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Planarian regeneration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482323/planarians-as-models-of-cadmium-induced-neoplasia-provide-measurable-benchmarks-for-mechanistic-studies
#1
Evelyn B Voura, Melissa J Montalvo, Kevin T Dela Roca, Julia M Fisher, Virginie Defamie, Swami R Narala, Rama Khokha, Margaret E Mulligan, Colleen A Evans
Bioassays of planarian neoplasia highlight the potential of these organisms as useful standards to assess whether environmental toxins such as cadmium promote tumorigenesis. These studies complement other investigations into the exceptional healing and regeneration of planarians - processes that are driven by a population of active stem cells, or neoblasts, which are likely transformed during planarian tumor growth. Our goal was to determine if planarian tumorigenesis assays are amenable to mechanistic studies of cadmium carcinogenesis...
August 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467318/coordination-of-size-control-reproduction-and-generational-memory-in-freshwater-planarians
#2
Xingbo Yang, Kelson Kaj, David Schwab, Eva-Maria Schoetz Collins
Uncovering the mechanisms that control size, growth, and division rates of systems reproducing through binary division means understanding basic principles of their life cycle. Recent work has focused on how division rates are regulated in bacteria and yeast, but this question has not yet been addressed in more complex, multicellular organisms. We have acquired a unique large-scale data set on the growth and asexual reproduction of two freshwater planarian species, Dugesia japonica and Dugesia tigrina, which reproduce by transverse fission and succeeding regeneration of head and tail pieces into new planarians...
May 3, 2017: Physical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461239/phred-1-is-a-divergent-neurexin-1-homolog-that-organizes-muscle-fibers-and-patterns-organs-during-regeneration
#3
Carolyn E Adler, Alejandro Sánchez Alvarado
Regeneration of body parts requires the replacement of multiple cell types. To dissect this complex process, we utilized planarian flatworms that are capable of regenerating any tissue after amputation. An RNAi screen for genes involved in regeneration of the pharynx identified a novel gene, Pharynx regeneration defective-1 (PHRED-1) as essential for normal pharynx regeneration. PHRED-1 is a predicted transmembrane protein containing EGF, Laminin G, and WD40 domains, is expressed in muscle, and has predicted homologs restricted to other lophotrochozoan species...
April 28, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448039/surgical-ablation-assay-for-studying-eye-regeneration-in-planarians
#4
Jacob M Morton, Marwa A Saad, Wendy S Beane
In the study of adult stem cells and regenerative mechanisms, planarian flatworms are a staple in vivo model system. This is due in large part to their abundant pluripotent stem cell population and ability to regenerate all cell and tissue types after injuries that would be catastrophic for most animals. Recently, planarians have gained popularity as a model for eye regeneration. Their ability to regenerate the entire eye (comprised of two tissue types: pigment cells and photoreceptors) allows for the dissection of the mechanisms regulating visual system regeneration...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376328/platyhelminthes
#5
James J Collins
Platyhelminthes (flatworms) have captivated the imagination of biologists for centuries. Indeed, planarian flatworms were used as experimental models decades before Caenorhabditis elegans became known as 'the worm'. Although planarians experienced a brief fall from grace, with the advent of molecular tools, planarians, such as Schmidtea mediterranea, have emerged in recent years as powerful models to study the basis of stem cell regulation and tissue regeneration. Flatworms are not just everyone's favorite experimental subjects from high school biology - they also include some of nature's most successful parasites, many of which have plagued humans throughout our history...
April 3, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331971/an-integrated-view-of-asteroid-regeneration-tissues-cells-and-molecules
#6
REVIEW
Yousra Ben Khadra, Michela Sugni, Cinzia Ferrario, Francesco Bonasoro, Ana Varela Coelho, Pedro Martinez, Maria Daniela Candia Carnevali
The potential for repairing and replacing cells, tissues, organs and body parts is considered a primitive attribute of life shared by all the organisms, even though it may be expressed to a different extent and which is essential for the survival of both individual and whole species. The ability to regenerate is particularly evident and widespread within invertebrates. In spite of the wide availability of experimental models, regeneration has been comprehensively explored in only a few animal systems (i.e., hydrozoans, planarians, urodeles) leaving many other animal groups unexplored...
March 22, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326682/nervous-system-development-and-regeneration-in-freshwater-planarians
#7
REVIEW
Kelly G Ross, Ko W Currie, Bret J Pearson, Ricardo M Zayas
Planarians have a long history in the fields of developmental and regenerative biology. These animals have also sparked interest in neuroscience due to their neuroanatomy, spectrum of simple behaviors, and especially, their almost unparalleled ability to generate new neurons after any type of injury. Research in adult planarians has revealed that neuronal subtypes homologous to those found in vertebrates are generated from stem cells throughout their lives. This feat is recapitulated after head amputation, wherein animals are capable of regenerating whole brains and regaining complete neural function...
March 22, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324191/planarian-homolog-of-puromycin-sensitive-aminopeptidase-djpsa-is-required-for-brain-regeneration
#8
Suge Wu, Bin Liu, Zuoqing Yuan, Xiufang Zhang, Hong Liu, Qiuxiang Pang, Bosheng Zhao
Puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase (PSA) belongs to the M1 zinc metallopeptidase family. PSA is the most abundant aminopeptidase in the brain and plays a role in the metabolism of neuropeptides including those involved in neurodegeneration. A cDNA DjPsa was identified from the planarian Dugesia japonica cDNA library. It contains a 639-bp open reading frame corresponding to a deduced protein of 212 amino acids. Whole mount in situ hybridization revealed that DjPsa is expressed in the brain and ventral nerve cords of intact and regenerating animals and demonstrates a tissue and stage-specific expression pattern of DjPsa in developing embryos and larvae...
June 2017: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322998/14-3-3-%C3%AE-and-14-3-3-%C3%AE-contribute-to-immune-responses-in-planarian-dugesia-japonica
#9
Qingqing Lu, Suge Wu, Hui Zhen, Hongkuan Deng, Qian Song, Kaifu Ma, Zhonghong Cao, Qiuxiang Pang, Bosheng Zhao
14-3-3 proteins are a family of highly conserved acidic proteins that regulate cellular processes. They act as a kind of important signaling molecules taking part in many crucial decisions throughout the development process. We have isolated and characterized two members of the 14-3-3 family, namely, Dj14-3-3 α and Dj14-3-3 ζ in the planarian Dugesia japonica. The Dj14-3-3 α and ζ genes encode polypeptides of 260 and 255 amino acids respectively. We have proved that the Dj14-3-3 α and ζ genes were especially expressed in the pharynx in adult and regenerating planarians by in situ hybridization and they were not involved in regeneration process...
June 5, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292427/planarian-epidermal-stem-cells-respond-to-positional-cues-to-promote-cell-type-diversity
#10
Omri Wurtzel, Isaac M Oderberg, Peter W Reddien
Successful regeneration requires that progenitors of different lineages form the appropriate missing cell types. However, simply generating lineages is not enough. Cells produced by a particular lineage often have distinct functions depending on their position within the organism. How this occurs in regeneration is largely unexplored. In planarian regeneration, new cells arise from a proliferative cell population (neoblasts). We used the planarian epidermal lineage to study how the location of adult progenitor cells results in their acquisition of distinct functional identities...
March 13, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287248/the-pioneer-factor-smed-gata456-1-is-required-for-gut-cell-differentiation-and-maintenance-in-planarians
#11
Alejandro González-Sastre, Nídia De Sousa, Teresa Adell, Emili Saló
How adult stem cells differentiate into different cell types remains one of the most intriguing questions in regenerative medicine. Pioneer factors are transcription factors that can bind to and open chromatin, and are among the first elements involved in cell differentiation. We used the freshwater planarian Schmidtea mediterranea as a model system to study the role of the gata456 family of pioneer factors in gut cell differentiation during both regeneration and maintenance of the digestive system. Our findings reveal the presence of two members of the gata456 family in the Schmidtea mediterranea genome; Smed-gata456-1 and Smed-gata456-2...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287246/the-natural-compound-sanguinarine-perturbs-the-regenerative-capabilities-of-planarians
#12
Linda Balestrini, Alessia Di Donfrancesco, Leonardo Rossi, Silvia Marracci, Maria E Isolani, Anna M Bianucci, Renata Batistoni
The natural alkaloid sanguinarine has remarkable therapeutic properties and has been used for centuries as a folk remedy. This compound exhibits interesting anticancer properties and is currently receiving attention as a potential chemotherapeutic agent. Nevertheless, limited information exists regarding its safety for developing organisms. Planarians are an animal model known for their extraordinary stem cell-based regenerative capabilities and are increasingly used for toxicological and pharmacological studies...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267972/regeneration-organizing-the-blastema-in-planarians
#13
Christian P Petersen
The processes that trigger regeneration after injury and link new and old tissue are not fully understood. New findings indicate that, after decapitation, planarians build an organizing center from stem cells at the old midline that directs head patterning and outgrowth.
March 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245923/eye-absence-does-not-regulate-planarian-stem-cells-during-eye-regeneration
#14
Samuel A LoCascio, Sylvain W Lapan, Peter W Reddien
Dividing cells called neoblasts contain pluripotent stem cells and drive planarian flatworm regeneration from diverse injuries. A long-standing question is whether neoblasts directly sense and respond to the identity of missing tissues during regeneration. We used the eye to investigate this question. Surprisingly, eye removal was neither sufficient nor necessary for neoblasts to increase eye progenitor production. Neoblasts normally increase eye progenitor production following decapitation, facilitating regeneration...
February 27, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219778/identification-and-characterization-of-a-novel-multifunctional-placenta-specific-protein-8-in-dugesia-japonica
#15
Qiuxiang Pang, Lili Gao, Yun Bai, Hongkuan Deng, Yu Han, Wenjing Hu, Yanhui Zhang, Shanhang Yuan, Wenping Sun, Yiqian Lu, Xiufang Zhang, Baohua Liu, Bosheng Zhao
Placenta specific protein 8 (Plac8) has been well studied in vertebrates, yet little is known in invertebrates. In this study, a novel Plac8 from the planarian Dugesia japonica was identified and its functions in immune responses and development were characterized. Our results show that Djplac8 was expressed in the pharynx, epidermis and intestine of intact adult planarian. The expression of DjPlac8 increased significantly upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge, and inhibited the growth of the Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa), suggesting the role of Plac8 in immune response...
May 20, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216315/landmarks-in-existing-tissue-at-wounds-are-utilized-to-generate-pattern-in-regenerating-tissue
#16
Isaac M Oderberg, Dayan J Li, M Lucila Scimone, Michael A Gaviño, Peter W Reddien
Regeneration in many organisms involves the formation of a blastema, which differentiates and organizes into the appropriate missing tissues. How blastema pattern is generated and integrated with pre-existing tissues is a central question in the field of regeneration. Planarians are free-living flatworms capable of rapidly regenerating from small body fragments [1]. A cell cluster at the anterior tip of planarian head blastemas (the anterior pole) is required for anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) blastema patterning [2-4]...
March 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171748/antagonistic-self-organizing-patterning-systems-control-maintenance-and-regeneration-of-the-anteroposterior-axis-in-planarians
#17
Tom Stückemann, James Patrick Cleland, Steffen Werner, Hanh Thi-Kim Vu, Robert Bayersdorf, Shang-Yun Liu, Benjamin Friedrich, Frank Jülicher, Jochen Christian Rink
Planarian flatworms maintain their body plan in the face of constant internal turnover and can regenerate from arbitrary tissue fragments. Both phenomena require self-maintaining and self-organizing patterning mechanisms, the molecular mechanisms of which remain poorly understood. We show that a morphogenic gradient of canonical Wnt signaling patterns gene expression along the planarian anteroposterior (A/P) axis. Our results demonstrate that gradient formation likely occurs autonomously in the tail and that an autoregulatory module of Wnt-mediated Wnt expression both shapes the gradient at steady state and governs its re-establishment during regeneration...
February 6, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137894/integrins-are-required-for-tissue-organization-and-restriction-of-neurogenesis-in-regenerating-planarians
#18
Florian Seebeck, Martin März, Anna-Wiebke Meyer, Hanna Reuter, Matthias C Vogg, Martin Stehling, Karina Mildner, Dagmar Zeuschner, Franziska Rabert, Kerstin Bartscherer
Tissue regeneration depends on proliferative cells and on cues that regulate cell division, differentiation, patterning and the restriction of these processes once regeneration is complete. In planarians, flatworms with high regenerative potential, muscle cells express some of these instructive cues. Here, we show that members of the integrin family of adhesion molecules are required for the integrity of regenerating tissues, including the musculature. Remarkably, in regenerating β1-integrin RNAi planarians, we detected increased numbers of mitotic cells and progenitor cell types, as well as a reduced ability of stem cells and lineage-restricted progenitor cells to accumulate at wound sites...
March 1, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126842/integrin-suppresses-neurogenesis-and-regulates-brain-tissue-assembly-in-planarian-regeneration
#19
Nicolle A Bonar, Christian P Petersen
Animals capable of adult regeneration require specific signaling to control injury-induced cell proliferation, specification and patterning, but comparatively little is known about how the regeneration blastema assembles differentiating cells into well-structured functional tissues. Using the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea as a model, we identify β1-integrin as a crucial regulator of blastema architecture. β1-integrin(RNAi) animals formed small head blastemas with severe tissue disorganization, including ectopic neural spheroids containing differentiated neurons normally found in distinct organs...
March 1, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072387/embryonic-origin-of-adult-stem-cells-required-for-tissue-homeostasis-and-regeneration
#20
Erin L Davies, Kai Lei, Christopher W Seidel, Amanda E Kroesen, Sean A McKinney, Longhua Guo, Sofia Mc Robb, Eric J Ross, Kirsten Gotting, Alejandro Sánchez Alvarado
Planarian neoblasts are pluripotent, adult somatic stem cells and lineage-primed progenitors that are required for the production and maintenance of all differentiated cell types, including the germline. Neoblasts, originally defined as undifferentiated cells residing in the adult parenchyma, are frequently compared to embryonic stem cells yet their developmental origin remains obscure. We investigated the provenance of neoblasts during Schmidtea mediterranea embryogenesis, and report that neoblasts arise from an anarchic, cycling piwi-1+ population wholly responsible for production of all temporary and definitive organs during embryogenesis...
January 10, 2017: ELife
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