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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580153/peripheral-nerve-injury-increases-contribution-of-l-type-calcium-channels-to-synaptic-transmission-in-spinal-lamina-ii-role-of-%C3%AE-2%C3%AE-1-subunits
#1
Sascha Ra Alles, Esperanza Garcia, Sridhar Balasubramanyan, Karen Jones, John R Tyson, Twinkle Joy, Terrance P Snutch, Peter A Smith
Background Following peripheral nerve chronic constriction injury, the accumulation of the α2δ-1 auxiliary subunit of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels in primary afferent terminals contributes to the onset of neuropathic pain. Overexpression of α2δ-1 in Xenopus oocytes increases the opening properties of Cav 1.2 L-type channels and allows Ca2+ influx at physiological membrane potentials. We therefore posited that L-type channels play a role in neurotransmitter release in the superficial dorsal horn in the chronic constriction injury model of neuropathic pain...
January 2018: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549975/color-doppler-twinkling-artifact-in-diagnosis-of-tuberculous-pleuritis-a-comparison-with-gray-scale-ultrasonography-and-computed-tomography
#2
Jiakai Tian, Liang Xu
The aim of this study was to determine whether twinkling artifact (TA) detected on color Doppler ultrasonography can effectively determine the presence of pleural calcification compared with computed tomography (CT) and differentiate tuberculous pleuritis (TP) and cancerous pleuritis (CP). One hundred six cases of TP and 26 cases of CP were scanned using gray-scale ultrasonography (GSU) and TA to determine the presence of pleural calcification. With CT as the reference standard, 63.3% and 79.6% of patients with pleural calcification were identified with GSU and TA, respectively...
March 14, 2018: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531434/metabolic-syndrome-among-adults-of-surendranagar-district-of-saurashtra-gujarat-a-cross-sectional-study
#3
Chaitanya Gopalrao Chinawale, Dipak V Parmar, Parth Kavathia, Twinkle Rangnani, Jainy Thakkar, Girija Kartha
Background: The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a complex disorder and a major health concern in developing countries. Data on MetS in Indian population show multiplicity. There are no published reports about the prevalence of MetS in population of Saurashtra region, Gujarat. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of MetS and its components in adult population of this region. Methods: This cross-sectional observational study was carried out among 473 participants who attended free health checkup camps...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Community Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456960/evaluation-and-customization-of-who-safety-checklist-for-patient-safety-in-otorhinolaryngology
#4
Yogesh Dabholkar, Haritosh Velankar, Sneha Suryanarayan, Twinkle Y Dabholkar, Akanksha A Saberwal, Bhavika Verma
The WHO has designed a safe surgery checklist to enhance communication and awareness of patient safety during surgery and to minimise complications. WHO recommends that the check-list be evaluated and customised by end users as a tool to promote safe surgery. The aim of present study was to evaluate the impact of WHO safety checklist on patient safety awareness in otorhinolaryngology and to customise it for the speciality. A prospective structured questionnaire based study was done in ENT operating room for duration of 1 month each for cases, before and after implementation of safe surgery checklist...
March 2018: Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448421/cross-diffusion-induced-subharmonic-spatial-resonances-in-a-predator-prey-system
#5
G Gambino, M C Lombardo, M Sammartino
In this paper we investigate the complex dynamics originated by a cross-diffusion-induced subharmonic destabilization of the fundamental subcritical Turing mode in a predator-prey reaction-diffusion system. The model we consider consists of a two-species Lotka-Volterra system with linear diffusion and a nonlinear cross-diffusion term in the predator equation. The taxis term in the search strategy of the predator is responsible for the onset of complex dynamics. In fact, our model does not exhibit any Hopf or wave instability, and on the basis of the linear analysis one should only expect stationary patterns; nevertheless, the presence of the nonlinear cross-diffusion term is able to induce a secondary instability: due to a subharmonic spatial resonance, the stationary primary branch bifurcates to an out-of-phase oscillating solution...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436788/universal-scientific-education-and-research-network-usern-twinkling-stars-unite-to-make-the-world-glow
#6
Nima Rezaei
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Acta Medica Iranica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302033/loss-of-mtdna-activates-astrocytes-and-leads-to-spongiotic-encephalopathy
#7
Olesia Ignatenko, Dmitri Chilov, Ilse Paetau, Elena de Miguel, Christopher B Jackson, Gabrielle Capin, Anders Paetau, Mugen Terzioglu, Liliya Euro, Anu Suomalainen
Mitochondrial dysfunction manifests as different neurological diseases, but the mechanisms underlying the clinical variability remain poorly understood. To clarify whether different brain cells have differential sensitivity to mitochondrial dysfunction, we induced mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion in either neurons or astrocytes of mice, by inactivating Twinkle (TwKO), the replicative mtDNA helicase. Here we show that astrocytes, the most abundant cerebral cell type, are chronically activated upon mtDNA loss, leading to early-onset spongiotic degeneration of brain parenchyma, microgliosis and secondary neurodegeneration...
January 4, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248029/the-value-of-the-twinkling-artefact-for-the-diagnosis-of-sialolithiasis-of-the-large-salivary-glands
#8
G Pabst, K Strobel, J Zehnder
OBJECTIVE: The imaging of stones in the salivary glands and ducts poses a challenge, even to experienced ultrasound examiners. This study investigated whether the 'twinkling artefact', which occurs at internal calcific foci during Doppler ultrasound examinations, is useful for detecting salivary gland stones. METHODS: In a model test, 20 salivary stones were analysed in vitro, via Doppler ultrasound, with regard to their representability and the triggering of the twinkling artefact...
February 2018: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225880/tumor-lysis-syndrome-with-massive-hyperphosphatemia-and-hyperuricemia
#9
Abhilash Koratala
Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) occurs when tumor cells release their contents into the bloodstream, typically in response to chemotherapy, leading to the characteristic findings of hyperuricemia, hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia, hypocalcemia, and acute kidney injury. Twinkle artifacts on renal ultrasound may indicate calcium phosphate deposits in such patients.
December 2017: Clinical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158291/rad51c-xrcc3-facilitates-mitochondrial-dna-replication-and-maintains-integrity-of-the-mitochondrial-genome
#10
Anup Mishra, Sneha Saxena, Anjali Kaushal, Ganesh Nagaraju
Mechanisms underlying mitochondrial genome maintenance have recently gained wide attention, as mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lead to inherited muscular and neurological diseases, which are linked to aging and cancer. It was previously reported that human RAD51, RAD51C, and XRCC3 localize to mitochondria upon oxidative stress and are required for the maintenance of mtDNA stability. Since RAD51 and RAD51 paralogs are spontaneously imported into mitochondria, their precise role in mtDNA maintenance under unperturbed conditions remains elusive...
February 1, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131810/the-role-of-trapped-bubbles-in-kidney-stone-detection-with-the-color-doppler-ultrasound-twinkling-artifact
#11
Julianna C Simon, Oleg A Sapozhnikov, Wayne Kreider, Michael Breshock, James C Williams, Michael R Bailey
The color Doppler ultrasound twinkling artifact, which highlights kidney stones with rapidly changing color, has the potential to improve stone detection; however, its inconsistent appearance has limited its clinical utility. Recently, it was proposed stable crevice bubbles on the kidney stone surface cause twinkling; however, the hypothesis is not fully accepted because the bubbles have not been directly observed. In this paper, the micron or submicron-sized bubbles predicted by the crevice bubble hypothesis are enlarged in kidney stones of five primary compositions by exposure to acoustic rarefaction pulses or hypobaric static pressures in order to simultaneously capture their appearance by high-speed photography and ultrasound imaging...
January 9, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970293/mitochondrial-respiration-is-reduced-in-atherosclerosis-promoting-necrotic-core-formation-and-reducing-relative-fibrous-cap-thickness
#12
Emma P K Yu, Johannes Reinhold, Haixiang Yu, Lakshi Starks, Anna K Uryga, Kirsty Foote, Alison Finigan, Nichola Figg, Yuh-Fen Pung, Angela Logan, Michael P Murphy, Martin Bennett
OBJECTIVE: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage is present in murine and human atherosclerotic plaques. However, whether endogenous levels of mtDNA damage are sufficient to cause mitochondrial dysfunction and whether decreasing mtDNA damage and improving mitochondrial respiration affects plaque burden or composition are unclear. We examined mitochondrial respiration in human atherosclerotic plaques and whether augmenting mitochondrial respiration affects atherogenesis. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Human atherosclerotic plaques showed marked mitochondrial dysfunction, manifested as reduced mtDNA copy number and oxygen consumption rate in fibrous cap and core regions...
December 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867657/imbalance-of-mitochondrial-respiratory-chain-complexes-in-the-epidermis-induces-severe-skin-inflammation
#13
Daniela Weiland, Bent Brachvogel, Hue-Tran Hornig-Do, Johannes F G Neuhaus, Tatjana Holzer, Desmond J Tobin, Carien M Niessen, Rudolf J Wiesner, Olivier R Baris
Accumulation of large-scale mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions and chronic, subclinical inflammation are concomitant during skin aging, thus raising the question of a causal link. To approach this, we generated mice expressing a mutant mitochondrial helicase (K320E-TWINKLE) in the epidermis to accelerate the accumulation of mtDNA deletions in this skin compartment. Mice displayed low amounts of large-scale deletions and a dramatic depletion of mtDNA in the epidermis and showed macroscopic signs of severe skin inflammation...
January 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845492/twinkle-twinkle-little-stone-an-artifact-improves-the-ultrasound-performance
#14
Mirela Liana Gliga, Cristian Nicolae Chirila, Daniela Maria Podeanu, Torok Imola, Sanda Lucia Voicu, Mihail Gheorghe Gliga, Paula Maria Gliga
AIMS: Ultrasound is a noninvasive method used for the diagnosis of urinary lithiasis. When the length of the stone is less than 5 mm, its detection may be difficult. The twinkling artifact (TwA) is an intense alternating color signal behind calcifications and stones in different organs. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the importance of the TwA in detecting kidney stones less than 5 mm in length. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We examined 230 patients with lumbar pain or a history of kidney stones...
June 17, 2017: Medical Ultrasonography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769029/loss-of-succinyl-coa-synthase-adp-forming-%C3%AE-subunit-disrupts-mtdna-stability-and-mitochondrial-dynamics-in-neurons
#15
Yujun Zhao, Jing Tian, Shaomei Sui, Xiaodong Yuan, Hao Chen, Chuanqiang Qu, Yifeng Du, Lan Guo, Heng Du
Succinyl Coenzyme A synthetase (SCS) is a key mitochondrial enzyme. Defected SCS ADP-forming β subunit (SCS A-β) is linked to lethal infantile Leigh or leigh-like syndrome. However, the impacts of SCS A-β deficiency on mitochondria specifically in neurons have not yet been comprehensively investigated. Here, by down-regulating the expression levels of SCS A-β in cultured mouse neurons, we have found that SCS A-β deficiency induces severe mitochondrial dysfunction including lowered oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) efficiency, increased mitochondrial superoxide production, and mtDNA depletion as well as aberrations of mitochondrial fusion and fission proteins, which eventually leads to neuronal stress...
August 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695364/revisiting-mitochondrial-ocular-myopathies-a-study-from-the-italian-network
#16
D Orsucci, C Angelini, E Bertini, V Carelli, G P Comi, A Federico, C Minetti, M Moggio, T Mongini, F M Santorelli, S Servidei, P Tonin, A Ardissone, L Bello, C Bruno, E Caldarazzo Ienco, D Diodato, M Filosto, C Lamperti, I Moroni, O Musumeci, E Pegoraro, G Primiano, D Ronchi, A Rubegni, S Salvatore, M Sciacco, M L Valentino, L Vercelli, A Toscano, M Zeviani, G Siciliano, M Mancuso
Ocular myopathy, typically manifesting as progressive external ophthalmoplegia (PEO), is among the most common mitochondrial phenotypes. The purpose of this study is to better define the clinical phenotypes associated with ocular myopathy. This is a retrospective study on a large cohort from the database of the "Nation-wide Italian Collaborative Network of Mitochondrial Diseases". We distinguished patients with ocular myopathy as part of a multisystem mitochondrial encephalomyopathy (PEO-encephalomyopathy), and then PEO with isolated ocular myopathy from PEO-plus when PEO was associated with additional features of multisystemic involvement...
August 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607896/a-survey-of-work-related-musculoskeletal-disorders-among-otolaryngologists
#17
Twinkle Dabholkar, Sujata Yardi, Yogesh G Dabholkar, Haritosh K Velankar, Gaurav Ghuge
There are increased reports of prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs) in surgeons performing minimal access surgeries. Due to the nature of the speciality, otolaryngologists spend their work days in performing markedly precise procedures in small workspaces i.e. the patients' ear, nose and throat. Due to this, they frequently adopt awkward neck, back and shoulder postures while using devices like otoscope, endoscope and microscope. The field of otolaryngology has barely received any attention with respect to ergonomic assessment...
June 2017: Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559431/dna-polymerase-beta-participates-in-mitochondrial-dna-repair
#18
P Sykora, S Kanno, M Akbari, T Kulikowicz, B A Baptiste, G S Leandro, H Lu, J Tian, A May, K A Becker, D L Croteau, D M Wilson, R W Sobol, A Yasui, V A Bohr
We have detected DNA polymerase beta (Polβ), known as a key nuclear base excision repair (BER) protein, in mitochondrial protein extracts derived from mammalian tissue and cells. Manipulation of the N-terminal sequence affected the amount of Polβ in the mitochondria. Using Polβ fragments, mitochondrial-specific protein partners were identified, with the interactors mainly functioning in DNA maintenance and mitochondrial import. Of particular interest was the identification of the proteins TWINKLE, SSBP1 and TFAM, all of which are mitochondria specific DNA effectors and are known to function in the nucleoid...
May 30, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542237/a-new-genus-of-leafhopper-subtribe-paraboloponina-hemiptera-cicadellidae-with-molecular-phylogeny-of-related-genera
#19
Naresh M Meshram, Pathour R Shashank, Twinkle Sinha
A new leafhopper genus Chandra and species Chandra dehradunensis gen. nov., sp. nov. are described, illustrated from India and placed in the subtribe Paraboloponina (Cidadellidae: Deltocephalinae: Drabescini). This genus is closely associated with the genus Parabolopona Webb but differs in shape of the head, placement of antennae, male genitalia and molecular analysis using Histone H3 and COI genes confirmed the difference. The taxonomic and phylogenetic position of Chandra is discussed using morphological characters and preliminary molecular evidence of the new genus and related genus Parabolopona...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461998/detection-of-early-dj-stent-encrustation-by-sonographic-twinkling-artifacts-a-pilot-study
#20
Roman A Blaheta, Anton Oertl, Hans-Joachim Freisleben, Karen Nelson, Hanns Ackermann, Axel Haferkamp, Tobias Engl
INTRODUCTION: Ureter obstruction caused by a retro-peritoneal tumor is treated by inserting an indwelling ureter splint (DJ-stent). Indwelling duration is limited by cumulative crystalline deposits into the splint, eventually causing the repeated impairment of urine flow. Deciding when a DJ-stent must be replaced is important since belated removal can be accompanied by severe complications. X-ray or conventional sonography do not allow satisfactory evaluation of early incrustation, therefore, the use of sonographic twinkling artifacts (TA) to provide accurate stent surveillance was investigated...
2017: Central European Journal of Urology
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