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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880281/a-right-handed-signalling-pathway-drives-heart-looping-in-vertebrates
#1
Oscar H Ocaña, Hakan Coskun, Carolina Minguillón, Prayag Murawala, Elly M Tanaka, Joan Galcerán, Ramón Muñoz-Chápuli, M Angela Nieto
Most animals show external bilateral symmetry, which hinders the observation of multiple internal left-right (L/R) asymmetries that are fundamental to organ packaging and function. In vertebrates, left identity is mediated by the left-specific Nodal-Pitx2 axis that is repressed on the right-hand side by the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) inducer Snail1 (refs 3, 4). Despite some existing evidence, it remains unclear whether an equivalent instructive pathway provides right-hand-specific information to the embryo...
September 6, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815248/-differentially-expressed-genes-between-the-human-mandible-and-ilium-derived-mesenchymal-cells
#2
Quan-Quan Yang, Jiao Wang, Zhi-Yong Li
PURPOSE: To explore the differentially expressed genes between human mandible- and ilium- derived mesenchymal cells. METHODS: Differentially expressed genes between the human mandible- and ilium- derived mesenchymal cells were obtained from the GEO database based on the analysis of GEO2R software, then the relationship among these genes were analysed using DAVID and Gene MANIA on-line database. RESULTS: Two hundred and ninety three differentially expressed genes between the human mandible and iliac derived mesenchymal cells were obtained, and most of them were homeobox genes that related to bone development...
April 2017: Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue, Shanghai Journal of Stomatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782836/histone-deacetylase-3-deletion-in-mesenchymal-progenitor-cells-hinders-long-bone-development
#3
Marina Feigenson, Lomeli Carpio Shull, Earnest L Taylor, Emily T Camilleri, Scott M Riester, Andre J van Wijnen, Elizabeth W Bradley, Jennifer J Westendorf
Long bone formation is a complex process that requires precise transcriptional control of gene expression programs in mesenchymal progenitor cells. Histone deacetylases (Hdacs) coordinate chromatin structure and gene expression by enzymatically removing acetyl groups from histones and other proteins. Hdac inhibitors are used clinically to manage mood disorders, cancers, and other conditions but are teratogenic to the developing skeleton and increase fracture risk in adults. In this study, the functions of Hdac3, one of the enzymes blocked by current Hdac inhibitor therapies, in skeletal mesenchymal progenitor cells were determined...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737764/paired-related-homeobox-protein-1-regulates-pdgf-induced-chemotaxis-of-hepatic-stellate-cells-in-liver-fibrosis
#4
Jin Gong, Jian Han, Jiayi He, Jingmei Liu, Ping Han, Yunwu Wang, Mengke Li, Dongxiao Li, Xiangming Ding, Zhipeng Du, Jiazhi Liao, Dean Tian
Activation of the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)/PDGF beta receptor (PDGFβR) axis has a critical role in liver fibrosis. However, the mechanisms that regulate the PDGF signaling are yet to be elucidated. The present study demonstrates that paired related homeobox protein 1 (Prrx1) is involved in PDGF-dependent hepatic stellate cell (HSCs) migration via modulation of the expression of metalloproteinases MMP2 and MMP9. PDGF elevated the level of Prrx1 through the activation of ERK/Sp1 and PI3K/Akt/Ets1 pathways...
September 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695825/tsc2-disruption-in-mesenchymal-progenitors-results-in-tumors-with-vascular-anomalies-overexpressing-lgals3
#5
Peter J Klover, Rajesh L Thangapazham, Jiro Kato, Ji-An Wang, Stasia A Anderson, Victoria Hoffmann, Wendy K Steagall, Shaowei Li, Elizabeth McCart, Neera Nathan, Joshua D Bernstock, Matthew D Wilkerson, Clifton L Dalgard, Joel Moss, Thomas N Darling
Increased mTORC1 signaling from TSC1/TSC2 inactivation is found in cancer and causes tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). The role of mesenchymal-derived cells in TSC tumorigenesis was investigated through disruption of Tsc2 in craniofacial and limb bud mesenchymal progenitors. Tsc2cKO(Prrx1-cre) mice had shortened lifespans and extensive hamartomas containing abnormal tortuous, dilated vessels prominent in the forelimbs. Abnormalities were blocked by the mTORC1 inhibitor sirolimus. A Tsc2/mTORC1 expression signature identified in Tsc2-deficient fibroblasts was also increased in bladder cancers with TSC1/TSC2 mutations in the TCGA database...
July 11, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677793/downregulation-of-prrx1-via-the-p53-dependent-signaling-pathway-predicts-poor-prognosis-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#6
Mingming Fan, Jun Shen, Hu Liu, Zhijian Wen, Jue Yang, Pinghua Yang, Kai Liu, Yanxin Chang, Jicheng Duan, Kai Lu
Paired-related homeobox 1 (PRRX1) has been identified as a novel molecule associated with induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), acquisition of cancer stem cell like properties and poor prognosis in tumors. However, the function of PRRX1 in hepatocellular carcinoma has not been elucidated. In the present study, we observed that PRRX1 expression levels were downregulated and positively correlated with the downregulated expression of p53 in hepatocellular carcinoma specimens. Decreased expression of PRRX1 and/or p53 by siRNA induced both the migration and the invasion features of HCC cells in vitro...
July 3, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659168/gene-expression-profiles-and-signaling-mechanisms-in-%C3%AE-2b-adrenoceptor-evoked-proliferation-of-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells
#7
Anna Huhtinen, Vesa Hongisto, Asta Laiho, Eliisa Löyttyniemi, Dirk Pijnenburg, Mika Scheinin
BACKGROUND: α2-adrenoceptors are important regulators of vascular tone and blood pressure. Regulation of cell proliferation is a less well investigated consequence of α2-adrenoceptor activation. We have previously shown that α2B-adrenoceptor activation stimulates proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). This may be important for blood vessel development and plasticity and for the pathology and therapeutics of cardiovascular disorders. The underlying cellular mechanisms have remained mostly unknown...
June 28, 2017: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650485/neuroblastoma-is-composed-of-two-super-enhancer-associated-differentiation-states
#8
Tim van Groningen, Jan Koster, Linda J Valentijn, Danny A Zwijnenburg, Nurdan Akogul, Nancy E Hasselt, Marloes Broekmans, Franciska Haneveld, Natalia E Nowakowska, Johannes Bras, Carel J M van Noesel, Aldo Jongejan, Antoine H van Kampen, Linda Koster, Frank Baas, Lianne van Dijk-Kerkhoven, Margriet Huizer-Smit, Maria C Lecca, Alvin Chan, Arjan Lakeman, Piet Molenaar, Richard Volckmann, Ellen M Westerhout, Mohamed Hamdi, Peter G van Sluis, Marli E Ebus, Jan J Molenaar, Godelieve A Tytgat, Bart A Westerman, Johan van Nes, Rogier Versteeg
Neuroblastoma and other pediatric tumors show a paucity of gene mutations, which has sparked an interest in their epigenetic regulation. Several tumor types include phenotypically divergent cells, resembling cells from different lineage development stages. It has been proposed that super-enhancer-associated transcription factor (TF) networks underlie lineage identity, but the role of these enhancers in intratumoral heterogeneity is unknown. Here we show that most neuroblastomas include two types of tumor cells with divergent gene expression profiles...
August 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588211/transcription-factor-networks-derived-from-breast-cancer-stem-cells-control-the-immune-response-in-the-basal-subtype
#9
W A da Silveira, P V B Palma, R D Sicchieri, R A R Villacis, L R M Mandarano, T M G Oliveira, H M R Antonio, J M Andrade, V F Muglia, S R Rogatto, C Theillet, S du Manoir, D G Tiezzi
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide and metastatic dissemination is the principal factor related to death by this disease. Breast cancer stem cells (bCSC) are thought to be responsible for metastasis and chemoresistance. In this study, based on whole transcriptome analysis from putative bCSC and reverse engineering of transcription control networks, we identified two networks associated with this phenotype. One controlled by SNAI2, TWIST1, BNC2, PRRX1 and TBX5 drives a mesenchymal or CSC-like phenotype...
June 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486630/paired-related-homeobox-1-transactivates-dopamine-d2-receptor-to-maintain-propagation-and-tumorigenicity-of-glioma-initiating-cells
#10
Yamu Li, Wen Wang, Fangyu Wang, Qiushuang Wu, Wei Li, Xiaoling Zhong, Kuan Tian, Tao Zeng, Liang Gao, Ying Liu, Shu Li, Xiaobing Jiang, Guangwei Du, Yan Zhou
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly invasive brain tumor with limited therapeutic means and poor prognosis. Recent studies indicate that glioma-initiating cells/glioma stem cells (GICs/GSCs) may be responsible for tumor initiation, infiltration, and recurrence. GICs could aberrantly employ molecular machinery balancing self-renewal and differentiation of embryonic neural precursors. Here, we find that paired related homeobox 1 (PRRX1), a homeodomain transcription factor that was previously reported to control skeletal development, is expressed in cortical neural progenitors and is required for their self-renewal and proper differentiation...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469771/loss-of-prrx1-induces-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-and-cancer-stem-cell-like-properties-in-a549-cells
#11
Hongbin Zhu, Gengyun Sun
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays crucial role in tumor metastasis and patient prognosis. Previous studies indicated that paired-related homeobox 1 (PRRX1), a newly identified EMT inducer, plays opposing roles in different tumor cell types. However, the function of PRRX1 in lung cancer has not been elucidated. In the present study, we observed that the expression level of PRRX1 was high in A549 cells, and a loss of PRRX1 induced EMT by regulating the EMT markers N-cadherin, E-cadherin and vimentin in A549 cells...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467430/analysis-of-transcription-factors-expressed-at-the-anterior-mouse-limb-bud
#12
Shigetoshi Yokoyama, Soichi Furukawa, Shoya Kitada, Masaki Mori, Takeshi Saito, Koichi Kawakami, Juan Carlos Izpisua Belmonte, Yasuhiko Kawakami, Yoshiaki Ito, Tempei Sato, Hiroshi Asahara
Limb bud patterning, outgrowth, and differentiation are precisely regulated in a spatio-temporal manner through integrated networks of transcription factors, signaling molecules, and downstream genes. However, the exact mechanisms that orchestrate morphogenesis of the limb remain to be elucidated. Previously, we have established EMBRYS, a whole-mount in situ hybridization database of transcription factors. Based on the findings from EMBRYS, we focused our expression pattern analysis on a selection of transcription factor genes that exhibit spatially localized and temporally dynamic expression patterns with respect to the anterior-posterior axis in the E9...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460022/korean-atrial-fibrillation-network-genome-wide-association-study-for-early-onset-atrial-fibrillation-identifies-novel-susceptibility-loci
#13
Ji-Young Lee, Tae-Hoon Kim, Pil-Sung Yang, Hong Euy Lim, Eue-Keun Choi, Jaemin Shim, Eunsoon Shin, Jae-Sun Uhm, Jin-Seok Kim, Boyoung Joung, Seil Oh, Moon-Hyoung Lee, Young-Hoon Kim, Hui-Nam Pak
Aims: Some genetic susceptibility loci for atrial fibrillation (AF) identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in a European database showed ethnic differences in the Asian population. We explored novel AF susceptibility variants for patients with early-onset AF (≤60 years old) among Korean patients who underwent AF catheter ablation. Methods and results: A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was conducted with 672 cases (≤60 years old, Yonsei AF Ablation cohort) and 3700 controls (Korea Genome Epidemiology Study)...
September 7, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337269/the-role-of-prrx1-in-the-apoptosis-of-a549-cells-induced-by-cisplatin
#14
Hongbin Zhu, Gengyun Sun, Jiahui Dong, Liming Fei
Paired related homeobox1 (PRRX1) was a newly identified Epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) inducer. It was found that the decreased expression of PRRX1 in breast cancer and liver cancer could enable tumor cells to obtain tumor stem cell characteristics in vitro studies. However, the role of PRRX1 in lung cancer was still unknown. The down-regulated PRRX1 gene in A549 cells was established by slow virus infection in this study. The apoptosis of A549 cells was observed after the treatment of different concentrations of cisplatin and the role of PRRX1 in the apoptosis of A549 cells was explored...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129963/genetic-variants-associated-with-susceptibility-to-atrial-fibrillation-in-a-japanese-population
#15
MULTICENTER STUDY
Lian Liu, Yusuke Ebana, Jun-Ichi Nitta, Yoshihide Takahashi, Shinsuke Miyazaki, Toshihiro Tanaka, Masatoshi Komura, Mitsuaki Isobe, Tetsushi Furukawa
BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) affects millions of individuals worldwide. The genome-wide association studies have identified robust genetic associations with AF. METHODS: We genotyped 5461 participants of Japanese ancestry for 11 AF-related loci and determined the effects of carrying different numbers of risk alleles on disease development and age at disease onset. The weighted genetic risk score (GRS) was calculated, and its ability to predict AF was determined...
April 2017: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695124/s100%C3%AE-positive-cells-of-mesenchymal-origin-reside-in-the-anterior-lobe-of-the-embryonic-pituitary-gland
#16
Kotaro Horiguchi, Hideji Yako, Saishu Yoshida, Ken Fujiwara, Takehiro Tsukada, Naoko Kanno, Hiroki Ueharu, Hiroto Nishihara, Takako Kato, Takashi Yashiro, Yukio Kato
The anterior and intermediate lobes of the pituitary gland develop through invagination of the oral ectoderm and as they are endocrine tissues, they participate in the maintenance of vital functions via the synthesis and secretion of numerous hormones. We recently observed that several extrapituitary cells invade the anterior lobe of the developing pituitary gland. This raised the question of the origin(s) of these S100β-positive cells, which are not classic endocrine cells but instead comprise a heterogeneous cell population with plural roles, especially as stem/progenitor cells...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27578582/-mir-124-regulates-radiosensitivity-of-colorectal-cancer-cells-by-targeting-prrx1
#17
Shui-Miao Lin, Qiong Xia, Yu-Qin Zhang, Ai-Min Sun, Yu-Sheng Shi, Lin Zheng, Long-Hua Chen
OBJECTIVE: To detect the expression of miR-124 in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) cells and tissue specimens and analyze its association with the radiosensitivity of the cells. METHODS: The expression of miR-124 in CRC cell lines and tissues were detected using qRT-PCR. The effect of miR-124 in modulating cell radiosensitivity was assessed in CRC cells with miRNA-124 overexpression and miRNA-124 knockdown, and bioinformatics prediction and dual luciferase reporter system were employed to identify the direct target of miR-124...
August 20, 2016: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27119349/folate-deficient-tumor-microenvironment-promotes-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-and-cancer-stem-like-phenotypes
#18
Yen-Hao Su, Wen-Chien Huang, Tse-Hung Huang, Yan-Jiun Huang, Yu-Kai Sue, Thanh-Tuan Huynh, Michael Hsiao, Tsan-Zon Liu, Alexander Th Wu, Chien-Min Lin
Clinically, serum level of folate has been negatively correlated to the stage and progression of liver cancer. Nevertheless, the functional consequence of folate deficiency (FD) in malignancy has not been fully investigated. Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells (as study model) and other cancer types such as lung and glioma were cultured under folate deficient (FD) and folate complete (FD) conditions. Molecular characterization including intracellular ROS/RNS (reactive oxygen/nitrogen species), viability, colony formation, cancer stem-like cell (CSC) phenotype analyses were performed...
May 31, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27058748/competition-between-jagged-notch-and-endothelin1-signaling-selectively-restricts-cartilage-formation-in-the-zebrafish-upper-face
#19
Lindsey Barske, Amjad Askary, Elizabeth Zuniga, Bartosz Balczerski, Paul Bump, James T Nichols, J Gage Crump
The intricate shaping of the facial skeleton is essential for function of the vertebrate jaw and middle ear. While much has been learned about the signaling pathways and transcription factors that control facial patterning, the downstream cellular mechanisms dictating skeletal shapes have remained unclear. Here we present genetic evidence in zebrafish that three major signaling pathways - Jagged-Notch, Endothelin1 (Edn1), and Bmp - regulate the pattern of facial cartilage and bone formation by controlling the timing of cartilage differentiation along the dorsoventral axis of the pharyngeal arches...
April 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27027510/silencing-of-prrx1b-suppresses-cellular-proliferation-migration-invasion-and-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#20
Zhi-Dong Lv, Zhao-Chuan Yang, Xiang-Ping Liu, Li-Ying Jin, Qian Dong, Hui-Li Qu, Fu-Nian Li, Bin Kong, Jiao Sun, Jiao-Jiao Zhao, Hai-Bo Wang
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a highly aggressive tumour subtype associated with poor prognosis. The mechanisms involved in TNBC progression remains largely unknown. To date, there are no effective therapeutic targets for this tumour subtype. Paired-related homeobox 1b (Prrx1b), one of major isoforms of Prrx1, has been identified as a new epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) inducer. However, the function of Prrx1b in TNBC has not been elucidated. In this study, we found that Prrx1b was significantly up-regulated in TNBC and associated with tumour size and vascular invasion of breast cancer...
September 2016: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
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