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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676630/international-approach-to-environmental-and-lung-health-a-perspective-from-the-fogarty-international-center
#1
Roger I Glass, Joshua P Rosenthal
The global burden of lung disease is substantial, accounting for an estimated 7.5 million deaths per year, approximately 14% of annual deaths worldwide. The prime illnesses include, in descending order, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, tuberculosis, acute respiratory infections, asthma, and interstitial lung fibrosis. Key risk factors include smoking, both indoor and outdoor air pollution, and occupational exposures. Although the distribution of both the diseases and the risk factors varies greatly by age, geography, and setting, the greatest burden falls on populations living in low- and middle-income countries...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667303/mir-146a-regulates-pm-1-induced-inflammation-via-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway-in-beas-2b-cells
#2
Limin Liu, Chong Wan, Wei Zhang, Longfei Guan, Guoxiong Tian, Fang Zhang, Wenjun Ding
Exposure to particulate matter (PM) leads to kinds of cardiopulmonary diseases, such as asthma, COPD, arrhythmias, lung cancer, etc., which are related to PM-induced inflammation. We have found that PM2.5 (aerodynamics diameter <2.5 µm) exposure induces inflammatory response both in vivo and in vitro. Since the toxicity of PM is tightly associated with its size and components, PM1 (aerodynamics diameter <1.0 µm) is supposed to be more toxic than PM2.5 . However, the mechanism of PM1 -induced inflammation is not clear...
April 18, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650833/-a-case-of-local-recurrence-of-descending-colon-cancer-with-ileus-obstruction-and-lung-liver-and-brain-metastasis
#3
Ryouichi Tomita, Shigeru Fujisaki, Kenichi Sakurai, Takeo Azuhata, Yuko Takamoto
We report a 50-year-old man with local recurrence of descending colon cancer with ileus obstruction and brain metastasis, 2 years 6 months after initial resection due to perforation of descending colon cancer(Hartmann procedure, D2 lymph node resection, Stage II, tub2). He complained of left upper abdominal pain and abdominal fullness. He also complained of paresis of the right upper extremity and of experiencing convulsions 1 month before admission. He was diagnosed with local recurrence of descending colon cancer, based on findings of contrast radiography and the presence of colonic fiber...
April 2018: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650028/a-rare-presentation-of-pulmonary-sarcoidosis-as-a-solitary-lung-mass-a-case-report
#4
Dylan W Kelleher, Madeleine Yaggi, Robert Homer, Erica L Herzog, Changwan Ryu
BACKGROUND: Sarcoidosis is a multisystem, chronic granulomatous disease of unknown etiology that predominantly affects the lungs. Pulmonary sarcoidosis classically presents with constitutional symptoms and computed tomographic scan findings of bilateral, symmetric micronodules in a peribronchovascular distribution with upper and middle lung zone predominance accompanied by bilateral, symmetric hilar lymphadenopathy. A solitary lung mass is a rare finding for pulmonary sarcoidosis, and with its associated constitutional symptoms, it strongly mimics a malignancy...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621558/changes-in-gene-expression-in-lungs-of-mice-exposed-to-traffic-related-air-pollution
#5
Yang Jie, Yi Chen, Zhi Yu, Hui Ding, Zhongfu Ma
Long-term exposure to traffic-related pollutants can lead to a variety of respiratory diseases, including inflammation, asthma, and lung cancer; however, the underlying biological mechanisms are not fully understood. We focused on the effects of exposure to different air pollutants on the expression of genes associated with inflammatory immune responses, allergic reactions and asthma, and lung cancer. In order to understand the cellular responses induced by exposure to different traffic-related pollutants, we performed PCR array to evaluate the mRNA expression of genes associated with inflammatory immune responses, allergic reactions and asthma, and lung cancer in the lungs of mice exposed to three different environments, including the laboratory (clean air), and polluted parking garages in Foshan and Guangzhou for four weeks...
April 2, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Probes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604204/kallikrein-related-peptidases-in-lung-diseases
#6
Woodys Lenga Ma Bonda, Sophie Iochmann, Mélia Magnen, Yves Courty, Pascale Reverdiau
Human tissue kallikreins (KLKs) are 15 members of the serine protease family and are present in various healthy human tissues including airway tissues. Multiple studies have revealed their crucial role in the pathophysiology of a number of chronic, infectious and tumour lung diseases. KLK1, 3 and 14 are involved in asthma pathogenesis, and KLK1 could be also associated with the exacerbation of this inflammatory disease caused by rhinovirus. KLK5 was demonstrated as an influenza virus activating protease in humans, and KLK1 and 12 could also be involved in the activation and spread of these viruses...
March 1, 2018: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582642/leukotriene-receptor-antagonists-inhibit-mitogenic-activity-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer-cells
#7
Kran Suknuntha, Ruedeemars Yubolphan, Kanokpan Krueaprasertkul, Sirada Srihirun, Nathawut Sibmooh, Pornpun Vivithanaporn
Despite a discovery of hormonal pathways regulating breast cancer, a definitive cure for the disease requires further identification of alternative targets that provide a hormone-independent support. Apart from their role in inflammatory diseases, cysteinyl leukotriene (CysLT) receptor antagonists (LTRAs) decrease the risk of lung cancer in asthma patients and inhibit tumor progression in several malignancies. In the present study, we evaluate the effects of two chemically different, clinically relevant LTRAs (montelukast and zafirlukast) in a triple negative breast cancer cell line, MDAMB- 231...
March 27, 2018: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581961/hospitalization-trends-in-adult-patients-with-copd-and-other-respiratory-diseases-in-northeast-china-from-2005-to-2015
#8
Honglei Liu, Ni Wang, Wei Chen, Wenyan Liu, Shiping Wang, Jianbo Lei, Hui Chen
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pneumonia, asthma, and lung cancer are four common respiratory diseases that impose a substantial economic burden on both patients and government in China. The objective of our study is to analyze the temporal trends of several clinical tracking metrics for hospitalization regarding these diseases. Hospital discharge data of 54 hospitals for the period 2005-2015 were derived from the Health and Family Planning Commission in Northeast China. The age-adjusted rate of discharge for the four respiratory diseases increased significantly (COPD, pneumonia, asthma: P trend <  ...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562641/estimating-the-burden-of-serious-fungal-infections-in-uruguay
#9
Marina Macedo-Viñas, David W Denning
We aimed to estimate for the first time the burden of fungal infections in Uruguay. Data on population characteristics and underlying conditions were extracted from the National Statistics Institute, the World Bank, national registries, and published articles. When no data existed, risk populations were used to estimate frequencies extrapolating from the literature. Population structure (inhabitants): total 3,444,006; 73% adults; 35% women younger than 50 years. Size of populations at risk (total cases per year): HIV infected 12,000; acute myeloid leukemia 126; hematopoietic stem cell transplantation 30; solid organ transplants 134; COPD 272,006; asthma in adults 223,431; cystic fibrosis in adults 48; tuberculosis 613; lung cancer 1400...
March 18, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555876/identification-and-characterization-of-novel-receptor-interacting-serine-threonine-protein-kinase-2-ripk2-inhibitors-using-structural-similarity-analysis
#10
Mohamed Salla, Rodrigo Aguayo-Ortiz, Danmaliki Gaddafi Ibrahim, Alaa Zare, Ahmed Said, Jack Moore, Vrajeshkumar Pandya, Robin Manaloor, Sunny Fong, Anna R Blankstein, Spencer Gibson, Laura Ramos Garcia, Pascal Meier, Khushwant S Bhullar, Basil P Hubbard, Yahya Fiteh, Harissios Vliagoftis, Ing Swie Goping, Dion Brocks, Peter Hwang, Jose Carlos A Martinez Velazquez, Shairaz Baksh
Receptor interacting protein kinase 2 (RIP2 or RICK herein referred to as RIPK2) is linked to the pathogen pathway that activates NFkB and autophagic activation. Using molecular modeling (docking) and chemoinformatics analyses we utilized the RIPK2/ponatinib crystal structure and searched in chemical databases for small molecules exerting binding interactions similar to those exerted by ponatinib. The identified RIPK2 inhibitors potently inhibited the proliferation of cancer cells by > 70% as well as inhibition of NFkB activity...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528143/nickel-exposure-induces-persistent-mesenchymal-phenotype-in-human-lung-epithelial-cells-through-epigenetic-activation-of-zeb1
#11
Cynthia C Jose, Lakshmanan Jagannathan, Vinay Singh Tanwar, Xiaoru Zhang, Chongzhi Zang, Suresh Cuddapah
Nickel (Ni) is an environmental and occupational carcinogen, and exposure to Ni is associated with lung and nasal cancers in humans. Furthermore, Ni exposure is implicated in several lung diseases including chronic inflammatory airway diseases, asthma and fibrosis. However, the mutagenic potential of Ni is low and does not correlate with its potent toxicity and carcinogenicity. Therefore, mechanisms underlying Ni exposure-associated diseases remain poorly understood. Since the health risks of environmental exposures often continue post exposure, understanding the exposure effects that persist after the termination of exposure could provide mechanistic insights into diseases...
March 12, 2018: Molecular Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504963/asthmatic-exacerbation-as-a-cause-of-false-positive-whole-body-iodine-scan-in-a-patient-with-treated-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma
#12
Guillaume Chaussé, Tina Kader, Gad Abikhzer, Stephan Probst
A 44-year-old woman was found to have new diffuse lung uptake on a follow-up whole-body I scan 1 year after being treated with surgery and radioactive iodine for papillary thyroid cancer. However, subsequent CT thorax and thyroglobulin levels were both unremarkable. Shortly after, she presented with respiratory symptoms, exhibiting end-expiratory wheezing on auscultation. Metacholine challenge test confirmed asthma. Symptoms improved under inhaled corticosteroids and beta-2 agonists. Resolution of lung uptake was confirmed on a second I imaging 6 months later...
April 2018: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496715/lung-disease-and-genomics
#13
Kenneth Wysocki
Research and application of genomic medicine in lung disease during the past century has clarified our understanding and focus on specific phenotypes, helping clinicians tailor treatment for individual patients. Cystic fibrosis and lung cancer have been researched extensively; specific genotypes have been instrumental in precision medicine to treat these lung diseases. Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are more complex and heterogeneous in their pathogenesis, genotypic profile, and phenotypic expression, making treatment more difficult with increasing disease severity...
2018: AACN Advanced Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462659/safer-approaches-to-therapeutic-modulation-of-tgf-%C3%AE-signaling-for-respiratory-disease
#14
REVIEW
Philippe Lachapelle, Meina Li, Jo Douglass, Alastair Stewart
The transforming growth factor (TGF)-β cytokines play a central role in development and progression of chronic respiratory diseases. TGF-β overexpression in chronic inflammation, remodeling, fibrotic process and susceptibility to viral infection is established in the most prevalent chronic respiratory diseases including asthma, COPD, lung cancer and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Despite the overwhelming burden of respiratory diseases in the world, new pharmacological therapies have been limited in impact...
February 17, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459525/-the-causes-of-acute-cough-a-single-center-study-in-japan
#15
Tomoko Tajiri, Ayano Toriyama, Akihiko Sokai, Kenichi Goto, Hiroko Fukata, Yasukiyo Nakamura, Hideo Kita
BACKGROUND: Cough is the most frequent presenting complaint in clinics, and is classified into the following three groups: acute, subacute and chronic. The major causes of acute cough are infectious diseases, however, few observations on acute cough have been reported. METHODS: We retrospectively assessed the causes of acute cough among patients who had visited the respiratory clinic of our hospital because of acute cough from September 2014 to August 2015. RESULTS: Of 374 patients (195 females, mean age 60...
2018: Arerugī, [Allergy]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458107/wnt-receptor-signalling-in-lung-physiology-and-pathology
#16
REVIEW
Wioletta Skronska-Wasek, Reinoud Gosens, Melanie Königshoff, Hoeke Abele Baarsma
The WNT signalling cascades have emerged as critical regulators of a wide variety of biological aspects involved in lung development as well as in physiological and pathophysiological processes in the adult lung. WNTs (secreted glycoproteins) interact with various transmembrane receptors and co-receptors to activate signalling pathways that regulate transcriptional as well as non-transcriptional responses within cells. In physiological conditions, the majority of WNT receptors and co-receptors can be detected in the adult lung...
February 17, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437031/underexpression-of-mir-486-5p-but-not-overexpression-of-mir-155-is-associated-with-lung-cancer-stages
#17
Marwa A Mohamed, Ehab I Mohamed, Samir A Abd El-Kaream, Mohamed I Badawi, Samy H Darwish
BACKGROUND: Evidence is increasing that microRNAs (miR) are particularly important in lung homeostasis and development and have been shown to be involved in many pulmonary diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, sarcoidosis, lung cancer (LC) and other smoking-related diseases. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the expression of miR-155 and miR-486-5p in tissues from LC patients and healthy endobronchial mucosa as prognostic biomarkers for diagnosing LC...
February 12, 2018: MicroRNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436404/from-systems-biology-to-p4-medicine-applications-in-respiratory-medicine
#18
Guillaume Noell, Rosa Faner, Alvar Agustí
Human health and disease are emergent properties of a complex, nonlinear, dynamic multilevel biological system: the human body. Systems biology is a comprehensive research strategy that has the potential to understand these emergent properties holistically. It stems from advancements in medical diagnostics, "omics" data and bioinformatic computing power. It paves the way forward towards "P4 medicine" (predictive, preventive, personalised and participatory), which seeks to better intervene preventively to preserve health or therapeutically to cure diseases...
March 31, 2018: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415641/comparison-of-the-in-vitro-toxicological-activity-of-various-particulate-matter
#19
Hyun-Ki Cho, Chang-Gyun Park, Han-Jae Shin, Ki-Hong Park, Heung-Bin Lim
Ultrafine particles (UFPs, < 2.5 µm) in air pollutants have been identified as a major cause of respiratory diseases, since they can affect the lung alveoli through the bronchus. In particular, if toxicants such as heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are present in UFPs, they can cause diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and lung cancer. This study compared in vitro toxicity of various particulate matter including UFPs from combustion particles of diesel (diesel exhaust particles (DEP)), rice straw (RS), pine stem (PS) and coal (CC), and road dust particles from tunnel (TD) and roadside (RD)...
February 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413507/respiratory-effects-of-trichloroethylene
#20
REVIEW
Orianne Dumas, Thomas Despreaux, Frédéric Perros, Edmund Lau, Pascal Andujar, Marc Humbert, David Montani, Alexis Descatha
Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a chlorinated solvent that has been used widely around the world in the twentieth century for metal degreasing and dry cleaning. Although TCE displays general toxicity and is classified as a human carcinogen, the association between TCE exposure and respiratory disorders are conflicting. In this review we aimed to systematically evaluate the current evidence for the respiratory effects of TCE exposure and the implications for the practicing clinician. There is limited evidence of an increased risk of lung cancer associated with TCE exposure based on animal and human data...
January 2018: Respiratory Medicine
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