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Planaria regeneration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682786/application-of-computational-methods-in-planaria-research-a-current-update
#1
Shyamasree Ghosh
Planaria is a member of the Phylum Platyhelminthes including flatworms. Planarians possess the unique ability of regeneration from adult stem cells or neoblasts and finds importance as a model organism for regeneration and developmental studies. Although research is being actively carried out globally through conventional methods to understand the process of regeneration from neoblasts, biology of development, neurobiology and immunology of Planaria, there are many thought provoking questions related to stem cell plasticity, and uniqueness of regenerative potential in Planarians amongst other members of Phylum Platyhelminthes...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Integrative Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616247/planarian-regeneration-in-space-persistent-anatomical-behavioral-and-bacteriological-changes-induced-by-space-travel
#2
Junji Morokuma, Fallon Durant, Katherine B Williams, Joshua M Finkelstein, Douglas J Blackiston, Twyman Clements, David W Reed, Michael Roberts, Mahendra Jain, Kris Kimel, Sunia A Trauger, Benjamin E Wolfe, Michael Levin
Regeneration is regulated not only by chemical signals but also by physical processes, such as bioelectric gradients. How these may change in the absence of the normal gravitational and geomagnetic fields is largely unknown. Planarian flatworms were moved to the International Space Station for 5 weeks, immediately after removing their heads and tails. A control group in spring water remained on Earth. No manipulation of the planaria occurred while they were in orbit, and space-exposed worms were returned to our laboratory for analysis...
April 2017: Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603004/ion-channel-signaling-influences-cellular-proliferation-and-phagocyte-activity-during-axolotl-tail-regeneration
#3
Brandon M Franklin, S Randal Voss, Jeffrey L Osborn
Little is known about the potential for ion channels to regulate cellular behaviors during tissue regeneration. Here, we utilized an amphibian tail regeneration assay coupled with a chemical genetic screen to identify ion channel antagonists that altered critical cellular processes during regeneration. Inhibition of multiple ion channels either partially (anoctamin1/Tmem16a, anoctamin2/Tmem16b, KV2.1, KV2.2, L-type CaV channels and H/K ATPases) or completely (GlyR, GABAAR, KV1.5 and SERCA pumps) inhibited tail regeneration...
August 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538159/long-term-stochastic-editing-of-regenerative-anatomy-via-targeting-endogenous-bioelectric-gradients
#4
Fallon Durant, Junji Morokuma, Christopher Fields, Katherine Williams, Dany Spencer Adams, Michael Levin
We show that regenerating planarians' normal anterior-posterior pattern can be permanently rewritten by a brief perturbation of endogenous bioelectrical networks. Temporary modulation of regenerative bioelectric dynamics in amputated trunk fragments of planaria stochastically results in a constant ratio of regenerates with two heads to regenerates with normal morphology. Remarkably, this is shown to be due not to partial penetrance of treatment, but a profound yet hidden alteration to the animals' patterning circuitry...
May 23, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362431/killers-creating-new-life-caspases-drive-apoptosis-induced-proliferation-in-tissue-repair-and-disease
#5
Caitlin E Fogarty, Andreas Bergmann
Apoptosis is a carefully orchestrated and tightly controlled form of cell death, conserved across metazoans. As the executioners of apoptotic cell death, cysteine-dependent aspartate-directed proteases (caspases) are critical drivers of this cellular disassembly. Early studies of genetically programmed cell death demonstrated that the selective activation of caspases induces apoptosis and the precise elimination of excess cells, thereby sculpting structures and refining tissues. However, over the past decade there has been a fundamental shift in our understanding of the roles of caspases during cell death-a shift precipitated by the revelation that apoptotic cells actively engage with their surrounding environment throughout the death process, and caspases can trigger a myriad of signals, some of which drive concurrent cell proliferation regenerating damaged structures and building up lost tissues...
August 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299647/runx-in-invertebrates
#6
S Hughes, A Woollard
Runx genes have been identified in all metazoans and considerable conservation of function observed across a wide range of phyla. Thus, insight gained from studying simple model organisms is invaluable in understanding RUNX biology in higher animals. Consequently, this chapter will focus on the Runx genes in the diploblasts, which includes sea anemones and sponges, as well as the lower triploblasts, including the sea urchin, nematode, planaria and insect. Due to the high degree of functional redundancy amongst vertebrate Runx genes, simpler model organisms with a solo Runx gene, like C...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287246/the-natural-compound-sanguinarine-perturbs-the-regenerative-capabilities-of-planarians
#7
Linda Balestrini, Alessia Di Donfrancesco, Leonardo Rossi, Silvia Marracci, Maria E Isolani, Anna M Bianucci, Renata Batistoni
The natural alkaloid sanguinarine has remarkable therapeutic properties and has been used for centuries as a folk remedy. This compound exhibits interesting anticancer properties and is currently receiving attention as a potential chemotherapeutic agent. Nevertheless, limited information exists regarding its safety for developing organisms. Planarians are an animal model known for their extraordinary stem cell-based regenerative capabilities and are increasingly used for toxicological and pharmacological studies...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117771/inducing-complete-polyp-regeneration-from-the-aboral-physa-of-the-starlet-sea-anemone-nematostella-vectensis
#8
Patricia Bossert, Gerald H Thomsen
Cnidarians, and specifically Hydra, were the first animals shown to regenerate damaged or severed structures, and indeed such studies arguably launched modern biological inquiry through the work of Trembley more than 250 years ago. Presently the study of regeneration has seen a resurgence using both "classic" regenerative organisms, such as the Hydra, planaria and Urodeles, as well as a widening spectrum of species spanning the range of metazoa, from sponges through mammals. Besides its intrinsic interest as a biological phenomenon, understanding how regeneration works in a variety of species will inform us about whether regenerative processes share common features and/or species or context-specific cellular and molecular mechanisms...
January 14, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27574538/physiological-inputs-regulate-species-specific-anatomy-during-embryogenesis-and-regeneration
#9
Kelly G Sullivan, Maya Emmons-Bell, Michael Levin
A key problem in evolutionary developmental biology is identifying the sources of instructive information that determine species-specific anatomical pattern. Understanding the inputs to large-scale morphology is also crucial for efforts to manipulate pattern formation in regenerative medicine and synthetic bioengineering. Recent studies have revealed a physiological system of communication among cells that regulates pattern during embryogenesis and regeneration in vertebrate and invertebrate models. Somatic tissues form networks using the same ion channels, electrical synapses, and neurotransmitter mechanisms exploited by the brain for information-processing...
July 2016: Communicative & Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27565761/vertically-and-horizontally-transmitted-memories-the-fading-boundaries-between-regeneration-and-inheritance-in-planaria
#10
REVIEW
Moran Neuhof, Michael Levin, Oded Rechavi
The Weismann barrier postulates that genetic information passes only from the germline to the soma and not in reverse, thus providing an obstacle to the inheritance of acquired traits. Certain organisms such as planaria - flatworms that can reproduce through asymmetric fission - avoid the limitations of this barrier, thus blurring the distinction between the processes of inheritance and development. In this paper, we re-evaluate canonical ideas about the interaction between developmental, genetic and evolutionary processes through the lens of planaria...
September 15, 2016: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27501047/cysteine-and-aspartyl-proteases-contribute-to-protein-digestion-in-the-gut-of-freshwater-planaria
#11
Louise S Goupil, Sam L Ivry, Ivy Hsieh, Brian M Suzuki, Charles S Craik, Anthony J O'Donoghue, James H McKerrow
Proteases perform numerous vital functions in flatworms, many of which are likely to be conserved throughout the phylum Platyhelminthes. Within this phylum are several parasitic worms that are often poorly characterized due to their complex life-cycles and lack of responsiveness to genetic manipulation. The flatworm Schmidtea mediterranea, or planaria, is an ideal model organism to study the complex role of protein digestion due to its simple life cycle and amenability to techniques like RNA interference (RNAi)...
August 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27499881/physiological-controls-of-large-scale-patterning-in-planarian-regeneration-a-molecular-and-computational-perspective-on-growth-and-form
#12
Fallon Durant, Daniel Lobo, Jennifer Hammelman, Michael Levin
Planaria are complex metazoans that repair damage to their bodies and cease remodeling when a correct anatomy has been achieved. This model system offers a unique opportunity to understand how large-scale anatomical homeostasis emerges from the activities of individual cells. Much progress has been made on the molecular genetics of stem cell activity in planaria. However, recent data also indicate that the global pattern is regulated by physiological circuits composed of ionic and neurotransmitter signaling...
April 2016: Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27489207/genome-wide-analysis-of-polyadenylation-events-in-schmidtea-mediterranea
#13
Vairavan Lakshmanan, Dhiru Bansal, Jahnavi Kulkarni, Deepak Poduval, Srikar Krishna, Vidyanand Sasidharan, Praveen Anand, Aswin Seshasayee, Dasaradhi Palakodeti
In eukaryotes, 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) play important roles in regulating posttranscriptional gene expression. The 3'UTR is defined by regulated cleavage/polyadenylation of the pre-mRNA. The advent of next-generation sequencing technology has now enabled us to identify these events on a genome-wide scale. In this study, we used poly(A)-position profiling by sequencing (3P-Seq) to capture all poly(A) sites across the genome of the freshwater planarian, Schmidtea mediterranea, an ideal model system for exploring the process of regeneration and stem cell function...
October 13, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27066165/the-stability-of-memories-during-brain-remodeling-a-perspective
#14
Douglas J Blackiston, Tal Shomrat, Michael Levin
One of the most important features of the nervous system is memory: the ability to represent and store experiences, in a manner that alters behavior and cognition at future times when the original stimulus is no longer present. However, the brain is not always an anatomically stable structure: many animal species regenerate all or part of the brain after severe injury, or remodel their CNS toward a new configuration as part of their life cycle. This raises a fascinating question: what are the dynamics of memories during brain regeneration? Can stable memories remain intact when cellular turnover and spatial rearrangement modify the biological hardware within which experiences are stored? What can we learn from model species that exhibit both, regeneration and memory, with respect to robustness and stability requirements for long-term memories encoded in living tissues? In this Perspective, we discuss relevant data in regenerating planaria, metamorphosing insects, and hibernating ground squirrels...
September 2015: Communicative & Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26949021/spot-the-difference-solving-the-puzzle-of-hidden-pictures-in-the-lizard-genome-for-identification-of-regeneration-factors
#15
REVIEW
Jin Woong Chung
All living things share some common life processes, such as growth and reproduction, and have the ability to respond to their environment. However, each type of organism has its own specialized way of managing biological events. Genetic sequences determine phenotypic and physiological traits. Based on genetic information, comparative genomics has been used to delineate the differences and similarities between various genomes, and significant progress has been made in understanding regenerative biology by comparing the genomes of a variety of lower animal models of regeneration, such as planaria, zebra fish, and newts...
May 2016: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26881986/identification-and-actions-of-a-novel-third-maresin-conjugate-in-tissue-regeneration-mctr3
#16
Jesmond Dalli, Julia M Sanger, Ana R Rodriguez, Nan Chiang, Bernd W Spur, Charles N Serhan
Maresin conjugates in tissue regeneration (MCTR) are a new family of evolutionarily conserved chemical signals that orchestrate host responses to promote tissue regeneration and resolution of infections. Herein, we identified the novel MCTR3 and established rank order potencies and matched the stereochemistries of MCTR1, MCTR2 and MCTR3 using material prepared by total organic synthesis and mediators isolated from both mouse and human systems. MCTR3 was produced from endogenous substrate by E. coli activated human macrophages and identified in sepsis patients...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26878209/the-protectin-pctr1-is-produced-by-human-m2-macrophages-and-enhances-resolution-of-infectious-inflammation
#17
Sesquile Ramon, Jesmond Dalli, Julia M Sanger, Jeremy W Winkler, Marius Aursnes, Jørn E Tungen, Trond V Hansen, Charles N Serhan
Inflammation and its natural resolution are host-protective responses triggered by infection or injury. The resolution phase of inflammation is regulated by enzymatically produced specialized pro-resolving mediators. We recently identified a new class of peptide-conjugated specialized pro-resolving mediators that carry potent tissue regenerative actions that belong to the protectin family and are coined protectin conjugates in tissue regeneration (PCTR). Herein, with the use of microbial-induced peritonitis in mice and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based lipid mediator metabololipidomics, we found that PCTR1 is temporally regulated during self-resolving infection...
April 2016: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26873593/feedback-control-in-planarian-stem-cell-systems
#18
Marc Mangel, Michael B Bonsall, Aziz Aboobaker
BACKGROUND: In planarian flatworms, the mechanisms underlying the activity of collectively pluripotent adult stem cells (neoblasts) and their descendants can now be studied from the level of the individual gene to the entire animal. Flatworms maintain startling developmental plasticity and regenerative capacity in response to variable nutrient conditions or injury. We develop a model for cell dynamics in such animals, assuming that fully differentiated cells exert feedback control on neoblast activity...
February 13, 2016: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26654402/planarians-as-a-model-of-aging-to-study-the-interaction-between-stem-cells-and-senescent-cells-in-vivo
#19
Patrick M Perrigue, Joseph Najbauer, Agnieszka A Jozwiak, Jan Barciszewski, Karen S Aboody, Michael E Barish
The depletion of stem cell pools and the accumulation of senescent cells in animal tissues are linked to aging. Planarians are invertebrate flatworms and are unusual in that their stem cells, called neoblasts, are constantly replacing old and dying cells. By eliminating neoblasts in worms via irradiation, the biological principles of aging are exposed in the absence of wound healing and regeneration, making planaria a powerful tool for aging research.
2015: Pathobiology of Aging & Age related Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26610482/gap-junctional-blockade-stochastically-induces-different-species-specific-head-anatomies-in-genetically-wild-type-girardia-dorotocephala-flatworms
#20
Maya Emmons-Bell, Fallon Durant, Jennifer Hammelman, Nicholas Bessonov, Vitaly Volpert, Junji Morokuma, Kaylinnette Pinet, Dany S Adams, Alexis Pietak, Daniel Lobo, Michael Levin
The shape of an animal body plan is constructed from protein components encoded by the genome. However, bioelectric networks composed of many cell types have their own intrinsic dynamics, and can drive distinct morphological outcomes during embryogenesis and regeneration. Planarian flatworms are a popular system for exploring body plan patterning due to their regenerative capacity, but despite considerable molecular information regarding stem cell differentiation and basic axial patterning, very little is known about how distinct head shapes are produced...
2015: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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