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Viral trafficking

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769350/rab5-rab7-and-rab11-are-required-for-caveolae-dependent-endocytosis-of-classic-swine-fever-virus-in-porcine-alveolar-macrophages
#1
Yun-Na Zhang, Ya-Yun Liu, Fu-Chuan Xiao, Chun-Chun Liu, Xiao-Dong Liang, Jing Chen, Jing Zhou, Abdul Sattar Baloch, Lin Kan, Bin Zhou, Hua-Ji Qiu
The members of Flaviviridae utilize several endocytic pathways to enter a variety of host cells. Our previous work showed that classical swine fever virus (CSFV) enters porcine kidney (PK-15) cells through a clathrin-dependent pathway that requires Rab5 and Rab7. The entry mechanism for CSFV into other cell lines remains unclear, for instance, porcine alveolar macrophages (3D4/21 cells). More importantly, the trafficking of CSFV within endosomes controlled by Rab GTPases is unknown in 3D4/21 cells. In this study, entry and post-internalization of CSFV were analyzed using chemical inhibitors, RNA interference, and dominant negative (DN) mutants...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751638/zika-virus-trafficking-and-interactions-in-the-human-male-reproductive-tract
#2
REVIEW
Lucia Regina Cangussu da Silva
Sexual transmission of Zika virus (ZIKV) is a matter of great concern. Infectious viral particles can be shed in semen for as long as six months after infection and can be transferred to male and female sexual partners during unprotected sexual intercourse. The virus can be found inside spermatozoa and could be directly transferred to the oocyte during fertilization. Sexual transmission of ZIKV can contribute to the rise in number of infected individuals in endemic areas as well as in countries where the mosquito vector does not thrive...
May 11, 2018: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742433/tim-1-ubiquitination-mediates-dengue-virus-entry
#3
Ophélie Dejarnac, Mohamed Lamine Hafirassou, Maxime Chazal, Margaux Versapuech, Julien Gaillard, Manuel Perera-Lecoin, Claudia Umana-Diaz, Lucie Bonnet-Madin, Xavier Carnec, Jean-Yves Tinevez, Constance Delaugerre, Olivier Schwartz, Philippe Roingeard, Nolwenn Jouvenet, Clarisse Berlioz-Torrent, Laurent Meertens, Ali Amara
Dengue virus (DENV) is a major human pathogen causing millions of infections yearly. Despite intensive investigations, a DENV receptor that directly participates in virus internalization has not yet been characterized. Here, we report that the phosphatidylserine receptor TIM-1 is an authentic DENV entry receptor that plays an active role in virus endocytosis. Genetic ablation of TIM-1 strongly impaired DENV infection. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy analyses of live infected cells show that TIM-1 is mostly confined in clathrin-coated pits and is co-internalized with DENV during viral entry...
May 8, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738458/the-annexin-a1-receptor-fpr2-regulates-the-endosomal-export-of-influenza-virus
#4
Fryad Rahman, Mohammad Chebbo, Noémie Courtin, Aurelien Fotso Fotso, Marie-Christine Alessi, Béatrice Riteau
The Formyl Peptide Receptor 2 (FPR2) is a novel promising target for the treatment of influenza. During viral infection, FPR2 is activated by annexinA1, which is present in the envelope of influenza viruses; this activation promotes virus replication. Here, we investigated whether blockage of FPR2 would affect the genome trafficking of influenza virus. We found that, upon infection and cell treatment with the specific FPR2 antagonist WRW4 or the anti-FPR2 monoclonal antibody, FN-1D6-AI, influenza viruses were blocked into endosomes...
May 8, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738431/a-vp26-mneongreen-capsid-fusion-hsv-2-mutant-reactivates-from-viral-latency-in-the-guinea-pig-genital-model-with-normal-kinetics
#5
Julianna R Pieknik, Andrea S Bertke, Shuang Tang, Philip R Krause
Fluorescent herpes simplex viruses (HSV) are invaluable tools for localizing virus in cells, permitting visualization of capsid trafficking and enhancing neuroanatomical research. Fluorescent viruses can also be used to study virus kinetics and reactivation in vivo. Such studies would be facilitated by fluorescent herpes simplex virus recombinants that exhibit wild-type kinetics of replication and reactivation and that are genetically stable. We engineered an HSV-2 strain expressing the fluorescent mNeonGreen protein as a fusion with the VP26 capsid protein...
May 8, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721366/tnfa-and-il-2-armed-adenoviruses-enable-complete-responses-by-anti-pd-1-checkpoint-blockade
#6
V Cervera-Carrascon, M Siurala, J M Santos, R Havunen, S Tähtinen, P Karell, S Sorsa, A Kanerva, A Hemminki
Releasing the patient's immune system against their own malignancy by the use of checkpoint inhibitors is delivering promising results. However, only a subset of patients currently benefit from them. One major limitation of these therapies relates to the inability of T cells to detect or penetrate into the tumor resulting in unresponsiveness to checkpoint inhibition. Virotherapy is an attractive tool for enabling checkpoint inhibitors as viruses are naturally recognized by innate defense elements which draws the attention of the immune system...
2018: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709207/viral-strategies-for-targeting-the-central-and-peripheral-nervous-systems
#7
Claire N Bedbrook, Benjamin E Deverman, Viviana Gradinaru
Recombinant viruses allow for targeted transgene expression in specific cell populations throughout the nervous system. The adeno-associated virus (AAV) is among the most commonly used viruses for neuroscience research. Recombinant AAVs (rAAVs) are highly versatile and can package most cargo composed of desired genes within the capsid's ∼5-kb carrying capacity. Numerous regulatory elements and intersectional strategies have been validated in rAAVs to enable cell type-specific expression. rAAVs can be delivered to specific neuronal populations or globally throughout the animal...
April 25, 2018: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709039/varicella-zoster-virus-productively-infects-human-natural-killer-cells-and-manipulates-phenotype
#8
Tessa Mollie Campbell, Brian Patrick McSharry, Megan Steain, Thomas Myles Ashhurst, Barry Slobedman, Allison Abendroth
Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is a ubiquitous human alphaherpesvirus, responsible for varicella upon primary infection and herpes zoster following reactivation from latency. To establish lifelong infection, VZV employs strategies to evade and manipulate the immune system to its advantage in disseminating virus. As innate lymphocytes, natural killer (NK) cells are part of the early immune response to infection, and have been implicated in controlling VZV infection in patients. Understanding of how VZV directly interacts with NK cells, however, has not been investigated in detail...
April 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695434/regulation-of-apolipoprotein-e-trafficking-by-hepatitis-c-virus-induced-autophagy
#9
Ja Yeon Kim, Jing-Hsiung James Ou
Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) plays an important role in the maturation and infectivity of hepatitis C virus (HCV). By analyzing the subcellular localization of ApoE in Huh7 hepatoma cells that harbored an HCV subgenomic RNA replicon, we found that ApoE colocalized with autophagosomes. This colocalization was marginally detected in HCV-infected cells apparently due to the depletion of ApoE by HCV, as the treatment with bafilomycin A1 (BafA1), a vacuolar ATPase inhibitor that inhibits autophagic protein degradation, partially restored the ApoE level and enhanced its colocalization with autophagosomes in HCV-infected cells...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678950/mapping-interaction-sites-on-human-chemokine-receptors-by-deep-mutational-scanning
#10
Jeremiah D Heredia, Jihye Park, Riley J Brubaker, Steven K Szymanski, Kevin S Gill, Erik Procko
Chemokine receptors CXCR4 and CCR5 regulate WBC trafficking and are engaged by the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 during infection. We combine a selection of human CXCR4 and CCR5 libraries comprising nearly all of ∼7000 single amino acid substitutions with deep sequencing to define sequence-activity landscapes for surface expression and ligand interactions. After consideration of sequence constraints for surface expression, known interaction sites with HIV-1-blocking Abs were appropriately identified as conserved residues following library sorting for Ab binding, validating the use of deep mutational scanning to map functional interaction sites in G protein-coupled receptors...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667553/car-t-cell-therapy-a-new-era-in-cancer-immunotherapy
#11
Miliotou N Androulla, Papadopoulou C Lefkothea
BACKGROUND: Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Over the years, a number of conventional cytotoxic approaches for neoplastic diseases has been developed. However, due to their limited effectiveness in accordance with the heterogeneity of cancer cells, there is a constant search for therapeutic approaches with improved outcome, such as immunotherapy that utilizes and enhances the normal capacity of the patient's immune system. METHODS: Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy involves genetic modification of patient's autologous T-cells to express a CAR specific for a tumor antigen, following by ex vivo cell expansion and re-infusion back to the patient...
April 17, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667289/endosomal-receptor-trafficking-retromer-and-beyond
#12
REVIEW
Jing Wang, Alina Fedoseienko, Bayou Chen, Ezra Burstein, Da Jia, Daniel D Billadeau
The tubular endolysosomal network is a quality control system that ensures the proper delivery of internalized receptors to specific subcellular destinations in order to maintain cellular homeostasis. Although retromer was originally described in yeast as a regulator of endosome-to-Golgi receptor recycling, mammalian retromer has emerged as a central player in endosome-to-plasma membrane recycling of a variety of receptors. Over the past decade, information regarding the mechanism by which retromer facilitates receptor trafficking has emerged, as has the identification of numerous retromer-associated molecules including the WASH complex, sorting nexins and TBC1d5...
April 18, 2018: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661725/importin-%C3%AE-and-exportin-5-are-indicators-of-acute-viral-infection-correlation-of-their-detection-with-commercially-available-detection-kits
#13
Gerard J Nuovo, Cecilia Vianna de Andrade, Chandini Thirukkumaran, Alcina F Nicol
This work focused on immunohistochemistry markers of acute viral infections. Viral infected cells were detected by in situ based methods (reovirus, rabies virus) or cytologic changes (human papillomavirus, molloscum contagiosum virus, herpes simplex virus). Two proteins involved in nuclear trafficking, importin-β and exportin-5, were detected in the infected cells for each virus and not in the control tissues. A wide variety of other proteins, including caspase-3, and bcl-2 family members (bcl2, bclX, MCL1, BAK, BAX, BIM, BAD) showed wide variations in expression among the different viral infections...
January 10, 2018: Annals of Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617362/a-novel-approach-to-improve-immune-effector-responses-post-transplant-by-restoration-of-ccl21-expression
#14
Heather E Stefanski, Leslie Jonart, Emily Goren, James J Mulé, Bruce R Blazar
Chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy conditioning regimens required for bone marrow transplantation (BMT) cause significant morbidity and mortality as a result of insufficient immune surveillance mechanisms leading to increased risks of infection and tumor recurrence. Such conditioning causes host stromal cell injury, impairing restoration of the central (thymus) and peripheral (spleen and lymph node) T cell compartments and slow immune reconstitution. The chemokine, CCL21, produced by host stromal cells, recruits T- and B-cells that provide lymphotoxin mediated instructive signals to stromal cells for lymphoid organogenesis...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615992/epstein-barr-virus-acquires-its-final-envelope-on-intracellular-compartments-with-golgi-markers
#15
Asuka Nanbo, Takeshi Noda, Yusuke Ohba
Herpesvirus subfamilies typically acquire their final envelope in various cytoplasmic compartments such as the trans -Golgi network (TGN), and endosomes prior to their secretion into the extracellular space. However, the sites for the final envelopment of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a ubiquitous human gamma herpesvirus, are poorly understood. Here, we characterized the sites for the final envelopment of EBV in Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines induced into the lytic cycle by crosslinking cell surface IgG. Electron microscopy revealed the various stages of maturation and egress of progeny virions including mature EBV in irregular cytoplasmic vesicles...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614429/engineered-viral-vectors-for-functional-interrogation-deconvolution-and-manipulation-of-neural-circuits
#16
REVIEW
Sabrina Sun, David V Schaffer
Optimization of traditional replication-competent viral tracers has granted access to immediate synaptic partners of target neuronal populations, enabling the dissection of complex brain circuits into functional neural pathways. The excessive virulence of most conventional tracers, however, impedes their utility in revealing and genetically perturbing cellular function on long time scales. As a promising alternative, the natural capacity of adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors to safely mediate persistent and robust gene expression has stimulated strong interest in adapting them for sparse neuronal labeling and physiological studies...
March 31, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608995/coat-protein-complex-i-facilitates-dengue-virus-production
#17
Nopprarat Tongmuang, Umpa Yasamut, Pucharee Songprakhon, Thanyaporn Dechtawewat, Shilu Malakar, Sansanee Noisakran, Pa-Thai Yenchitsomanus, Thawornchai Limjindaporn
Dengue hemorrhagic fever is a life-threatening disease caused by the dengue virus (DENV). After DENV enters into host cells, it replicates to generate viral particles to infect other cells. DENV exploits components of the cellular trafficking pathway to achieve effective virion production. Understanding of the proteins required for this trafficking process is essential for revealing the pathogenesis of DENV infection. Coat protein complex and soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs), two host protein families in the cellular trafficking pathway, were investigated to elucidate their respective roles during DENV infection...
March 30, 2018: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606354/visualization-of-membrane-pore-in-live-cells-reveals-a-dynamic-pore-theory-governing-fusion-and-endocytosis
#18
Wonchul Shin, Lihao Ge, Gianvito Arpino, Seth A Villarreal, Edaeni Hamid, Huisheng Liu, Wei-Dong Zhao, Peter J Wen, Hsueh-Cheng Chiang, Ling-Gang Wu
Fusion is thought to open a pore to release vesicular cargoes vital for many biological processes, including exocytosis, intracellular trafficking, fertilization, and viral entry. However, fusion pores have not been observed and thus proved in live cells. Its regulatory mechanisms and functions remain poorly understood. With super-resolution STED microscopy, we observed dynamic fusion pore behaviors in live (neuroendocrine) cells, including opening, expansion, constriction, and closure, where pore size may vary between 0 and 490 nm within 26 milliseconds to seconds (vesicle size: 180-720 nm)...
March 28, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589831/cellular-tolerance-at-the-%C3%A2%C2%B5-opioid-receptor-is-phosphorylation-dependent
#19
Seksiri Arttamangkul, Daniel A Heinz, James R Bunzow, Xianqiang Song, John T Williams
Phosphorylation of the μ-opioid receptor (MOR) is known as a key step in desensitization and internalization but the role in the development of long-term tolerance at the cellular level is not known. Viral expression of wild type (exWT) and mutant MORs, where all phosphorylation sites on the C-terminus (Total Phosphorylation Deficient (TPD)) were mutated to alanine, were examined in locus coeruleus neurons in a MOR knockout rat. Both receptors activated potassium conductance similar to endogenous receptors in wild type animals...
March 28, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588370/intrinsic-properties-and-plasma-membrane-trafficking-route-of-src-family-kinase-sh4-domains-sensitive-to-retargeting-by-hiv-1-nef
#20
Amanda J Chase, Rebecka Wombacher, Oliver T Fackler
The HIV-1 pathogenicity factor Nef enhances viral replication by modulating multiple host cell pathways, including tuning the activation state of infected CD4 T lymphocytes to optimize virus spread. For this, Nef inhibits anterograde transport of the Src family kinase (SFK) Lck toward the plasma membrane (PM). This leads to retargeting of the kinase to the trans-Golgi network (TGN), while the intracellular transport of a related SFK, Fyn, is unaffected by Nef. The 18 amino acid SH4 domain membrane anchor of Lck is necessary and sufficient for Nef-mediated retargeting, but other details of this process are not known...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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