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Planarian regeneration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072387/embryonic-origin-of-adult-stem-cells-required-for-tissue-homeostasis-and-regeneration
#1
Erin L Davies, Kai Lei, Christopher W Seidel, Amanda E Kroesen, Sean A McKinney, Longhua Guo, Sofia Mc Robb, Eric J Ross, Kirsten Gotting, Alejandro Sánchez Alvarado
Planarian neoblasts are pluripotent, adult somatic stem cells and lineage-primed progenitors required for production and maintenance of all differentiated cell types, including the germline. Neoblasts, originally defined as undifferentiated cells residing in the adult parenchyma, are frequently compared to embryonic stem cells yet their developmental origin remains obscure. We investigated the provenance of neoblasts during S. mediterranea embryogenesis, and report that neoblasts arise from an anarchic, cycling piwi-1+ population wholly responsible for production of all temporary and definitive organs during embryogenesis...
January 10, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064427/biochemical-and-molecular-study-of-carpobrotus-edulis-bioactive-properties-and-their-effects-on-dugesia-sicula-turbellaria-tricladida-regeneration
#2
Emna Meddeb, Mohamed Charni, Tesnime Ghazouani, Autilia Cozzolino, Florinda Fratianni, Faten Raboudi, Filomena Nazzaro, Sami Fattouch
The traditional medicinal properties of Carpobrotus edulis are well recognized, particularly in Tunisia where it is used for wound healing. Thus, in this study, biochemical and molecular properties of its leaves' bioactive aqueous-acetone extract were investigated. The total phenolic content (TPC) of the extract was estimated to be 184 ± 5 mg/100 g of fresh matter (FM). The qualitative and quantitative polyphenolic profile was determined by ultra performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (UPLC-DAD) and showed that chlorogenic acid was the major compound (43...
January 7, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997336/transcriptional-signatures-of-somatic-neoblasts-and-germline-cells-in-macrostomum-lignano
#3
Magda Grudniewska, Stijn Mouton, Daniil Simanov, Frank Beltman, Margriet Grelling, Katrien de Mulder, Wibowo Arindrarto, Philipp M Weissert, Stefan van der Elst, Eugene Berezikov
The regeneration-capable flatworm Macrostomum lignano is a powerful model organism to study the biology of stem cells in vivo. As a flatworm amenable to transgenesis, it complements the historically used planarian flatworm models, such as Schmidtea mediterranea. However, information on the transcriptome and markers of stem cells in M. lignano is limited. We generated a de novo transcriptome assembly and performed the first comprehensive characterization of gene expression in the proliferating cells of M. lignano, represented by somatic stem cells, called neoblasts, and germline cells...
December 20, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928761/proteomic-analysis-reveals-the-contribution-of-tgf%C3%AE-smad4-signaling-pathway-to-cell-differentiation-during-planarian-tail-regeneration
#4
Xiaoguang Chen, Cunshuan Xu
After planarian tail is cut off, posterior end of the remaining fragment will regenerate a new tail within about 1 week. However, many details of this process remain unclear up to date. For this reason, we performed the dynamic proteomic analysis of the regenerating tail fragments at 6, 12, 24, 72, 120, and 168 h post-amputation (hpa). Using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) in combination with MALDI-TOF-TOF/MS analysis, a total of 1088 peptides were identified as significantly changed between tail-cutting groups and 0-h group, 482 of which have identifiable protein names...
December 7, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924577/analyzing-perk-activation-during-planarian-regeneration
#5
Susanna Fraguas, Yoshihiko Umesono, Kiyokazu Agata, Francesc Cebrià
Planarians are an ideal model in which to study stem cell-based regeneration. After amputation, planarian pluripotent stem cells surrounding the wound proliferate to produce the regenerative blastema, in which they differentiate into the missing tissues and structures. Recent independent studies in planarians have shown that Smed-egfr-3, a gene encoding a homologue of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors, and DjerkA, which encodes an extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), may control cell differentiation and blastema growth...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909700/dataset-for-a-dugesia-japonica-de-novo-transcriptome-assembly-utilized-for-defining-the-voltage-gated-like-ion-channel-superfamily
#6
John D Chan, Dan Zhang, Xiaolong Liu, Magdalena Z Zarowiecki, Matthew Berriman, Jonathan S Marchant
This data article provides a transcriptomic resource for the free living planarian flatworm Dugesia japonica related to the research article entitled 'Utilizing the planarian voltage-gated ion channel transcriptome to resolve a role for a Ca(2+) channel in neuromuscular function and regeneration (J.D. Chan, D. Zhang, X. Liu, M. Zarowiecki, M. Berriman, J.S. Marchant, 2016) [1]. Data provided in this submission comprise sequence information for the unfiltered de novo assembly, the filtered assembly and a curated analysis of voltage-gated like (VGL) ion channel sequences mined from this resource...
December 2016: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800171/temporal-regulation-of-planarian-eye-regeneration
#7
Michelle E Deochand, Taylor R Birkholz, Wendy S Beane
While tissue regeneration is typically studied using standard injury models, in nature injuries vary greatly in the amount and location of tissues lost. Planarians have the unique ability to regenerate from many different injuries (including from tiny fragments with no brain), allowing us to study the effects of different injuries on regeneration timelines. We followed the timing of regeneration for one organ, the eye, after multiple injury types that involved tissue loss (single- and double-eye ablation, and decapitation) in Schmidtea mediterranea...
August 2016: Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771293/utilizing-the-planarian-voltage-gated-ion-channel-transcriptome-to-resolve-a-role-for-a-ca-2-channel-in-neuromuscular-function-and-regeneration
#8
John D Chan, Dan Zhang, Xiaolong Liu, Magdalena Zarowiecki, Matthew Berriman, Jonathan S Marchant
The robust regenerative capacity of planarian flatworms depends on the orchestration of signaling events from early wounding responses through the stem cell enacted differentiative outcomes that restore appropriate tissue types. Acute signaling events in excitable cells play an important role in determining regenerative polarity, rationalized by the discovery that sub-epidermal muscle cells express critical patterning genes known to control regenerative outcomes. These data imply a dual conductive (neuromuscular signaling) and instructive (anterior-posterior patterning) role for Ca(2+) signaling in planarian regeneration...
October 19, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737903/localization-of-planarian-%C3%AE-catenin-1-reveals-multiple-roles-during-anterior-posterior-regeneration-and-organogenesis
#9
Miquel Sureda-Gómez, José M Martín-Durán, Teresa Adell
The β-catenin-dependent Wnt pathway exerts multiple context-dependent roles in embryonic and adult tissues. In planarians, β-catenin-1 is thought to specify posterior identities through the generation of an anteroposterior gradient. However, the existence of such a gradient has not been directly demonstrated. Here, we use a specific polyclonal antibody to demonstrate that nuclear β-CATENIN-1 exists as an anteroposterior gradient from the pre-pharyngeal region to the tail of the planarian Schmidtea polychroa High levels in the posterior region steadily decrease towards the pre-pharyngeal region but then increase again in the head region...
November 15, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27628751/photokinesis-and-djopsin-gene-expression-analysis-during-the-regeneration-of-planarian-eyes
#10
Zimei Dong, Yanqing Yuwen, Yingxu Sima, Yanping Dong, Huina Zhan, Guangwen Chen, Dezeng Liu
Planarians are the ideal models for studying eye development with the simple eye structure and exceptionally rapid regeneration. Here, we observed the eye morphogenesis, photophobic behavior, spectral sensitivity, and expression pattern of Djopsin in planarian Dugesia japonica. The results showed that: (1) Djopsin encoding the putative protein belonged to rhabdomeric opsins group and displayed a high conservation during animal evolution; (2) planarians displayed diverse photophobic response to different visible wavelength and were more sensitive to the light blue (495 nm) and yellow (635 nm); (3) the morphogenesis and functional recovery of eyes were related to the expression pattern of Djopsin during head regeneration; (4) Djopsin gene plays a major role in functional recovery during eyes regeneration and visual system maintenance in adult planarians...
September 14, 2016: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27612384/a-functional-genomics-screen-in-planarians-reveals-regulators-of-whole-brain-regeneration
#11
Rachel H Roberts-Galbraith, John L Brubacher, Phillip A Newmark
Planarians regenerate all body parts after injury, including the central nervous system (CNS). We capitalized on this distinctive trait and completed a gene expression-guided functional screen to identify factors that regulate diverse aspects of neural regeneration in Schmidtea mediterranea. Our screen revealed molecules that influence neural cell fates, support the formation of a major connective hub, and promote reestablishment of chemosensory behavior. We also identified genes that encode signaling molecules with roles in head regeneration, including some that are produced in a previously uncharacterized parenchymal population of cells...
September 9, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27612382/hedgehog-signaling-regulates-gene-expression-in-planarian-glia
#12
Irving E Wang, Sylvain W Lapan, M Lucila Scimone, Thomas R Clandinin, Peter W Reddien
Hedgehog signaling is critical for vertebrate central nervous system (CNS) development, but its role in CNS biology in other organisms is poorly characterized. In the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea, hedgehog (hh) is expressed in medial cephalic ganglia neurons, suggesting a possible role in CNS maintenance or regeneration. We performed RNA sequencing of planarian brain tissue following RNAi of hh and patched (ptc), which encodes the Hh receptor. Two misregulated genes, intermediate filament-1 (if-1) and calamari (cali), were expressed in a previously unidentified non-neural CNS cell type...
September 9, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27606067/the-nurd-complex-component-p66-suppresses-photoreceptor-neuron-regeneration-in-planarians
#13
Constanza Vásquez-Doorman, Christian P Petersen
Regeneration involves precise control of cell fate to produce an appropriate complement of tissues formed within a blastema. Several chromatin-modifying complexes have been identified as required for regeneration in planarians, but it is unclear whether this class of molecules uniformly promotes the production of differentiated cells. We identify a function for p66, encoding a DNA-binding protein component of the NuRD (nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase) complex, as well as the chromodomain helicase chd4, in suppressing production of photoreceptor neurons (PRNs) in planarians...
June 2016: Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27606065/go-ahead-grow-a-head-a-planarian-s-guide-to-anterior-regeneration
#14
REVIEW
Suthira Owlarn, Kerstin Bartscherer
The unique ability of some planarian species to regenerate a head de novo, including a functional brain, provides an experimentally accessible system in which to study the mechanisms underlying regeneration. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on the key steps of planarian head regeneration (head-versus-tail decision, anterior pole formation and head patterning) and their molecular and cellular basis. Moreover, instructive properties of the anterior pole as a putative organizer and in coordinating anterior midline formation are discussed...
June 2016: Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27565408/the-role-of-a-novel-c-type-lectin-like-protein-from-planarian-in-innate-immunity-and-regeneration
#15
Lili Gao, Yu Han, Hongkuan Deng, Wenjing Hu, Hui Zhen, Na Li, Nianci Qin, Meihui Yan, Weiwei Wu, Baohua Liu, Bosheng Zhao, Qiuxiang Pang
Planarian, a representative of platyhelminthes, has strong regeneration ability and less complicated innate immune system. However, planarian immune system remains poorly understood. In this paper, a novel C-type lectin-like protein, namely, DjCTL was identified and characterized in Dugesia japonica. DjCTL was mainly expressed in the pharyngeal and epidermis and up-regulated upon the induction of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), peptidoglycan (PGN), Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria indicating that DjCTL may be involved in the immune responses...
February 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27551436/forkhead-containing-transcription-factor-albino-controls-tetrapyrrole-based-body-pigmentation-in-planarian
#16
Chen Wang, Xiao-Shuai Han, Fang-Fang Li, Shuang Huang, Yong-Wen Qin, Xian-Xian Zhao, Qing Jing
Pigmentation processes occur from invertebrates to mammals. Owing to the complexity of the pigmentary system, in vivo animal models for pigmentation study are limited. Planarians are capable of regenerating any missing part including the dark-brown pigments, providing a promising model for pigmentation study. However, the molecular mechanism of planarian body pigmentation is poorly understood. We found in an RNA interference screen that a forkhead containing transcription factor, Albino, was required for pigmentation without affecting survival or other regeneration processes...
2016: Cell Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27542689/essential-role-for-the-planarian-intestinal-gata-transcription-factor-in-stem-cells-and-regeneration
#17
Natasha M Flores, Néstor J Oviedo, Julien Sage
The cellular turnover of adult tissues and injury-induced repair proceed through an exquisite integration of proliferation, differentiation, and survival signals that involve stem/progenitor cell populations, their progeny, and differentiated tissues. GATA factors are DNA binding proteins that control stem cells and the development of tissues by activating or repressing transcription. Here we examined the role of GATA transcription factors in Schmidtea mediterranea, a freshwater planarian that provides an excellent model to investigate gene function in adult stem cells, regeneration, and differentiation...
October 1, 2016: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27523733/egf-signaling-directs-neoblast-repopulation-by-regulating-asymmetric-cell-division-in-planarians
#18
Kai Lei, Hanh Thi-Kim Vu, Ryan D Mohan, Sean A McKinney, Chris W Seidel, Richard Alexander, Kirsten Gotting, Jerry L Workman, Alejandro Sánchez Alvarado
A large population of proliferative stem cells (neoblasts) is required for physiological tissue homeostasis and post-injury regeneration in planarians. Recent studies indicate that survival of a few neoblasts after sublethal irradiation results in the clonal expansion of the surviving stem cells and the eventual restoration of tissue homeostasis and regenerative capacity. However, the precise mechanisms regulating the population dynamics of neoblasts remain largely unknown. Here, we uncovered a central role for epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling during in vivo neoblast expansion mediated by Smed-egfr-3 (egfr-3) and its putative ligand Smed-neuregulin-7 (nrg-7)...
August 22, 2016: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27501047/cysteine-and-aspartyl-proteases-contribute-to-protein-digestion-in-the-gut-of-freshwater-planaria
#19
Louise S Goupil, Sam L Ivry, Ivy Hsieh, Brian M Suzuki, Charles S Craik, Anthony J O'Donoghue, James H McKerrow
Proteases perform numerous vital functions in flatworms, many of which are likely to be conserved throughout the phylum Platyhelminthes. Within this phylum are several parasitic worms that are often poorly characterized due to their complex life-cycles and lack of responsiveness to genetic manipulation. The flatworm Schmidtea mediterranea, or planaria, is an ideal model organism to study the complex role of protein digestion due to its simple life cycle and amenability to techniques like RNA interference (RNAi)...
August 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27499881/physiological-controls-of-large-scale-patterning-in-planarian-regeneration-a-molecular-and-computational-perspective-on-growth-and-form
#20
Fallon Durant, Daniel Lobo, Jennifer Hammelman, Michael Levin
Planaria are complex metazoans that repair damage to their bodies and cease remodeling when a correct anatomy has been achieved. This model system offers a unique opportunity to understand how large-scale anatomical homeostasis emerges from the activities of individual cells. Much progress has been made on the molecular genetics of stem cell activity in planaria. However, recent data also indicate that the global pattern is regulated by physiological circuits composed of ionic and neurotransmitter signaling...
April 2016: Regeneration
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