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sepsis in neonate

Doniparthi Venkata Pavan Kumar, Jesinth Mohan, P S Rakesh, Jasmine Prasad, Lenikumar Joseph
Introduction: Neonatal sepsis is a leading cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity in the world. The objective of the current study was to detect the common causative microorganisms of neonatal sepsis and their antimicrobial resistance patterns in a rural secondary hospital in Tamil Nadu, India. Materials and Methods: Neonates (0-28 days) admitted to this newborn care unit from October 2013 to September 2015, with a diagnosis of probable sepsis were studied. All the enrolled babies had blood cultures taken and were followed up till final outcome, which was discharge or death, irrespective of culture result...
October 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Sylvia L Ranjeva, Benjamin C Warf, Steven J Schiff
Background and significance: The third Sustainable Development Goal for child health, which aims to end preventable deaths of newborns and children less than 5 years of age by 2030, cannot be met without substantial reduction of infection-specific neonatal mortality in the developing world. Neonatal infections are estimated to account for 26% of annual neonatal deaths, with mortality rates highest in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Reliable and comprehensive estimates of the incidence and aetiology surrounding neonatal sepsis in SSA remain incompletely available...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Britt Nakstad
Introduction: A key challenge in identifying serious bacterial infection in new born infants is the nonspecific clinical presentation of early-onset neonatal sepsis (EONS). Routinely used C-reactive protein, white blood cell count, and platelets are nonspecific. We assessed the diagnostic utility of single biomarkers or combinations of procalcitonin (PCT), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and hyaluronic acid (HA) in newborn infant with EONS, and in human umbilical cord blood (HUCB) from deliveries with chorioamnionitis...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
R A Shanmugha Priya, R Krishnamoorthy, Vinod Kumar Panicker, Binu Ninan
BACKGROUND: Lack of recent studies focusing on indications, pattern, and benefits of transfusions in low birth weight (B.Wt) and low gestational age (GA) preterm neonates prompted us to undertake this study. AIM: To estimate the transfusion requirements and outcomes in preterm neonates <1500 g and/or <32 weeks. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional study conducted over a period of 2 years in a tertiary care center. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was conducted with 101 preterm neonates <1500 g and/or <32 weeks who received blood transfusions in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit...
January 2018: Asian Journal of Transfusion Science
Sameer Timilsina, Sirisa Karki, Aajeevan Gautam, Pujan Bhusal, Gita Paudel, Deepak Sharma
BACKGROUND: Complete blood count is one of the routinely advised blood investigation during pregnancy. It is also utilized as a diagnostic tool for neonatal anemia, sepsis and determining hemostatic status of the newborn. The present study aims at estimating the complete blood count of maternal and umbilical cord blood at the time of delivery and to establish its correlation. METHOD: This cross sectional study included 114 mothers and their healthy neonates born through normal vaginal delivery...
March 21, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Yelda A Leal, José Álvarez-Nemegyei, Ana I Lavadores-May, Jorge Luis Girón-Carrillo, Roberto Cedillo-Rivera, Juan R Velazquez
Antecedents: The serum levels of some cytokines can be useful in the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis; the prognostic value of a cytokine profile has not, to our knowledge, been explored in this disease. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic value of the serum levels of cytokines IL-1, -2, -4, -5, -6, -7, -8, -10, -12, -13, and -17, TNF, IFNγ, G-CSF, GM-CSF, MCP1, and MIP1β in neonates with high risk of developing sepsis. METHODS: Sepsis was evaluated in 96 high-risk neonates...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Maria Jose Escalante, Jose Maria Ceriani-Cernadas, Ivonne D'Apremont, Aldo Bancalari, Veronica Webb, Larisa Genes, Luis Villarroel, Elizabeth Munoz, Jose L Tapia
OBJECTIVE: The main aim is to determine the incidence and associated factors of late onset sepsis (LOS) in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants (500-1500 g), from the NEOCOSUR Network during years 2001-2013. Secondary objectives are to describe the microbiology of the first and second episode of LOS and to study the association between catheter dwell time and LOS. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Demographic information and outcome data are prospectively and routinely collected across the Network using predefined diagnostic criteria and online data entry...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Mylene C Berk, Andrea Hl Bruning, Aleid G van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Katja C Wolthers, Dasja Pajkrt
Human parechovirus (HPeV) infections usually cause mild symptoms in children. Although their contribution to severe disease in young children - such as neonatal sepsis and meningo-encephalitis - is increasingly recognized, data on long-term consequences are scarce. Here we present the case of a five-year old boy with severe long-term neurodevelopmental sequelae following HPeV-3 meningitis.
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Benjamin D Reed, Kurt R Schibler, Hitesh Deshmukh, Namasivayam Ambalavanan, Ardythe L Morrow
OBJECTIVES: We examined the impact of prenatal exposure to maternal antibiotics on risk of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), late onset sepsis (LOS), and death in infants born preterm. STUDY DESIGN: Secondary data analysis was conducted via an extant cohort of 580 infants born <32 weeks of gestation and enrolled in 3 level III neonatal intensive care units. Prenatal antibiotic exposure was defined as antibiotics received by the mother within 72 hours before delivery...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Ramiro Manzano Núñez, James Alejandro Zapata, Herney A García-Perdomo, Diego A Gomez, Mónica A Solís Velasco
INTRODUCTION: Few reports are available about perinatal dengue, with controversial results in regards the risk of perinatal outcome. OBJECTIVE: To report a case of perinatal dengue as a differential diagno sis with neonatal sepsis, which must be considered in endemic areas. CLINICAL CASE: Male newborn of a 23 year-old female, who presented a Non-Structural Protein 1 (NS1) antigen positive to dengue at 36 weeks of gestation and negative anti-dengue antibodies...
December 2017: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
Mirza Sultan Ahmad, Danial Ahmad, Naila Medhat, Syed Aizaz Hussain Zaidi, Hadia Farooq, Sair Ahmad Tabraiz
OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the frequency of electrolyte abnormalities in patients of probable and culture-proven sepsis on admission and assess any association of electrolyte disorders with mortality. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: NICU, Fazle-Omar Hospital, Rabwah, from October 2015 to September 2016. METHODOLOGY: All neonates with the diagnosis of probable and culture-proven sepsis during the study period admitted in NICU, Fazle-Omar Hospital, were included in the study...
March 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Cinta Moraleda, Rachid Benmessaoud, Jessica Esteban, Yuly López, Hassan Alami, Amina Barkat, Tligui Houssain, Meryem Kabiri, Rachid Bezad, Saad Chaacho, Lola Madrid, Jordi Vila, Carmen Muñoz-Almagro, Jordi Bosch, Sara M Soto, Quique Bassat
PURPOSE: Group B streptococcus (GBS) is an important cause of neonatal sepsis worldwide. Data on the prevalence of maternal GBS colonization, risk factors for carriage, antibiotic susceptibility and circulating serotypes are necessary to tailor adequate locally relevant public health policies. METHODOLOGY: A prospective study including pregnant women and their newborns was conducted between March and July 2013 in Morocco. We collected clinical data and vagino-rectal and urine samples from the recruited pregnant women, together with the clinical characteristics of, and body surface samples from, their newborns...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Mona Noureldein, Roxana Mardare, Jack Pickard, Hoi Lun Shing, Michael Eisenhut
BACKGROUND: It has been estimated that paediatric meningitis without elevated CSF white cell count (pleocytosis) accounts for 0.5-12% of all cases of bacterial meningitis. CSF protein and glucose measurements are therefore essential in management but may be neglected in clinical practice. In order to improve recognition of bacterial meningitis in neonates and to enable adequate management and audit, we investigated whether a systemic inflammatory response in the absence of meningitis is associated with elevated CSF protein and reduced CSF glucose levels...
March 14, 2018: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
Joseph B Cantey, Kelsey R Anderson, Ram R Kalagiri, Lea H Mallett
BACKGROUND: Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are the most common cause of late-onset sepsis in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and usually require vancomycin treatment. Our objective was to determine whether CoNS are associated with neonatal morbidity and mortality. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of very-low-birth-weight (VLBW, ≤ 1500 g) infants from 1989 to 2015. Exclusion criteria were major congenital anomaly or death within 72 h...
March 13, 2018: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
Emma de Jong, David G Hancock, Christine Wells, Peter Richmond, Karen Simmer, David Burgner, Tobias Strunk, Andrew J Currie
Preterm infants are uniquely susceptible to late-onset sepsis that is frequently caused by the skin commensal Staphylococcus epidermidis. Innate immune responses, particularly from monocytes, are a key protective mechanism. Impaired cytokine production by preterm infant monocytes is well described, but few studies have comprehensively assessed the corresponding monocyte transcriptional response. Innate immune responses in preterm infants may be modulated by inflammation such as prenatal exposure to histologic chorioamnionitis which complicates 40-70% of preterm pregnancies...
March 13, 2018: Immunology and Cell Biology
Sammy M Tabbah, Catalin S Buhimschi, Katherine Rodewald-Millen, Christopher R Pierson, Vineet Bhandari, Philip Samuels, Irina A Buhimschi
OBJECTIVE:  Hepcidin, a mediator of innate immunity, binds the iron exporter ferroportin, leading to functional hypoferremia through intracellular iron sequestration. We explored hepcidin-ferroportin interactions in neonates clinically diagnosed with early-onset neonatal sepsis (EONS). STUDY DESIGN:  Hepcidin and interleukin (IL)-6 were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 92 paired cord blood-maternal blood samples in the following groups: "Yes" EONS ( n  = 41, gestational age [GA] 29 ± 1 weeks) and "No" EONS ( n  = 51, GA 26 ± 1 weeks)...
February 2, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
Safaa I Tayel, Shimaa E Soliman, Hanan M Elsayed
BACKGROUND AND AIM: increasing prevalence of neonatal sepsis in recent years catch attention to early prevention and management. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphism can modulate VDR expression level that greatly influences immunity and susceptibility to microbial infections. We aimed to investigate the association of VDR polymorphism at FokI, rs2228570 T/C, and TaqI, rs731236 C/T gene with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and risk of neonatal sepsis. METHODS: This work carried on 160 subjects classified into 80 cases (40 mothers and their 40 septic neonates) and 80 healthy controls (40 volunteer mothers and their 40 healthy neonates)...
March 9, 2018: Steroids
Yan-Ting Song, Yong-Qin Wang, Yue-Hua Zhao, Hai-Ling Zhu, Qian Liu, Xiao Zhang, Yi-Wen Gao, Wei-Ye Zhang, Yu-Tong Sang
OBJECTIVE: To study the risk factors for elevated serum total bile acid (TBA) in preterm infants. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 216 preterm infants who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. According to the presence or absence of elevated TBA (TBA >24.8 μmol/L), the preterm infants were divided into elevated TBA group with 53 infants and non-elevated TBA group with 163 infants. A univariate analysis and an unconditional multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to investigate the risk factors for elevated TBA...
March 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Jeanne M Pimenta, Myla Ebeling, Timothy H Montague, Kathleen J Beach, Jill Abell, Michael T O'Shea, Marcy Powell, Thomas C Hulsey
Objective  To propose and assess a composite endpoint (CE) of neonatal benefit based on neonatal mortality and morbidities by gestational age (GA) for use in preterm labor clinical trials. Study Design  A descriptive, retrospective analysis of the Medical University of South Carolina Perinatal Information System database was conducted. Neonatal morbidities were assessed for inclusion in the CE based on clinical significance/risk of childhood neurodevelopmental impairment, frequency, and association with GA in a mother-neonate linked cohort, comprising women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies delivered at ≥24 weeks' GA...
January 2018: American Journal of Perinatology Reports
Maryam Kashanian, Nooshin Eshraghi, Narges Sheikhansari, Arash Bordbar, Elahehsadat Khatami
The purpose of the present study was to compare the effect of a two-dose administration of betamethasone with 12 hours interval vs. 24 hours interval on neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). The study was performed as a randomised clinical trial on 201 pregnant women with a gestational age of 26-34 weeks. In one group 12 mg of betamethasone every 12 hours for two doses and in the other group 12 mg of betamethasone every 24 hours for two doses were prescribed intramuscularly. There were no significant differences between the two groups according to maternal age, parity, gravidity, BMI, neonatal sex, need to surfactant, NICU admission, NICU stay, neonatal death, neonatal sepsis and Apgar score at minutes 1 and 5, but the gestational age at the beginning of the study and delivery receiving complete course of betamethasone and neonatal weight were lower in 24 hours group...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
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