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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097882/antidiabetic-agents-and-cardiovascular-outcomes-in-patients-with-heart-diseases
#1
Judy W M Cheng, Hisham A Badreldin, Dhiren K Patel, Snehal H Bhatt
This article reviews evidence of benefits and risk of antidiabetic agents in cardiovascular (CV) outcomes, with a focus on medications approved by the FDA since 2008. Peer-reviewed articles were identified from MEDLINE and Current Content database (both 1966 to October 1, 2016) using the search terms insulin, metformin, rosiglitazone, pioglitazone, glyburide, glipizide, glimepiride, acarbose, miglitol, albiglutide, exenatide, liraglutide, lixisenatide, dulaglutide, pramlintide, meglitinide, alogliptin, linagliptin, saxagliptin, sitagliptin, canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, empagliflozin, colesevalam, bromocriptine, mortality, myocardial infarction (MI), heart failure, (HF) and stroke...
January 18, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097639/risk-of-bleeding-and-repeated-bleeding-events-in-prasugrel-treated-patients-a-review-of-data-from-the-japanese-prasfit-studies
#2
REVIEW
Masakatsu Nishikawa, Takaaki Isshiki, Takeshi Kimura, Hisao Ogawa, Hiroyoshi Yokoi, Shunichi Miyazaki, Yasuo Ikeda, Masato Nakamura, Yuko Tanaka, Shigeru Saito
Prasugrel is a third-generation thienopyridine that achieves potent platelet inhibition with less pharmacological variability than other thienopyridines. However, clinical experience suggests that prasugrel may be associated with a higher risk of de novo and recurrent bleeding events compared with clopidogrel in Japanese patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). In this review, we evaluate the risk of bleeding in Japanese patients treated with prasugrel at the doses (loading/maintenance doses: 20/3...
January 17, 2017: Cardiovascular Intervention and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090762/use-of-ace-inhibition-and-blood-pressure-management-in-deferring-dialysis-initiation
#3
Lucia Del Vecchio, Ugo Teatini, Francesco Locatelli
Elevated blood pressure is one of the most significant risk factor for the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD); its treatment is a milestone in CKD management. While it is accepted that a stricter blood pressure control is indicated in patients with proteinuria or microalbuminuria, the exact degree of blood pressure reduction to be obtained in CKD patients is still under debate. Following more recent interpretation of old trials, a BP target for < 140/90 mmHg is suggested for non-proteinuric CKD patients...
January 13, 2017: Panminerva Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090726/trials-of-new-anti-diabetes-agents
#4
R I G Holt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087508/international-variation-in-outcomes-among-people-with-cardiovascular-disease-or-cardiovascular-risk-factors-and-impaired-glucose-tolerance-insights-from-the-navigator-trial
#5
Marilia Harumi Higuchi Dos Santos, Abhinav Sharma, Jie-Lena Sun, Karen Pieper, John J V McMurray, Rury R Holman, Renato D Lopes
BACKGROUND: Regional differences in risk of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular outcomes in people with impaired glucose tolerance are poorly characterized. Our objective was to evaluate regional variation in risk of new-onset diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular outcomes, and treatment effects in participants from the NAVIGATOR (Nateglinide and Valsartan in Impaired Glucose Tolerance Outcomes Research) trial. METHODS AND RESULTS: NAVIGATOR randomized people with impaired glucose tolerance and cardiovascular risk factors or with established cardiovascular disease to valsartan (or placebo) and to nateglinide (or placebo) with a median 5-year follow-up...
January 13, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073178/polyclonal-and-monoclonal-antibodies-for-induction-therapy-in-kidney-transplant-recipients
#6
REVIEW
Penny Hill, Nicholas B Cross, A Nicholas R Barnett, Suetonia C Palmer, Angela C Webster
BACKGROUND: Prolonging kidney transplant survival is an important clinical priority. Induction immunosuppression with antibody therapy is recommended at transplantation and non-depleting interleukin-2 receptor monoclonal antibodies (IL2Ra) are considered first line. It is suggested that recipients at high risk of rejection should receive lymphocyte-depleting antibodies but the relative benefits and harms of the available agents are uncertain. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to: evaluate the relative and absolute effects of different antibody preparations (except IL2Ra) when used as induction therapy in kidney transplant recipients; determine how the benefits and adverse events vary for each antibody preparation; determine how the benefits and harms vary for different formulations of antibody preparation; and determine whether the benefits and harms vary in specific subgroups of recipients (e...
January 11, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071756/association-between-reductions-in-low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-with-statin-therapy-and-the-risk-of-new-onset-diabetes-a-meta-analysis
#7
Shaohua Wang, Rongrong Cai, Yang Yuan, Zac Varghese, John Moorhead, Xiong Z Ruan
A recent meta-analysis demonstrated that statin therapy was associated with a risk of diabetes. The present study investigated whether the relative reduction in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) was a good indicator of the risk of new-onset diabetes. We searched the PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central Register, Lilacs, Food and Drug Administration, and European Medicines Agency databases for randomized controlled trials of statins. Fourteen trials were included in the study. Eight trials with target LDL-c levels ≤100 mg/dL (2...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070957/controlled-trial-of-hartmann-s-solution-versus-0-9-saline-for-diabetic-ketoacidosis
#8
Michael Yung, Georgia Letton, Steve Keeley
AIM: We aimed to determine whether using a balanced salt solution, Hartmann's solution (HS), in diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) shortens the time to normalise acid-base status through the avoidance of hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis compared with 0.9% normal saline (NS). METHODS: We conducted a double-blind, randomised controlled trial comparing HS to NS as the initial intravenous fluid in children with DKA. Patients were stratified by severity (pH < 7.1) and known or new diabetes...
January 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069054/the-effect-of-a-novel-probiotic-on-metabolic-biomarkers-in-adults-with-prediabetes-and-recently-diagnosed-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Talia Palacios, Luis Vitetta, Samantha Coulson, Claire D Madigan, Gareth S Denyer, Ian D Caterson
BACKGROUND: Shifts in the gastrointestinal microbiome have been shown to contribute to the progression of metabolic diseases including prediabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Research suggests that in-vivo modulation of the gut microbiome by specific probiotic microorganisms may improve insulin sensitivity and blood sugar management, preventing or delaying the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, further research is needed to understand the effect of probiotics as a therapy for the treatment of metabolic diseases...
January 9, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068461/a-new-prediction-model-for-evaluating-treatment-resistant-depression
#10
Alexander Kautzky, Pia Baldinger-Melich, Georg S Kranz, Thomas Vanicek, Daniel Souery, Stuart Montgomery, Julien Mendlewicz, Joseph Zohar, Alessandro Serretti, Rupert Lanzenberger, Siegfried Kasper
OBJECTIVE: Despite a broad arsenal of antidepressants, about a third of patients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD) do not respond sufficiently to adequate treatment. Using the data pool of the Group for the Study of Resistant Depression and machine learning, we intended to draw new insights featuring 48 clinical, sociodemographic, and psychosocial predictors for treatment outcome. METHOD: Patients were enrolled starting from January 2000 and diagnosed according to DSM-IV...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065744/efficacy-and-safety-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonists-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
Yajie Dong, Qingguo Lv, Sheyu Li, Yuan Wu, Ling Li, Juan Li, Fang Zhang, Xin Sun, Nanwei Tong
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: New drugs are urgently needed for the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) in NAFLD/NASH. METHODS: We searched the MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Library Central to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies that compared GLP-1RAs with a control treatment or baseline values with respect to efficacy and safety in patients with NAFLD/NASH...
January 5, 2017: Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056974/an-evaluation-of-the-telehealth-facilitation-of-diabetes-and-cardiovascular-care-in-remote-australian-indigenous-communities-protocol-for-the-telehealth-eye-and-associated-medical-services-network-teamsnet-project-a-pre-post-study-design
#12
Laima Brazionis, Alicia Jenkins, Anthony Keech, Chris Ryan, Sven-Erik Bursell
BACKGROUND: Despite substantial investment in detection, early intervention and evidence-based treatments, current management strategies for diabetes-associated retinopathy and cardiovascular disease are largely based on real-time and face-to-face approaches. There are limited data re telehealth facilitation in type 2 diabetes management. Therefore, we aim to investigate efficacy of telehealth facilitation of diabetes and cardiovascular disease care in high-risk vulnerable Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders in remote/very remote Australia...
January 5, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055230/improved-postprandial-glycemic-control-with-faster-acting-insulin-aspart-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-using-continuous-subcutaneous-insulin-infusion
#13
Bruce W Bode, Joseph A Johnson, Liselotte Hyveled, Søren C Tamer, Marek Demissie
BACKGROUND: Faster aspart is insulin aspart (IAsp) in a new formulation, which in continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) in subjects with type 1 diabetes has shown a faster onset and offset of glucose-lowering effect than IAsp. METHODS: This double-blind, randomized, crossover active-controlled trial compared 2-h postprandial plasma glucose (PPG) response, following 2 weeks of CSII with faster aspart or IAsp. Primary endpoint: mean change in PPG 2 h after a standardized meal test (ΔPGav,0-2h)...
January 5, 2017: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055065/effect-of-fish-oil-supplementation-and-aspirin-use-on-arteriovenous-fistula-failure-in-patients-requiring-hemodialysis-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#14
Ashley B Irish, Andrea K Viecelli, Carmel M Hawley, Lai-Seong Hooi, Elaine M Pascoe, Peta-Anne Paul-Brent, Sunil V Badve, Trevor A Mori, Alan Cass, Peter G Kerr, David Voss, Loke-Meng Ong, Kevan R Polkinghorne
Importance: Vascular access dysfunction is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients requiring hemodialysis. Arteriovenous fistulae are preferred over synthetic grafts and central venous catheters due to superior long-term outcomes and lower health care costs, but increasing their use is limited by early thrombosis and maturation failure. ω-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids (fish oils) have pleiotropic effects on vascular biology and inflammation and aspirin impairs platelet aggregation, which may reduce access failure...
January 3, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054743/hypoglycemia-evaluation-and-reporting-in-diabetes-importance-for-the-development-of-new-therapies
#15
David C Klonoff, G Alexander Fleming, Douglas B Muchmore, Brian M Frier
Hypoglycemia complicating diabetes therapy is well recognized to be an ever-present threat to patients, their families, providers, payers and regulators. Despite this being widely acknowledged, the regulatory stance on hypoglycemia as an endpoint in clinical trials to support new product registration has not evolved in any meaningful way since the publication of a position paper by an American Diabetes Association (ADA) Workgroup in 2005. As the impact of hypoglycemia on persons affected by diabetes is of major importance when assessing new treatments, the historical position of regulatory agencies on hypoglycemia is reviewed with respect to product approvals...
January 5, 2017: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045591/clinical-practice-guideline-update
#16
Seth R Schwartz, Anthony E Magit, Richard M Rosenfeld, Bopanna B Ballachanda, Jesse M Hackell, Helene J Krouse, Claire M Lawlor, Kenneth Lin, Kourosh Parham, David R Stutz, Sandy Walsh, Erika A Woodson, Ken Yanagisawa, Eugene R Cunningham
Objective This update of the 2008 American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation cerumen impaction clinical practice guideline provides evidence-based recommendations on managing cerumen impaction. Cerumen impaction is defined as an accumulation of cerumen that causes symptoms, prevents assessment of the ear, or both. Changes from the prior guideline include a consumer added to the development group; new evidence (3 guidelines, 5 systematic reviews, and 6 randomized controlled trials); enhanced information on patient education and counseling; a new algorithm to clarify action statement relationships; expanded action statement profiles to explicitly state quality improvement opportunities, confidence in the evidence, intentional vagueness, and differences of opinion; an enhanced external review process to include public comment and journal peer review; and 3 new key action statements on managing cerumen impaction that focus on primary prevention, contraindicated intervention, and referral and coordination of care...
January 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042926/the-potential-impact-of-gut-microbiota-on-your-health-current-status-and-future-challenges
#17
Stitaya Sirisinha
Our health and probably also our behaviors and mood depend not only on what we eat or what we do (lifestyle behaviors), but also on what we host. It is well established for decades that all vertebrates including humans are colonized by a wide array of bacteria, fungi, eukaryotic parasites and viruses, and that, at steady state (homeostasis), this community of microbes establishes a friendly mutual relationship with the host. The term microbiota was originally meant to represent an ecological community of commensals and potentially pathogenic microbes that live within our bodies, but it is now used interchangeably with the term microbiome which was initially meant to represent a collective genome of the microbiota...
December 2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030547/practice-doesn-t-always-make-perfect-a-qualitative-study-explaining-why-a-trial-of-an-educational-toolkit-did-not-improve-quality-of-care
#18
Janet A Parsons, Catherine H Y Yu, Natalie A Baker, Muhammad M Mamdani, Onil Bhattacharyya, Merrick Zwarenstein, Baiju R Shah
BACKGROUND: Diabetes is a chronic disease commonly managed by family physicians, with the most prevalent complication being cardiovascular disease (CVD). Clinical practice guidelines have been developed to support clinicians in the care of diabetic patients. We conducted a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) of a printed educational toolkit aimed at improving CVD management in diabetes in primary care, and found no effect, and indeed, the possibility of some harm. We conducted a qualitative evaluation to study the strategy for guideline implementation employed in this trial, and to understand its effects...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029445/dual-antagonism-of-pdgf-and-vegf-in-neovascular-age-related-macular-degeneration-a-phase-iib-multicenter-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
Glenn J Jaffe, Thomas A Ciulla, Antonio P Ciardella, Francois Devin, Pravin U Dugel, Chiara M Eandi, Harvey Masonson, Jordi Monés, Joel A Pearlman, Maddalena Quaranta-El Maftouhi, Federico Ricci, Keith Westby, Samir C Patel
PURPOSE: To assess the safety and efficacy of E10030 (Fovista; Ophthotech, New York, NY), a platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) antagonist, administered in combination with the anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agent ranibizumab (Lucentis; Roche, Basel, Switzerland) compared with ranibizumab monotherapy in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). DESIGN: Phase IIb global, multicenter, randomized, prospective, double-masked, controlled superiority trial...
October 28, 2016: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029211/cardiovascular-risk-factors-and-incident-albuminuria-in-screen-detected-type-2-diabetes
#20
D R Webb, F Zaccardi, M J Davies, S J Griffin, N J Wareham, R K Simmons, G E Rutten, A Sandbaek, T Lauritzen, K Borch-Johnsen, K Khunti
BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether cardiovascular risk factor modification influences the development of renal disease in people with type 2 diabetes identified through screening. We determined predictors of albuminuria five years after a diagnosis of screen-detected diabetes within the ADDITION-Europe study, a pragmatic cardiovascular outcome trial of multifactorial cardiovascular risk management. METHODS: In 1,826 participants with newly diagnosed, screen-detected diabetes without albumiuria, we explored associations between risk of new albuminuria (≥2...
December 28, 2016: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
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