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pandemic planning

Anna Gillman
Oseltamivir is the best available anti-influenza drug and has therefore been stockpiled worldwide in large quantities as part of influenza pandemic preparedness planning. The active metabolite oseltamivir carboxylate (OC) is stable and is not removed by conventional sewage treatment. Active OC has been detected in river water at concentrations up to 0.86 µg/L. Although the natural reservoir hosts of influenza A virus (IAV) are wild waterfowl that reside in aquatic environments, the ecologic risks associated with environmental OC release and its potential to generate resistant viral variants among wild birds has largely been unknown...
2016: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
Robert Moss, James M McCaw, Allen C Cheng, Aeron C Hurt, Jodie McVernon
BACKGROUND: Many nations maintain stockpiles of neuraminidase inhibitor (NAI) antiviral agents for use in influenza pandemics to reduce transmission and mitigate the course of clinical infection. Pandemic preparedness plans include the use of these stockpiles to deliver proportionate responses, informed by emerging evidence of clinical impact. Recent uncertainty about the effectiveness of NAIs has prompted these nations to reconsider the role of NAIs in pandemic response, with implications for pandemic planning and for NAI stockpile size...
October 10, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Thomas J Fitzgerald, Yoonjae Kang, Carolyn B Bridges, Todd Talbert, Sara J Vagi, Brock Lamont, Samuel B Graitcer
BACKGROUND: During an influenza pandemic, to achieve early and rapid vaccination coverage and maximize the benefit of an immunization campaign, partnerships between public health agencies and vaccine providers are essential. Immunizing pharmacists represent an important group for expanding access to pandemic vaccination. However, little is known about nationwide coordination between public health programs and pharmacies for pandemic vaccine response planning. METHODS: To assess relationships and planning activities between public health programs and pharmacies, we analyzed data from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention assessments of jurisdictions that received immunization and emergency preparedness funding from 2012 to 2015...
September 26, 2016: Vaccine
Claudia Nannei, Shoshanna Goldin, Guido Torelli, Hiba Fatima, Kaveri Kumar, Oliver Bubb-Humfryes, Bo Stenson, Erin Sparrow
Ten years after the launch of the Global Action Plan for Influenza Vaccines (GAP), the World Health Organization (WHO) surveyed stakeholders to understand their perceptions of what the programme had achieved. This article provides a summary of the findings; the full report will be available on-line on the GAP website in November 2016 ( Seventy-seven responses were received from stakeholders including medical doctors, national influenza center officials, country immunization programme teams, surveillance and disease centers, policy-makers, researchers, vaccine manufacturers, and non-governmental organizations from 28 countries, representing all six WHO regions...
October 26, 2016: Vaccine
Erin Sparrow, Martin Friede, Mohamud Sheikh, Siranda Torvaldsen, Anthony T Newall
The Global Action Plan for influenza vaccines (GAP) aims to increase the production capacity of vaccines so that in the event of a pandemic there is an adequate supply to meet global needs. However, it has been estimated that even in the best case scenario there would be a considerable delay of at least five to six months for the first supplies of vaccine to become available after the isolation of the strain and availability of the candidate vaccine virus to vaccine manufacturers. By this time, the virus is likely to have already infected millions of people worldwide, causing significant mortality, morbidity and economic loss...
October 26, 2016: Vaccine
Larisa Rudenko, Leena Yeolekar, Irina Kiseleva, Irina Isakova-Sivak
Influenza is a viral infection that affects much of the global population each year. Vaccination remains the most effective tool for preventing the disease. Live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) has been used since the 1950s to protect humans against seasonal influenza. LAIVs developed by the Institute of Experimental Medicine (IEM), Saint Petersburg, Russia, have been successfully used in Russia since 1987. In 2006, the World Health Organization (WHO) announced a Global action plan for influenza vaccines (GAP)...
October 26, 2016: Vaccine
D C Dover, E M Kirwin, N Hernandez-Ceron, K A Nelson
The Pandemic Risk Assessment Model (PRAM) is a mathematical model developed to analyse two pandemic influenza control measures available to public health: antiviral treatment and immunization. PRAM is parameterized using surveillance data from Alberta, Canada during pandemic H1N1. Age structure and risk level are incorporated in the compartmental, deterministic model through a contact matrix. The model characterizes pandemic influenza scenarios by transmissibility and severity properties. Simulating a worst-case scenario similar to the 1918 pandemic with immediate stockpile release, antiviral demand is 20·3% of the population...
August 22, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
Kenneth A McLean, Shoshanna Goldin, Claudia Nannei, Erin Sparrow, Guido Torelli
A global shortage and inequitable access to influenza vaccines has been cause for concern for developing countries who face dire consequences in the event of a pandemic. The Global Action Plan for Influenza Vaccines (GAP) was launched in 2006 to increase global capacity for influenza vaccine production to address these concerns. It is widely recognized that well-developed infrastructure to produce seasonal influenza vaccines leads to increased capacity to produce pandemic influenza vaccines. This article summarizes the results of a survey administered to 44 manufacturers to assess their production capacity for seasonal influenza and pandemic influenza vaccine production...
October 26, 2016: Vaccine
Gary Grohmann, Donald P Francis, Jaspal Sokhey, James Robertson
One of the aims of the WHO Global Action Plan for Influenza Vaccines (GAP) was to transfer influenza vaccine production technology to interested manufacturers and governments in developing countries, to enable greater influenza vaccine manufacturing capacity against any pandemic threat or pandemic. For this objective, the GAP was supported by an independent Technical Advisory Group (TAG) to assist WHO to select vaccine manufacturing proposals for funding and to provide programmatic support for successful grantees...
October 26, 2016: Vaccine
Laszlo Palkonyay, Hiba Fatima
The Global Action Plan (GAP) for Influenza Vaccines is a decade-long initiative that brings together a diverse range of stakeholders to work towards reducing anticipated global shortage of influenza vaccines and ensuring more equitable access to vaccines during the next influenza pandemic. Since its inception in 2006, significant progress has been made towards all the main objectives of GAP, namely: (1) an increase in seasonal vaccine use, (2) an increase in vaccine production, and (3) progress in research and development of more effective vaccines...
October 26, 2016: Vaccine
Rahnuma Wahid, Renee Holt, Richard Hjorth, Francesco Berlanda Scorza
With the support of the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA) of the US Department of Health and Human Services, PATH has contributed to the World Health Organization's (WHO's) Global Action Plan for Influenza Vaccines (GAP) by providing technical and clinical assistance to several developing country vaccine manufacturers (DCVMs). GAP builds regionally based independent and sustainable influenza vaccine production capacity to mitigate the overall global shortage of influenza vaccines...
October 26, 2016: Vaccine
Rodrigo S Reis, Deborah Salvo, David Ogilvie, Estelle V Lambert, Shifalika Goenka, Ross C Brownson
The global pandemic of physical inactivity requires a multisectoral, multidisciplinary public-health response. Scaling up interventions that are capable of increasing levels of physical activity in populations across the varying cultural, geographic, social, and economic contexts worldwide is challenging, but feasible. In this paper, we review the factors that could help to achieve this. We use a mixed-methods approach to comprehensively examine these factors, drawing on the best available evidence from both evidence-to-practice and practice-to-evidence methods...
September 24, 2016: Lancet
James F Sallis, Fiona Bull, Regina Guthold, Gregory W Heath, Shigeru Inoue, Paul Kelly, Adewale L Oyeyemi, Lilian G Perez, Justin Richards, Pedro C Hallal
On the eve of the 2012 summer Olympic Games, the first Lancet Series on physical activity established that physical inactivity was a global pandemic, and global public health action was urgently needed. The present paper summarises progress on the topics covered in the first Series. In the past 4 years, more countries have been monitoring the prevalence of physical inactivity, although evidence of any improvements in prevalence is still scarce. According to emerging evidence on brain health, physical inactivity accounts for about 3·8% of cases of dementia worldwide...
September 24, 2016: Lancet
Melinda J Morton Hamer, John J Jordan, Paul L Reed, Jane D Greulich, Dame B Gaye, Charles W Beadling
OBJECTIVE: The Republic of Senegal Disaster Preparedness and Response Exercise was held from June 2-6, 2014, in Dakar, Senegal. The goal was to assist in familiarizing roles and responsibilities within 3 existing plans and to update the National Disaster Management Strategic Work Plan. METHODS: There were 60 participants in the exercise, which was driven by a series of evolving disaster scenarios. During the separate Disaster Management Strategic Work Plan review, participants refined a list of projects, including specific tasks to provide a "road map" for completing each project, project timelines, and estimated resource requirements...
July 27, 2016: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Mark S Butler, Mark At Blaskovich, Matthew A Cooper
There is growing global recognition that the continued emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria poses a serious threat to human health. Action plans released by the World Health Organization and governments of the UK and USA in particular recognize that discovering new antibiotics, particularly those with new modes of action, is one essential element required to avert future catastrophic pandemics. This review lists the 30 antibiotics and two β-lactamase/β-lactam combinations first launched since 2000, and analyzes in depth seven new antibiotics and two new β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor combinations launched since 2013...
June 29, 2016: Journal of Antibiotics
Zaheer Ahmad Nasir, Luiza Cintra Campos, Nicola Christie, Ian Colbeck
Exposure to airborne biological hazards in an ever expanding urban transport infrastructure and highly diverse mobile population is of growing concern, in terms of both public health and biosecurity. The existing policies and practices on design, construction and operation of these infrastructures may have severe implications for airborne disease transmission, particularly, in the event of a pandemic or intentional release of biological of agents. This paper reviews existing knowledge on airborne disease transmission in different modes of transport, highlights the factors enhancing the vulnerability of transport infrastructures to airborne disease transmission, discusses the potential protection measures and identifies the research gaps in order to build a bioresilient transport infrastructure...
August 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
D Paraskevis, G K Nikolopoulos, G Magiorkinis, I Hodges-Mameletzis, A Hatzakis
HIV is responsible for one of the largest viral pandemics in human history. Despite a concerted global response for prevention and treatment, the virus persists. Thus, urgent public health action, utilizing novel interventions, is needed to prevent future transmission events, critical to eliminating HIV. For public health planning to prove effective and successful, we need to understand the dynamics of regional epidemics and to intervene appropriately. HIV molecular epidemiology tools as implemented in phylogenetic, phylodynamic and phylogeographic analyses have proven to be powerful tools in public health planning across many studies...
June 13, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
María Morales-Suárez-Varela, Agustín Llopis-González, Fernando González-Candela, Jenaro Astray, Jordi Alonso, Olatz Garin, Ady Castro, Juan Carlos Galan, Nuria Soldevila, Jesús Castilla, Pere Godoy, Miguel Delgado-Rodríguez, Vicente Martin, Jose María Mayoral, Tomas Pumarola, José Maria Quintana, Sonia Tamames, Nuria Rubio-López, Angela Dominguez
BACKGROUND: The healthcare and socio-economic burden resulting from influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 in Spain was considerable. Our aim was to estimate and compare the management (resource utilization) and economic healthcare impact in an at-risk group of unvaccinated pregnant women with an unvaccinated group of non-pregnant woman of childbearing age (15-44 yr old). METHODS: We addressed this question with a longitudinal, observational, multicentre study. Inputs were the requirements in managing both groups of women...
April 2016: Iranian Journal of Public Health
A Spreco, T Timpka
OBJECTIVES: Reliable monitoring of influenza seasons and pandemic outbreaks is essential for response planning, but compilations of reports on detection and prediction algorithm performance in influenza control practice are largely missing. The aim of this study is to perform a metanarrative review of prospective evaluations of influenza outbreak detection and prediction algorithms restricted settings where authentic surveillance data have been used. DESIGN: The study was performed as a metanarrative review...
2016: BMJ Open
Michelle Dynes, Laura Tison, Carla Johnson, Andre Verani, Alexandra Zuber, Patricia L Riley
Sub-Saharan Africa carries the greatest burden of the HIV pandemic. Enhancing the supply and use of human resources through policy and regulatory reform is a key action needed to improve the quality of HIV services in this region. In year 3 of the African Health Profession Regulatory Collaborative for Nurses and Midwives (ARC), a President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief initiative, 11 country teams of nursing and midwifery leaders ("Quads") received small grants to carry out regulatory improvement projects...
May 2016: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: JANAC
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