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Severe traumatic brain injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458086/characterization-of-uniaxial-high-speed-stretch-as-an-in-vitro-model-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-on-the-blood-brain-barrier
#1
Hector Rosas-Hernandez, Elvis Cuevas, Claudia Escudero-Lourdes, Susan M Lantz, Nasya M Sturdivant, Syed Z Imam, Sumit Sarkar, William Slikker, Merle G Paule, Kartik Balachandran, Syed F Ali
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) occurs when external mechanical forces induce brain damage as result of impact, penetration or rapid acceleration/deceleration that causes deformation of brain tissue. Depending on its severity, TBI can be classified as mild, moderate or severe and can lead to blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of uniaxial high-speed stretch (HSS) at 0, 5, 10 and 15% on a pure culture of primary rat brain endothelial cells as an in vitro model of TBI to the BBB...
February 16, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457535/examining-driving-and-participation-5-years-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#2
Kimberly S Erler, Shannon B Juengst, Diane L Smith, Therese M O'Neil-Pirozzi, Thomas A Novack, Jennifer A Bogner, Jamie Kaminski, Joseph T Giacino, Gale G Whiteneck
Participation is often considered a primary goal of traumatic brain injury (TBI) rehabilitation, but little is known about the influence of driving on participation after TBI. The objective of this study was to examine the independent contribution of driving status to participation at 5 years post TBI, after controlling for demographic, psychosocial, and functional factors. Participants ( N = 2,456) were community-dwelling individuals with moderate to severe TBI, age 18 to 65 at time of injury, and enrolled in the TBI Model Systems (TBIMS) National Database (NDB)...
February 1, 2018: OTJR: Occupation, Participation and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457118/preoperative-elevated-fdp-may-predict-severe-intraoperative-hypotension-after-dural-opening-during-decompressive-craniectomy-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#3
Kei Kamiutsuri, Naoki Tominaga, Shunji Kobayashi
Purpose: Coagulation disorder and intraoperative hypotension are representative complications of traumatic brain injury which cause worse perioperative outcome. The aim of this study was to survey the relation of coagulation disorder and intraoperative hypotension (IH) during decompressive craniectomy. Method: Patients who underwent emergency decompressive craniectomy due to traumatic brain injury were retrospectively surveyed. The relation between preoperative coagulation date and intraoperative hypotension (systolic blood pressure < 60 mmHg after dural opening) was analyzed...
2018: JA Clin Rep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456841/successful-treatment-of-extensively-drug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-ventriculitis-with-polymyxin-b-and-tigecycline-a-case-report
#4
Wei Guo, Shao-Chun Guo, Min Li, Li-Hong Li, Yan Qu
Background: Acinetobacter baumannii nosocomial ventriculitis/meningitis, especially those due to drug-resistant strains, has substantially increased over recent years. However, limited therapeutic options exist for the Acinetobacter baumannii ventriculitis/meningitis because of the poor penetration rate of most antibiotics through the blood-brain barrier. Case presentation: A 57-year-old male patient developed ventriculitis from an extensively drug-resistant strain of Acinetobacter baumannii after the decompressive craniectomy for severe traumatic brain injury...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456345/rates-and-correlations-of-psychiatric-drug-administration-in-a-rehabilitation-center
#5
Vaios Peritogiannis, Soultana L Papadopoulou, Athina Tatsioni, Artemis Kapsalaki, Vassiliki Siafaka, Katerina Kotsi, Avraam Ploumis
Background: Physical injury has been associated with the development of several psychopathological manifestations. Less is known about the use of psychiatric medication in those patients. Objectives: This study aimed to explore the use of psychiatric medication by patients been admitted in a rehabilitation center in a tertiary care teaching hospital and to inquire for the correlations of such drug administration. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 127 patients who had been admitted to a rehabilitation center, being in the postacute phase of their condition during a 2-year period...
January 2018: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455690/effect-of-cerebral-perfusion-pressure-on-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#6
Sonny Thiara, Donald E Griesdale, William R Henderson, Mypinder S Sekhon
BACKGROUND: Increased cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP)>70 mmHg has been associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Since this reported association, significant changes in ventilation strategies and fluid management have been accepted as routine critical care. Recently, individualized perfusion targets using autoregulation monitoring suggest CPP titration>70 mmHg. Given these clinical advances, the association between ARDS and increased CPP requires further delineation...
February 19, 2018: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454227/a-pilot-trial-of-l-carnitine-in-patients-with-traumatic-brain-injury-effects-on-biomarkers-of-injury
#7
Ata Mahmoodpoor, Ghaffar Shokouhi, Hadi Hamishehkar, Hassan Soleimanpour, Sarvin Sanaie, Jahan Porhomayon, Fatemeh Rasouli, Nader D Nader
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of l-Carnitine on neuron specific enolase (NSE) as a marker of inflammation in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: Forty patients with severe TBI were randomized into 2 groups. The (LCA-) group received standard treatment with placebo while the (LCA+) group received l-Carnitine 2g/day for one week. NSE was measured on days 1, 3 and 7 after the initiation of the study. Neurocognitive and neurobehavioral disorders were recorded on the first and third months...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452727/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-sleep-architecture-and-chronic-traumatic-brain-injury
#8
REVIEW
Janna Mantua, Antigone Grillakis, Sanaa H Mahfouz, Maura R Taylor, Allison J Brager, Angela M Yarnell, Thomas J Balkin, Vincent F Capaldi, Guido Simonelli
Sleep quality appears to be altered by traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, whether persistent post-injury changes in sleep architecture are present is unknown and relatively unexplored. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the extent to which chronic TBI (>6 months since injury) is characterized by changes to sleep architecture. We also explored the relationship between sleep architecture and TBI severity. In the fourteen included studies, sleep was assessed with at least one night of polysomnography in both chronic TBI participants and controls...
February 2, 2018: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449536/impaired-autophagic-flux-is-associated-with-the-severity-of-trauma-and-the-role-of-a-2a-r-in-brain-cells-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#9
Xu-Jia Zeng, Ping Li, Ya-Lei Ning, Yan Zhao, Yan Peng, Nan Yang, Zi-Ai Zhao, Jiang-Fan Chen, Yuan-Guo Zhou
Recent studies have shown that after traumatic brain injury (TBI), the number of autophagosomes is markedly increased in brain cells surrounding the wound; however, whether autophagy is enhanced or suppressed by TBI remains controversial. In our study, we used a controlled cortical impact system to establish models of mild, moderate and severe TBI. In the mild TBI model, the levels of autophagy-related protein 6 (Beclin1) and autophagy-related protein 12 (ATG12)-autophagy-related protein 5 (ATG5) conjugates were increased, indicating the enhanced initiation of autophagy...
February 14, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449141/neurometabolites-alteration-in-the-acute-phase-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-mtbi-an-in-vivo-proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-1h-mrs-study
#10
Vigneswaran Veeramuthu, Pohchoo Seow, Vairavan Narayanan, Jeannie Hisu Ding Wong, Li Kuo Tan, Aditya Tri Hernowo, Norlisah Ramli
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Magnetic resonance spectroscopy is a noninvasive imaging technique that allows for reliable assessment of microscopic changes in brain cytoarchitecture, neuronal injuries, and neurochemical changes resultant from traumatic insults. We aimed to evaluate the acute alteration of neurometabolites in complicated and uncomplicated mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) patients in comparison to control subjects using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy)...
February 12, 2018: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447233/notch-signaling-inhibitor-dapt-provides-protection-against-acute-craniocerebral-injury
#11
Hong-Mei Zhang, Pei Liu, Cheng Jiang, Xiao-Qing Jin, Rui-Ning Liu, Shun-Qing Li, Yan Zhao
Notch signaling pathway is involved in many physiological and pathological processes. The γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT inhibits Notch signaling pathway and promotes nerve regeneration after cerebral ischemia. However, neuroprotective effects of DAPT against acute craniocerebral injury remain unclear. In this study, we established rat model of acute craniocerebral injury, and found that with the increase of damage grade, the expression of Notch and downstream protein Hes1 and Hes5 expression gradually increased...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443859/over-resuscitation-with-plasma-is-associated-with-sustained-fibrinolysis-shutdown-and-death-in-pediatric-traumatic-brain-injury
#12
Christine M Leeper, Matthew D Neal, Timothy R Billiar, Jason L Sperry, Barbara A Gaines
BACKGROUND: Elevated INR is a marker of poor outcome but not necessarily bleeding or clinical coagulopathy in injured children. Conversely, children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) tend to be hypercoagulable based on rapid thromboelastography (rTEG) parameters. Many clinicians continue to utilize INR as a treatment target. METHODS: Prospective observational study of severely-injured children age<18 with rTEG on arrival and daily thereafter for up to 7 days...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443731/recovery-of-an-injured-corticofugal-tract-from-the-supplementary-motor-area-in-a-patient-with-traumatic-brain-injury-a-case-report
#13
Sung Ho Jang, Seong Ho Kim, Jeong Pyo Seo
RATIONALE: We report on a patient with traumatic brain injury who showed motor recovery concurrent with recovery of injured corticofugal tracts (CFTs), diagnosed by diffusion tensor tractography (DTT). PATIENT CONCERNS: Four weeks after onset, when the patient started rehabilitation, he showed severe weakness of both upper and lower extremities [Motricity Index (MI, full score: 100/100): 9/30]. DIAGNOSES: A 29-year-old male patient underwent conservative management for traumatic hemorrhages in both frontal lobes and right thalamus resulting from a car accident...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441170/management-of-traumatic-brain-injury-patients
#14
REVIEW
Hari Hara Dash, Siddharth Chavali
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been called the 'silent epidemic' of modern times, and is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in children and young adults in both developed and developing nations worldwide. In recent years, the treatment of TBI has undergone a paradigm shift. The management of severe TBI is ideally based on protocol-based guidelines provided by the Brain Trauma Foundation. The aims and objectives of its management are prophylaxis and prompt management of intracranial hypertension and secondary brain injury, maintenance of cerebral perfusion pressure, and ensuring adequate oxygen delivery to injured brain tissue...
February 2018: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441005/atypical-within-session-motor-procedural-learning-after-traumatic-brain-injury-but-well-preserved-between-session-procedural-memory-consolidation
#15
Maria Korman, Sharon Shaklai, Keren Cisamariu, Carmit Gal, Rinatia Maaravi-Hesseg, Ishay Levy, Ofer Keren, Avi Karni, Yaron Sacher
Using the finger-to-thumb opposition sequence (FOS) learning task, we characterized motor skill learning in sub-acute patients hospitalized for rehabilitation following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Ten patients (Trained TBI) and 11 healthy participants (Trained Healthy) were trained using a multi-session protocol: a single session was afforded in the first week of the study, and four daily sessions were afforded during the second week. Intensity of practice was adapted to patients. Performance speed and accuracy were tested before and after each session...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439712/trovafloxacin-attenuates-neuroinflammation-and-improves-outcome-after-traumatic-brain-injury-in-mice
#16
Charu Garg, Joon Ho Seo, Jayalakshmi Ramachandran, Ji Meng Loh, Frances Calderon, Jorge E Contreras
BACKGROUND: Trovafloxacin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic, recently identified as an inhibitor of pannexin-1 (Panx1) channels. Panx1 channels are important conduits for the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) release from live and dying cells that enhances the inflammatory response of immune cells. Elevated extracellular levels ATP released upon injury activate purinergic pathways in inflammatory cells that promote migration, proliferation, phagocytosis, and apoptotic signals. Here, we tested whether trovafloxacin administration attenuates the neuroinflammatory response and improves outcomes after brain trauma...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434566/assessment-of-platelet-function-in-traumatic-brain-injury-a-retrospective-observational-study-in-the-neuro-critical-care-setting
#17
Caroline Lindblad, Eric Peter Thelin, Michael Nekludov, Arvid Frostell, David W Nelson, Mikael Svensson, Bo-Michael Bellander
Background: Despite seemingly functional coagulation, hemorrhagic lesion progression is a common and devastating condition following traumatic brain injury (TBI), stressing the need for new diagnostic techniques. Multiple electrode aggregometry (MEA) measures platelet function and could aid in coagulopathy assessment following TBI. The aims of this study were to evaluate MEA temporal dynamics, influence of concomitant therapy, and its capabilities to predict lesion progression and clinical outcome in a TBI cohort...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432563/traumatic-injury-induces-stress-granule-formation-and-enhances-motor-dysfunctions-in-als-ftd-models
#18
Eric N Anderson, Lauren Gochenaur, Aditi Singh, Rogan Grant, Krishani Patel, Simon Watkins, Jane Y Wu, Udai Bhan Pandey
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been predicted to be a predisposing factor for Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and other neurological disorders. Despite the importance of TBI in ALS progression, the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms are still an enigma. Here, we examined the contribution of TBI as an extrinsic factor and investigated if TBI influences the susceptibility of developing neurodegenerative symptoms. To evaluate the effects of TBI in vivo, we applied mild to severe trauma to Drosophila and found that TBI leads to the induction of stress granules (SGs) in the brain...
February 8, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431051/intra-and-extra-cranial-injury-burden-as-drivers-of-impaired-cerebrovascular-reactivity-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#19
Frederick Adam Zeiler, Joseph Donnelly, Basil Nourallah, Eric Peter Thelin, Leanne Calviello, Peter Smieleweski, Marek Czosnyka, Ari Ercole, David Menon
Impaired cerebrovascular reactivity has been associated with outcome following traumatic brain injury (TBI), but it is unknown how it is affected by trauma severity. Thus, we aimed to explore the relationship between intra-cranial (IC) and extra-cranial (EC) injury burden and cerebrovascular reactivity in TBI patients. We retrospectively included critically ill TBI patients. IC injury burden included detailed lesion and computerized tomography (CT) scoring (ie. Marshall, Rotterdam, Helsinki and Stockholm Scores) on admission...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429778/hydrocephalus-in-pediatric-traumatic-brain-injury-national-incidence-risk-factors-and-outcomes-in-124-444-hospitalized-patients
#20
Kavelin Rumalla, Vijay Letchuman, Kyle A Smith, Paul M Arnold
BACKGROUND: Hydrocephalus is a life-threatening sequela of traumatic brain injury (TBI) with poorly defined epidemiology in children. Here, we report the national incidence, risk factors, and outcomes associated with post-traumatic hydrocephalus (PTH). METHODS: The Kids Inpatient Database (2003, 2006, 2009, 2012) was queried using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Edition, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes to identify all patients (age 0 to 20) with TBI (850...
December 11, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
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