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Planarian regeneration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158443/fox-and-ets-family-transcription-factors-regulate-the-pigment-cell-lineage-in-planarians
#1
Xinwen He, Nicole Lindsay-Mosher, Yan Li, Alyssa M Molinaro, Jason Pellettieri, Bret J Pearson
Many pigment cells acquire unique structural properties and gene expression profiles during animal development. The underlying differentiation pathways have been well characterized in cells formed during embryogenesis, such as the neural crest-derived melanocyte. However, much less is known about the developmental origins of pigment cells produced in adult organisms during tissue homeostasis and repair. Here we report a lineage analysis of ommochrome- and porphyrin-producing cells in the brown, freshwater planarian Schmidtea mediterranea Using an RNA-sequencing approach, we identified two classes of markers expressed in sequential fashion when new pigment cells are generated during regeneration or in response to pigment cell ablation...
November 20, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145667/planarians-customize-their-stem-cell-responses-following-genotoxic-stress-as-a-function-of-exposure-time-and-regenerative-state
#2
An-Sofie Stevens, Annelies Wouters, Jan-Pieter Ploem, Nicky Pirotte, Andromeda Van Roten, Maxime Willems, Niels Hellings, Carmen Franken, Gudrun Koppen, Tom Artois, Michelle Plusquin, Karen Smeets
Aiming to in vivo characterise the responses of pluripotent stem cells and regenerative tissues to carcinogenic stress, we employed the highly regenerative organism Schmidtea mediterranea. Its broad regenerative capacities are attributable to a large pool of pluripotent stem cells, which are considered key players in the lower vulnerability towards chemically-induced carcinogenesis observed in regenerative organisms. S. mediterranea is, therefore, an ideal model to study pluripotent stem cell responses with stem cells residing in their natural environment...
November 14, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139537/planaria-an-animal-model-that-integrates-development-regeneration-and-pharmacology
#3
Oné R Pagán
Although planarians are established model organisms in developmental biology and regeneration studies, in the last forty years or so, they have caught the attention of pharmacologists, especially to study the pharmacology of drugs of abuse. This review covers the following topics: some fundamentals of the history of animal models and planarians in biomedical research; an abbreviated story of systematic pharmacology research using planarians as a model organism; an example of how planarians are contributing to the search for compounds against acute cocaine toxicity; an analysis of the number of papers on planarians and pharmacological topics from 1900-2016; some perspectives on pharmacology in developmental and regeneration studies, arguing in favor of the planarian model as a leading subject for this interdisciplinary area of research, and finally some concluding thoughts...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124009/small-rnaome-sequencing-delineates-the-small-rna-landscape-of-pluripotent-adult-stem-cells-in-the-planarian-schmidtea-mediterranea
#4
Yue Li, An Zeng, Xiao-Shuan Han, Ge Li, Yong-Qin Li, Bairong Shen, Qing Jing
Small noncoding RNAs play a pivotal role in the regulation of gene expression, and are key regulators of animal development. Freshwater planarian exhibits an extraordinary ability to regenerate any missing body parts, representing an emerging model for studying mechanism underlying stem cell regulation and tissue regeneration. Here, we utilized next-generation sequencing (NGS) to identify small RNAs that are expressed in planarian adult stem cells, and are implicated in tissue regeneration. We profiled microRNAs (miRNAs), piwi-interacting RNA (piRNAs), small rDNA-derived RNAs (srRNAs) and endogenous interfering RNAs (endo-siRNAs) population from size 18-30 nt, measured the expression of 244 conserved miRNAs, and identified 41 novel miRNAs and 64 novel endo-siRNAs...
December 2017: Genomics Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123147/enzymatic-degradation-of-organophosphorus-insecticides-decreases-toxicity-in-planarians-and-enhances-survival
#5
Laetitia Poirier, Lucile Brun, Pauline Jacquet, Catherine Lepolard, Nicholas Armstrong, Cédric Torre, David Daudé, Eric Ghigo, Eric Chabrière
Organophosphorus insecticides (OPs) are toxic compounds used for agricultural purposes and responsible for severe types of contamination worldwide. OPs may also induce chronic deleterious effects and developmental disruption. Finding remediation strategies is a major concern to diminish their impact on environment and human health. Enzymes have emerged as a promising eco-friendly route for decontaminating OPs. The enzyme SsoPox from the archaea Sulfolobus solfataricus has been particularly studied, considering both its tremendous stability and phosphotriesterase activity...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098326/sumoylation-controls-stem-cell-proliferation-and-regional-cell-death-through-hedgehog-signaling-in-planarians
#6
Manish Thiruvalluvan, Paul G Barghouth, Assaf Tsur, Limor Broday, Néstor J Oviedo
Mechanisms underlying anteroposterior body axis differences during adult tissue maintenance and regeneration are poorly understood. Here, we identify that post-translational modifications through the SUMO (Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier) machinery are evolutionarily conserved in the Lophotrocozoan Schmidtea mediterranea. Disruption of SUMOylation in adult animals by RNA-interference of the only SUMO E2 conjugating enzyme Ubc9 leads to a systemic increase in DNA damage and a remarkable regional defect characterized by increased cell death and loss of the posterior half of the body...
November 2, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978744/a-dynamically-diluted-alignment-model-reveals-the-impact-of-cell-turnover-on-the-plasticity-of-tissue-polarity-patterns
#7
Karl B Hoffmann, Anja Voss-Böhme, Jochen C Rink, Lutz Brusch
The polarization of cells and tissues is fundamental for tissue morphogenesis during biological development and regeneration. A deeper understanding of biological polarity pattern formation can be gained from the consideration of pattern reorganization in response to an opposing instructive cue, which we here consider using the example of experimentally inducible body axis inversions in planarian flatworms. We define a dynamically diluted alignment model linking three processes: entrainment of cell polarity by a global signal, local cell-cell coupling aligning polarity among neighbours, and cell turnover replacing polarized cells by initially unpolarized cells...
October 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976975/a-c-terminally-truncated-form-of-%C3%AE-catenin-acts-as-a-novel-regulator-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-in-planarians
#8
Hanxia Su, Miquel Sureda-Gomez, Neus Rabaneda-Lombarte, Maria Gelabert, Jianlei Xie, Wei Wu, Teresa Adell
β-Catenin, the core element of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, is a multifunctional and evolutionarily conserved protein which performs essential roles in a variety of developmental and homeostatic processes. Despite its crucial roles, the mechanisms that control its context-specific functions in time and space remain largely unknown. The Wnt/β-catenin pathway has been extensively studied in planarians, flatworms with the ability to regenerate and remodel the whole body, providing a 'whole animal' developmental framework to approach this question...
October 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973880/mechanics-dictate-where-and-how-freshwater-planarians-fission
#9
Paul T Malinowski, Olivier Cochet-Escartin, Kelson J Kaj, Edward Ronan, Alexander Groisman, Patrick H Diamond, Eva-Maria S Collins
Asexual freshwater planarians reproduce by tearing themselves into two pieces by a process called binary fission. The resulting head and tail pieces regenerate within about a week, forming two new worms. Understanding this process of ripping oneself into two parts poses a challenging biomechanical problem. Because planarians stop "doing it" at the slightest disturbance, this remained a centuries-old puzzle. We focus on Dugesia japonica fission and show that it proceeds in three stages: a local constriction ("waist formation"), pulsation-which increases waist longitudinal stresses-and transverse rupture...
October 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893535/down-regulate-of-djrfc2-causes-tissues-hypertrophy-during-planarian-regeneration
#10
Qi Guo, Guixia Zhao, Jiajia Ni, Yanan Guo, Yizhe Zhang, Qingnan Tian, Shoutao Zhang
Planarians are an ideal model organism for regeneration research due to their amazing ability to regenerate. DNA replication is crucial for genome stability. Replication factor C (RFC), which is a replication factor C-like complex and plays an important role during DNA replication in eukaryotes, has been reported as a wound response factor during planarian regeneration. However, how RFC controls regeneration in planarians by regulating DNA replication remains to be explained. Here, we used a two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) proteomic approach to identify differentially expressed proteins in intact and regenerated planarians...
November 25, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869924/methylisothiazolinone-toxicity-and-inhibition-of-wound-healing-and-regeneration-in-planaria
#11
Alanna V Van Huizen, Ai-Sun Tseng, Wendy S Beane
Methylisothiazolinone (MIT) is a common biocide used in cosmetic and industrial settings. Studies have demonstrated that MIT is a human sensitizer, to the extent that in 2013 MIT was named allergen of the year. Recently, we showed that MIT exposure in Xenopus laevis (the African clawed frog) inhibits wound healing and tail regeneration. However, it is unknown whether MIT affects these processes in other animals. Here, we investigated the effects of MIT exposure in planaria-non-parasitic freshwater flatworms able to regenerate all tissues after injury...
August 26, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844665/djhnrnpa2-b1-like-gene-is-required-for-planarian-regeneration-and-tissue-homeostasis
#12
Zimei Dong, Tong Yang, Yibo Yang, He Dou, Guangwen Chen
The hnRNPs play important roles in physiological processes in eukaryotic organisms by regulation of pre-mRNA after transcription, including pre-mRNA splicing, mRNA stability, DNA replication and repair and telomere maintenance and so on. However, it remains unclear about the specific functions of these genes. In this study, the full-length cDNA sequence of hnRNPA2/B1-like was first cloned from Dugesia japonica, and its roles were investigated by WISH and RNAi. The results showed that: (1) DjhnRNPA2/B1-like was highly conserved during animal evolution; (2) DjhnRNPA2/B1-like mRNA was mainly distributed each side of the body in intact worms and regenerative blastemas, and its expression levels were up-regulated on days 0 and 5 after amputation; (3) the intact and regenerating worms gradually lysed or lost regeneration capacity after DjhnRNPA2/B1-like RNAi; and (4) DjhnRNPA2/B1-like expression is induced by temperature and heavy metal ion stress...
October 30, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818620/secrets-from-immortal-worms-what-can-we-learn-about-biological-ageing-from-the-planarian-model-system
#13
REVIEW
Sounak Sahu, Anish Dattani, A Aziz Aboobaker
Understanding how some animals are immortal and avoid the ageing process is important. We currently know very little about how they achieve this. Research with genetic model systems has revealed the existence of conserved genetic pathways and molecular processes that affect longevity. Most of these established model organisms have relatively short lifespans. Here we consider the use of planarians, with an immortal life-history that is able to entirely avoid the ageing process. These animals are capable of profound feats of regeneration fueled by a population of adult stem cells called neoblasts...
October 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807897/cytoplasmic-poly-a-binding-protein-critically-regulates-epidermal-maintenance-and-turnover-in-the-planarian-schmidtea-mediterranea
#14
Dhiru Bansal, Jahnavi Kulkarni, Kavana Nadahalli, Vairavan Lakshmanan, Srikar Krishna, Vidyanand Sasidharan, Jini Geo, Shilpa Dilipkumar, Renu Pasricha, Akash Gulyani, Srikala Raghavan, Dasaradhi Palakodeti
Identifying key cellular events that facilitate stem cell function and tissue organization is crucial for understanding the process of regeneration. Planarians are powerful model system to study regeneration and stem cell (neoblast) function. Here, using planaria, we show that the initial events of regeneration, such as epithelialization and epidermal organization are critically regulated by a novel cytoplasmic poly A-binding protein, SMED-PABPC2. Knockdown of smed-pabpc2 leads to defects in epidermal lineage specification, disorganization of epidermis and ECM, and deregulated wound healing, resulting in the selective failure of neoblast proliferation near the wound region...
September 1, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807895/the-mir-124-family-of-micrornas-is-crucial-for-regeneration-of-the-brain-and-visual-system-in-the-planarian-schmidtea-mediterranea
#15
Vidyanand Sasidharan, Srujan Marepally, Sarah A Elliott, Srishti Baid, Vairavan Lakshmanan, Nishtha Nayyar, Dhiru Bansal, Alejandro Sánchez Alvarado, Praveen Kumar Vemula, Dasaradhi Palakodeti
Brain regeneration in planarians is mediated by precise spatiotemporal control of gene expression and is crucial for multiple aspects of neurogenesis. However, the mechanisms underpinning the gene regulation essential for brain regeneration are largely unknown. Here, we investigated the role of the miR-124 family of microRNAs in planarian brain regeneration. The miR-124 family (miR-124) is highly conserved in animals and regulates neurogenesis by facilitating neural differentiation, yet its role in neural wiring and brain organization is not known...
September 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782018/hierarchies-in-light-sensing-and-dynamic-interactions-between-ocular-and-extraocular-sensory-networks-in-a-flatworm
#16
Nishan Shettigar, Asawari Joshi, Rimple Dalmeida, Rohini Gopalkrishna, Anirudh Chakravarthy, Siddharth Patnaik, Manoj Mathew, Dasaradhi Palakodeti, Akash Gulyani
Light sensing has independently evolved multiple times under diverse selective pressures but has been examined only in a handful among the millions of light-responsive organisms. Unsurprisingly, mechanistic insights into how differential light processing can cause distinct behavioral outputs are limited. We show how an organism can achieve complex light processing with a simple "eye" while also having independent but mutually interacting light sensing networks. Although planarian flatworms lack wavelength-specific eye photoreceptors, a 25 nm change in light wavelength is sufficient to completely switch their phototactic behavior...
July 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774726/girardia-dorotocephala-transcriptome-sequence-assembly-and-validation-through-characterization-of-piwi-homologs-and-stem-cell-progeny-markers
#17
Eugene Matthew P Almazan, Sydney L Lesko, Michael P Markey, Labib Rouhana
Planarian flatworms are popular models for the study of regeneration and stem cell biology in vivo. Technical advances and increased availability of genetic information have fueled the discovery of molecules responsible for stem cell pluripotency and regeneration in flatworms. Unfortunately, most of the planarian research performed worldwide utilizes species that are not natural habitants of North America, which limits their availability to newcomer laboratories and impedes their distribution for educational activities...
August 1, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686611/yorkie-is-required-to-restrict-the-injury-responses-in-planarians
#18
Alexander Y T Lin, Bret J Pearson
Regeneration requires the precise integration of cues that initiate proliferation, direct differentiation, and ultimately re-pattern tissues to the proper size and scale. Yet how these processes are integrated with wounding responses remains relatively unknown. The freshwater planarian, Schmidtea mediterranea, is an ideal model to study the stereotyped proliferative and transcriptional responses to injury due to its high capacity for regeneration. Here, we characterize the effector of the Hippo signalling cascade, yorkie, during planarian regeneration and its role in restricting early injury responses...
July 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682786/application-of-computational-methods-in-planaria-research-a-current-update
#19
Shyamasree Ghosh
Planaria is a member of the Phylum Platyhelminthes including flatworms. Planarians possess the unique ability of regeneration from adult stem cells or neoblasts and finds importance as a model organism for regeneration and developmental studies. Although research is being actively carried out globally through conventional methods to understand the process of regeneration from neoblasts, biology of development, neurobiology and immunology of Planaria, there are many thought provoking questions related to stem cell plasticity, and uniqueness of regenerative potential in Planarians amongst other members of Phylum Platyhelminthes...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Integrative Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616247/planarian-regeneration-in-space-persistent-anatomical-behavioral-and-bacteriological-changes-induced-by-space-travel
#20
Junji Morokuma, Fallon Durant, Katherine B Williams, Joshua M Finkelstein, Douglas J Blackiston, Twyman Clements, David W Reed, Michael Roberts, Mahendra Jain, Kris Kimel, Sunia A Trauger, Benjamin E Wolfe, Michael Levin
Regeneration is regulated not only by chemical signals but also by physical processes, such as bioelectric gradients. How these may change in the absence of the normal gravitational and geomagnetic fields is largely unknown. Planarian flatworms were moved to the International Space Station for 5 weeks, immediately after removing their heads and tails. A control group in spring water remained on Earth. No manipulation of the planaria occurred while they were in orbit, and space-exposed worms were returned to our laboratory for analysis...
April 2017: Regeneration
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