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Viral trafficking

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930721/both-cerebral-and-hematopoietic-deficiencies-in-ccr2-result-in-uncontrolled-herpes-simplex-virus-infection-of-the-central-nervous-system-in-mice
#1
Rafik Menasria, Coraline Canivet, Jocelyne Piret, Jean Gosselin, Guy Boivin
CCR2 is a chemokine receptor expressed on the surface of blood leukocytes, particularly «Ly6Chi» inflammatory monocytes and microglia. Signaling through this receptor is thought to influence the immune activity of microglia as well as monocytes egress from the bone marrow (BM) and their trafficking into the central nervous system (CNS) in several neurological diseases. During experimental herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis (HSE), CCR2 deficiency has been reported to exacerbate the outcome of the disease...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928009/influence-of-plasma-cell-niche-factors-on-the-recruitment-and-maintenance-of-irf4hi-plasma-cells-and-plasmablasts-in-vaccinated-siv-infected-rhesus-macaques-with-low-and-high-viremia
#2
Julia M Shaw, Leia K Miller-Novak, Venkatramanan Mohanram, Katherine McKinnon, Thorsten Demberg, Diego A Vargas-Inchaustegui, David Venzon, Marjorie Robert-Guroff
: In a recent study, we found protection following SIV exposure correlated with rectal plasma cell frequency in vaccinated female rhesus macaques. We sought to determine if these same macaques maintained high mucosal plasma cell frequencies post-infection and if this translated to reduced viremia. Although delayed SIV acquisition did not predict subsequent viral control, alterations existed in the distribution of plasma cells and plasmablasts between macaques that exhibited high or low viremia...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911820/map4-regulated-dynein-dependent-trafficking-of-btn3a1-controls-the-tbk1-irf3-signaling-axis
#3
Minji Seo, Seong-Ok Lee, Ji-Hoon Kim, Yujin Hong, Seongchan Kim, Yeumin Kim, Dal-Hee Min, Young-Yun Kong, Jinwook Shin, Kwangseog Ahn
The innate immune system detects viral nucleic acids and induces type I interferon (IFN) responses. The RNA- and DNA-sensing pathways converge on the protein kinase TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) and the transcription factor IFN-regulatory factor 3 (IRF3). Activation of the IFN signaling pathway is known to trigger the redistribution of key signaling molecules to punctate perinuclear structures, but the mediators of this spatiotemporal regulation have yet to be defined. Here we identify butyrophilin 3A1 (BTN3A1) as a positive regulator of nucleic acid-mediated type I IFN signaling...
November 22, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909244/cd4-down-regulation-by-hiv-1-nef-reveals-distinct-roles-for-%C3%AE-1-and-%C3%AE-2-subunits-of-ap-1-complex-in-protein-trafficking
#4
Lucas A Tavares, Eulália M L da Silva, Mara E da Silva-Januário, Yunan C Januário, Julianne V de Cavalho, Érika S Czernisz, Gonzalo A Mardones, Luis L P daSilva
The HIV accessory protein Nef is a major determinant of viral pathogenesis that facilitates viral particle release, prevents viral antigen presentation and increases infectivity of new virus particles. These functions of Nef involve its ability to remove specific host proteins from the surface of infected cells, including the CD4 receptor. Nef binds to the adaptor protein 2 (AP-2) and CD4 in clathrin-coated pits, forcing CD4 internalization and subsequent target to lysosomes. Herein, we report that this lysosomal targeting requires a variant of the AP-1 comprising the isoform 2 of γ-adaptin...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903802/a-protective-role-for-il-1-signaling-during-mouse-adenovirus-type-1-induced-encephalitis
#5
Luiza A Castro-Jorge, Carla Pretto, Asa Smith, Oded Foreman, Kelly E Carnahan, Katherine R Spindler
: IL-1β, an inflammatory cytokine and IL-1 receptor ligand, has diverse activities in the brain. We examined whether IL-1 signaling contributes to the encephalitis observed in mouse adenovirus type 1 (MAV-1) infection, using mice lacking the IL-1 receptor, Il1r1(-/-) Il1r1(-/-) mice had lower survival, higher disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), higher brain viral loads, and higher brain inflammatory cytokines and chemokines than control C57BL/6 mice. We also examined infections of mice defective in IL-1β production (Pycard(-/-)mice) and mice defective in trafficking of TLRs to the endosome (Unc93b1(-/-) mice)...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903772/diverse-activities-of-viral-cis-acting-rna-regulatory-elements-revealed-using-multi-color-long-term-single-cell-imaging
#6
Ginger M Pocock, Laraine L Zimdars, Ming Yuan, Kevin W Eliceiri, Paul Ahlquist, Nathan M Sherer
Cis-acting RNA structural elements govern crucial aspects of viral gene expression. How these structures and other post-transcriptional signals affect RNA trafficking and translation in the context of single cells is poorly understood. Herein we describe a multi-color, long-term (>24 h) imaging strategy for measuring integrated aspects of viral RNA regulatory control in individual cells. We apply this strategy to demonstrate differential mRNA trafficking behaviors governed by RNA elements derived from three retroviruses (HIV-1, murine leukemia virus, and Mason-Pfizer monkey virus), two hepadnaviruses (hepatitis B virus and woodchuck hepatitis virus) and an intron-retaining transcript encoded by the cellular NXF1 gene...
November 30, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902351/protective-role-of-cx3cr1-signaling-in-resident-cells-of-the-central-nervous-system-during-experimental-herpes-simplex-virus-encephalitis
#7
Rafik Menasria, Coraline Canivet, Jocelyne Piret, Jean Gosselin, Guy Boivin
CX3CR1 is an important chemokine receptor expressed on the surface of microglia and blood leukocytes including monocytes. Signaling through this receptor influences the immune activity of microglia and monocytes trafficking into the central nervous system (CNS) in several neurological diseases. During experimental herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis (HSE), CX3CR1 deficiency has been reported to exacerbate the outcome of the disease. However, the precise contribution of CX3CR1 expressed in resident cells of the CNS or peripheral monocytes in protection against HSE remains unclear...
November 30, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899441/interferon-regulatory-factor-2-protects-mice-from-lethal-viral-neuroinvasion
#8
Melody M H Li, Leonia Bozzacco, Hans-Heinrich Hoffmann, Gaëlle Breton, Jakob Loschko, Jing W Xiao, Sébastien Monette, Charles M Rice, Margaret R MacDonald
The host responds to virus infection by activating type I interferon (IFN) signaling leading to expression of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). Dysregulation of the IFN response results in inflammatory diseases and chronic infections. In this study, we demonstrate that IFN regulatory factor 2 (IRF2), an ISG and a negative regulator of IFN signaling, influences alphavirus neuroinvasion and pathogenesis. A Sindbis virus strain that in wild-type (WT) mice only causes disease when injected into the brain leads to lethal encephalitis in Irf2(-/-) mice after peripheral inoculation...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892499/recognition-of-extremophilic-archaeal-viruses-by-eukaryotic-cells-a-promising-nanoplatform-from-the-third-domain-of-life
#9
Kristine Buch Uldahl, Linping Wu, Arnaldur Hall, Pavlos Papathanasiou, Xu Peng, Seyed Moein Moghimi
Viruses from the third domain of life, Archaea, exhibit unusual features including extreme stability that allow their survival in harsh environments. In addition, these species have never been reported to integrate into human or any other eukaryotic genomes, and could thus serve for exploration of novel medical nanoplatforms. Here, we selected two archaeal viruses Sulfolobus monocaudavirus 1 (SMV1) and Sulfolobus spindle shaped virus 2 (SSV2) owing to their unique spindle shape, hyperthermostable and acid-resistant nature and studied their interaction with mammalian cells...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879481/role-of-non-motile-microtubule-associated-proteins-in-virus-trafficking
#10
Débora M Portilho, Roger Persson, Nathalie Arhel
Viruses are entirely dependent on their ability to infect a host cell in order to replicate. To reach their site of replication as rapidly and efficiently as possible following cell entry, many have evolved elaborate mechanisms to hijack the cellular transport machinery to propel themselves across the cytoplasm. Long-range movements have been shown to involve motor proteins along microtubules (MTs) and direct interactions between viral proteins and dynein and/or kinesin motors have been well described. Although less well-characterized, it is also becoming increasingly clear that non-motile microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs), including structural MAPs of the MAP1 and MAP2 families, and microtubule plus-end tracking proteins (+TIPs), can also promote viral trafficking in infected cells, by mediating interaction of viruses with filaments and/or motor proteins, and modulating filament stability...
November 23, 2016: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879341/title-dynamin-functions-and-ligands-classical-mechanism-behind
#11
Mahaveer Singh, Hemant Jadhav, Tanya B
Dynamin is a GTPase, which plays a vital role in clathrin dependent endocytosis and other vesicular trafficking processes. Dynamin acts as scissor with debatable mechanism for newly formed vesicles originating from plasma membrane. Dynamin related proteins are important components in scission of various organelles such as clathrin coated vesicles, phagosomes and mitochondria, etc. helping in organelle division, viral resistance and mitochondrial fusion/division. Dysfunction and mutations in dynamin have been implicated in various disorders, where endocytic trafficking is involved, such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's, Charcot-Marie Tooth disease, Heart failure, Schizophrenia, Epilepsy, Cancer, Optic atrophy, Down syndrome, Osteoporosis etc...
November 22, 2016: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861142/newcastle-disease-virus-employs-macropinocytosis-and-rab5a-dependent-intracellular-trafficking-to-infect-df-1-cells
#12
Lei Tan, Yuqiang Zhang, Yuan Zhan, Yanmei Yuan, Yingjie Sun, Xusheng Qiu, Chunchun Meng, Cuiping Song, Ying Liao, Chan Ding
Oncolytic Newcastle disease virus (NDV) reportedly employs direct fusion of the viral envelope with the plasma membrane and caveolae-dependent endocytosis to enter cells. Here, we show that macropinocytosis and clathrin-mediated endocytosis are involved in NDV entry into a galline embryonic fibroblast cell line. Upon specific inhibition of clathrin assembly, GTPase dynamin, Na+/H+ exchangers, Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1, p21 activated kinase 1 or protein kinase C, entry of NDV and its propagation were suppressed...
November 15, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860076/incoming-human-papillomavirus-16-genome-is-lost-in-pml-protein-deficient-hacat-keratinocytes
#13
Malgorzata Bienkowska-Haba, Wioleta Luszczek, Timothy R Keiffer, Lucile G M Guion, Stephen DiGiuseppe, Rona S Scott, Martin Sapp
Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) target PML nuclear bodies (NBs) during infectious entry and PML protein is important for efficient transcription of incoming viral genome. However, the transcriptional down regulation was shown to be promoter-independent in that heterologous promoters delivered by papillomavirus particles were also affected. To further investigate the role of PML protein in HPV entry, we used shRNA to knockdown PML protein in HaCaT keratinocytes. Confirming previous findings, PML knockdown in HaCaT cells reduced HPV16 transcript levels significantly following infectious entry without impairing binding and trafficking...
November 17, 2016: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858289/dynein-light-chain-dynll1-subunit-facilitates-porcine-circovirus-type-2-intracellular-transports-along-microtubules
#14
Sirin Theerawatanasirikul, Nantawan Phecharat, Chaiwat Prawettongsopon, Wanpen Chaicumpa, Porntippa Lekcharoensuk
Microtubule (MT) and dynein motor proteins facilitate intracytoplasmic transport of cellular proteins. Various viruses utilize microtubules and dynein for their movement from the cell periphery to the nucleus. The aim of this study was to investigate the intracellular transport of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) via 8 kDa dynein light chain (DYNLL1, LC8) subunit along the MTs. At 20 μM, vinblastine sulfate inhibited tubulin polymerization resulting in disorganized morphology. In PCV2-infected PK-15 cells, double immunofluorescent labeling showed that the viral particles appeared at the cell periphery and gradually moved to the microtubule organization center (MTOC) at 0-12 hour post inoculation (hpi) while at 20-24 hpi they accumulated in the nucleus...
November 17, 2016: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854239/kshv-entry-and-trafficking-in-target-cells-hijacking-of-cell-signal-pathways-actin-and-membrane-dynamics
#15
REVIEW
Binod Kumar, Bala Chandran
Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is etiologically associated with human endothelial cell hyperplastic Kaposi's sarcoma and B-cell primary effusion lymphoma. KSHV infection of adherent endothelial and fibroblast cells are used as in vitro models for infection and KSHV enters these cells by host membrane bleb and actin mediated macropinocytosis or clathrin endocytosis pathways, respectively. Infection in endothelial and fibroblast cells is initiated by the interactions between multiple viral envelope glycoproteins and cell surface associated heparan sulfate (HS), integrins (α3β1, αVβ3 and αVβ5), and EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase (EphA2R)...
November 14, 2016: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852864/palmitoylation-of-sindbis-virus-tf-protein-regulates-its-plasma-membrane-localization-and-subsequent-incorporation-into-virions
#16
Jolene Ramsey, Emily C Renzi, Randy J Arnold, Jonathan C Trinidad, Suchetana Mukhopadhyay
: Palmitoylation is a reversible, post-translational modification that helps target proteins to cellular membranes. The alphavirus small membrane proteins 6K and TF have been reported to be palmitoylated and to positively regulate budding. 6K and TF are isoforms identical in the N-terminus but unique in the C-terminus due to a (-1) ribosomal frameshift during translation. In this study we used cysteine (Cys) mutants to test differential palmitoylation of Sindbis virus 6K and TF proteins...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852860/nes-masking-regulates-hiv-1-rev-trafficking-and-viral-rna-nuclear-export
#17
Ryan T Behrens, Mounavya Aligeti, Ginger M Pocock, Christina A Higgins, Nathan M Sherer
: HIV-1's Rev protein forms a homooligomeric adaptor complex linking viral RNAs to the cellular CRM1/Ran-GTP nuclear export machinery through the activity of Rev's prototypical leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES). In this study we used a functional fluorescently-tagged Rev fusion protein as a platform to study the effects of modulating Rev NES identity, number, position, or strength on Rev subcellular trafficking, viral RNA nuclear export, and infectious virion production. We found Rev activity to be remarkably tolerant of diverse NES sequences including supraphysiological NES (SNES) peptides that otherwise arrest CRM1 transport complexes at nuclear pores...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852857/hepatitis-c-virus-induced-rab32-aggregation-and-its-implication-in-virion-assembly
#18
Tu M Pham, Si C Tran, Yun-Sook Lim, Soon B Hwang
: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is highly dependent on cellular factors for viral propagation. Using high-throughput next-generation sequencing, we analyzed the host transcriptomic changes and identified 30 candidate genes which were up-regulated in cell culture-grown HCV (HCVcc)-infected cells. Of these candidates, we selected Rab32 for further investigation. Rab32 is a small GTPase that regulates a variety of intracellular membrane-trafficking events in various cell types. In this study, we demonstrated that both mRNA and protein levels of Rab32 were increased in HCV-infected cells...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811174/study-of-gene-trafficking-between-acanthamoeba-and-giant-viruses-suggests-an-undiscovered-family-of-amoeba-infecting-viruses
#19
Florian Maumus, Guillaume Blanc
The nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDV) are a group of extremely complex double-stranded DNA viruses, which are major parasites of a variety of eukaryotes. Recent studies showed that certain unicellular eukaryotes contain fragments of NCLDV DNA integrated in their genome, when surprisingly many of these organisms were not previously shown to be infected by NCLDVs. These findings prompted us to search the genome of Acanthamoeba castellanii strain Neff (Neff), one of the most prolific hosts in the discovery of giant NCLDVs, for possible DNA inserts of viral origin...
November 3, 2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807194/therapeutic-targeting-of-the-g-csf-receptor-reduces-neutrophil-trafficking-and-joint-inflammation-in-antibody-mediated-inflammatory-arthritis
#20
Ian K Campbell, David Leong, Kirsten M Edwards, Veronika Rayzman, Milica Ng, Gabrielle L Goldberg, Nicholas J Wilson, Karen Scalzo-Inguanti, Charley Mackenzie-Kludas, Kate E Lawlor, Ian P Wicks, Lorena E Brown, Adriana Baz Morelli, Con Panousis, Michael J Wilson, Andrew D Nash, Brent S McKenzie, Arna E Andrews
G-CSF is a hemopoietic growth factor that has a role in steady state granulopoiesis, as well as in mature neutrophil activation and function. G-CSF- and G-CSF receptor-deficient mice are profoundly protected in several models of rheumatoid arthritis, and Ab blockade of G-CSF also protects against disease. To further investigate the actions of blocking G-CSF/G-CSF receptor signaling in inflammatory disease, and as a prelude to human studies of the same approach, we developed a neutralizing mAb to the murine G-CSF receptor, which potently antagonizes binding of murine G-CSF and thereby inhibits STAT3 phosphorylation and G-CSF receptor signaling...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
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