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Planarian regeneration

Sara Barberán, Francesc Cebrià
Cell signaling is essential for cells to adequately respond to their environment. One of the most evolutionarily conserved signaling pathways is that of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Transmembrane receptors with intracellular tyrosine kinase activity are activated by the binding of their corresponding ligands. This in turn activates a wide variety of intracellular cascades and induces the up- or downregulation of target genes, leading to a specific cellular response. Freshwater planarians are an excellent model in which to study the role of cell signaling in the context of stem-cell based regeneration...
May 15, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Nicole Lindsay-Mosher, Bret J Pearson
Pigment cells serve a variety of important uses across the animal kingdom, and in many species can change and regenerate throughout the lifetime of the organism. The functions of these cells, as well as their origins in both embryonic development and adult regeneration, are not fully understood. Here, we review advances in the study of pigment cells in the freshwater planarian, a model system for stem cell biology and regeneration. Freshwater planarians produce at least three pigment types to generate brown eye and body colouration: melanin, porphyrin, and ommochrome...
May 11, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Taylor R Birkholz, Alanna V Van Huizen, Wendy S Beane
A key requirement of tissue/organ regeneration is the ability to induce appropriate shape in situ. Regenerated structures need to be integrated with pre-existing ones, through the combined regulation of new tissue growth and the scaling of surrounding tissues. This requires a tightly coordinated control of individual cell functions such as proliferation and stem cell differentiation. While great strides have been made in elucidating cell growth and differentiation mechanisms, how overall shape is generated during regeneration remains unknown...
May 5, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Thao Anh Tran, Luca Gentile
In planarians, pluripotency can be studied in vivo in the adult animal, making these animals a unique model system where pluripotency-based regeneration (PBR) -and its therapeutic potential- can be investigated. This review focuses on recent findings to build a cloud model of fate restriction likelihood for planarian stem and progenitor cells. Recently, a computational approach based on functional and molecular profiling at the single cell level was proposed for human hematopoietic stem cells. Based on data generated both in vivo and ex vivo, we hypothesized that planarian stem cells could acquire multiple direction lineage biases, following a "badlands" landscape...
May 1, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Edie A Osuma, Daniel W Riggs, Andrew A Gibb, Bradford G Hill
Planarians are outstanding models for studying mechanisms of regeneration; however, there are few methods to measure changes in their metabolism. Examining metabolism in planarians is important because the regenerative process is dependent on numerous integrated metabolic pathways, which provide the energy required for tissue repair as well as the ability to synthesize the cellular building blocks needed to form new tissue. Therefore, we standardized an extracellular flux analysis method to measure mitochondrial and glycolytic activity in live planarians during normal growth as well as during regeneration...
March 2018: Regeneration
Daniel A Felix, Óscar Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, Lilia Espada, Anne Thems, Cristina González-Estévez
All living forms, prokaryotes as eukaryotes, have some means of adaptation to food scarcity, which extends the survival chances under extreme environmental conditions. Nowadays we know that dietary interventions, including fasting, extends lifespan of many organisms and can also protect against age-related diseases including in humans. Therefore, the capacity of adapting to periods of food scarcity may have evolved billions of years ago not only to allow immediate organismal survival but also to be able to extend organismal lifespan or at least to lead to a healthier remaining lifespan...
April 26, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Nicholas S Strand, John M Allen, Ricardo M Zayas
Most mammals cannot easily overcome degenerative disease or traumatic injuries. In contrast, an innate ability to regenerate is observed across animal phyla. Freshwater planarians are amongst the organisms that are capable of stem cell-mediated whole-body regeneration and have served as an exemplary model to study how pluripotency is maintained and regulated in vivo. Here, we review findings on the role of post-translational modifications and the genes regulating phosphorylation, ubiquitylation, and chromatin remodeling in planarian regeneration...
April 26, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Jaume Baguñà
Scientific fields grow by accretion of knowledge brought up by succesive generations of scientists. With the field of planarian regeneration as a general background, here I give a personal account of it from the late 1960s until the late 1990s when new research groups, namely Americans, broke into it. After a short historical summary, I report how I got into regeneration, why I choose planarians, and most especially the finding and description of the current model organism Schmidtea mediterranea. Next, I concentrate on the quantitative cellular approaches to regeneration, growth, and degrowth undertaken in our lab in Barcelona, and the long struggle to set neoblasts as a totipotent/pluripotent heterogeneous population of mitotic and non-mitotic cells for homeostatic somatic cell renewal, reproduction, and blastema formation during regeneration...
April 26, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Zimei Dong, Yibo Yang, Guangwen Chen, Dezeng Liu
The runt family genes play important roles in physiological processes in eukaryotic organisms by regulation of protein transcription, such as hematopoietic system, proliferation of gastric epithelial cells and neural development. However, it remains unclear about the specific functions of these genes. In this study, the full-length cDNA sequences of two runt genes are first cloned from Dugesia japonica, and their roles are investigated by WISH and RNAi. The results show that: (1) the Djrunts are conserved during evolution; (2) the Djrunts mRNA are widely expressed in intact and regenerative worms, and their expression levels are up-regulated significantly on day 1 after amputation; (3) loss of Djrunts function lead to lysis or regeneration failure in the intact and regenerating worms...
April 9, 2018: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
Divya A Shiroor, Tisha E Bohr, Carolyn E Adler
Planarians are flatworms that are extremely efficient at regeneration. They owe this ability to a large number of stem cells that can rapidly respond to any type of injury. Common injury models in these animals remove large amounts of tissue, which damages multiple organs. To overcome this broad tissue damage, we describe here a method to selectively remove a single organ, the pharynx, in the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. We achieve this by soaking animals in a solution containing the cytochrome oxidase inhibitor sodium azide...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Zimei Dong, Gengbo Chu, Yingxu Sima, Guangwen Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Junsong Yuan, Zhihong Wang, Zhihong Wang, Di Zou, Quekun Peng, Rui Peng, Fangdong Zou
Most animals hold the ability to regenerate damaged cells, tissues, and even any lost part of their bodies. To date, there is little known about the precise regulatory mechanism of regeneration and many fundamental questions remain unanswered. To further understand the precise regulatory mechanism of regeneration, we used planarian Dugesia japonica as a model and sequenced the transcriptomes of their regenerated tissues at different regeneration stages. Through de novo assembly and expression profiling, we found that Heat shock protein and MAPK pathway were involved into early response of regeneration in D...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Xiao-Shuai Han, Chen Wang, Fang-Hao Guo, Shuang Huang, Yong-Wen Qin, Xian-Xian Zhao, Qing Jing
Regeneration, relying mainly on resident adult stem cells, is widespread. However, the mechanism by which stem cells initiate proliferation during this process in vivo is unclear. Using planarian as a model, we screened 46 transcripts showing potential function in the regulation of local stem cell proliferation following 48 h regeneration. By analyzing the regeneration defects and the mitotic activity of animals under administration of RNA interference (RNAi), we identified factor for initiating regeneration 1 (Fir1) required for local proliferation...
March 20, 2018: Protein & Cell
Zimei Dong, Gengbo Chu, Yingxu Sima, Guangwen Chen
Heat shock protein 90 family members (HSP90s), as molecular chaperones, have conserved roles in the physiological processes of eukaryotes regulating cytoprotection, increasing host resistance and so on. However, whether HSP90s affect regeneration in animals is unclear. Planarians are emerging models for studying regeneration in vivo. Here, the roles of three hsp90 genes from planarian Dugesia japonica are investigated by WISH and RNAi. The results show that: (1) Djhsp90s expressions are induced by heat and cold shock, tissue damage and ionic liquid; (2) Djhsp90s mRNA are mainly distributed each side of the body in intact worms as well as blastemas in regenerative worms; (3) the worms show head regression, lysis, the body curling and the regeneration arrest or even failure after Djhsp90s RNAi; (4) Djhsp90s are involved in autophagy and locomotion of the body...
March 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Eric M Hill, Christian P Petersen
Most animals undergo homeostatic tissue maintenance, yet those capable of robust regeneration in adulthood use mechanisms significantly overlapping with homeostasis. Here we show in planarians that modulations to body-wide patterning systems shift the target site for eye regeneration while still enabling homeostasis of eyes outside this region. The uncoupling of homeostasis and regeneration, which can occur during normal positional rescaling after axis truncation, is not due to altered injury signaling or stem cell activity, nor specific to eye tissue...
March 16, 2018: ELife
Kutay Deniz Atabay, Samuel A LoCascio, Thom de Hoog, Peter W Reddien
During animal regeneration, cells must organize into discrete and functional systems. We show that self-organization, along with patterning cues, govern progenitor behavior in planarian regeneration. Surgical paradigms allowed the manipulation of planarian eye regeneration in predictable locations and numbers, generating alternative stable neuroanatomical states for wild-type animals with multiple functional ectopic eyes. We used animals with multiple ectopic eyes and eye transplantation to demonstrate that broad progenitor specification, combined with self-organization, allows anatomy maintenance during regeneration...
April 27, 2018: Science
Leonardo Rossi, Alessandra Salvetti
Stem cell fate depends on surrounding microenvironment, the so called niche. For this reason, understanding stem cell niche is one of the most challenging target in cell biology field and need to be unraveled with in vivo studies. Planarians offer this unique opportunity, as their stem cells, the neoblasts, are abundant, highly characterized and genetically modifiable by RNA interference in alive animals. However, despite impressive advances have been done in the understanding planarian stem cells and regeneration, only a few information is available in defining signals from differentiated tissues, which affect neoblast stemness and fate...
March 15, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Sabarinath Peruvemba Subramanian, Ponnusamy Babu, Dasaradhi Palakodeti, Ramaswamy Subramanian
Cell surface-associated glycans mediate many cellular processes, including adhesion, migration, signaling, and extracellular matrix organization. The galactosylation of core fucose (GalFuc epitope) in paucimannose and complex-type N -glycans is characteristic of protostome organisms, including flatworms (planarians). Although uninvestigated, the structures of these glycans may play a role in planarian regeneration. Whole-organism MALDI-MS analysis of N -linked oligosaccharides from the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea revealed the presence of multiple isomeric high-mannose and paucimannose structures with unusual mono-, di-, and polygalactosylated ( n = 3-5) core fucose structures; the latter structures have not been reported in other systems...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Althiéris S Saraiva, Renato A Sarmento, Oksana Golovko, Tomas Randak, João L T Pestana, Amadeu M V M Soares
The fungicide cyproconazole (CPZ) inhibits the biosynthesis of ergosterol, an essential sterol component in fungal cell membrane and can also affect non-target organisms by its inhibitory effects on P450 monooxygenases. The predicted environmental concentration of CPZ is up to 49.05 μg/L and 145.89 μg/kg in surface waters and sediments, respectively, and information about CPZ toxicity towards non-target aquatic organisms is still limited. This study aimed to address the lack of ecotoxicological data for CPZ, and thus, an evaluation of the lethal and sub-lethal effects of CPZ was performed using two freshwater invertebrates (the midge Chironomus riparius and the planarian Dugesia tigrina)...
April 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Magda Grudniewska, Stijn Mouton, Margriet Grelling, Anouk H G Wolters, Jeroen Kuipers, Ben N G Giepmans, Eugene Berezikov
Free-living flatworms, such as the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea, are extensively used as model organisms to study stem cells and regeneration. The majority of flatworm studies so far focused on broadly conserved genes. However, investigating what makes these animals different is equally informative for understanding its biology and might have biomedical value. We re-analyzed the neoblast and germline transcriptional signatures of the flatworm M. lignano using an improved transcriptome assembly and show that germline-enriched genes have a high fraction of flatworm-specific genes...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
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