence of John Cunningham virus (JCV) DNA in patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARDs) treated with rituximab (RTX). METHOD: We assessed the JCV DNA levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC), serum, and urine samples by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in a cohort of 42 ARD patients (20 of whom were being treated with RTX) and 42 healthy donors. Approximately 1 year later, we collected further samples from 32 of these 42 ARD patients, all of whom were being treated with RTX...
April 11, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology
Peter Alping, Thomas Frisell, Lenka Novakova, Protik Islam-Jakobsson, Jonatan Salzer, Anna Björck, Markus Axelsson, Clas Malmeström, Katharina Fink, Jan Lycke, Anders Svenningsson, Fredrik Piehl
OBJECTIVE: Many JC virus antibody-positive relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients who are stable on natalizumab switch to other therapies to avoid progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. METHODS: We compared outcomes for all RRMS patients switching from natalizumab due to JC virus antibody positivity at 3 Swedish multiple sclerosis centers with different preferential use of rituximab and fingolimod (Stockholm, n = 156, fingolimod 51%; Gothenburg, n = 64, fingolimod 88%; Umeå, n = 36, fingolimod 19%), yielding a total cohort of N = 256 (fingolimod 55%)...
June 2016: Annals of Neurology
A Vennegoor, J A van Rossum, C Leurs, M P Wattjes, T Rispens, J L A N Murk, B M J Uitdehaag, J Killestein
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: John Cunningham virus (JCV) seropositivity is a risk factor for the development of natalizumab-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. When JCV seronegative patients seroconvert, their risk of developing PML increases. Limited longitudinal data exist about the seroconversion rate amongst natalizumab-treated relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients. Our objective was to evaluate the seroconversion rate in a large Dutch cohort of natalizumab-treated RRMS patients...
June 2016: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
S Sainz-de-la-Maza, J L Casado, M J Pérez-Elías, A Moreno, C Quereda, S Moreno, I Corral
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (PML-IRIS) is the paradoxical worsening or unmasking of preexisting infection with JC virus attributable to a rapid recovery of the immune system after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) initiation. We investigated the incidence and factors associated with PML-IRIS in HIV-infected patients. We also studied its influence on mortality of PML and the effect of corticosteroid therapy...
May 2016: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Amandine Mathias, Guillaume Perriard, Mathieu Canales, Fanny Vuilleumier, Gaetano Perrotta, Myriam Schluep, Renaud Du Pasquier
OBJECTIVE: To assess longitudinally the antiviral immune response of T cells from patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) treated with fingolimod (FTY) vs other disease-modifying treatments (DMTs). METHODS: We assessed cellular immune responses specific to influenza virus (FLU), JC virus (JCV), and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) using quantification of interferon-γ secretion by enzyme-linked immunospot in patients with MS on FTY (n = 31), including 2 with herpes zoster (HZ), natalizumab (n = 11), and other DMTs (n = 11)...
April 2016: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
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