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Learning and education

Rory J McCrimmon
Despite the introduction of newer technologies and improved insulin formulations, recurrent hypoglycaemia continues to affect the lives of many people with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. Developing strategies or therapies designed to prevent or minimize hypoglycaemia risk is of utmost importance to help individuals safely achieve glycaemic targets. Novel, educational or behavioural approaches need to be based on a clear understanding of the mechanisms underpinning both the detection of hypoglycaemia and why repeated exposure to hypoglycaemia leads to the development of a clinical syndrome referred to as impaired awareness of hypoglycaemia...
October 22, 2016: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Daniel Cherqui, Go Wakabayashi, David A Geller, Joseph F Buell, Ho-Seong Han, Olivier Soubrane, Nicholas O'Rourke
In this article, we present the rationale for creating a new society aiming at organizing laparoscopic liver surgery. It has been named International Laparoscopic Liver Society (ILLS). Its main mission is to facilitate the diffusion and education of laparoscopic liver resection for meaningful improvements in patient care. This will include organization of a biannual congress dedicated to laparoscopic liver resection, coordination of international registries, helping in the education of surgeons wishing to learn these techniques including travel grants, provide a website serving as a forum supporting collaboration between surgeons interested in the advancement of laparoscopic liver resection techniques (http://www...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Hepato-biliary-pancreatic Sciences
Rebecca Leddy, Madelene Lewis, Susan Ackerman, Jeanne Hill, Paul Thacker, Maria Matheus, Sameer Tipnis, Leonie Gordon
Utilization of a radiology resident-specific quality improvement (QI) program and curriculum based on the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) milestones can enable a program's assessment of the systems-based practice component and prepare residents for QI implementation post graduation. This article outlines the development process, curriculum, QI committee formation, and resident QI project requirements of one institution's designated radiology resident QI program. A method of mapping the curriculum to the ACGME milestones and assessment of resident competence by postgraduate year level is provided...
October 18, 2016: Academic Radiology
Eddie Y Liu, Bo Li, Cindy M L Hutnik
Wet lab and surgical simulation can reduce the learning curve of difficult surgical techniques, accelerate the rate for trainees to achieve surgical competency, and improve patient safety. To provide the most up-to-date information and hands-on experiences with novel ophthalmic surgical techniques and instruments, the Department of Ophthalmology at Western University has created a wet lab-based, multilevel microsurgery skills transfer course through collaboration with various industry partners. Several elements in the course goal and design differentiate this type of surgical course from typical wet labs: the format is multileveled surgical training, with a beginner level targeting undergraduate medical students, an intermediate level for ophthalmology residents, and an advanced level for trained ophthalmologist...
October 2016: Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien D'ophtalmologie
Naomi M Saville, Bhim P Shrestha, Sarah Style, Helen Harris-Fry, B James Beard, Aman Sengupta, Sonali Jha, Anjana Rai, Vikas Paudel, Anni-Maria Pulkki-Brannstrom, Andrew Copas, Jolene Skordis-Worrall, Bishnu Bhandari, Rishi Neupane, Joanna Morrison, Lu Gram, Raghbendra Sah, Machhindra Basnet, Jayne Harthan, Dharma S Manandhar, David Osrin, Anthony Costello
BACKGROUND: Low birth weight (LBW, < 2500 g) affects one third of newborn infants in rural south Asia and compromises child survival, infant growth, educational performance and economic prospects. We aimed to assess the impact on birth weight and weight-for-age Z-score in children aged 0-16 months of a nutrition Participatory Learning and Action behaviour change strategy (PLA) for pregnant women through women's groups, with or without unconditional transfers of food or cash to pregnant women in two districts of southern Nepal...
October 21, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Giampiera Bulfone, Roberta Fida, Valerio Ghezzi, Loreana Macale, Alessandro Sili, Rosaria Alvaro, Alvisa Palese
Student perceptions of self-efficacy (SE) prevent stress and burnout and improve engagement in nursing education, thus increasing learning outcomes. The study aims were to (1) validate a scale measuring nursing SE in psychomotor skills (NSE-PS), (2) describe changes in NSE-PS over time, and (3) explore NSE-PS correlations with burnout and engagement. A total of 1117 nursing students participated. A significant increase in the NSE-PS scores over the years has emerged; in addition, all NSE-PS dimensions were correlated negatively with burnout and positively with engagement...
November 2016: Nurse Educator
Jan Forber, Michelle DiGiacomo, Bernie Carter, Patricia Davidson, Jane Phillips, Debra Jackson
Clinical learning experiences are an essential part of nurse education programs. Numerous approaches to clinical education and student supervision exist. The aim of this integrative review was to explore how studies have compared or contrasted different models of undergraduate nurse clinical education. A search of eight databases was undertaken to identify peer-reviewed literature published between 2006 and 2015. Eighteen studies met the inclusion criteria. A diverse range of methodologies and data collection methods were represented, which primarily explored student experiences or perceptions...
September 30, 2016: Nurse Education in Practice
Mohammed Al-Temimi, Michael Kidon, Samir Johna
CONTEXT: Reports evaluating faculty knowledge of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) core competencies in community hospitals without a dedicated residency program are uncommon. OBJECTIVE: Faculty evaluation regarding knowledge of ACGME core competencies before a residency program is started. DESIGN: Physicians at the Kaiser Permanente Fontana Medical Center (N = 480) were surveyed for their knowledge of ACGME core competencies before starting new residency programs...
October 14, 2016: Permanente Journal
David Maidment, William Brassington, Heather Wharrad, Melanie Ferguson
Purpose: The purpose of the study was to assess whether Internet competency predicted practical hearing aid knowledge and handling skills in first-time hearing aid users. Method: The design was a prospective, randomized controlled trial of a multimedia educational intervention consisting of interactive video tutorials (or reusable learning objects [RLOs]). RLOs were delivered through DVD for TV or PC, and online. Internet competency was measured at the hearing aid fitting appointment, whereas hearing aid knowledge and practical handling skills were assessed 6 weeks postfitting...
October 1, 2016: American Journal of Audiology
Jill E Preminger, Ann M Rothpletz
Purpose: Hearing impairment (HI) is a chronic condition; thus, even with treatment, residual participation restrictions and activity limitations typically remain. Individuals must learn to self-manage their HI. The purpose of this research note is to review components of successful Internet-based self-management programs and to evaluate group auditory rehabilitation (AR) programs with varying content, in order to make recommendations for the design of future Internet-based self-management programs...
October 1, 2016: American Journal of Audiology
Cornelia Mahler, Sarah Berger, Katherine Pollard, Johannes Krisam, Sven Karstens, Joachim Szecsenyi, Katja Krug
The implementation of a bachelor degree in Interprofessional Health Care at the University of Heidelberg, Germany, has fostered the need to evaluate the impact of this innovative programme. The University of the West of England Interprofessional Questionnaire (UWE-IP) was developed for longitudinal evaluation of an interprofessional curriculum. The UWE-IP consists of 35 items in four scales: "Communication and Teamwork Scale," "Interprofessional Learning Scale," "Interprofessional Interaction Scale," and "Interprofessional Relationships Scale...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Interprofessional Care
Abdullah Turhan, Simone Onrust, Peter Ten Klooster, Marcel Pieterse
AIMS: To test effectiveness of the Healthy School and Drugs (HSD) program on tobacco and alcohol use in Dutch secondary special education (SE) schools, and whether this depends on subtypes of SE-schools and the level of implementation. DESIGN: In a quasi-experimental design with baseline and post-treatment follow-up 35 classes (N = 363) were allocated arbitrarily or depending on teacher motivation to either intervention condition (N = 205) or usual curriculum (N = 158)...
October 21, 2016: Addiction
Mutlu Mete, Unal Sakoglu, Jeffrey S Spence, Michael D Devous, Thomas S Harris, Bryon Adinoff
BACKGROUND: Neuroimaging studies have yielded significant advances in the understanding of neural processes relevant to the development and persistence of addiction. However, these advances have not explored extensively for diagnostic accuracy in human subjects. The aim of this study was to develop a statistical approach, using a machine learning framework, to correctly classify brain images of cocaine-dependent participants and healthy controls. In this study, a framework suitable for educing potential brain regions that differed between the two groups was developed and implemented...
October 6, 2016: BMC Bioinformatics
Elizabeth Watts, Uwe Hossfeld, Irina Tolstikova, Georgy S Levit
This paper provides a detailed look at how creationism originated in the United States and then explores how this evangelical trend was exported to Russia by American missionaries following the fall of the USSR. The comparison between these two countries is particularly interesting since the rivalry between the US and the USSR during the race to space caused both countries to revamp their science education. Yet, while political interests led both governments to focus on science education, creationist activities were simultaneously focused on diminishing the coverage of evolution in science classrooms...
October 20, 2016: Theory in Biosciences, Theorie in Den Biowissenschaften
Ola Ozernov-Palchik, Xi Yu, Yingying Wang, Nadine Gaab
Dyslexia is a heritable reading disorder with an estimated prevalence of 5-17%. A multiple deficit model has been proposed that illustrates dyslexia as an outcome of multiple risks and protective factors interacting at the genetic, neural, cognitive, and environmental levels. Here we review the evidence on each of these levels and discuss possible underlying mechanisms and their reciprocal interactions along a developmental timeline. Current and potential implications of neuroscientific findings for contemporary challenges in the field of dyslexia, as well as for reading development and education in general, are then discussed...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
Shruti Gupta, Jehan Alladina, Kevin Heaton, Eli Miloslavsky
BACKGROUND: Subspecialty fellows can serve as a tremendous educational resource to residents; however, there are multiple barriers to an effective resident-fellow teaching interaction in the setting of inpatient consultation. We designed and evaluated a resident-directed intervention to enhance communication and teaching during consultation on the general medicine wards. METHODS: Five medical teams were randomized to receive the intervention over a 3 month period (3 control, 2 intervention teams)...
October 20, 2016: BMC Medical Education
Barbara Fenesi, Chelsea Mackinnon, Lucia Cheng, Joseph A Kim, Bruce C Wainman
The use of two-dimensional (2D) images is consistently used to prepare anatomy students for handling real specimen. This study examined whether the quality of 2D images is a critical component in anatomy learning. The visual clarity and consistency of 2D anatomical images was systematically manipulated to produce low-quality and high-quality images of the human hand and human eye. On day 0, participants learned about each anatomical specimen from paper booklets using either low-quality or high-quality images, and then completed a comprehension test using either 2D images or three-dimensional (3D) cadaveric specimens...
October 20, 2016: Anatomical Sciences Education
Kelly Russell, Michael G Hutchison, Erin Selci, Jeff Leiter, Daniel Chateau, Michael J Ellis
BACKGROUND: Many concussion symptoms, such as headaches, vision problems, or difficulty remembering or concentrating may deleteriously affect school functioning. Our objective was to determine if academic performance was lower in the academic calendar year that students sustain a concussion compared to the previous year when they did not sustain a concussion. METHODS: Using Manitoba Health and Manitoba Education data, we conducted a population-based, controlled before-after study from 2005-2006 to 2010-2011 academic years...
2016: PloS One
Emilie Venables, Jeffrey K Edwards, Saar Baert, William Etienne, Kelly Khabala, Helen Bygrave
INTRODUCTION: The number of people on antiretroviral therapy (ART) for the long-term management of HIV in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is continuing to increase, along with the prevalence of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs). The need to provide large volumes of HIV patients with ART has led to significant adaptations in how medication is delivered, but access to NCD care remains limited in many contexts. Medication Adherence Clubs (MACs) were established in Kibera, Kenya to address the large numbers of patients requiring chronic HIV and/or NCD care...
2016: PloS One
Amanda Froehlich Chow, Anne Leis, Louise Humbert, Nazeem Muhajarine, Rachel Engler-Stringer
OBJECTIVES: In order to improve healthy behaviours among rural children in their early years, a physical activity and healthy eating intervention (Healthy Start - Départ Santé) was implemented in rural childcare centres throughout Saskatchewan. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the impact of a multimodal physical activity and healthy eating intervention on educators' provision of opportunities for children to improve their physical activity levels, fundamental movement skills and healthy eating behaviours...
October 20, 2016: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
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