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Learning and education

A V Dolzhich, S E Avetisov
PURPOSE: to assess the neurophysiological effect and clinical effectiveness of transcranial direct current stimulation in combination with drug therapy in amblyopic children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study involved 32 healthy children in the age of 5-12 years and 97 patients of the same age with refractive strabismic amblyopia. All study subjects underwent standard examination including ophthalmological (visometry, refractometry in normal conditions and in cycloplegia, biomicroscopy, ophthalmoscopy, type of vision), neurophysiological methods (determination of retinal electric sensitivity threshold, electric lability of optic nerve, amplitude and latency period of visual evoked potentials, electroencephalogram wave amplitudes, localization of peak electrical activity area of the cerebral cortex), assessment of neuropsychic development and estimation of mental development coefficient with age tests...
2018: Vestnik Oftalmologii
Ayush Bhargava, Jeffrey W Bertrand, Anand K Gramopadhye, Kapil C Madathil, Sabarish V Babu
With costs of head-mounted displays (HMDs) and tracking technology decreasing rapidly, various virtual reality applications are being widely adopted for education and training. Hardware advancements have enabled replication of real-world interactions in virtual environments to a large extent, paving the way for commercial grade applications that provide a safe and risk-free training environment at a fraction of the cost. But this also mandates the need to develop more intrinsic interaction techniques and to empirically evaluate them in a more comprehensive manner...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Alexander Skulmowski, Günter Daniel Rey
Research on learning and education is increasingly influenced by theories of embodied cognition. Several embodiment-based interventions have been empirically investigated, including gesturing, interactive digital media, and bodily activity in general. This review aims to present the most important theoretical foundations of embodied cognition and their application to educational research. Furthermore, we critically review recent research concerning the effectiveness of embodiment interventions and develop a taxonomy to more properly characterize research on embodied cognition...
2018: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
Attia Bari, Rehan Ahmed Khan, Ahsan Waheed Rathore
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the perception of postgraduate residents about the clinical educational environment and to investigate the association of their perception with different specialities and years of residency. METHODS: The study was conducted in August 2016 at The Children's Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan, and comprised postgraduate residents who were asked to complete postgraduate hospital educational environment measure questionnaire. The residents' individual perception scores were calculated and the means of both individual domain and global score of the questionnaire were compared by different specialities and different levels of residency training year...
March 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Katharina Rathmann, Max Herke, Klaus Hurrelmann, Matthias Richter
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the associations between features of class climate and school wellbeing, based on self-rated health and reports of absence from school due to illness among adolescents in secondary schools, by using data from the German National Educational Panel Study (NEPS). METHODS: Data was obtained from the National Educational Panel Study (NEPS). The sample includes (n=7,348) seventh grade students in regular schools (Starting Cohort 3, Wave 3, 2012)...
March 14, 2018: Das Gesundheitswesen
Gregório Corrêa Patuzzi, Adrielle Priscilla Souza Lira, José Diego Marques Santos, Andrieli Oliveira Barros Reinisch, Aline Alves Veleda
OBJECTIVE: This paper aims to discuss Brazilian undergraduate students'learning in the public health. METHODS: This is a descriptive, reflexive study, characterized as an experience report. Theoretical references of the Canadian and Brazilian health systems were used in order to analyze the public health and the impact of international educational exchange in professional qualification. RESULTS: There are theoretical and conceptual similarities in health systems, in the understanding of social determinants...
March 12, 2018: Revista Gaúcha de Enfermagem
Carl D Stevens
The sudden, dramatic collapse of the seven-year struggle in Congress to repeal and replace the Affordable Care Act holds important lessons for all would-be reformers, including those advocating fundamental changes in medical education. In this Invited Commentary, the author draws parallels between reform initiatives in health policy and those in medical education, highlighting that, in both settings, stakeholders rarely support "repeal" in the absence of a superior replacement, even when they view the status quo as deeply flawed...
March 13, 2018: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Akhilesh S Pathipati, Christine K Cassel
Although they enter school with enthusiasm for a career in medicine, medical students in the United States subsequently report high levels of burnout and disillusionment. As medical school leaders consider how to address this problem, they can look to business schools as one source of inspiration. In this Commentary, the authors argue-based on their collective experience in both medical and business education-that medical schools can draw three lessons from business schools that can help reinvigorate students...
March 13, 2018: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Vineet M Arora
With the advent of electronic medical records (EMRs) fueling the rise of big data, the use of predictive analytics, machine learning, and artificial intelligence are touted as transformational tools to improve clinical care. While major investments are being made in using big data to transform health care delivery, little effort has been directed toward exploiting big data to improve graduate medical education (GME). Because our current system relies on faculty observations of competence, it is not unreasonable to ask whether big data in the form of clinical EMRs and other novel data sources can answer questions of importance in GME such as when is a resident ready for independent practice...
March 13, 2018: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Julie A Poore, Justine C Dawson, Dawne-Marie Dunbar, Kathryn Parrish
As the health care environment increases in complexity and patient acuity rises, health profession graduates need to be prepared to work collaboratively to improve patient outcomes. The interprofessional debriefing tool (Debriefing Interprofessionally: Recognition & Reflection) presented in this article allows any simulation to be transformed into an interprofessional learning opportunity. The debriefing tool frames questions for both uniprofessional and multiprofessional simulation and is aligned with the Core Competencies for Interprofessional Collaborative Practice and with Quality and Safety Education for Nurses...
March 14, 2018: Nurse Educator
Golnoosh Ahmadi, Mohsen Shahriari, Mahmood Keyvanara, Shahnaz Kohan
Methods: A qualitative study was used. Midwifery students from three universities in Iran participated. The study used a convenience sample of eighteen students. Data for this study was collected using semi-structured interviews (N=12) and focus groups (N=6). Data were recorded on a digital audio recorder and then transcribed. The qualitative data were analyzed using a content analysis approach. Results: Six broad themes emerged from the analysis: Limited opportunities to experience skills, difficulties with course plan gaps, need for creating a supportive clinical environment, learning drives, confusion between different methods, and stress in the clinical setting...
March 9, 2018: International Journal of Medical Education
Lindsay Iverson, Martha Todd, Ann Ryan Haddad, Katie Packard, Kimberley Begley, Joy Doll, Kim Hawkins, Ann Laughlin, Julie Manz, Chris Wichman
Healthcare institutions, accreditation agencies for higher learning, and organizations such as the National Academy of Medicine in the United States, support interprofessional education (IPE) opportunities. However, incorporating IPE opportunities into academic settings remains difficult. One challenge is assessing IPE learning and practice outcomes, especially at the level of student performance to ensure graduates are "collaboration-ready". The Creighton-Interprofessional Collaborative Evaluation (C-ICE) instrument was developed to address the need for a measurement tool for interprofessional student team performance...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Interprofessional Care
Linda Lee, W Wayne Weston, Loretta M Hillier
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Dementia often goes undiagnosed. A workshop was developed to provide primary care clinicians with a structured clinical reasoning approach to dementia diagnosis and brain map tool to differentiate type of dementia. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of this approach on self-perceived changes in knowledge, confidence, and ability to assess and manage memory problems and on self-reported application of learning to clinical practice. METHODS: Participants of 20 workshops (N=392) were invited to complete a reaction survey and of these, participants of 12 consecutive workshops (N=242) were invited to complete a 3-month follow-up survey to assess application of new learning to clinical practice and challenges experienced in doing so...
March 2018: Family Medicine
Yuan Cao, Shi-Hua Lin, Ding Zhu, Feng Xu, Zhi-Hua Chen, Hua-Hao Shen, Wen Li
BACKGROUND WeChat is a convenient and popular social medium, and it seems to be an appropriate platform for education and management of patients. This study sought to identify usefulness in clinical control of cough-variant asthma (CVA). MATERIAL AND METHODS A randomized controlled trial was conducted among 80 CVA patients. After being assigned to either the traditional group (TG) or the WeChat group (WG), they received the same inhalation therapy, but patients in WG received additional education and instruction via our public account on the WeChat application...
March 14, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Lindsay L Juriga, David J Murray, John R Boulet, James J Fehr
BACKGROUND: Simulation is frequently used to recreate many of the crises encountered in patient care settings. Teams learn to manage these crises in an environment that maximizes their learning experiences and eliminates the potential for patient harm. By designing simulation scenarios that include conditions associated with diagnostic errors, teams can experience how their decisions can lead to errors. The purpose of this study was to assess how trauma teams (TrT) and pediatric rapid response teams (RRT) managed scenarios that included a diagnostic error...
November 27, 2017: Diagnosis
Cláudio Farias, Carla Valério, Isabel Mesquita
The teaching and learning of games and sport-based activities has historically been the dominant form of the physical education curricula. With an interest in providing to students meaningful and culturally situated sporting experiences, Sport Education is probably the most implemented and researched pedagogical model worldwide. However, although there is considerable evidence that the model as a curriculum approach can benefit the development of social goals and healthy sport behaviors, not a single study as to date examined students' game-play development beyond participation in single and isolated teaching units...
March 2018: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
Jiyeon Kang, Yeon Jin Jeong, Kyoung Ran Kong
PURPOSE: This qualitative study aimed to explore the experience of incivility among nursing students. METHODS: Sixteen nursing students who had experienced incivility during their clinical placement were invited for one-on-one interviews until the point of theoretical saturation. The grounded theory approach of Corbin and Strauss was adopted to analyze transcribed interview contents. RESULTS: Incivility occurred in the context of a hierarchical organizational culture, due to nursing students' position as outsiders, non-systematic clinical education, and poor nursing work environment...
February 2018: Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
Patrick T Reeves, Matthew A Borgman, Nicole W Caldwell, Leela Patel, James Aden, John P Duggan, Maria L Serio-Melvin, Elizabeth A Mann-Salinas
OBJECTIVE: The Advanced Burn Life Support (ABLS) program is a burn-education curriculum nearly 30 years in the making, focusing on the unique challenges of the first 24h of care after burn injury. Our team applied high fidelity human patient simulation (HFHPS) to the established ABLS curriculum. Our hypothesis was that HFHPS would be a feasible, easily replicable, and valuable adjunct to the current curriculum that would enhance learner experience. METHODS: This prospective, evidenced-based practice project was conducted in a single simulation center employing the American Burn Association's ABLS curriculum using HFHPS...
March 10, 2018: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
Andreas Jerrentrup, Tobias Mueller, Ulrich Glowalla, Meike Herder, Nadine Henrichs, Andreas Neubauer, Juergen R Schaefer
TV series such as "House MD", "Grey´s Anatomy" or "Emergency Room" are well perceived by medical students. Seminars featuring medical TV series such as "House MD" might serve as door-opener to attract medical students to learn more about rare diseases. The TV series "House MD" is troublesome for the main character Dr. House is an excellent diagnostician but at the same time a rather misanthropic person. Therefore, lecturing medicine with the help of "House MD" requires constant evaluation...
2018: PloS One
Dragana Milutinović, Robert Lovrić, Dragana Simin
BACKGROUND: There is an implicit expectation for medical sciences students to work together effectively as members of health-care team, and interprofessional education is therefore widely accepted. Students' attitudes, which are affected by various factors, have been recognized as the most important predictors of successful implementation of interprofessional education with the aim of developing collaborative practice. The Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale has often been used in studies to measure these perspectives...
March 8, 2018: Nurse Education Today
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