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Planarian regeneration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331971/an-integrated-view-of-asteroid-regeneration-tissues-cells-and-molecules
#1
REVIEW
Yousra Ben Khadra, Michela Sugni, Cinzia Ferrario, Francesco Bonasoro, Ana Varela Coelho, Pedro Martinez, Maria Daniela Candia Carnevali
The potential for repairing and replacing cells, tissues, organs and body parts is considered a primitive attribute of life shared by all the organisms, even though it may be expressed to a different extent and which is essential for the survival of both individual and whole species. The ability to regenerate is particularly evident and widespread within invertebrates. In spite of the wide availability of experimental models, regeneration has been comprehensively explored in only a few animal systems (i.e., hydrozoans, planarians, urodeles) leaving many other animal groups unexplored...
March 22, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326682/nervous-system-development-and-regeneration-in-freshwater-planarians
#2
REVIEW
Kelly G Ross, Ko W Currie, Bret J Pearson, Ricardo M Zayas
Planarians have a long history in the fields of developmental and regenerative biology. These animals have also sparked interest in neuroscience due to their neuroanatomy, spectrum of simple behaviors, and especially, their almost unparalleled ability to generate new neurons after any type of injury. Research in adult planarians has revealed that neuronal subtypes homologous to those found in vertebrates are generated from stem cells throughout their lives. This feat is recapitulated after head amputation, wherein animals are capable of regenerating whole brains and regaining complete neural function...
March 22, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324191/planarian-homolog-of-puromycin-sensitive-aminopeptidase-djpsa-is-required-for-brain-regeneration
#3
Suge Wu, Bin Liu, Zuoqing Yuan, Xiufang Zhang, Hong Liu, Qiuxiang Pang, Bosheng Zhao
Puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase (PSA) belongs to the M1 zinc metallopeptidase family. PSA is the most abundant aminopeptidase in the brain and plays a role in the metabolism of neuropeptides including those involved in neurodegeneration. A cDNA DjPsa was identified from the planarian Dugesia japonica cDNA library. It contains a 639-bp open reading frame corresponding to a deduced protein of 212 amino acids. Whole mount in situ hybridization revealed that DjPsa is expressed in the brain and ventral nerve cords of intact and regenerating animals and demonstrates a tissue and stage-specific expression pattern of DjPsa in developing embryos and larvae...
June 2017: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322998/14-3-3-%C3%AE-and-14-3-3-%C3%AE-contribute-to-immune-responses-in-planarian-dugesia-japonica
#4
Qingqing Lu, Suge Wu, Hui Zhen, Hongkuan Deng, Qian Song, Kaifu Ma, Zhonghong Cao, Qiuxiang Pang, Bosheng Zhao
14-3-3 proteins are a family of highly conserved acidic proteins that regulate cellular processes. They act as a kind of important signaling molecules taking part in many crucial decisions throughout the development process. We have isolated and characterized two members of the 14-3-3 family, namely, Dj14-3-3 α and Dj14-3-3 ζ in the planarian Dugesia japonica. The Dj14-3-3 α and ζ genes encode polypeptides of 260 and 255 amino acids respectively. We have proved that the Dj14-3-3 α and ζ genes were especially expressed in the pharynx in adult and regenerating planarians by in situ hybridization and they are not involved in regeneration process...
March 16, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292427/planarian-epidermal-stem-cells-respond-to-positional-cues-to-promote-cell-type-diversity
#5
Omri Wurtzel, Isaac M Oderberg, Peter W Reddien
Successful regeneration requires that progenitors of different lineages form the appropriate missing cell types. However, simply generating lineages is not enough. Cells produced by a particular lineage often have distinct functions depending on their position within the organism. How this occurs in regeneration is largely unexplored. In planarian regeneration, new cells arise from a proliferative cell population (neoblasts). We used the planarian epidermal lineage to study how the location of adult progenitor cells results in their acquisition of distinct functional identities...
March 13, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287248/the-pioneer-factor-smed-gata456-1-is-required-for-gut-cell-differentiation-and-maintenance-in-planarians
#6
Alejandro González-Sastre, Nídia De Sousa, Teresa Adell, Emili Saló
How adult stem cells differentiate into different cell types remains one of the most intriguing questions in regenerative medicine. Pioneer factors are transcription factors that can bind to and open chromatin, and are among the first elements involved in cell differentiation. We used the freshwater planarian Schmidtea mediterranea as a model system to study the role of the gata456 family of pioneer factors in gut cell differentiation during both regeneration and maintenance of the digestive system. Our findings reveal the presence of two members of the gata456 family in the Schmidtea mediterranea genome; Smed-gata456-1 and Smed-gata456-2...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287246/the-natural-compound-sanguinarine-perturbs-the-regenerative-capabilities-of-planarians
#7
Linda Balestrini, Alessia Di Donfrancesco, Leonardo Rossi, Silvia Marracci, Maria E Isolani, Anna M Bianucci, Renata Batistoni
The natural alkaloid sanguinarine has remarkable therapeutic properties and has been used for centuries as a folk remedy. This compound exhibits interesting anticancer properties and is currently receiving attention as a potential chemotherapeutic agent. Nevertheless, limited information exists regarding its safety for developing organisms. Planarians are an animal model known for their extraordinary stem cell-based regenerative capabilities and are increasingly used for toxicological and pharmacological studies...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267972/regeneration-organizing-the-blastema-in-planarians
#8
Christian P Petersen
The processes that trigger regeneration after injury and link new and old tissue are not fully understood. New findings indicate that, after decapitation, planarians build an organizing center from stem cells at the old midline that directs head patterning and outgrowth.
March 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245923/eye-absence-does-not-regulate-planarian-stem-cells-during-eye-regeneration
#9
Samuel A LoCascio, Sylvain W Lapan, Peter W Reddien
Dividing cells called neoblasts contain pluripotent stem cells and drive planarian flatworm regeneration from diverse injuries. A long-standing question is whether neoblasts directly sense and respond to the identity of missing tissues during regeneration. We used the eye to investigate this question. Surprisingly, eye removal was neither sufficient nor necessary for neoblasts to increase eye progenitor production. Neoblasts normally increase eye progenitor production following decapitation, facilitating regeneration...
February 27, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219778/identification-and-characterization-of-a-novel-multifunctional-placenta-specific-protein-8-in-dugesia-japonica
#10
Qiuxiang Pang, Lili Gao, Yun Bai, Hongkuan Deng, Yu Han, Wenjing Hu, Yanhui Zhang, Shanhang Yuan, Wenping Sun, Yiqian Lu, Xiufang Zhang, Baohua Liu, Bosheng Zhao
Placenta specific protein 8 (Plac8) has been well studied in vertebrates, yet little is known in invertebrates. In this study, a novel Plac8 from the planarian Dugesia japonica was identified and its functions in immune responses and development were characterized. Our results show that Djplac8 was expressed in the pharynx, epidermis and intestine of intact adult planarian. The expression of DjPlac8 increased significantly upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge, and inhibited the growth of the Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa), suggesting the role of Plac8 in immune response...
May 20, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216315/landmarks-in-existing-tissue-at-wounds-are-utilized-to-generate-pattern-in-regenerating-tissue
#11
Isaac M Oderberg, Dayan J Li, M Lucila Scimone, Michael A Gaviño, Peter W Reddien
Regeneration in many organisms involves the formation of a blastema, which differentiates and organizes into the appropriate missing tissues. How blastema pattern is generated and integrated with pre-existing tissues is a central question in the field of regeneration. Planarians are free-living flatworms capable of rapidly regenerating from small body fragments [1]. A cell cluster at the anterior tip of planarian head blastemas (the anterior pole) is required for anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) blastema patterning [2-4]...
March 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171748/antagonistic-self-organizing-patterning-systems-control-maintenance-and-regeneration-of-the-anteroposterior-axis-in-planarians
#12
Tom Stückemann, James Patrick Cleland, Steffen Werner, Hanh Thi-Kim Vu, Robert Bayersdorf, Shang-Yun Liu, Benjamin Friedrich, Frank Jülicher, Jochen Christian Rink
Planarian flatworms maintain their body plan in the face of constant internal turnover and can regenerate from arbitrary tissue fragments. Both phenomena require self-maintaining and self-organizing patterning mechanisms, the molecular mechanisms of which remain poorly understood. We show that a morphogenic gradient of canonical Wnt signaling patterns gene expression along the planarian anteroposterior (A/P) axis. Our results demonstrate that gradient formation likely occurs autonomously in the tail and that an autoregulatory module of Wnt-mediated Wnt expression both shapes the gradient at steady state and governs its re-establishment during regeneration...
February 6, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137894/integrins-are-required-for-tissue-organization-and-restriction-of-neurogenesis-in-regenerating-planarians
#13
Florian Seebeck, Martin März, Anna-Wiebke Meyer, Hanna Reuter, Matthias C Vogg, Martin Stehling, Karina Mildner, Dagmar Zeuschner, Franziska Rabert, Kerstin Bartscherer
Tissue regeneration depends on proliferative cells and on cues that regulate cell division, differentiation, patterning and the restriction of these processes once regeneration is complete. In planarians, flatworms with high regenerative potential, muscle cells express some of these instructive cues. Here we show that members of the Integrin family of adhesion molecules are required for the integrity of regenerating tissues, including the musculature. Remarkably, in regenerating β1-integrin RNAi planarians, we detected increased numbers of mitotic cells and progenitor cell types, as well as a reduced ability of stem cells and lineage restricted progenitor cells to accumulate at wound sites...
January 30, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126842/integrin-suppresses-neurogenesis-and-regulates-brain-tissue-assembly-in-planarian-regeneration
#14
Nicolle A Bonar, Christian P Petersen
Animals capable of adult regeneration require specific signaling to control injury-induced cell proliferation, specification and patterning, but comparatively little is known about how the regeneration blastema assembles differentiating cells into well-structured functional tissues. Using the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea as a model, we identify β1-integrin as a crucial regulator of blastema architecture. β1-integrin(RNAi) animals formed small head blastemas with severe tissue disorganization, including ectopic neural spheroids containing differentiated neurons normally found in distinct organs...
March 1, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072387/embryonic-origin-of-adult-stem-cells-required-for-tissue-homeostasis-and-regeneration
#15
Erin L Davies, Kai Lei, Christopher W Seidel, Amanda E Kroesen, Sean A McKinney, Longhua Guo, Sofia Mc Robb, Eric J Ross, Kirsten Gotting, Alejandro Sánchez Alvarado
Planarian neoblasts are pluripotent, adult somatic stem cells and lineage-primed progenitors that are required for the production and maintenance of all differentiated cell types, including the germline. Neoblasts, originally defined as undifferentiated cells residing in the adult parenchyma, are frequently compared to embryonic stem cells yet their developmental origin remains obscure. We investigated the provenance of neoblasts during Schmidtea mediterranea embryogenesis, and report that neoblasts arise from an anarchic, cycling piwi-1+ population wholly responsible for production of all temporary and definitive organs during embryogenesis...
January 10, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064427/biochemical-and-molecular-study-of-carpobrotus-edulis-bioactive-properties-and-their-effects-on-dugesia-sicula-turbellaria-tricladida-regeneration
#16
Emna Meddeb, Mohamed Charni, Tesnime Ghazouani, Autilia Cozzolino, Florinda Fratianni, Faten Raboudi, Filomena Nazzaro, Sami Fattouch
The traditional medicinal properties of Carpobrotus edulis are well recognized, particularly in Tunisia where it is used for wound healing. Thus, in this study, biochemical and molecular properties of its leaves' bioactive aqueous-acetone extract were investigated. The total phenolic content (TPC) of the extract was estimated to be 184 ± 5 mg/100 g of fresh matter (FM). The qualitative and quantitative polyphenolic profile was determined by ultra performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (UPLC-DAD) and showed that chlorogenic acid was the major compound (43...
January 7, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997336/transcriptional-signatures-of-somatic-neoblasts-and-germline-cells-in-macrostomum-lignano
#17
Magda Grudniewska, Stijn Mouton, Daniil Simanov, Frank Beltman, Margriet Grelling, Katrien de Mulder, Wibowo Arindrarto, Philipp M Weissert, Stefan van der Elst, Eugene Berezikov
The regeneration-capable flatworm Macrostomum lignano is a powerful model organism to study the biology of stem cells in vivo. As a flatworm amenable to transgenesis, it complements the historically used planarian flatworm models, such as Schmidtea mediterranea. However, information on the transcriptome and markers of stem cells in M. lignano is limited. We generated a de novo transcriptome assembly and performed the first comprehensive characterization of gene expression in the proliferating cells of M. lignano, represented by somatic stem cells, called neoblasts, and germline cells...
December 20, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928761/proteomic-analysis-reveals-the-contribution-of-tgf%C3%AE-smad4-signaling-pathway-to-cell-differentiation-during-planarian-tail-regeneration
#18
Xiaoguang Chen, Cunshuan Xu
After planarian tail is cut off, posterior end of the remaining fragment will regenerate a new tail within about 1 week. However, many details of this process remain unclear up to date. For this reason, we performed the dynamic proteomic analysis of the regenerating tail fragments at 6, 12, 24, 72, 120, and 168 h post-amputation (hpa). Using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) in combination with MALDI-TOF-TOF/MS analysis, a total of 1088 peptides were identified as significantly changed between tail-cutting groups and 0-h group, 482 of which have identifiable protein names...
December 7, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924577/analyzing-perk-activation-during-planarian-regeneration
#19
Susanna Fraguas, Yoshihiko Umesono, Kiyokazu Agata, Francesc Cebrià
Planarians are an ideal model in which to study stem cell-based regeneration. After amputation, planarian pluripotent stem cells surrounding the wound proliferate to produce the regenerative blastema, in which they differentiate into the missing tissues and structures. Recent independent studies in planarians have shown that Smed-egfr-3, a gene encoding a homologue of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors, and DjerkA, which encodes an extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), may control cell differentiation and blastema growth...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909700/dataset-for-a-dugesia-japonica-de-novo-transcriptome-assembly-utilized-for-defining-the-voltage-gated-like-ion-channel-superfamily
#20
John D Chan, Dan Zhang, Xiaolong Liu, Magdalena Z Zarowiecki, Matthew Berriman, Jonathan S Marchant
This data article provides a transcriptomic resource for the free living planarian flatworm Dugesia japonica related to the research article entitled 'Utilizing the planarian voltage-gated ion channel transcriptome to resolve a role for a Ca(2+) channel in neuromuscular function and regeneration (J.D. Chan, D. Zhang, X. Liu, M. Zarowiecki, M. Berriman, J.S. Marchant, 2016) [1]. Data provided in this submission comprise sequence information for the unfiltered de novo assembly, the filtered assembly and a curated analysis of voltage-gated like (VGL) ion channel sequences mined from this resource...
December 2016: Data in Brief
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