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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726152/cardiovascular-outcome-trial-update-in-diabetes-new-evidence-remaining-questions
#1
REVIEW
Rebecca Herbst, Wilburn Bolton, Afreen Shariff, Jennifer B Green
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Seven trials of new agents to treat type 2 diabetes (T2DM) have been performed to assess cardiovascular (CV) safety. A significant amount of information regarding the effects of drugs in three classes is available, with new data from multiple other trials expected shortly. This article provides a summary of recently completed trials. RECENT FINDINGS: The dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors studied thus far do not alter the risk of major adverse CV events (MACE)...
September 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725914/vascular-complications-in-diabetes-old-messages-new-thoughts
#2
REVIEW
Josephine M Forbes, Amelia K Fotheringham
In parallel with the growing diabetes pandemic, there is an increasing burden of micro- and macrovascular complications, occurring in the majority of patients. The identification of a number of synergistic accelerators of disease, providing therapeutic pathways, has stabilised the incidence of complications in most western nations. However, the primary instigators of diabetic complications and, thus, prevention strategies, remain elusive. This has necessitated a refocus on natural history studies, where tissue and plasma samples are sequentially taken to determine when and how disease initiates...
July 19, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720112/association-of-the-fda-amendment-act-with-trial-registration-publication-and-outcome-reporting
#3
REVIEW
Adam T Phillips, Nihar R Desai, Harlan M Krumholz, Constance X Zou, Jennifer E Miller, Joseph S Ross
BACKGROUND: Selective clinical trial publication and outcome reporting has the potential to bias the medical literature. The 2007 Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Amendment Act (FDAAA) mandated clinical trial registration and outcome reporting on ClinicalTrials.gov, a publicly accessible trial registry. METHODS: Using publicly available data from ClinicalTrials.gov, FDA documents, and PubMed, we determined registration, publication, and reporting of findings for all efficacy trials supporting FDA approval of new drugs for cardiovascular disease and diabetes between 2005 and 2014, before and after the FDAAA...
July 18, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717786/setting-priorities-for-diabetic-retinopathy-clinical-research-and-identifying-evidence-gaps
#4
Jimmy T Le, Susan Hutfless, Tianjing Li, Neil M Bressler, James Heyward, Ava K Bittner, Adam Glassman, Kay Dickersin
PURPOSE: Prioritizing comparative effectiveness research may contribute to obtaining answers that clinicians perceive they need and may minimize research that could be considered wasteful. Our objective was to identify evidence gaps and set priorities for new systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials for managing diabetic retinopathy (DR), including diabetic macular edema (DME). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network (DRCR...
March 2017: Ophthalmology retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713443/e-healthcare-for-diabetes-mellitus-type-2-patients-a-randomised-controlled-trial-in-slovenia
#5
Rade Iljaž, Andrej Brodnik, Tatjana Zrimec, Iztok Cukjati
BACKGROUND: Telemonitoring and web-based interventions are increasingly used in primary-care practices in many countries for more effective management of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). A new approach in treating patients with diabetes mellitus in family practices, based on ICT use and nurse practitioners, has been introduced and evaluated in this study. METHOD: Fifteen Slovene family practices enrolled 120 DM patients treated only with a diet regime and/or tablets into the study...
September 2017: Zdravstveno Varstvo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712629/the-prime-diabetes-model-novel-methods-for-estimating-long-term-clinical-and-cost-outcomes-in-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#6
William J Valentine, Richard F Pollock, Rhodri Saunders, Jay Bae, Kirsi Norrbacka, Kristina Boye
BACKGROUND: Recent publications describing long-term follow-up from landmark trials and diabetes registries represent an opportunity to revisit modeling options in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). OBJECTIVES: To develop a new product-independent model capable of predicting long-term clinical and cost outcomes. METHODS: After a systematic literature review to identify clinical trial and registry data, a model was developed (the PRIME Diabetes Model) to simulate T1DM progression and complication onset...
July 2017: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710537/cardiac-safety-of-non-anthracycline-trastuzumab-based-therapy-for-her2-positive-breast-cancer
#7
Anthony F Yu, Roy B Mukku, Shivani Verma, Jennifer E Liu, Kevin C Oeffinger, Richard M Steingart, Clifford A Hudis, Chau T Dang
PURPOSE: Trastuzumab improves overall survival for women with HER2-positive breast cancer but is associated with cardiotoxicity, especially when administered after anthracyclines. Use of non-anthracycline trastuzumab-based regimens is rising, particularly for patients with low-risk disease or with multiple cardiovascular risk factors. We performed a single-center retrospective cohort study to assess the cardiac safety of trastuzumab without anthracyclines outside of a clinical trial setting...
July 14, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700465/alemtuzumab-versus-antithymocyte-globulin-induction-therapies-in-kidney-transplantation-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#8
Jianming Zheng, Wenli Song
Alemtuzumab (ALEM) is widely used as an induction therapy for organ transplantation, and numerous randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been published to evaluate its efficacy and safety in kidney transplantation as compared with antithymocyte globulin (ATG). The purpose of this study was to compare the benefits and safety of ALEM with those of ATG for induction therapy.A systematic literature search in three electronic databases, including PubMed, EmBase, and Cochrane Library, since inception through October 2016, was conducted to identify potential RCTs for inclusion...
July 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691137/effective-use-of-balloon-guide-catheters-in-reducing-incidence-of-mechanical-thrombectomy-related-distal-embolization
#9
Dong Hoon Lee, Jae Hoon Sung, Sang Uk Kim, Ho Jun Yi, Jae Taek Hong, Sang Won Lee
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The clinical benefit of endovascular stroke therapy has been demonstrated in several prospective randomized trials. However, in a relevant percentage of patients, mechanical thrombectomy bears the risk of causing new infarction in initially unaffected vascular territories through thrombus fragmentation and migration of clot debris. The goal of this study was to evaluate the use of the balloon guide catheter (BGC) to effectively achieve flow arrest and thrombus aspiration during the intervention to avoid distal embolization...
July 9, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682028/-the-uric-acid-cardio-nephropathy
#10
Francesca Viazzi, Barbara Bonino, Francesca Cappadona, Roberto Pontremoli
Uric acid is a product of purine catabolism formed by the activity of xanthine-oxidase and prevalently excreted by the kidney. In vivo, urate is known to have both an anti- or pro-oxidant role depending on several biological conditions. New evidence suggests that chronic hyperuricemia can contribute to hypertension development, kidney disease and cardiovascular risk. The pathophysiologic mechanisms are various, such as endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress, vasoconstriction and stimulation of renin angiotensin system...
March 2017: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681996/apelin-administration-improves-insulin-sensitivity-in-overweight-men-during-an-hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic-clamp
#11
Pierre Gourdy, Laurent Cazals, Claire Thalamas, Agnès Sommet, Fabienne Calvas, Monique Galitzky, Claire Vinel, Cédric Dray, Hélène Hanaire, Isabelle Castan-Laurell, Philippe Valet
AIMS: Apelin is a recently identified adipokine known to improve glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in murine models. This study was dedicated to the proof of concept that apelin administration also enhances insulin sensitivity in humans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Healthy overweight men were enrolled in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study that successively considered the efficacy and the tolerance of two doses of (pyr1)-Apelin-13...
July 6, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679551/pretreatment-fasting-plasma-glucose-and-insulin-modify-dietary-weight-loss-success-results-from-3-randomized-clinical-trials
#12
Mads F Hjorth, Christian Ritz, Ellen E Blaak, Wim Hm Saris, Dominique Langin, Sanne Kellebjerg Poulsen, Thomas Meinert Larsen, Thorkild Ia Sørensen, Yishai Zohar, Arne Astrup
Background: Which diet is optimal for weight loss and maintenance remains controversial and implies that no diet fits all patients.Objective: We studied concentrations of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and fasting insulin (FI) as prognostic markers for successful weight loss and maintenance through diets with different glycemic loads or different fiber and whole-grain content, assessed in 3 randomized trials of overweight participants.Design: After an 8-wk weight loss, participants in the DiOGenes (Diet, Obesity, and Genes) trial consumed ad libitum for 26 wk a diet with either a high or a low glycemic load...
July 5, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678048/antihyperglycemic-agents-and-cardiovascular-outcomes-recent-insights
#13
Harpreet S Bajaj, Bernard Zinman, Subodh Verma
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize cardiovascular outcome trials (CVOTs) with antihyperglycemic agents conducted since 2008 US Food and Drug Administration guidance. RECENT FINDINGS: A series of large CVOTs since 2008 have included patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), who are otherwise treated according to standard of care. After the initial trials with incretin agents demonstrated cardiovascular safety, two recent CVOTs with currently available antihyperglycemic agents - EMPA-REG OUTCOME with empagliflozin and LEADER with liraglutide - show a significant reduction of the primary composite outcome, including a significant difference in the cardiovascular death end-point in both trials [EMPA-REG OUTCOME: hazard ratio = 0...
July 3, 2017: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677333/review-article-new-treatments-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#14
REVIEW
S A Townsend, P N Newsome
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the fastest growing cause of liver disease in the Western world, yet there is no approved pharmacotherapy. While lifestyle modifications remain the mainstay of treatment, only a proportion of individuals are able to make or sustain them, and so more treatment options are required. AIM: To review the potential benefit of drugs used in clinical practice, those entering phase II trials, and compounds being investigated in pre-clinical studies...
July 4, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676020/current-and-potential-future-pharmacological-approaches-for-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#15
Konstantinos Imprialos, Konstantinos Stavropoulos, Sofia Bouloukou, Georgios Kerpiniotis, Asterios Karagiannis, Michael Doumas
BACKGOUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects a large proportion of the general population. The disease ranges from simple steatosis, to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis and even hepatocellular carcinoma. Several drugs are used in daily clinical practice to manage the disease. However, data on their efficacy in liver histology are not consistent. AIM: We discuss current treatment options for NAFLD and NASH and preliminary results from novel drugs under investigation...
June 20, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674122/effectiveness-of-a-targeted-lifestyle-intervention-in-primary-care-on-diet-and-physical-activity-among-south-asians-at-risk-for-diabetes-2-year-results-of-a-randomised-controlled-trial-in-the-netherlands
#16
Everlina M A Vlaar, Vera Nierkens, Mary Nicolaou, Barend J C Middelkoop, Wim B Busschers, Karien Stronks, Irene G M van Valkengoed
OBJECTIVES: In South Asian populations, little is known about the effects of intensive interventions to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes on health behaviour. We examined the effectiveness at 2 years of a culturally targeted lifestyle intervention on diet, physical activity and determinants of behaviour change among South Asians at risk for diabetes. DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial with de facto masking. SETTING: Primary care. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 536 18- to 60-year-old South Asians at risk for diabetes (ie, with impaired glucose tolerance, impaired fasting glucose or relatively high insulin resistance) were randomised to the intervention (n=283) or a control (n=253) group...
July 2, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669463/three-year-efficacy-and-safety-of-exenatide-once-weekly-a-pooled-analysis-of-three-trials
#17
Michael E Trautmann, Luc Van Gaal, Jenny Han, Elise Hardy
AIMS: To evaluate the 3-year efficacy and safety of exenatide once weekly (QW) for type 2 diabetes (T2D) in a large clinical population. METHODS: This post hoc analysis of three DURATION studies examined pooled efficacy and adverse events with exenatide QW from the 2.5- to 3-year completer populations; insulin glargine (glargine) was a reference (DURATION-3). Patients randomized to exenatide QW during the controlled study periods continued controlled treatment (DURATION-3) or single-arm treatment (DURATION-1; DURATION-2) with exenatide QW for the study duration...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668407/current-and-cutting-edge-interventions-for-the-treatment-of-obese-patients
#18
REVIEW
Jenanan Vairavamurthy, Lawrence J Cheskin, Dara L Kraitchman, Aravind Arepally, Clifford R Weiss
The number of people classified as obese, defined by the World Health Organization as having a body mass index ≥30, has been rising since the 1980s. Obesity is associated with comorbidities such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The current treatment paradigm emphasizes lifestyle modifications, including diet and exercise; however this approach produces only modest weight loss for many patients. When lifestyle modifications fail, the current "gold standard" therapy for obesity is bariatric surgery, including Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, sleeve gastrectomy, duodenal switch, and placement of an adjustable gastric band...
August 2017: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666800/a-novel-glp-1-gip-dual-agonist-is-more-effective-than-liraglutide-in-reducing-inflammation-and-enhancing-gdnf-release-in-the-mptp-mouse-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#19
Ziyue Yuan, Dongfang Li, Peng Feng, Guofang Xue, Chenhui Ji, Guanglai Li, Christian Hölscher
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the risk factors for Parkinson's disease (PD). Insulin desensitisation has been observed in the brains of patients, which may promote neurodegeneration. Incretins are a family of growth factors that can re-sensitise insulin signalling. We have previously shown that mimetics of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) have neuroprotective effects in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropypridine (MPTP) mouse model of PD...
June 27, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665392/-glibenclamide-as-a-promising-agent-for-prevention-and-treatment-of-cerebral-edema
#20
S V Tsarenko, A M Dzyadz'ko, S S Rybalko
The article presents a review of the literature on the use of a fundamentally new technique for prevention and treatment of cerebral edema. A drug glibenclamide, which is used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus, is able to reduce cerebral edema and neuronal damage as evidenced by the results of preclinical trials in rodents and the first results of drug application in patients. The article describes the mechanism of glibenclamide action and discusses the potential for its application.
2017: Zhurnal Voprosy Neĭrokhirurgii Imeni N. N. Burdenko
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