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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653203/approximate-bayesian-algorithm-to-estimate-the-basic-reproduction-number-in-an-influenza-pandemic-using-arrival-times-of-imported-cases
#1
Ka Chun Chong, Benny Chung Ying Zee, Maggie Haitian Wang
BACKGROUND: In an influenza pandemic, arrival times of cases are a proxy of the epidemic size and disease transmissibility. Because of intense surveillance of travelers from infected countries, detection is more rapid and complete than on local surveillance. Travel information can provide a more reliable estimation of transmission parameters. METHOD: We developed an Approximate Bayesian Computation algorithm to estimate the basic reproduction number (R0 ) in addition to the reporting rate and unobserved epidemic start time, utilizing travel, and routine surveillance data in an influenza pandemic...
April 10, 2018: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616469/racial-disparities-in-obesity-treatment
#2
REVIEW
Angel S Byrd, Alexander T Toth, Fatima Cody Stanford
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity rates in the USA have reached pandemic levels with one third of the population with obesity in 2015-2016 (39.8% of adults and 18.5% of youth). It is a major public health concern, and it is prudent to understand the factors which contribute. Racial and ethnic disparities are pronounced in both the prevalence and treatment of obesity and must be addressed in the efforts to combat obesity. RECENT FINDINGS: Disparities in prevalence of obesity in racial/ethnic minorities are apparent as early as the preschool years and factors including genetics, diet, physical activity, psychological factors, stress, income, and discrimination, among others, must be taken into consideration...
April 3, 2018: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601610/preventive-behaviors-adults-report-using-to-avoid-catching-or-spreading-influenza-united-states-2015-16-influenza-season
#3
Anup Srivastav, Tammy A Santibanez, Peng-Jun Lu, M Christopher Stringer, Jill A Dever, Michael Bostwick, Marshica Stanley Kurtz, Noreen L Qualls, Walter W Williams
INTRODUCTION: Influenza vaccination can prevent influenza and potentially serious influenza-related complications. Although the single best way to prevent influenza is annual vaccination, everyday preventive actions, including good hygiene, health, dietary, and social habits, might help, too. Several preventive measures are recommended, including: avoiding close contact with people who are sick; staying home when sick; covering your mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing; washing your hands often; avoiding touching your eyes, nose, and mouth; and practicing other good health habits like cleaning and disinfecting frequently touched surfaces, getting plenty of sleep, and drinking plenty of fluids...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587707/school-practices-to-promote-social-distancing-in-k-12-schools-review-of-influenza-pandemic-policies-and-practices
#4
Lori Uscher-Pines, Heather L Schwartz, Faruque Ahmed, Yenlik Zheteyeva, Erika Meza, Garrett Baker, Amra Uzicanin
BACKGROUND: During an evolving influenza pandemic, community mitigation strategies, such as social distancing, can slow down virus transmission in schools and surrounding communities. To date, research on school practices to promote social distancing in primary and secondary schools has focused on prolonged school closure, with little attention paid to the identification and feasibility of other more sustainable interventions. To develop a list and typology of school practices that have been proposed and/or implemented in an influenza pandemic and to uncover any barriers identified, lessons learned from their use, and documented impacts...
March 27, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570363/pharmacist-views-on-alternative-methods-for-antiviral-distribution-and-dispensing-during-an-influenza-pandemic
#5
Gillian K SteelFisher, John M Benson, Hannah Caporello, Lisa M Koonin, Anita Patel, Eran Ben-Porath, Robert J Blendon
Antiviral drugs are likely to be a frontline countermeasure needed to minimize disease impact during an influenza pandemic. As part of pandemic influenza preparedness efforts, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in coordination with state health departments, has plans in place to distribute and dispense antiviral drugs from public stockpiles. These plans are currently under review and include evaluation of the benefits of commercial distribution and dispensing through community pharmacies. To ensure this alternative distribution and dispensing system is viable, it is critical to assess pharmacist acceptability and to understand the pharmacist perspective on dispensing these antivirals during a response...
March 23, 2018: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563079/a-participatory-system-for-preventing-pandemics-of-animal-origins-pilot-study-of-the-participatory-one-health-disease-detection-podd-system
#6
Terdsak Yano, Somphorn Phornwisetsirikun, Patipat Susumpow, Surasing Visrutaratna, Karoon Chanachai, Polawat Phetra, Warangkhana Chaisowwong, Pairat Trakarnsirinont, Phonpat Hemwan, Boontuan Kaewpinta, Charuk Singhapreecha, Khwanchai Kreausukon, Arisara Charoenpanyanet, Chongchit Sripun Robert, Lamar Robert, Pranee Rodtian, Suteerat Mahasing, Ekkachai Laiya, Sakulrat Pattamakaew, Taweesart Tankitiyanon, Chalutwan Sansamur, Lertrak Srikitjakarn
BACKGROUND: Aiming for early disease detection and prompt outbreak control, digital technology with a participatory One Health approach was used to create a novel disease surveillance system called Participatory One Health Disease Detection (PODD). PODD is a community-owned surveillance system that collects data from volunteer reporters; identifies disease outbreak automatically; and notifies the local governments (LGs), surrounding villages, and relevant authorities. This system provides a direct and immediate benefit to the communities by empowering them to protect themselves...
March 21, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552993/challenges-of-designing-and-implementing-high-consequence-infectious-disease-response
#7
Joan M King, Chetan Tiwari, Armin R Mikler, Martin O'Neill
Ebola is a high consequence infectious disease-a disease with the potential to cause outbreaks, epidemics, or pandemics with deadly possibilities, highly infectious, pathogenic, and virulent. Ebola's first reported cases in the United States in September 2014 led to the development of preparedness capabilities for the mitigation of possible rapid outbreaks, with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) providing guidelines to assist public health officials in infectious disease response planning...
March 19, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524939/public-health-policy-and-experience-of-the-2009-h1n1-influenza-pandemic-in-pune-india
#8
Vidula Purohit, Abhay Kudale, Neisha Sundaram, Saju Joseph, Christian Schaetti, Mitchell G Weiss
BACKGROUND: Prior experience and the persisting threat of influenza pandemic indicate the need for global and local preparedness and public health response capacity. The pandemic of 2009 highlighted the importance of such planning and the value of prior efforts at all levels. Our review of the public health response to this pandemic in Pune, India, considers the challenges of integrating global and national strategies in local programmes and lessons learned for influenza pandemic preparedness...
May 9, 2017: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510765/enhancing-global-health-security-us-africa-command-s-disaster-preparedness-program
#9
Melinda J Morton Hamer, Paul L Reed, Jane D Greulich, Charles W Beadling
US Africa Command's Disaster Preparedness Program (DPP), implemented by the Center for Disaster and Humanitarian Assistance Medicine, partnered with US Government agencies and international organizations to promote stability and security on the African continent by engaging with African Partner Nations' (PN) civil and military authorities to improve disaster management capabilities. From 2008 to 2015, DPP conducted disaster preparedness and response programming with 17 PNs. DPP held a series of engagements with each, including workshops, strategic planning, developing preparedness and response plans, tabletop exercises, and prioritizing disaster management capability gaps identified through the engagements...
March 7, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506129/a-universal-influenza-vaccine-the-strategic-plan-for-the-national-institute-of-allergy-and-infectious-diseases
#10
Emily J Erbelding, Diane Post, Erik Stemmy, Paul C Roberts, Alison Deckhut Augustine, Stacy Ferguson, Catharine I Paules, Barney S Graham, Anthony S Fauci
A priority for the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) is development of an influenza vaccine providing durable protection against multiple influenza strains, including those that may cause a pandemic, i.e., a universal influenza vaccine. To invigorate research efforts, NIAID developed a strategic plan focused on knowledge gaps in three major research areas, as well as additional resources required to ensure progress towards a universal influenza vaccine. NIAID will use this plan as a foundation for future investments in influenza research and will support and coordinate a consortium of multidisciplinary scientists focused on accelerating progress towards this goal...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468624/factors-associated-with-preparedness-of-the-us-healthcare-system-to-respond-to-a-pediatric-surge-during-an-infectious-disease-pandemic-is-our-nation-prepared
#11
Christy Anthony, Tito Joe Thomas, Bridget M Berg, Rita V Burke, Jeffrey S Upperman
OBJECTIVE: Recent incidents have demonstrated that the US health system is unprepared for infectious pandemics resulting in a pediatric surge. Development of efficient plans and a structured and coordinated regional response to pediatric pandemic surge remains an opportunity. To address this gap, we conducted a literature review to assess current efforts, propose a response plan structure, and recommend policy actions. DESIGN: A literature review, utilizing MEDLINE and PubMed, through March 2017 identified articles regarding infectious disease pandemics affecting the US pediatric population...
October 2017: American Journal of Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450202/the-european-respiratory-society-course-on-acute-respiratory-pandemics-how-to-plan-for-and-manage-them
#12
REVIEW
Adekunle Olatayo Adeoti, Sierk Marbus
Learn about the @ERStalk course on acute respiratory pandemics http://ow.ly/XGe430i7743.
January 2018: ERJ Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446343/cost-utility-analysis-of-antiviral-use-under-pandemic-influenza-using-a-novel-approach-linking-pharmacology-epidemiology-and-heath-economics
#13
D B C Wu, N Chaiyakunapruk, C Pratoomsoot, K K C Lee, H Y Chong, R E Nelson, P F Smith, C M Kirkpatrick, M A Kamal, K Nieforth, G Dall, S Toovey, D C M Kong, A Kamauu, C R Rayner
Simulation models are used widely in pharmacology, epidemiology and health economics (HEs). However, there have been no attempts to incorporate models from these disciplines into a single integrated model. Accordingly, we explored this linkage to evaluate the epidemiological and economic impact of oseltamivir dose optimisation in supporting pandemic influenza planning in the USA. An HE decision analytic model was linked to a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) - dynamic transmission model simulating the impact of pandemic influenza with low virulence and low transmissibility and, high virulence and high transmissibility...
March 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446233/annual-estimates-of-the-burden-of-seasonal-influenza-in-the-united-states-a-tool-for-strengthening-influenza-surveillance-and-preparedness
#14
Melissa A Rolfes, Ivo M Foppa, Shikha Garg, Brendan Flannery, Lynnette Brammer, James A Singleton, Erin Burns, Daniel Jernigan, Sonja J Olsen, Joseph Bresee, Carrie Reed
BACKGROUND: Estimates of influenza disease burden are broadly useful for public health, helping national and local authorities monitor epidemiologic trends, plan and allocate resources, and promote influenza vaccination. Historically, estimates of the burden of seasonal influenza in the United States, focused mainly on influenza-related mortality and hospitalization, were generated every few years. Since the 2010-2011 influenza season, annual US influenza burden estimates have been generated and expanded to include estimates of influenza-related outpatient medical visits and symptomatic illness in the community...
February 14, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441119/diagnosis-monitoring-and-prevention-of-exposure-related-non-communicable-diseases-in-the-living-and-working-environment-dimopex-project-is-designed-to-determine-the-impacts-of-environmental-exposure-on-human-health
#15
REVIEW
Lygia Therese Budnik, Balazs Adam, Maria Albin, Barbara Banelli, Xaver Baur, Fiorella Belpoggi, Claudia Bolognesi, Karin Broberg, Per Gustavsson, Thomas Göen, Axel Fischer, Dorota Jarosinska, Fabiana Manservisi, Richard O'Kennedy, Johan Øvrevik, Elizabet Paunovic, Beate Ritz, Paul T J Scheepers, Vivi Schlünssen, Heidi Schwarzenbach, Per E Schwarze, Orla Sheils, Torben Sigsgaard, Karel Van Damme, Ludwine Casteleyn
The WHO has ranked environmental hazardous exposures in the living and working environment among the top risk factors for chronic disease mortality. Worldwide, about 40 million people die each year from noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) including cancer, diabetes, and chronic cardiovascular, neurological and lung diseases. The exposure to ambient pollution in the living and working environment is exacerbated by individual susceptibilities and lifestyle-driven factors to produce complex and complicated NCD etiologies...
2018: Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437291/much-ado-about-flu-a-mixed-methods-study-of-parental-perceptions-trust-and-information-seeking-in-a-pandemic
#16
Catherine L King, Maria Y K Chow, Kerrie E Wiley, Julie Leask
BACKGROUND: Effective public health messaging is essential in both the planning phase and duration of a pandemic. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to gain an understanding of parental information seeking, trusted sources and needs in relation to pandemic influenza A 2009 (pH1N1) to inform future policy planning and resource development. PATIENTS/METHODS: We conducted a mixed methods study; parents from 16 childcare centres in Sydney, Australia, were surveyed between 16 November and 9 December 2009 and interviews were conducted with participants from six childcare centres between June 2009 and May 2011...
February 13, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433596/a-review-of-state-public-health-emergency-declarations-in-peru-2014-2016
#17
Celso Bambarén, Maria Del Socorro Alatrista
Peru has different legal mechanisms of emergency, one of which is the Public Health Emergency that is applicable when: there is high-risk for, or the existence of an outbreak, epidemic, or pandemic; the occurrence of cases of a disease classified as eliminated or eradicated; the occurrence of emerging or re-emerging infectious diseases with high epidemic potential; the occurrence of rapid disseminated epidemics that simultaneously affect more than one department; as well as the existence of an event that affects the continuity of health services...
February 13, 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433129/-routine-vaccination-strategies-reactive-vaccination-and-pandemic-preparedness-and-response
#18
Giovanni Rezza
Vaccines represent the most important public health tools. In order to ensure the success of an effective and safe vaccine, it is important to implement adequate immunization strategies. Routine strategies, based on children immunization schedules, represent the most commonly utilized approach. Reactive immunization strategies may also be used and be effective especially in response to an outbreak; these strategies include both mass vaccination and ring vaccination, which relies on the identification and immunization of case contacts...
September 2017: Igiene e Sanità Pubblica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421321/2017-international-meeting-of-the-global-virus-network
#19
REVIEW
Mike Catton, Glenda Gray, Diane Griffin, Hideki Hasegawa, Stephen Kent, Jason Mackenzie, Edward McSweegan, Natalia Mercer, Linfa Wang
The Global Virus Network (GVN) was established in 2011 to strengthen research and responses to emerging viral causes of human disease and to prepare against new viral pandemics. There are now 40 GVN Centers of Excellence and 6 Affiliate laboratories in 24 countries. The 2017 meeting was held from September 25-27 in Melbourne, Australia, and was hosted by the Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity and the Institut Pasteur. This report highlights the recent accomplishments of GVN researchers in several important areas of medical virology, including the recent Zika epidemic, infections by human papillomavirus, influenza, HIV, hepatitis C, HTLV-1, and chikungunya viruses, and new and emerging viruses in the Australasia region...
February 5, 2018: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412719/fostering-interprofessional-education-through-a-multidisciplinary-community-based-pandemic-mass-vaccination-exercise
#20
Annette Hays, Christopher Schriever, John Rudzinski, Janet L Lynch, Ellen Genrich, Allison Schriever
We expanded health care services to economically disadvantaged individuals in an interprofessional, student-driven vaccination effort that also served as a pandemic planning drill. Health care professional students from colleges in and around Rockford, Illinois participated in implementing a mass vaccination event from 2011 to 2014 that targeted the underserved population. There was a 459% increase in total vaccinations administered to at-risk patients from year 1 to year 4. This interprofessional health care student-driven effort expanded medical service to disadvantaged individuals...
March 2018: American Journal of Public Health
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