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Social network analysis AND learning

Christopher J Burke, Michelle Baddeley, Philippe N Tobler, Wolfram Schultz
UNLABELLED: Given that the range of rewarding and punishing outcomes of actions is large but neural coding capacity is limited, efficient processing of outcomes by the brain is necessary. One mechanism to increase efficiency is to rescale neural output to the range of outcomes expected in the current context, and process only experienced deviations from this expectation. However, this mechanism comes at the cost of not being able to discriminate between unexpectedly low losses when times are bad versus unexpectedly high gains when times are good...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Hun-Sung Kim, Yoo Jin Jeong, Sun Jung Baik, So Jung Yang, Tong Min Kim, Hyunah Kim, Hyunyong Lee, Seung-Hwan Lee, Jae Hyoung Cho, In-Young Choi, Kun-Ho Yoon
OBJECTIVES: Social networking services (SNS)-based online communities are good examples of improving quality of care by incorporating information technology into medicine. Therefore, we created an SNS-based community care webpage for communication among patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). We aimed to identify what diabetic patients wanted to know and were interested in by analyzing their posts and classified content in which users were interested. METHODS: As opposed to the existing physician-focused health information websites, we built a patient-focused experience exchange website, "I love insulin (http://www...
2016: Applied Clinical Informatics
Richard M Tolman, Erin A Casey, Christopher T Allen, Juliana Carlson, Cliff Leek, Heather L Storer
Organizations addressing gender-based violence (GBV) increasingly include men as partners in prevention efforts. However, little is known about men who get involved in those efforts and what specific actions they take. We present analyses of data from an international sample of men involved in gender-based prevention work that aimed to describe (a) the nature of participants' involvement in prevention efforts, in both formal programming and in their daily lives; (b) characteristics of engaged men, including gender and bystander-related attitudes and beliefs, and social networks; and (c) factors that sustain men's involvement in GBV movements over time...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Sonja Marjanovic, Catherine A Lichten, Enora Robin, Sarah Parks, Emma Harte, Calum MacLure, Clare Walton, James Pickett
OBJECTIVES: To identify research support strategies likely to be effective for strengthening the UK's dementia research landscape and ensuring a sustainable and competitive workforce. DESIGN: Interviews and qualitative analysis; systematic internet search to track the careers of 1500 holders of UK doctoral degrees in dementia, awarded during 1970-2013, to examine retention in this research field and provide a proxy profile of the research workforce. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: 40 interviewees based in the UK, whose primary role is or has been in dementia research (34 individuals), health or social care (3) or research funding (3)...
2016: BMJ Open
Rochelle F Hanson, Sonja Schoenwald, Benjamin E Saunders, Jason Chapman, Lawrence A Palinkas, Angela D Moreland, Alex Dopp
BACKGROUND: High rates of youth exposure to violence, either through direct victimization or witnessing, result in significant health/mental health consequences and high associated lifetime costs. Evidence-based treatments (EBTs), such as Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT), can prevent and/or reduce these negative effects, yet these treatments are not standard practice for therapists working with children identified by child welfare or mental health systems as needing services...
2016: International Journal of Mental Health Systems
Gunn Pettersen, Karin Wallin, Tabita Björk
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the current study is to investigate what males experience as helpful in their recovery process from eating disorders (ED). METHODS: Qualitative in-depth interviews within a phenomenological approach, and using content analysis to excavate overarching text themes. SETTING: Norway and Sweden. PARTICIPANTS: Included were 15 males with an age range from 19 to 52 years. Duration of illness varied between 3 and 25 years of experience with anorexia nervosa (n=10), bulimia nervosa (n=4) or ED not otherwise specified (n=1)...
2016: BMJ Open
Ipek G Kulahci, Daniel I Rubenstein, Thomas Bugnyar, William Hoppitt, Nace Mikus, Christine Schwab
Animals are predicted to selectively observe and learn from the conspecifics with whom they share social connections. Yet, hardly anything is known about the role of different connections in observation and learning. To address the relationships between social connections, observation and learning, we investigated transmission of information in two raven (Corvus corax) groups. First, we quantified social connections in each group by constructing networks on affiliative interactions, aggressive interactions and proximity...
July 2016: Royal Society Open Science
Daniel Poremski, Xin Ya Lim, Ganesh Kunjithapatham, Doris Koh, Mark Alexander, Lee Cheng
The way service seekers interact with the staff at emergency services has been shown to influence the standard of care, especially in the case of certain psychiatric manifestations. Staff reactions to psychiatric complaints have been linked to their comfort dealing with these types of service users as well as their competencies understanding the illness. It is therefore vital to understand which skills increase confidence in treating psychiatric emergencies. Twenty-six open-ended convergent interviews were conducted with staff working in a psychiatric emergency department...
July 30, 2016: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing
Jorge Alonzo, Lilli Mann, Amanda E Tanner, Christina J Sun, Thomas M Painter, Arin Freeman, Beth A Reboussin, Eunyoung Song, Scott D Rhodes
OBJECTIVE: The southeastern United States has the fastest-growing Hispanic/Latino population in the country and carries a disproportionate HIV burden. Among Hispanics/Latinos, men, and men who have sex with men (MSM) in particular, are at elevated risk of HIV infection; however, very few efficacious behavioral HIV prevention interventions are available for use with this vulnerable population. To address this shortage of prevention resources, our community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnership developed and is currently evaluating the efficacy of the HOLA en Grupos intervention to increase condom use and HIV testing among Hispanic/Latino MSM...
May 2016: Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research
Holly Hayes, Victoria Scott, Michelle Abraczinskas, Jonathan Scaccia, Soma Stout, Abraham Wandersman
This article describes how we used a formative multi-method evaluation approach to gather real-time information about the processes of a complex, multi-day training with 24 community coalitions in the United States. The evaluation team used seven distinct, evaluation strategies to obtain evaluation data from the first Community Health Improvement Leadership Academy (CHILA) within a three-prong framework (inquiry, observation, and reflection). These methods included: comprehensive survey, rapid feedback form, learning wall, observational form, team debrief, social network analysis and critical moments reflection...
October 2016: Evaluation and Program Planning
Yi Zuo, Yuya Kajikawa, Junichiro Mori
Supply chain management represents one of the most important scientific streams of operations research. The supply of energy, materials, products, and services involves millions of transactions conducted among national and local business enterprises. To deliver efficient and effective support for supply chain design and management, structural analyses and predictive models of customer-supplier relationships are expected to clarify current enterprise business conditions and to help enterprises identify innovative business partners for future success...
June 2016: Heliyon
Xin Li, Karin Verspoor, Kathleen Gray, Stephen Barnett
This paper summarises a longitudinal analysis of learning interactions occurring over three years among health professionals in an online social network. The study employs the techniques of Social Network Analysis (SNA) and statistical modeling to identify the changes in patterns of interaction over time and test associated structural network effects. SNA results indicate overall low participation in the network, although some participants became active over time and even led discussions. In particular, the analysis has shown that a change of lead contributor results in a change in learning interaction and network structure...
2016: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Dawn DeLay, Linlin Zhang, Laura D Hanish, Cindy F Miller, Richard A Fabes, Carol Lynn Martin, Karen P Kochel, Kimberly A Updegraff
Longitudinal social network analysis (SNA) was used to examine how a social-emotional learning (SEL) intervention may be associated with peer socialization on academic performance. Fifth graders (N = 631; 48 % girls; 9 to 12 years) were recruited from six elementary schools. Intervention classrooms (14) received a relationship building intervention (RBI) and control classrooms (8) received elementary school as usual. At pre- and post-test, students nominated their friends, and teachers completed assessments of students' writing and math performance...
November 2016: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
Andrea Bickerdike, Conall O'Deasmhunaigh, Siun O'Flynn, Colm O'Tuathaigh
OBJECTIVES: To determine learning strategies, study habits, and online social networking use of undergraduates at an Irish medical school, and their relationship with academic performance. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Year 2 and final year undergraduate-entry and graduate-entry students at an Irish medical school. Data about participants' demographics and educational background, study habits (including time management), and use of online media was collected using a self-report questionnaire...
2016: International Journal of Medical Education
Daan Westra, Federica Angeli, Evelina Jatautaitė, Martin Carree, Dirk Ruwaard
INTRODUCTION: Medical specialists seem to increasingly work in- and be affiliated to- multiple organizations. We define this phenomenon as specialist sharing. This form of inter-organizational cooperation has received scant scholarly attention. We investigate the extent of- and motives behind- specialist sharing, in the price-competitive hospital market of the Netherlands. METHODS: A mixed-method was adopted. Social network analysis was used to quantitatively examine the extent of the phenomenon...
August 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Rachel A Freedman, Kasisomayajula Viswanath, Ines Vaz-Luis, Nancy L Keating
Past examinations of breast cancer treatment barriers have typically included registry, claims-based, and smaller survey studies. We examined treatment barriers using a novel, comprehensive, social media analysis of online, candid discussions about breast cancer. Using an innovative toolset to search postings on social networks, message boards, patient communities, and topical sites, we performed a large-scale qualitative analysis. We examined the sentiments and barriers expressed about breast cancer treatments by Internet users during 1 year (2/1/14-1/31/15)...
July 2016: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
S Benjamin Elliott, Erik Harvey-Girard, Ana C C Giassi, Leonard Maler
Teleost fish are capable of complex behaviours including social and spatial learning; lesion studies show that these abilities require dorsal telencephalon (pallium). The teleost telencephalon has subpallial and pallial components. The subpallium is well described and highly conserved. In contrast, the teleost pallium is not well understood and its relation to that of other vertebrates remains controversial. Here we analyze the connectivity of the subdivisions of dorsal pallium (DD) of an electric gymnotiform fish, Apteronotus leptorhynchus: superficial (DDs), intermediate (DDi) and magnocellular (DDmg) components...
June 13, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
L I Petrella, Y Cai, J V Sereno, S I Gonçalves, A J Silva, M Castelo-Branco
Neurofibromatosis type-1 (NF1) is a common neurogenetic disorder and an important cause of intellectual disability. Brain-behaviour associations can be examined in vivo using morphometric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to study brain structure. Here, we studied structural and behavioural phenotypes in heterozygous Nf1 mice (Nf1(+/-) ) using T2-weighted imaging MRI and DTI, with a focus on social recognition deficits. We found that Nf1(+/-) mice have larger volumes than wild-type (WT) mice in regions of interest involved in social cognition, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the caudate-putamen (CPu)...
September 2016: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
Wenfa Li, Hongzhe Liu, Peng Yang, Wei Xie
As one of the most popular statistical and machine learning models, logistic regression with regularization has found wide adoption in biomedicine, social sciences, information technology, and so on. These domains often involve data of human subjects that are contingent upon strict privacy regulations. Concerns over data privacy make it increasingly difficult to coordinate and conduct large-scale collaborative studies, which typically rely on cross-institution data sharing and joint analysis. Our work here focuses on safeguarding regularized logistic regression, a widely-used statistical model while at the same time has not been investigated from a data security and privacy perspective...
2016: PloS One
D C Benton, S L Ferguson
AIM: To examine the longer term impact on the social network of participating nurses in the Global Nursing Leadership Institute (GNLI2013) through using differing frequencies of follow-up to assess impact on maintenance of network cohesion. BACKGROUND: Social network analysis is increasingly been used by nurse researchers, however, studies tend to use single point-in-time descriptive methods. METHOD: This study utilizes a repeated measures, block group, control-intervention, quasi-experimental design...
June 6, 2016: International Nursing Review
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