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Planarian regeneration

Eric M Hill, Christian P Petersen
Most animals undergo homeostatic tissue maintenance, yet those capable of robust regeneration in adulthood use mechanisms significantly overlapping with homeostasis. Here we show in planarians that modulations to body-wide patterning systems shift the target site for eye regeneration while still enabling homeostasis of eyes outside this region. The uncoupling of homeostasis and regeneration, which can occur during normal positional rescaling after axis truncation, is not due to altered injury signaling or stem cell activity, nor specific to eye tissue...
March 16, 2018: ELife
Kutay Deniz Atabay, Samuel A LoCascio, Thom de Hoog, Peter W Reddien
During animal regeneration cells must organize into discrete and functional systems. We show that self-organization, along with patterning cues, govern progenitor behavior in planarian regeneration. Surgical paradigms allowed manipulation of planarian eye regeneration in predictable locations and numbers, generating alternative stable neuroanatomical states for wild-type animals with multiple functional ectopic eyes. We utilized animals with multiple ectopic eyes and eye transplantation to demonstrate that broad progenitor specification, combined with self-organization, allows anatomy maintenance during regeneration...
March 15, 2018: Science
Leonardo Rossi, Alessandra Salvetti
Stem cell fate depends on surrounding microenvironment, the so called niche. For this reason, understanding stem cell niche is one of the most challenging target in cell biology field and need to be unraveled with in vivo studies. Planarians offer this unique opportunity, as their stem cells, the neoblasts, are abundant, highly characterized and genetically modifiable by RNA interference in alive animals. However, despite impressive advances have been done in the understanding planarian stem cells and regeneration, only a few information is available in defining signals from differentiated tissues, which affect neoblast stemness and fate...
March 10, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Sabarinath Subramanian Peruvemba, Ponnusamy Babu, Dasaradhi Palakodeti, Ramaswamy Subramanian
Cell surface-associated glycans mediate many cellular processes, including adhesion, migration, signaling, and extracellular matrix organization. The galactosylation of core fucose (GalFuc epitope) in paucimannose and complex-type N-glycans is characteristic of protostome organisms, including flatworms (planarians). Though uninvestigated, the structures of these glycans may play a role in planarian regeneration. Whole-organism MALDI-MS analysis of N-linked oligosaccharides from the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea were found to contain multiple isomeric high mannose and paucimannose structures with unusual mono-, di- and poly-galactosylated(n=3-5) core fucose structures - the latter structures unreported in other systems...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Althiéris S Saraiva, Renato A Sarmento, Oksana Golovko, Tomas Randak, João L T Pestana, Amadeu M V M Soares
The fungicide cyproconazole (CPZ) inhibits the biosynthesis of ergosterol, an essential sterol component in fungal cell membrane and can also affect non-target organisms by its inhibitory effects on P450 monooxygenases. The predicted environmental concentration of CPZ is up to 49.05 μg/L and 145.89 μg/kg in surface waters and sediments, respectively, and information about CPZ toxicity towards non-target aquatic organisms is still limited. This study aimed to address the lack of ecotoxicological data for CPZ, and thus, an evaluation of the lethal and sub-lethal effects of CPZ was performed using two freshwater invertebrates (the midge Chironomus riparius and the planarian Dugesia tigrina)...
February 18, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Magda Grudniewska, Stijn Mouton, Margriet Grelling, Anouk H G Wolters, Jeroen Kuipers, Ben N G Giepmans, Eugene Berezikov
Free-living flatworms, such as the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea, are extensively used as model organisms to study stem cells and regeneration. The majority of flatworm studies so far focused on broadly conserved genes. However, investigating what makes these animals different is equally informative for understanding its biology and might have biomedical value. We re-analyzed the neoblast and germline transcriptional signatures of the flatworm M. lignano using an improved transcriptome assembly and show that germline-enriched genes have a high fraction of flatworm-specific genes...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jun Aruga
Lophotrochozoa is a sister taxon of Ecdysozoa in the Protostomia that includes mollusks, annelids, brachiopods, and platyhelminths. Recent studies have clarified the structure, expression, and roles of lophotrochozoan Zic family genes. Zic genes in oligochaete annelid Tubifex tubifex (freshwater sludge worm) and polychaete annelid Capitella teleta (bristle worm) are commonly expressed in a subset of developing brain and mesoderm derivatives. The latter includes the naïve mesoderm and the associated chaetal sacs in each body segment, although the segmentation processes differ between the two species...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Md Shahanoor Alam, Hideaki Moriyama, Midori Matsumoto
The DUT gene encodes Deoxyuridine triphosphatase (dUTPase), which is involved in nucleotide metabolism. dUTPase prevents uracil misincorporation in DNA by balancing the intracellular ratio between dUTP and dTTP. This study aimed to investigate the role of Dr-dut gene in the planarian Dugesia ryukyuensis by assessing the consequences of Dr-dut silencing on known phenomena, including regeneration following amputation and radiation damage. We functionally disrupted planarian Dr-dut mRNA by feeding RNAi-containing food to animals...
February 5, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Markus Alexander Grohme, Siegfried Schloissnig, Andrei Rozanski, Martin Pippel, George Robert Young, Sylke Winkler, Holger Brandl, Ian Henry, Andreas Dahl, Sean Powell, Michael Hiller, Eugene Myers, Jochen Christian Rink
The planarian Schmidtea mediterranea is an important model for stem cell research and regeneration, but adequate genome resources for this species have been lacking. Here we report a highly contiguous genome assembly of S. mediterranea, using long-read sequencing and a de novo assembler (MARVEL) enhanced for low-complexity reads. The S. mediterranea genome is highly polymorphic and repetitive, and harbours a novel class of giant retroelements. Furthermore, the genome assembly lacks a number of highly conserved genes, including critical components of the mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint, but planarians maintain checkpoint function...
January 24, 2018: Nature
Sébastien Darras, Jens H Fritzenwanker, Kevin R Uhlinger, Ellyn Farrelly, Ariel M Pani, Imogen A Hurley, Rachael P Norris, Michelle Osovitz, Mark Terasaki, Mike Wu, Jochanan Aronowicz, Marc Kirschner, John C Gerhart, Christopher J Lowe
The Wnt family of secreted proteins has been proposed to play a conserved role in early specification of the bilaterian anteroposterior (A/P) axis. This hypothesis is based predominantly on data from vertebrate embryogenesis as well as planarian regeneration and homeostasis, indicating that canonical Wnt (cWnt) signaling endows cells with positional information along the A/P axis. Outside of these phyla, there is strong support for a conserved role of cWnt signaling in the repression of anterior fates, but little comparative support for a conserved role in promotion of posterior fates...
January 16, 2018: PLoS Biology
Michael Levin, Junji Morokuma, Joshua Finkelstein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Regeneration
Suthira Owlarn, Felix Klenner, David Schmidt, Franziska Rabert, Antonio Tomasso, Hanna Reuter, Medhanie A Mulaw, Sören Moritz, Luca Gentile, Gilbert Weidinger, Kerstin Bartscherer
Despite the identification of numerous regulators of regeneration in different animal models, a fundamental question remains: why do some wounds trigger the full regeneration of lost body parts, whereas others resolve by mere healing? By selectively inhibiting regeneration initiation, but not the formation of a wound epidermis, here we create headless planarians and finless zebrafish. Strikingly, in both missing-tissue contexts, injuries that normally do not trigger regeneration activate complete restoration of heads and fin rays...
December 22, 2017: Nature Communications
Nathan J Kenny, Jasper M de Goeij, Didier M de Bakker, Casey G Whalen, Eugene Berezikov, Ana Riesgo
Regeneration is an essential process for all multicellular organisms, allowing them to recover effectively from internal and external injury. This process has been studied extensively in a medical context in vertebrates, with pathways often investigated mechanistically, both to derive increased understanding and as potential drug targets for therapy. Several species from other parts of the metazoan tree of life, including Hydra, planarians and echinoderms, noted for their regenerative capabilities, have previously been targeted for study...
November 29, 2017: Marine Genomics
S Castillo-Lara, J F Abril
Motivation: Planarians are emerging as a model organism to study regeneration in animals. However, the little available data of protein-protein interactions hinders the advances in understanding the mechanisms underlying its regenerating capabilities. Results: We have developed a protocol to predict protein-protein interactions using sequence homology data and a reference Human interactome. This methodology was applied on eleven Schmidtea mediterranea transcriptomic sequence datasets...
November 24, 2017: Bioinformatics
M Lucila Scimone, Lauren E Cote, Peter W Reddien
The ability to regenerate missing body parts exists throughout the animal kingdom. Positional information is crucial for regeneration, but how it is harboured and used by differentiated tissues is poorly understood. In planarians, positional information has been identified from study of phenotypes caused by RNA interference in which the wrong tissues are regenerated. For example, inhibition of the Wnt signalling pathway leads to regeneration of heads in place of tails. Characterization of these phenotypes has led to the identification of position control genes (PCGs)-genes that are expressed in a constitutive and regional manner and are associated with patterning...
November 30, 2017: Nature
Danielle Hagstrom, Siqi Zhang, Alicia Ho, Eileen S Tsai, Zoran Radić, Aryo Jahromi, Kelson J Kaj, Yingtian He, Palmer Taylor, Eva-Maria S Collins
The asexual freshwater planarian Dugesia japonica has emerged as a medium-throughput alternative animal model for neurotoxicology. We have previously shown that D. japonica are sensitive to organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) and characterized the in vitro inhibition profile of planarian cholinesterase (DjChE) activity using irreversible and reversible inhibitors. We found that DjChE has intermediate features of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). Here, we identify two candidate genes (Djche1 and Djche2) responsible for DjChE activity...
November 22, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
Xinwen He, Nicole Lindsay-Mosher, Yan Li, Alyssa M Molinaro, Jason Pellettieri, Bret J Pearson
Many pigment cells acquire unique structural properties and gene expression profiles during animal development. The underlying differentiation pathways have been well characterized in cells formed during embryogenesis, such as the neural crest-derived melanocyte. However, much less is known about the developmental origins of pigment cells produced in adult organisms during tissue homeostasis and repair. Here we report a lineage analysis of ommochrome- and porphyrin-producing cells in the brown, freshwater planarian Schmidtea mediterranea Using an RNA-sequencing approach, we identified two classes of markers expressed in sequential fashion when new pigment cells are generated during regeneration or in response to pigment cell ablation...
December 15, 2017: Development
An-Sofie Stevens, Annelies Wouters, Jan-Pieter Ploem, Nicky Pirotte, Andromeda Van Roten, Maxime Willems, Niels Hellings, Carmen Franken, Gudrun Koppen, Tom Artois, Michelle Plusquin, Karen Smeets
Aiming to in vivo characterise the responses of pluripotent stem cells and regenerative tissues to carcinogenic stress, we employed the highly regenerative organism Schmidtea mediterranea. Its broad regenerative capacities are attributable to a large pool of pluripotent stem cells, which are considered key players in the lower vulnerability towards chemically-induced carcinogenesis observed in regenerative organisms. S. mediterranea is, therefore, an ideal model to study pluripotent stem cell responses with stem cells residing in their natural environment...
November 14, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Oné R Pagán
Although planarians are established model organisms in developmental biology and regeneration studies, in the last forty years or so, they have caught the attention of pharmacologists, especially to study the pharmacology of drugs of abuse. This review covers the following topics: some fundamentals of the history of animal models and planarians in biomedical research; an abbreviated story of systematic pharmacology research using planarians as a model organism; an example of how planarians are contributing to the search for compounds against acute cocaine toxicity; an analysis of the number of papers on planarians and pharmacological topics from 1900-2016; some perspectives on pharmacology in developmental and regeneration studies, arguing in favor of the planarian model as a leading subject for this interdisciplinary area of research, and finally some concluding thoughts...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Yue Li, An Zeng, Xiao-Shuan Han, Ge Li, Yong-Qin Li, Bairong Shen, Qing Jing
Small noncoding RNAs play a pivotal role in the regulation of gene expression, and are key regulators of animal development. Freshwater planarian exhibits an extraordinary ability to regenerate any missing body parts, representing an emerging model for studying mechanism underlying stem cell regulation and tissue regeneration. Here, we utilized next-generation sequencing (NGS) to identify small RNAs that are expressed in planarian adult stem cells, and are implicated in tissue regeneration. We profiled microRNAs (miRNAs), piwi-interacting RNA (piRNAs), small rDNA-derived RNAs (srRNAs) and endogenous interfering RNAs (endo-siRNAs) population from size 18-30 nt, measured the expression of 244 conserved miRNAs, and identified 41 novel miRNAs and 64 novel endo-siRNAs...
December 2017: Genomics Data
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