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Planaria regeneration

Kelly G Sullivan, Maya Emmons-Bell, Michael Levin
A key problem in evolutionary developmental biology is identifying the sources of instructive information that determine species-specific anatomical pattern. Understanding the inputs to large-scale morphology is also crucial for efforts to manipulate pattern formation in regenerative medicine and synthetic bioengineering. Recent studies have revealed a physiological system of communication among cells that regulates pattern during embryogenesis and regeneration in vertebrate and invertebrate models. Somatic tissues form networks using the same ion channels, electrical synapses, and neurotransmitter mechanisms exploited by the brain for information-processing...
July 2016: Communicative & Integrative Biology
Moran Neuhof, Michael Levin, Oded Rechavi
The Weismann barrier postulates that genetic information passes only from the germline to the soma and not in reverse, thus providing an obstacle to the inheritance of acquired traits. Certain organisms such as planaria - flatworms that can reproduce through asymmetric fission - avoid the limitations of this barrier, thus blurring the distinction between the processes of inheritance and development. In this paper, we re-evaluate canonical ideas about the interaction between developmental, genetic and evolutionary processes through the lens of planaria...
September 15, 2016: Biology Open
Louise S Goupil, Sam L Ivry, Ivy Hsieh, Brian M Suzuki, Charles S Craik, Anthony J O'Donoghue, James H McKerrow
Proteases perform numerous vital functions in flatworms, many of which are likely to be conserved throughout the phylum Platyhelminthes. Within this phylum are several parasitic worms that are often poorly characterized due to their complex life-cycles and lack of responsiveness to genetic manipulation. The flatworm Schmidtea mediterranea, or planaria, is an ideal model organism to study the complex role of protein digestion due to its simple life cycle and amenability to techniques like RNA interference (RNAi)...
August 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Fallon Durant, Daniel Lobo, Jennifer Hammelman, Michael Levin
Planaria are complex metazoans that repair damage to their bodies and cease remodeling when a correct anatomy has been achieved. This model system offers a unique opportunity to understand how large-scale anatomical homeostasis emerges from the activities of individual cells. Much progress has been made on the molecular genetics of stem cell activity in planaria. However, recent data also indicate that the global pattern is regulated by physiological circuits composed of ionic and neurotransmitter signaling...
April 2016: Regeneration
Vairavan Lakshmanan, Dhiru Bansal, Jahnavi Kulkarni, Deepak Poduval, Srikar Krishna, Vidyanand Sasidharan, Praveen Anand, Aswin Seshasayee, Dasaradhi Palakodeti
In eukaryotes, 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) play important roles in regulating posttranscriptional gene expression. The 3'UTR is defined by regulated cleavage/polyadenylation of the pre-mRNA. The advent of next-generation sequencing technology has now enabled us to identify these events on a genome-wide scale. In this study, we used poly(A)-position profiling by sequencing (3P-Seq) to capture all poly(A) sites across the genome of the freshwater planarian, Schmidtea mediterranea, an ideal model system for exploring the process of regeneration and stem cell function...
October 13, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Douglas J Blackiston, Tal Shomrat, Michael Levin
One of the most important features of the nervous system is memory: the ability to represent and store experiences, in a manner that alters behavior and cognition at future times when the original stimulus is no longer present. However, the brain is not always an anatomically stable structure: many animal species regenerate all or part of the brain after severe injury, or remodel their CNS toward a new configuration as part of their life cycle. This raises a fascinating question: what are the dynamics of memories during brain regeneration? Can stable memories remain intact when cellular turnover and spatial rearrangement modify the biological hardware within which experiences are stored? What can we learn from model species that exhibit both, regeneration and memory, with respect to robustness and stability requirements for long-term memories encoded in living tissues? In this Perspective, we discuss relevant data in regenerating planaria, metamorphosing insects, and hibernating ground squirrels...
September 2015: Communicative & Integrative Biology
Jin Woong Chung
All living things share some common life processes, such as growth and reproduction, and have the ability to respond to their environment. However, each type of organism has its own specialized way of managing biological events. Genetic sequences determine phenotypic and physiological traits. Based on genetic information, comparative genomics has been used to delineate the differences and similarities between various genomes, and significant progress has been made in understanding regenerative biology by comparing the genomes of a variety of lower animal models of regeneration, such as planaria, zebra fish, and newts...
May 2016: BMB Reports
Jesmond Dalli, Julia M Sanger, Ana R Rodriguez, Nan Chiang, Bernd W Spur, Charles N Serhan
Maresin conjugates in tissue regeneration (MCTR) are a new family of evolutionarily conserved chemical signals that orchestrate host responses to promote tissue regeneration and resolution of infections. Herein, we identified the novel MCTR3 and established rank order potencies and matched the stereochemistries of MCTR1, MCTR2 and MCTR3 using material prepared by total organic synthesis and mediators isolated from both mouse and human systems. MCTR3 was produced from endogenous substrate by E. coli activated human macrophages and identified in sepsis patients...
2016: PloS One
Sesquile Ramon, Jesmond Dalli, Julia M Sanger, Jeremy W Winkler, Marius Aursnes, Jørn E Tungen, Trond V Hansen, Charles N Serhan
Inflammation and its natural resolution are host-protective responses triggered by infection or injury. The resolution phase of inflammation is regulated by enzymatically produced specialized pro-resolving mediators. We recently identified a new class of peptide-conjugated specialized pro-resolving mediators that carry potent tissue regenerative actions that belong to the protectin family and are coined protectin conjugates in tissue regeneration (PCTR). Herein, with the use of microbial-induced peritonitis in mice and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based lipid mediator metabololipidomics, we found that PCTR1 is temporally regulated during self-resolving infection...
April 2016: American Journal of Pathology
Marc Mangel, Michael B Bonsall, Aziz Aboobaker
BACKGROUND: In planarian flatworms, the mechanisms underlying the activity of collectively pluripotent adult stem cells (neoblasts) and their descendants can now be studied from the level of the individual gene to the entire animal. Flatworms maintain startling developmental plasticity and regenerative capacity in response to variable nutrient conditions or injury. We develop a model for cell dynamics in such animals, assuming that fully differentiated cells exert feedback control on neoblast activity...
2016: BMC Systems Biology
Patrick M Perrigue, Joseph Najbauer, Agnieszka A Jozwiak, Jan Barciszewski, Karen S Aboody, Michael E Barish
The depletion of stem cell pools and the accumulation of senescent cells in animal tissues are linked to aging. Planarians are invertebrate flatworms and are unusual in that their stem cells, called neoblasts, are constantly replacing old and dying cells. By eliminating neoblasts in worms via irradiation, the biological principles of aging are exposed in the absence of wound healing and regeneration, making planaria a powerful tool for aging research.
2015: Pathobiology of Aging & Age related Diseases
Maya Emmons-Bell, Fallon Durant, Jennifer Hammelman, Nicholas Bessonov, Vitaly Volpert, Junji Morokuma, Kaylinnette Pinet, Dany S Adams, Alexis Pietak, Daniel Lobo, Michael Levin
The shape of an animal body plan is constructed from protein components encoded by the genome. However, bioelectric networks composed of many cell types have their own intrinsic dynamics, and can drive distinct morphological outcomes during embryogenesis and regeneration. Planarian flatworms are a popular system for exploring body plan patterning due to their regenerative capacity, but despite considerable molecular information regarding stem cell differentiation and basic axial patterning, very little is known about how distinct head shapes are produced...
2015: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
A Tosenberger, N Bessonov, M Levin, N Reinberg, V Volpert, N Morozova
This paper is devoted to computer modelling of the development and regeneration of multicellular biological structures. Some species (e.g. planaria and salamanders) are able to regenerate parts of their body after amputation damage, but the global rules governing cooperative cell behaviour during morphogenesis are not known. Here, we consider a simplified model organism, which consists of tissues formed around special cells that can be interpreted as stem cells. We assume that stem cells communicate with each other by a set of signals, and that the values of these signals depend on the distance between cells...
September 2015: Acta Biotheoretica
Jesmond Dalli, Sesquile Ramon, Paul C Norris, Romain A Colas, Charles N Serhan
Local mediators orchestrate the host response to both sterile and infectious challenge and resolution. Recent evidence demonstrates that maresin sulfido-conjugates actively resolve acute inflammation and promote tissue regeneration. In this report, we investigated self-limited infectious exudates for novel bioactive chemical signals in tissue regeneration and resolution. By use of spleens from Escherichia coli infected mice, self-resolving infectious exudates, human spleens, and blood from patients with sepsis, we identified 2 new families of potent molecules...
May 2015: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Jesse R Lowe, Tyler D Mahool, Mary M Staehle
Prenatal exposure to ethanol affects neurodevelopmental processes, leading to a variety of physical and cognitive impairments collectively termed Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). The molecular level ethanol-induced alterations that underlie FASD are poorly understood and are difficult to study in mammals. Ethanol exposure has been shown to affect regulation and differentiation of embryonic stem cells in vitro, suggesting that in vivo effects such as FASD could arise from similar alterations of stem cells...
March 2015: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Jesmond Dalli, Nan Chiang, Charles N Serhan
Upon infection and inflammation, tissue repair and regeneration are essential in reestablishing function. Here we identified potent molecules present in self-limited infectious murine exudates, regenerating planaria, and human milk as well as macrophages that stimulate tissue regeneration in planaria and are proresolving. Characterization of their physical properties and isotope tracking indicated that the bioactive structures contained docosahexaenoic acid and sulfido-conjugate (SC) of triene double bonds that proved to be 13-glutathionyl, 14-hydroxy-docosahexaenoic acid (SCI) and 13-cysteinylglycinyl, 14-hydroxy-docosahexaenoic acid (SCII)...
November 4, 2014: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Agnieszka Rybak-Wolf, Jordi Solana
In recent years freshwater flatworms (planarian) have become a powerful model for studies of regeneration and stem cell biology. Whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) are key and most commonly used techniques to determine and visualize gene expression patterns in planaria. Here, we present the established version of whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH) and whole-mount fluorescence in situ hybridization (WFISH) protocol optimized over the last years by several labs from the rapidly growing planaria field and give an overview of recently introduced modifications which can be critical in the study of low abundant transcripts...
2014: Methods in Molecular Biology
Yu-Sheng Lin, Chin-Chou Chu, Jen-Jen Lin, Chien-Cheng Chang, Chun-Chieh Wang, Chiao-Yin Wang, Po-Hsiang Tsui
The planarian is widely used as a model for studying tissue regeneration. In this study, we used optical coherence tomography (OCT) for the real-time, high-resolution imaging of planarian tissue regeneration. Five planaria were sliced transversely to produce 5 head and 5 tail fragments. During a 2-week regeneration period, OCT images of the planaria were acquired to analyze the signal attenuation rates, intensity ratios, and image texture features (including contrast, correlation, homogeneity, energy, and entropy) to compare the primitive and regenerated tissues...
2014: Scientific Reports
Marianna Budnikova, Jeffrey W Habig, Daniel Lobo, Nicolas Cornia, Michael Levin, Tim Andersen
BACKGROUND: The ability of science to produce experimental data has outpaced the ability to effectively visualize and integrate the data into a conceptual framework that can further higher order understanding. Multidimensional and shape-based observational data of regenerative biology presents a particularly daunting challenge in this regard. Large amounts of data are available in regenerative biology, but little progress has been made in understanding how organisms such as planaria robustly achieve and maintain body form...
2014: BMC Bioinformatics
Leonid Kustov, Kharlampii Tiras, Souhail Al-Abed, Natalia Golovina, Mikhail Ananyan
The regeneration of planarian flatworms - specifically, changes to the area of the regeneration bud (blastema) after surgical dissection - was proposed for use as a robust tool for estimating the toxicity of silver nanoparticles. The use of Planaria species, due to their unique regenerative capacity, could result in a reduction in the use of more-traditional laboratory animals for toxicity testing. With our novel approach, silver nanoparticles were found to be moderately toxic to the planarian, Girardia tigrina...
March 2014: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
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