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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933551/pentoxifylline-alleviates-early-brain-injury-after-experimental-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-in-rats-possibly-via-inhibiting-tlr-4-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway
#1
Da-Yong Xia, Hua-Sheng Zhang, Ling-Yun Wu, Xiang-Sheng Zhang, Meng-Liang Zhou, Chun-Hua Hang
Early brain injury (EBI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) generally causes significant and lasting damage. Pentoxifylline (PTX), a nonselective phosphodiesterase inhibitor, has shown anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties in several brain injury models, but the role of PTX with respect to EBI following SAH remains uncertain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of PTX on EBI after SAH in rats. Adult male Sprauge-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to the sham and SAH groups. PTX (30 or 60 mg/kg) or an equal volume of the administration vehicle (normal saline) was administrated at 30 min intervals following SAH...
December 8, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933550/effect-of-variable-doses-of-zinc-oxide-nanoparticles-on-male-albino-mice-behavior
#2
Javeria Zahra, Shahid Iqbal, Kiran Zahra, Zulha Javed, Muhammad Aslam Shad, Atif Akbar, Muhammad Naeem Ashiq, Furhan Iqbal
Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) have diverse utility these days ranging from being part of nanosensors to be ingredient of cosmetics. Present study was designed to report the effect of variable doses of ZnO NPs on selected aspects of male albino mice behavior. Nano particles were synthesized by sol-gel auto-combustion method (Data not shown here). 10 week old male albino mice were divided into four experimental groups; group A, B and C were orally supplemented with 50 (low dose), 300 (medium dose) and 600 mg/ml solvent/kg body weight (high dose) of ZnO NPs for 4 days...
December 8, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933486/an-appraisal-of-novel-biomarkers-for-evaluating-and-monitoring-neurologic-diseases-editorial-introduction
#3
EDITORIAL
Jeremy M Shefner, Marwan N Sabbagh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 8, 2016: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933485/fluid-based-biomarkers-for-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#4
REVIEW
Lucas T Vu, Robert Bowser
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a highly heterogeneous disease with no effective treatment. Drug development has been hampered by the lack of biomarkers that aid in early diagnosis, demonstrate target engagement, monitor disease progression, and can serve as surrogate endpoints to assess the efficacy of treatments. Fluid-based biomarkers may potentially address these issues. An ideal biomarker should exhibit high specificity and sensitivity for distinguishing ALS from control (appropriate disease mimics and other neurologic diseases) populations and monitor disease progression within individual patients...
December 8, 2016: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933475/how-safe-is-minimally-invasive-pedicle-screw-placement-for-treatment-of-thoracolumbar-spine-fractures
#5
Timo Michael Heintel, Stefan Dannigkeit, Annabel Fenwick, Martin Cornelius Jordan, Hendrik Jansen, Fabian Gilbert, Rainer Meffert
STUDY DESIGN: Prospective analysis of patients who underwent minimally invasive posterior instrumentation. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety of minimally invasive pedicle screw placement in patients with unstable thoracic and lumbar spine fractures using the conventional fluoroscopy technique. Although wound infection, haematoma, and new neurological deficit due to screw malplacement remain a common source of morbidity, estimates of their rates of occurrence remain relatively limited...
December 8, 2016: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933465/nano-mechanical-characterization-of-ataxia-telangiectasia-cells-treated-with-dexamethasone
#6
Michele Menotta, Sara Biagiotti, Giulia Bartolini, Bianchi Marzia, Sara Orazi, Aldo Germani, Luciana Chessa, Mauro Magnani
Ataxia telangiectasia is a rare genetic disease and no therapy is currently available. Glucocorticoid analogues have been shown to improve the neurological symptoms of treated patients. In the present study ataxia telangiectasia and wild type cells were used as a cellular model and treated with dexamethasone. The cells were subsequently investigated for membrane and whole cell mechanical properties by atomic force microscopy. In addition, cytoskeleton protein dynamics and nuclear shapes were assayed by fluorescence microscopy, while western blots were used to assess actin and tubulin content...
December 8, 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933398/ecmo-for-intractable-status-asthmaticus-following-atracurium
#7
Vittorio Scaravilli, Giacomo Grasselli, Annalisa Benini, Michela Bombino, Daniele Ceriani, Uta Emmig, Alberto Zanella, Nicolò Patroniti, Antonio Pesenti
Intraoperative allergic reactions are rare but serious events associated with increased morbidity and mortality. We report the salvage of intraoperative anaphylaxis leading to extreme hypercapnic respiratory failure by veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). A 38-year-old woman undergoing thyroidectomy developed intractable bronchospasm after administration of atracurium, leading to extreme hypercapnic respiratory failure (PaCO2 > 250 mmHg, pH 6.773). After the failure of conventional medical therapy and ventilatory optimization, the patient was connected to a veno-venous ECMO circuit...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Artificial Organs: the Official Journal of the Japanese Society for Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933300/head-tilting-elicited-by-head-turning-in-three-dogs-with-hypoplastic-cerebellar-nodulus-and-ventral-uvula
#8
Shinji Tamura, Yuya Nakamoto, Takashi Uemura, Yumiko Tamura
The nodulus and ventral uvula (NU) of the cerebellum play a major role in vestibular function in humans and experimental animals; however, there is almost no information about NU function in the veterinary clinical literature. In this report, we describe three canine cases diagnosed with presumptive NU hypoplasia. Of them, one adult dog presented with cervical intervertebral disk disease, and two juvenile dogs presented with signs of central vestibular disease. Interestingly, an unusual and possibly overlooked neurological sign that we called "positioning head tilt" was observed in these dogs...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932945/monoaminergic-and-histaminergic-strategies-and-treatments-in-brain-diseases
#9
REVIEW
Giuseppe Di Giovanni, Dubravka Svob Strac, Montse Sole, Mercedes Unzeta, Keith F Tipton, Dorotea Mück-Šeler, Irene Bolea, Laura Della Corte, Matea Nikolac Perkovic, Nela Pivac, Ilse J Smolders, Anna Stasiak, Wieslawa A Fogel, Philippe De Deurwaerdère
The monoaminergic systems are the target of several drugs for the treatment of mood, motor and cognitive disorders as well as neurological conditions. In most cases, advances have occurred through serendipity, except for Parkinson's disease where the pathophysiology led almost immediately to the introduction of dopamine restoring agents. Extensive neuropharmacological studies first showed that the primary target of antipsychotics, antidepressants, and anxiolytic drugs were specific components of the monoaminergic systems...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932857/vogt-koyanagi-harada-syndrome-current-perspectives
#10
REVIEW
Abeir Baltmr, Sue Lightman, Oren Tomkins-Netzer
Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome is a cause of noninfectious panuveitis, leading to significant vision loss in many patients. It is an autoimmune disease occurring in genetically susceptible individuals and clinically presents as bilateral panuveitis with serous retinal detachments and hyperemic, swollen optic discs, which are associated with neurological and auditory manifestations. Early diagnosis and prompt and adequate treatment with immunosuppressive agents (corticosteroids and other immunosuppressive drugs) may halt disease progression and prevent recurrences and vision loss...
2016: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932848/accelerating-translational-research-through-open-science-the-neuro-experiment
#11
E Richard Gold
Translational research is often afflicted by a fundamental problem: a limited understanding of disease mechanisms prevents effective targeting of new treatments. Seeking to accelerate research advances and reimagine its role in the community, the Montreal Neurological Institute (Neuro) announced in the spring of 2016 that it is launching a five-year experiment during which it will adopt Open Science-open data, open materials, and no patenting-across the institution. The experiment seeks to examine two hypotheses...
December 2016: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932751/-a-case-of-subacute-combined-degeneration-caused-by-vitamin-b-sub-12-sub-deficiency-in-a-cervical-spondylosis-surgery-referral
#12
Kunio Yokoyama, Masahiro Kawanishi, Akira Sugie, Makoto Yamada, Hidekazu Tanaka, Yutaka Ito, Toshihiko Kuroiwa
A 62-year-old man with a 1-year history of numbness of the extremities, clumsiness, and gait disorder was diagnosed with cervical spondylotic myelopathy at a neighboring clinic and referred to our institution for surgery. The patient had undergone a total gastrectomy 6 years previously. Flattening of the cervical cord, associated with diffuse cervical spondylosis and intramedullary intensity change, was observed on magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine. Neurological examination revealed decreased vibratory and position sense in all limbs, with posterior funiculus-based neurological symptoms...
December 2016: No Shinkei Geka. Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932749/-hemorrhage-from-an-angiographically-obliterated-arteriovenous-malformation-after-gamma-knife-radiosurgery-an-immunohistochemistry-study
#13
Saori Hamada, Daina Kashiwazaki, Tetsuhiro Kamo, Takahiro Tomita, Naoki Akioka, Naoya Kuwayama, Satoshi Kuroda
A 24-year-old woman was diagnosed with a cerebral arteriovenous malformation(AVM)in the right parietal lobe(Spetzler-Martin grade I). The AVM was treated with stereotactic radiosurgery and was observed to have completely disappeared 3 years after radiosurgery. At the age of 35 years, the patient complained of a headache, and was referred to our hospital. A plain CT scan demonstrated a large cyst with niveau formation in the right parietal lobe. Cerebral angiography identified no recurrence of AVM. However, contrast MRI revealed an enhanced lesion on the surface of the cyst...
December 2016: No Shinkei Geka. Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932745/-association-of-deep-venous-thrombosis-with-d-dimer-values-in-patients-with-hemorrhagic-stroke
#14
Atsushi Arai, Junji Koyama, Taichiro Imahori, Ryoji Shiomi, Hirofumi Iwahashi, Kazuhiro Tanaka, Eiji Kohmura
Pulmonary embolism(PE)in the early phase of stroke worsens the prognosis. It is necessary to detect deep venous thrombosis(DVT)to avoid PE. We conducted the D-dimer screening in order to detect DVT at an earlier stage. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of patients with hemorrhagic stroke who were admitted to the local stroke center, and investigated the complication rates of DVT, PE, D-dimer values, and risk factors of DVT. From October 2012 to August 2014, 261 patients were included. DVT was detected in 46 patients(17...
December 2016: No Shinkei Geka. Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932622/inflammasome-activation-underlies-central-nervous-system-deterioration-in-hiv-associated-tuberculosis
#15
Suzaan Marais, Rachel P J Lai, Katalin A Wilkinson, Graeme Meintjes, Anne O'Garra, Robert J Wilkinson
Tuberculosis meningitis (TBM) is a frequent cause of meningitis in HIV-infected individuals, resulting in death in ~ 40% of affected patients. A severe complication of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in these patients is neurological TB-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), but its underlying cause remains poorly understood. To investigate the pathogenesis of TBM-IRIS, we performed longitudinal whole blood microarray analysis of HIV-infected TBM patients and reflected the findings at the protein level...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932607/randomized-open-label-phase-1-2a-study-to-determine-the-maximum-tolerated-dose-of-intraventricular-sustained-release-nimodipine-for-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-newton-nimodipine-microparticles-to-enhance-recovery-while-reducing-toxicity-after-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#16
Daniel Hänggi, Nima Etminan, Francois Aldrich, Hans Jakob Steiger, Stephan A Mayer, Michael N Diringer, Brian L Hoh, J Mocco, Herbert J Faleck, R Loch Macdonald
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We conducted a randomized, open-label, phase 1/2a, dose-escalation study of intraventricular sustained-release nimodipine (EG-1962) to determine safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and clinical effects in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. METHODS: Subjects with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage repaired by clipping or coiling were randomized to EG-1962 or enteral nimodipine. Subjects were World Federation of Neurological Surgeons grade 2 to 4 and had an external ventricular drain...
December 8, 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932442/contraceptive-sales-in-the-setting-of-the-zika-virus-epidemic
#17
Luis Bahamondes, Moazzam Ali, Ilza Monteiro, Arlete Fernandes
STUDY QUESTION: Has there been any influence of the Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak on the sales of contraceptive methods in Brazil? SUMMARY ANSWER: Contraceptive sales in the 24 months of evaluation showed little variation and no significant change has been observed since the ZIKV outbreak. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Transmission of ZIKV is primarily by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes; however, sexual transmission has also been described. The association of several birth defects and the ZIKV infection during pregnancy has been established, and it was estimated in Bahia, Brazil that the infection rate could range from 10% to 80%...
December 7, 2016: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932211/a-novel-class-of-somatic-mutations-in-blood-detected-preferentially-in-cd8-cells
#18
Miko Valori, Lilja Jansson, Anna Kiviharju, Pekka Ellonen, Hanna Rajala, Shady Adnan Awad, Satu Mustjoki, Pentti J Tienari
Somatic mutations have a central role in cancer but their role in other diseases such as autoimmune disorders is poorly understood. Earlier work has provided indirect evidence of rare somatic mutations in autoreactive T-lymphocytes in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients but such mutations have not been identified thus far. We analysed somatic mutations in blood in 16 patients with relapsing MS and 4 with other neurological autoimmune disease. To facilitate the detection of somatic mutations CD4+, CD8+, CD19+ and CD4-/CD8-/CD19- cell subpopulations were separated...
December 5, 2016: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932197/crucial-role-of-carotid-ultrasound-for-the-rapid-diagnosis-of-hyperacute-aortic-dissection-complicated-by-cerebral-infarction-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#19
Eglė Sukockienė, Kristina Laučkaitė, Antanas Jankauskas, Dalia Mickevičienė, Giedrė Jurkevičienė, Antanas Vaitkus, Edgaras Stankevičius, Kęstutis Petrikonis, Daiva Rastenytė
Aortic dissection is a life-threatening rare condition that may virtually present by any organ system dysfunction, the nervous system included. Acute cerebral infarction among multiple other neurological and non-neurological presentations is part of this acute aortic syndrome. Rapid and correct diagnosis is of extreme importance keeping in mind the possibility of thrombolytic treatment if a patient with a suspected ischemic stroke arrives to the Emergency Department within a 4.5-h window after symptom onset...
November 19, 2016: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932167/gangliocytoma-presenting-with-tacrolimus-neurotoxicity-in-a-renal-transplant-recipient-case-report
#20
S Alagoz, S Gulcicek, M Oruc, S Trabulus, N Seyahi
Tacrolimus is a widely used macrolide immunosuppressant in transplant surgery, with mild and major neurologic side effects. A 21-year-old woman had undergone preemptive transplantation of a kidney from her mother. On the 1st postoperative day, the patient had headache, nausea, vomiting, and agitation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain showed hyperintensity and a lesion in the right mesial temporal lobe. After we switched from tacrolimus to cyclosporine, the symptoms regressed. Persistence of the lesion, confirmed by repeated MRI, required that the patient be operated on...
November 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
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