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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222682/a-statistical-method-utilizing-information-of-imported-cases-to-estimate-the-transmissibility-for-an-influenza-pandemic
#1
Ka Chun Chong, Benny Chung Ying Zee, Maggie Haitian Wang
BACKGROUND: In a new influenza pandemic, travel data such as arrival times of cases seeded by the originating country can be regarded as a combination of the epidemic size and the mobility networks of infections connecting the originating country with other regions. It can be a complete and timely source for estimating the basic reproduction number (R 0 ), a key indicator of disease transmissibility. METHOD: In this study, we developed a likelihood-based method using arrival times of infected cases in different countries to estimate R 0 for influenza pandemics...
February 21, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219461/evaluating-the-impact-of-pharmacies-on-pandemic-influenza-vaccine-administration
#2
Joy Schwerzmann, Samuel B Graitcer, Barbara Jester, David Krahl, Daniel Jernigan, Carolyn B Bridges, Joseph Miller
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to quantify the potential retail pharmacy vaccine administration capacity and its possible impact on pandemic influenza vaccine uptake. METHODS: We developed a discrete event simulation model by use of ExtendSim software (Imagine That Inc, San Jose, CA) to forecast the potential effect of retail pharmacy vaccine administration on total weekly vaccine administration and the time needed to reach 80% vaccination coverage with a single dose of vaccine per person...
February 21, 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166851/a-systematic-review-of-early-modelling-studies-of-ebola-virus-disease-in-west-africa
#3
Z S Y Wong, C M Bui, A A Chughtai, C R Macintyre
Phenomenological and mechanistic models are widely used to assist resource planning for pandemics and emerging infections. We conducted a systematic review, to compare methods and outputs of published phenomenological and mechanistic modelling studies pertaining to the 2013-2016 Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemics in four West African countries - Sierra Leone, Liberia, Guinea and Nigeria. We searched Pubmed, Embase and Scopus databases for relevant English language publications up to December 2015. Of the 874 articles identified, 41 met our inclusion criteria...
February 7, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129409/justice-is-the-missing-link-in-one-health-results-of-a-mixed-methods-study-in-an-urban-city-state
#4
Tamra Lysaght, Benjamin Capps, Michele Bailey, David Bickford, Richard Coker, Zohar Lederman, Sangeetha Watson, Paul Anantharajah Tambyah
BACKGROUND: One Health (OH) is an interdisciplinary collaborative approach to human and animal health that aims to break down conventional research and policy 'silos'. OH has been used to develop strategies for zoonotic Emerging Infectious Diseases (EID). However, the ethical case for OH as an alternative to more traditional public health approaches is largely absent from the discourse. To study the ethics of OH, we examined perceptions of the human health and ecological priorities for the management of zoonotic EID in the Southeast Asia country of Singapore...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128812/the-2009-pandemic-in-mexico-experience-and-lessons-regarding-national-preparedness-policies-for-seasonal-and%C3%A2-epidemic-influenza
#5
Jose A Cordova-Villalobos, Alejandro E Macias, Mauricio Hernandez-Avila, Guillermo Dominguez-Cherit, Hugo Lopez-Gatell, Celia Alpuche-Aranda, Samuel Ponce de León-Rosales
Influenza is a viral respiratory disease capable of causing epidemics that represent a threat for global security. Mexico was the first country to notify the WHO of an outbreak of what later became the first influenza pandemic of the 21st Century, caused by the virus A(H1N1)2009. Before this event Mexico had a national pandemic influenza preparedness plan, which included seasonal influenza vaccination, stockpiles of personal protection equipment and strategic drugs, and risk communication strategies. During the epidemic, the national public health laboratory network and case surveillance systems were strengthened together with surge capacities for intensive care and delivery of antiviral drugs...
January 2017: Gaceta Médica de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125629/barriers-of-influenza-vaccination-intention-and-behavior-a-systematic-review-of-influenza-vaccine-hesitancy-2005-2016
#6
Philipp Schmid, Dorothee Rauber, Cornelia Betsch, Gianni Lidolt, Marie-Luisa Denker
BACKGROUND: Influenza vaccine hesitancy is a significant threat to global efforts to reduce the burden of seasonal and pandemic influenza. Potential barriers of influenza vaccination need to be identified to inform interventions to raise awareness, influenza vaccine acceptance and uptake. OBJECTIVE: This review aims to (1) identify relevant studies and extract individual barriers of seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccination for risk groups and the general public; and (2) map knowledge gaps in understanding influenza vaccine hesitancy to derive directions for further research and inform interventions in this area...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060851/molecular-evidence-of-transmission-of-influenza-a-h1n1-2009-on-a-university-campus
#7
Ramandeep Kaur Virk, Vithiagaran Gunalan, Hong Kai Lee, Masafumi Inoue, Catherine Chua, Boon-Huan Tan, Paul Anantharajah Tambyah
BACKGROUND: In the recent years, the data on the molecular epidemiology of influenza viruses have expanded enormously because of the availability of cutting-edge sequencing technologies. However, much of the information is from the temperate regions with few studies from tropical regions such as South-east Asia. Despite the fact that influenza has been known to transmit rapidly within semi-closed communities, such as military camps and educational institutions, data are limited from these communities...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996363/randomized-double-blind-multi-center-phase-iii-clinical-trial-to-evaluate-the-immunogenicity-and-safety-of-mg1109-egg-based-pre-pandemic-influenza-a-h5n1-vaccine-in-healthy-adults
#8
Joon Young Song, Min Joo Choi, Ji Yun Noh, Won Suk Choi, Hee Jin Cheong, Seong-Heon Wie, Jin-Soo Lee, Gyu-Jin Woo, Sang Ho Lee, Woo Joo Kim
Considering the pandemic potential of avian influenza A/H5N1, development of an effective and well-tolerated vaccine is an essential part of pandemic preparedness plans. This phase III, randomized, double-blind study was conducted to assess the immunogenicity and safety profile of an alum-adjuvanted, whole virion, pre-pandemic influenza A/H5N1 vaccine (MG1109). Healthy individuals were randomly assigned, in a 3:1 ratio, to receive two doses of either MG1109 or placebo containing alum gel. Immunogenicity was determined by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and microneutralization (MN) assays...
December 20, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994284/assessment-of-ebola-virus-disease-preparedness-in-the-who-south-east-asia-region
#9
Sirenda Vong, Reuben Samuel, Philip Gould, Hammam El Sakka, Bardan J Rana, Vason Pinyowiwat, Supriya Bezbaruah, Roderico Ofrin
OBJECTIVE: To conduct assessments of Ebola virus disease preparedness in countries of the World Health Organization (WHO) South-East Asia Region. METHODS: Nine of 11 countries in the region agreed to be assessed. During February to November 2015 a joint team from WHO and ministries of health conducted 4-5 day missions to Bangladesh, Bhutan, Indonesia, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Timor-Leste. We collected information through guided discussions with senior technical leaders and visits to hospitals, laboratories and airports...
December 1, 2016: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989237/modernising-epidemic-science-enabling-patient-centred-research-during-epidemics
#10
EDITORIAL
Amanda M Rojek, Peter W Horby
BACKGROUND: Emerging and epidemic infectious disease outbreaks are a significant public health problem and global health security threat. As an outbreak begins, epidemiological investigations and traditional public health responses are generally mounted very quickly. However, patient-centred research is usually not prioritised when planning and enacting the response. Instead, the clinical research response occurs subsequent to and separate from the public health response, and is inadequate for evidence-based decision-making at the bedside or in the offices of public health policymakers...
December 19, 2016: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27937012/planning-for-the-unexpected-ebola-virus-zika-virus-what-s-next
#11
William Welfare, Edward Wright
Since 2000 we have witnessed global pandemics and public health emergencies of international concern. This review details which viruses are likely to caused further outbreaks and looks at the strategies and tools available to UK medical professionals to mitigate the threat posed.
December 2, 2016: British Journal of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932782/cdc-grand-rounds-modeling-and-public-health-decision-making
#12
Leah S Fischer, Scott Santibanez, Richard J Hatchett, Daniel B Jernigan, Lauren Ancel Meyers, Phoebe G Thorpe, Martin I Meltzer
Mathematical models incorporate various data sources and advanced computational techniques to portray real-world disease transmission and translate the basic science of infectious diseases into decision-support tools for public health. Unlike standard epidemiologic methods that rely on complete data, modeling is needed when there are gaps in data. By combining diverse data sources, models can fill gaps when critical decisions must be made using incomplete or limited information. They can be used to assess the effect and feasibility of different scenarios and provide insight into the emergence, spread, and control of disease...
December 9, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929449/reviewing-the-history-of-pandemic-influenza-understanding-patterns-of-emergence-and-transmission
#13
REVIEW
Patrick R Saunders-Hastings, Daniel Krewski
For centuries, novel strains of influenza have emerged to produce human pandemics, causing widespread illness, death, and disruption. There have been four influenza pandemics in the past hundred years. During this time, globalization processes, alongside advances in medicine and epidemiology, have altered the way these pandemics are experienced. Drawing on international case studies, this paper provides a review of the impact of past influenza pandemics, while examining the evolution of our understanding of, and response to, these viruses...
December 6, 2016: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919245/one-day-workshop-based-training-improves-physical-activity-prescription-knowledge-in-latin-american-physicians-a-pre-test-post-test-study
#14
Maria C Arciniegas Calle, Felipe Lobelo, Mario A Jiménez, Diana C Páez, Sebastian Cortés, Andrés de Lima, John Duperly
BACKGROUND: The physical inactivity pandemic and related non-communicable diseases have made it imperative for medical doctors (MDs) to effectively provide lifestyle counseling as part of prevention and treatment plans for patients. A one-day certification workshop was designed to improve MDs PA prescription knowledge, as part of the Exercise is Medicine® (EIM®) global health initiative. The objective was to determine knowledge gain of MDs participating in a standardized, one-day PA prescription workshop performed throughout Latin America (LA)...
December 5, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918958/drivers-of-airborne-human-to-human-pathogen-transmission
#15
REVIEW
Sander Herfst, Michael Böhringer, Basel Karo, Philip Lawrence, Nicola S Lewis, Michael J Mina, Charles J Russell, John Steel, Rik L de Swart, Christian Menge
Airborne pathogens - either transmitted via aerosol or droplets - include a wide variety of highly infectious and dangerous microbes such as variola virus, measles virus, influenza A viruses, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Bordetella pertussis. Emerging zoonotic pathogens, for example, MERS coronavirus, avian influenza viruses, Coxiella, and Francisella, would have pandemic potential were they to acquire efficient human-to-human transmissibility. Here, we synthesize insights from microbiological, medical, social, and economic sciences to provide known mechanisms of aerosolized transmissibility and identify knowledge gaps that limit emergency preparedness plans...
December 2, 2016: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916341/hospital-influenza-pandemic-stockpiling-needs-a-computer-simulation
#16
Mark N Abramovich, John C Hershey, Byron Callies, Amesh A Adalja, Pritish K Tosh, Eric S Toner
BACKGROUND: A severe influenza pandemic could overwhelm hospitals but planning guidance that accounts for the dynamic interrelationships between planning elements is lacking. We developed a methodology to calculate pandemic supply needs based on operational considerations in hospitals and then tested the methodology at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN. METHODS: We upgraded a previously designed computer modeling tool and input carefully researched resource data from the hospital to run 10,000 Monte Carlo simulations using various combinations of variables to determine resource needs across a spectrum of scenarios...
December 2, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818427/improving-the-public-health-infrastructure-capacity-in-the-u-s-pacific-territories
#17
Stephanie A Dopson
The public health emergency of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus resulted in supplemental funding provided by Congress to the 62 states and territories. The CDC's response included deployment of personnel to the U.S. Pacific territories, who provided technical assistance on laboratory capacity, information technology, surveillance, planning, and continuity of operations.
2016: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783613/voluntary-medical-male-circumcision-for-hiv-prevention-new-mathematical-models-for-strategic-demand-creation-prioritizing-subpopulations-by-age-and-geography
#18
Catherine Hankins, Mitchell Warren, Emmanuel Njeuhmeli
Over 11 million voluntary medical male circumcisions (VMMC) have been performed of the projected 20.3 million needed to reach 80% adult male circumcision prevalence in priority sub-Saharan African countries. Striking numbers of adolescent males, outside the 15-49-year-old age target, have been accessing VMMC services. What are the implications of overall progress in scale-up to date? Can mathematical modeling provide further insights on how to efficiently reach the male circumcision coverage levels needed to create and sustain further reductions in HIV incidence to make AIDS no longer a public health threat by 2030? Considering ease of implementation and cultural acceptability, decision makers may also value the estimates that mathematical models can generate of immediacy of impact, cost-effectiveness, and magnitude of impact resulting from different policy choices...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771067/circulation-of-multiple-genotypes-of-h1n2-viruses-in-a-swine-farm-in-italy-over-a-two-month-period
#19
Maria Serena Beato, Luca Tassoni, Adelaide Milani, Annalisa Salviato, Guido Di Martino, Monica Mion, Lebana Bonfanti, Isabella Monne, Simon James Watson, Alice Fusaro
In August 2012 repeated respiratory outbreaks caused by swine influenza A virus (swIAV) were registered for a whole year in a breeding farm in northeast Italy that supplied piglets for fattening. The virus, initially characterized in the farm, was a reassortant Eurasian avian-like H1N1 (H1avN1) genotype, containing a haemagglutinin segment derived from the pandemic H1N1 (A(H1N1)pdm09) lineage. To control infection, a vaccination program using vaccines against the A(H1N1)pdm09, human-like H1N2 (H1huN2), human-like H3N2 (H3N2), and H1avN1 viruses was implemented in sows in November 2013...
November 15, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756233/school-closure-policies-at-municipality-level-for-mitigating-influenza-spread-a-model-based-evaluation
#20
Constanze Ciavarella, Laura Fumanelli, Stefano Merler, Ciro Cattuto, Marco Ajelli
BACKGROUND: Nearly every year Influenza affects most countries worldwide and the risk of a new pandemic is always present. Therefore, influenza is a major concern for public health. School-age individuals are often the most affected group, suggesting that the inclusion in preparedness plans of school closure policies may represent an option for influenza mitigation. However, their applicability remains uncertain and their implementation should carefully be weighed on the basis of cost-benefit considerations...
October 18, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
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