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asthma lung cancer

N Lomtatidze, G Dumbadze, M Chkhaidze, R Khakhnelidze
This paper presents statistical data of 2012-2015 on the diseases caused by the atmospheric air and water pollutions in Ajara region. The research on the content of dust, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide as well as carbon monoxide in the atmospheric air was held together with the National Environment Agency Ajara Monitoring Service. The results of the research have shown that the average content of the dust reached its maximum in 2012 (0.60 mg/m3) and it dropped to the minimum in 2015 (0.441 mg/m3). As for average content of carbon monoxide the maximum was observed in 2013 (3...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
Sharon L I Wong, Maria B Sukkar
Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) is a matricellular protein which regulates interactions between cells and their surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM), and thus governs fundamental cellular functions such as cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. SPARC also regulates the expression and activity of numerous growth factors and matrix metalloproteinases essential for ECM degradation and turnover. Studies in SPARC-null mice have revealed a critical role for SPARC in tissue development, injury and repair, and in the regulation of the immune response...
October 19, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
Yuan Ma, Jia-Xiang Zhang, Ya-Nan Liu, Ai Ge, Hao Gu, Wang-Jian Zha, Xiao-Ning Zeng, Mao Huang
In the pathophysiology of asthma, structural cell dysfunction and concomitant microenvironment changes in airways are crucial to pathological progression, which involves oxidative stress. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is an active anti-oxidative component obtained from propolis, and has been shown to have beneficial effects on several respiratory disorders, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer. However, the impact of CAPE on asthma is not well understood. Therefore, this study investigated the advantages of using CAPE to treat asthma and demonstrated the roles of CAPE in the regulation of airway microenvironments...
October 13, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Mojgan Najafzadeh, Charmaine Normington, Badie K Jacob, Mohammad Isreb, Rajendran C Gopalan, Diana Anderson
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) inhibit COX enzyme activity which affects the inflammatory response. Inflammation is associated with increasing cancer incidence. Pre-clinical and clinical studies have shown that NSAID treatment could cause an anti-tumor effect in cancers. In the present study, blood was taken from healthy individuals (n = 17) and patients with respiratory diseases or lung cancer (n = 36). White blood cells (WBC) were treated with either a micro-suspension, i.e., bulk (B) or nano-suspension (N) of aspirin (ASP) or ibuprofen (IBU) up to 500 μg/ml in the comet assay and up to 125 μg/ml in the micronucleus assay...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
John W Upham, Yang Xi
Dendritic cells (DC) are potent antigen presenting cells. Because of their particular ability to initiate and regulate cell mediated and humoral immune responses, there is considerable interest in the role that DC play in the pathogenesis of various lung diseases, especially those in which there is an excessive immune response to specific antigens (as in asthma) or a deficient immune response (as in lung cancer). A number of DC subpopulations have been defined in the lungs including myeloid or conventional DC that initiate T-cell immunity and antibody production, and plasmacytoid DC that have an important role in anti-viral immunity and immune tolerance...
October 8, 2016: Chest
Elizabeth M Gordon, Debbie M Figueroa, Amisha V Barochia, Xianglan Yao, Stewart J Levine
Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and high-density lipoproteins (HDL) mediate reverse cholesterol transport out of cells. Furthermore, HDL has additional protective functions, which include anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and vasoprotective effects. In contrast, HDL can become dysfunctional with a reduction in both cholesterol efflux and anti-inflammatory properties in the setting of disease or the acute phase response. These paradigms are increasingly being recognized to be active in the pulmonary system, where apoA-I and HDL have protective effects in normal lung health, as well as in a variety of disease states, including acute lung injury (ALI), asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, pulmonary arterial hypertension, pulmonary fibrosis, and viral pneumonia...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Nicole Marquardt, Eliisa Kekäläinen, Puran Chen, Egle Kvedaraite, Jennifer N Wilson, Martin A Ivarsson, Jenny Mjösberg, Lena Berglin, Jesper Säfholm, Martijn L Manson, Mikael Adner, Mamdoh Al-Ameri, Per Bergman, Ann-Charlotte Orre, Mattias Svensson, Barbro Dahlén, Sven-Erik Dahlén, Hans-Gustaf Ljunggren, Jakob Michaëlsson
BACKGROUND: In contrast to the extensive knowledge about human NK cells in peripheral blood, relatively little is known about NK cells in human lung. Knowledge about the composition, differentiation, and function of human lung NK cells is critical to better understand their role in diseases affecting the lung, including asthma, COPD, infections, and cancer. OBJECTIVE: We sought to analyze and compare the phenotypic as well as functional characteristics of NK cells in the human lung and peripheral blood at the single cell level...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Petr Ponomarenko, Dmitry Rasskazov, Valentin Suslov, Ekaterina Sharypova, Ludmila Savinkova, Olga Podkolodnaya, Nikolay L Podkolodny, Natalya N Tverdokhleb, Irina Chadaeva, Mikhail Ponomarenko, Nikolay Kolchanov
Variations in human genome (e.g., single nucleotide polymorphisms, SNPs) may be associated with hereditary diseases, their complications, comorbidities, and drug responses. Using Web service SNP_TATA_Comparator presented in our previous paper, here we analyzed immediate surroundings of known SNP markers of diseases and identified several candidate SNP markers that can significantly change the affinity of TATA-binding protein for human gene promoters, with circadian consequences. For example, rs572527200 may be related to asthma, where symptoms are circadian (worse at night), and rs367732974 may be associated with heart attacks that are characterized by a circadian preference (early morning)...
2016: BioMed Research International
Shamila D Alipoor, Ian M Adcock, Johan Garssen, Esmaeil Mortaz, Mohammad Varahram, Mehdi Mirsaeidi, Aliakbar Velayati
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs which can act as master regulators of gene expression, modulate almost all biological process and are essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis. Dysregulation of miRNA expression has been associated with aberrant gene expression and may lead to pathological conditions. Evidence suggests that miRNA expression profiles are altered between health and disease and as such may be considered as biomarkers of disease. Evidence is increasing that miRNAs are particularly important in lung homeostasis and development and have been demonstrated to be the involved in many pulmonary diseases such as asthma, COPD, sarcoidosis, lung cancer and other smoking related diseases...
September 12, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
Eri Hagiwara, Yasuhiro Gon, Kentaro Hayashi, Mai Takahashi, Yuko Iida, Hisato Hiranuma, Yoshiko Nakagawa, Tsukasa Hataoka, Kenji Mizumura, Shuichiro Maruoka, Tetsuo Shimizu, Noriaki Takahashi, Shu Hashimoto
The case subject was a 58-year-old woman who presented to our hospital with a chief complaint of respiratory discomfort. Wheezing could be heard in both lungs; treatment was initiated with inhaled steroids for suspected bronchial asthma. However, 1 week later, the respiratory discomfort had not improved and the wheezing sound had progressed to the neck area. Upper airway obstruction was suspected; therefore, chest computed tomography (CT) was performed, revealing tracheal stenosis caused by a tumor in the upper airway...
August 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Chao-Kuei Juan, Jui-Lung Shen, Cheng-Li Lin, Karen Wang Kim, Wen-Chi Chen
BACKGROUND: The association between lung cancer and eczema remains controversial. Previous studies have yielded conflicting results. This retrospective population-based cohort study is aimed at clarifying the risk of lung cancer associated with eczema. PATIENTS AND METHODS: By using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, we identified 43,719 patients who had been newly diagnosed with eczema in the years 2000 to 2010. The comparison cohort included 87,438 randomly selected, age-matched patients without eczema...
September 2016: Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft, Journal of the German Society of Dermatology: JDDG
Dario Nieri, Tommaso Neri, Silvia Petrini, Barbara Vagaggini, Pierluigi Paggiaro, Alessandro Celi
Cell-derived microparticles are small (0.1-1 μm) vesicles shed by most eukaryotic cells upon activation or during apoptosis. Microparticles carry on their surface, and enclose within their cytoplasm, molecules derived from the parental cell, including proteins, DNA, RNA, microRNA and phospholipids. Microparticles are now considered functional units that represent a disseminated storage pool of bioactive effectors and participate both in the maintenance of homeostasis and in the pathogenesis of diseases. The mechanisms involved in microparticle generation include intracellular calcium mobilisation, cytoskeleton rearrangement, kinase phosphorylation and activation of the nuclear factor-κB...
September 2016: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
Seyed Fazel Nabavi, Solomon Habtemariam, Maria Daglia, Antoni Sureda, Eduardo Sobarzo-Sánchez, Zeliha Selamoglu, Mehmet Fuat Gulhan, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi
Melatonin is an indoleamine with potent multifunctional biological and pharmacological effects, both receptor dependent and receptor-independent effects, including antioxidant, anticancer, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, anti-aging, anti-diabetic, antiviral, neuroprotective activities. Melatonin mitigates tissue injury via modification of abnormalities in redox status and other biochemical markers. At the molecular level, the biological and pharmacological activities of melatonin are attributed to the inhibition of nuclear factor-ĸappa beta (NF-ĸB), c-Fos over expression and down-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases-3 (MMP-3), which are regulators of pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic cytokines...
August 24, 2016: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Andrew C Dietz, Yan Chen, Yutaka Yasui, Kirsten K Ness, James S Hagood, Eric J Chow, Marilyn Stovall, Joseph P Neglia, Kevin C Oeffinger, Ann C Mertens, Leslie L Robison, Gregory T Armstrong, Daniel A Mulrooney
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary complications after cancer therapy are varied. This study describes pulmonary outcomes among childhood cancer survivors and evaluates their impact on daily activities. METHODS: The incidence of pulmonary outcomes (asthma, chronic cough, emphysema, lung fibrosis, oxygen need, and recurrent pneumonia) reported among 5-year cancer survivors (n = 14,316) and the incidence of death due to pulmonary causes among all eligible survivors (n = 20,690) in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study were compared with those for sibling controls (n = 4027) with cumulative incidence, standardized mortality ratio (SMR), and piecewise exponential models...
August 9, 2016: Cancer
Erik Backhaus, Stefan Berg, Rune Andersson, Gunilla Ockborn, Petter Malmström, Mats Dahl, Salmir Nasic, Birger Trollfors
BACKGROUND: Incidence, manifestations and case-fatality rate (CFR) of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) vary with age and comorbidities. New vaccines, changing age distribution, prolonged survival among immunocompromised patients and improved sepsis management have created a need for an update of basic facts to inform vaccine recommendations. METHODS: Age, gender and comorbidities were related to manifestations and death for 2977 consecutive patients with IPD in a Swedish region with 1...
August 3, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Shih-Feng Liu, Ho-Chang Kuo, Guan-Heng Liu, Shu-Chen Ho, Huang-Chih Chang, Hung-Tu Huang, Yu-Mu Chen, Kuo-Tung Huang, Kuan-Yi Chen, Wen-Feng Fang, Meng-Chih Lin
BACKGROUND: Whether the use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) in patients with COPD can protect from osteoporosis remains undetermined. The aim of this study is to assess the incidence of osteoporosis in patients with COPD with ICS use and without. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort and population-based study in which we extracted newly diagnosed female patients with COPD between 1997 and 2009 from Taiwan's National Health Insurance (TNHI) database between 1996 and 2011 (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision - Clinical Modification [ICD-9-CM] 491, 492, 496)...
2016: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Victor A Kiri
BACKGROUND: Patients with a chronic disease often suffer from other diseases called comorbidities, which can be important factors in the assessment of risks associated with the disease and its management. However, comorbidities can pose important methodological issues because factors such as time, age, duration and the disease can influence their impact on the risk of interest. METHODS: To identify comorbidities of a chronic disease, it is common practice to construct 2 separate cohorts of patients-a set with the disease and another as a random sample of patients free of the disease-and compare the event rates for each candidate's comorbidity over a specific period between the 2, while accounting for factors which may confound the results...
2016: BMJ Open
Zhi-Hong Jian, Jing-Yang Huang, Frank Cheau-Feng Lin, Oswald Ndi Nfor, Kai-Ming Jhang, Wen-Yuan Ku, Chien-Chang Ho, Chia-Chi Lung, Hui-Hsien Pan, Min-Chen Wu, Ming-Fang Wu, Yung-Po Liaw
PURPOSE: To evaluate the association between post-inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), pneumonia and lung cancer in patients with asthma. METHODS: The study samples were collected from the National Health Insurance Database. Asthmatic patients who were first-time users of ICS between 2003 and 2005 were identified as cases. For each case, 4 control individuals were randomly matched for sex, age and date of ICS use. Cases and matched controls were followed up until the end of 2010...
2016: PloS One
Amanda Tufman, Rudolf Maria Huber, Stefanie Völk, Frederic Aigner, Martin Edelmann, Fernando Gamarra, Rosemarie Kiefl, Kathrin Kahnert, Fei Tian, Anne-Laure Boulesteix, Stefan Endres, Sebastian Kobold
BACKGROUND: Interleukin-22 (IL-22) is involved in lung diseases such as pneumonia, asthma and lung cancer. Lavage mirrors the local environment, and may provide insights into the presence and role of IL-22 in patients. METHODS: Bronchoscopic lavage (BL) samples (n = 195, including bronchoalveolar lavage and bronchial washings) were analysed for IL-22 using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Clinical characteristics and parameters from lavage and serum were correlated with lavage IL-22 concentrations...
2016: BMC Cancer
Nisreen Shehada, John C Cancilla, Jose S Torrecilla, Enrique S Pariente, Gerald Brönstrup, Silke Christiansen, Douglas W Johnson, Marcis Leja, Michael P A Davies, Ori Liran, Nir Peled, Hossam Haick
Two of the biggest challenges in medicine today are the need to detect diseases in a noninvasive manner and to differentiate between patients using a single diagnostic tool. The current study targets these two challenges by developing a molecularly modified silicon nanowire field effect transistor (SiNW FET) and showing its use in the detection and classification of many disease breathprints (lung cancer, gastric cancer, asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). The fabricated SiNW FETs are characterized and optimized based on a training set that correlate their sensitivity and selectivity toward volatile organic compounds (VOCs) linked with the various disease breathprints...
July 26, 2016: ACS Nano
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